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Sample records for 640-group damage cross-section

  1. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications. [Neutron damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV, primary knockon atom spectra to 15 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D G; Graves, N J

    1976-12-01

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included.

  2. Cross-Sectional Nakagami Images in Passive Stretches Reveal Damage of Injured Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Ping; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Fan, Shih-Chen; Huang, Bu-Miin; Lin, Wei-Yin; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Shung, K Kirk; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strain is still awanting a noninvasive quantitatively diagnosis tool. High frequency ultrasound (HFU) improves image resolution for monitoring changes of tissue structures, but the biomechanical factors may influence ultrasonography during injury detection. We aim to illustrate the ultrasonic parameters to present the histological damage of overstretched muscle with the consideration of biomechanical factors. Gastrocnemius muscles from mice were assembled and ex vivo passive stretching was performed before or after injury. After injury, the muscle significantly decreased mechanical strength. Ultrasonic images were obtained by HFU at different deformations to scan in cross and longitudinal orientations of muscle. The ultrasonography was quantified by echogenicity and Nakagami parameters (NP) for structural evaluation and correlated with histological results. The injured muscle at its original length exhibited decreased echogenicity and NP from HFU images. Cross-sectional ultrasonography revealed a loss of correlation between NP and passive muscle stretching that suggested a special scatterer pattern in the cross section of injured muscle. The independence of NP during passive stretching of injured muscle was confirmed by histological findings in ruptured collagen fibers, decreased muscle density, and increased intermuscular fiber space. Thus, HFU analysis of NP in cross section represents muscle injury that may benefit the clinical diagnosis.

  3. Cross-Sectional Nakagami Images in Passive Stretches Reveal Damage of Injured Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strain is still awanting a noninvasive quantitatively diagnosis tool. High frequency ultrasound (HFU improves image resolution for monitoring changes of tissue structures, but the biomechanical factors may influence ultrasonography during injury detection. We aim to illustrate the ultrasonic parameters to present the histological damage of overstretched muscle with the consideration of biomechanical factors. Gastrocnemius muscles from mice were assembled and ex vivo passive stretching was performed before or after injury. After injury, the muscle significantly decreased mechanical strength. Ultrasonic images were obtained by HFU at different deformations to scan in cross and longitudinal orientations of muscle. The ultrasonography was quantified by echogenicity and Nakagami parameters (NP for structural evaluation and correlated with histological results. The injured muscle at its original length exhibited decreased echogenicity and NP from HFU images. Cross-sectional ultrasonography revealed a loss of correlation between NP and passive muscle stretching that suggested a special scatterer pattern in the cross section of injured muscle. The independence of NP during passive stretching of injured muscle was confirmed by histological findings in ruptured collagen fibers, decreased muscle density, and increased intermuscular fiber space. Thus, HFU analysis of NP in cross section represents muscle injury that may benefit the clinical diagnosis.

  4. Elasto-Magnetic Sensor-Based Local Cross-Sectional Damage Detection for Steel Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Nam, Min Jun; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jae [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The Elasto-magnetic sensor is applied to detect the local cross-sectional loss of steel cables in this study while it was originally developed for measuring the tensile force in the previous works. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, steel bars which have 4-different diameters were fabricated and the output voltage value was measured at each diameter by the E/M sensor. Optimal input voltage and working point are chosen so that the linearity and resolution of results can ensure through repeated experiments, and then the E/M sensor was measured the output voltage values at the damage points of steel bar specimen that was applied the 4 types of damage condition based on the selected optimal experimental condition. This proposed approach can be an effective tool for steel cable health monitoring.

  5. Calculation of gamma induced displacement cross-sections of iron considering positron contribution and using standard damage model

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuya, K

    2003-01-01

    The displacement cross-section of iron was calculated for gamma-ray irradiation with the energy range of 1 to 15 MeV, which corresponds to radiation fields in fission reactors. Three gamma-material interactions, Compton scattering, pair production and photoelectric effect were considered. The displacements induced by both electrons and positrons were included. For damage function the modified Kinchin-Pease model with the displacement energy of 40 eV was applied, which are used as the standard damage model in neutron-induced displacement calculations. The standard damage model gave a lower cross-section by a factor of 1.3 compared to Kinchin-Pease model, and the exact treatment of positron contribution gave a lower cross-section by a factor 1.1 compared to an approximation treating positrons as electrons. The present cross-section was lower by a factor of 1.1-2.0 than the cross-sections previously proposed in the literatures. (author)

  6. Airborne particulate matter and mitochondrial damage: a cross-sectional study

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    Hou Lifang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress generation is a primary mechanism mediating the effects of Particulate Matter (PM on human health. Although mitochondria are both the major intracellular source and target of oxidative stress, the effect of PM on mitochondria has never been evaluated in exposed individuals. Methods In 63 male healthy steel workers from Brescia, Italy, studied between April and May 2006, we evaluated whether exposure to PM was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (MtDNAcn, an established marker of mitochondria damage and malfunctioning. Relative MtDNAcn (RMtDNAcn was determined by real-time PCR in blood DNA obtained on the 1st (time 1 and 4th day (time 2 of the same work week. Individual exposures to PM10, PM1, coarse particles (PM10-PM1 and airborne metal components of PM10 (chromium, lead, arsenic, nickel, manganese were estimated based on measurements in the 11 work areas and time spent by the study subjects in each area. Results RMtDNAcn was higher on the 4th day (mean = 1.31; 95%CI = 1.22 to 1.40 than on the 1st day of the work week (mean = 1.09; 95%CI = 1.00 to 1.17. PM exposure was positively associated with RMtDNAcn on either the 4th (PM10: β = 0.06, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.17; PM1: β = 0.08, 95%CI = -0.08 to 0.23; coarse: β = 0.06, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.17 or the 1st day (PM10: β = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.26; PM1: β = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.11 to 0.35; coarse: β = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.26. Metal concentrations were not associated with RMtDNAcn. Conclusions PM exposure is associated with damaged mitochondria, as reflected in increased MtDNAcn. Damaged mitochondria may intensify oxidative-stress production and effects.

  7. Surface and internal microstructure damage of He-ion-irradiated CLAM steel studied by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhan, Q., E-mail: qzhan@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Fu, Z.Y.; Wei, Y.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Y.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Wang, F.M. [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ohnuki, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Wan, F.R. [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Good understanding of blistering and embrittlement mechanism depends on good investigation of surface and internal microstructure damage of gas-ion-irradiated materials. Internal and surface microstructure of He{sup +} ion irradiated CLAM steel were examined by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy combining focused ion beam. Variation of helium bubble density and size distribution versus depth in CLAM steel after high dose helium irradiation at room temperature was investigated. The average size of helium bubble increased within 100–400 nm but decreased near the non-irradiated matrix with the increase of depth, while the density followed a reverse trend. The formation and growth mechanism of helium bubble is different at different irradiation depth. The formation of a zone of large bubbles under the surface is the main reason of surface blistering and flaking. Helium induced irradiation swelling and surface blistering at low temperature were also discussed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of helium irradiated CLAM steel was investigated by FIB and TEM. • The nucleation of helium bubble was controlled by both different mechanisms. • The substructure of surface blisters has been analyzed in detail by XTEM. • Helium induced surface blistering and irradiation swelling have been discussed.

  8. Molecular data for a biochemical model of DNA damage: Electron impact ionization and dissociative ionization cross sections of DNA bases and sugar-phosphate backbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Winifred M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop T27B-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)]. E-mail: whuo@mail.arc.nasa.gov; Dateo, Christopher E. [ELORET Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Fletcher, Graham D. [ELORET Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2006-10-15

    As part of the database for building up a biochemical model of DNA radiation damage, electron impact ionization cross sections of sugar-phosphate backbone and DNA bases have been calculated using the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. It is found that the total ionization cross sections of C{sub 3}{sup '}- and C{sub 5}{sup '}-deoxyribose-phosphate, two conformers of the sugar-phosphate backbone, are close to each other. Furthermore, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C{sub 3}{sup '}- and C{sub 5}{sup '}-deoxyribose-phosphate cross sections, differing by less than 10%, an indication that a building-up principle may be applicable. Of the four DNA bases, the ionization cross section of guanine is the largest, then in decreasing order, adenine, thymine, and cytosine. The order is in accordance with the known propensity of oxidation of the bases by ionizing radiation. Dissociative ionization (DI), a process that both ionizes and dissociates a molecule, is investigated for cytosine. The DI cross section for the formation of H and (cytosine-H1){sup +}, with the cytosine ion losing H at the 1 position, is also reported. The threshold of this process is calculated to be 16.9eV. Detailed analysis of ionization products such as in DI is important to trace the sequential steps in the biochemical process of DNA damage.

  9. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  10. Effect of activation cross section uncertainties in the assessment of primary damage for MFE/IFE low-activation steels irradiated in IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellos, O. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, n2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cabellos@din.upm.es; Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, n2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Dept. de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Herranz, N. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, n2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Otero, B. [Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    The present study is mainly aimed to provide the primary damage (displacements per atom, generation of solid transmutants and gas production rates) of structural materials irradiated in the high and medium flux test modules of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). We have investigated if the change of the composition during the irradiation time has effect on the prediction of the atomic displacements. The effect of the activation cross section uncertainties in the assessment of both solid transmutants and hydrogen and helium production is also analyzed. The results are provided element-by-element, so that the primary damage of any material irradiated in such neutron environments can be easily assessed; in this paper, we have predicted the primary damage of the low activation steel Eurofer.

  11. Studies of radiation damage in silicon sensors and a measurement of the inelastic proton--proton cross-section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00360674; Ward, Patricia

    This thesis presents studies of radiation damage in silicon sensors for the new ATLAS tracker at the high-luminosity LHC, calibrations of the LHC luminosity scale, and a measurement of the proton--proton inelastic cross-section at 13 TeV~with ATLAS data. The studies of radiation damage are performed by comparing sensor performance before and after irradiation, and include annealing studies. The measured quantities include: leakage current, depletion depth, inter-strip isolation, and charge collection. Surface and bulk damage is studied by comparing the results of sensors irradiated with protons and neutrons. The observed degradation of performance suggests the current sensor design will endure the radiation damage expected over the lifetime of the experiment at the high-luminosity LHC. The luminosity is calibrated for the proton--proton, proton--lead, and lead--lead collisions delivered by the LHC during 2013 and 2015. The absolute luminosity scale is derived with the van der Meer method. The systematic unc...

  12. Early Vascular Damage in Young Women with DM-1 and Its Relation to Anti-Müllerian Hormone: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Annelien C. de Kat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular function is suggested to be associated with ovarian reserve, but the relationship with microvascular function has never been studied. In this cross-sectional pilot study, the relationship of microvascular damage markers with AMH was studied in premenopausal women. Twenty-two regularly cycling women with type 1 diabetes (DM-1 and a reference group of 20 healthy regularly cycling women were included, from whom blood was drawn in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The main outcome was the correlation between circulating progenitor cells (CPCs, markers for early vascular damage, and AMH, a marker for ovarian reserve. Secondary endpoints for early vascular impairment were circulating angiogenic cells and additional biomarkers. Median AMH levels were 2.2 µg/L [1.2–3.5] in the DM-1 group and 2.1 µg/L [0.85–3.8] in the reference group. CPCs were significantly decreased in women with DM-1; 1204±537 CD34+/CD45dim cells were counted in the DM-1 group, compared to 2264±1124 in the reference group. CPCs and other markers of early vascular damage were not correlated with AMH levels in a multivariable analysis. These results underscore previous findings of early vascular damage in DM-1 and suggest that there may not be a relationship between vascular function and ovarian reserve. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01665716.

  13. Determination of optical damage cross-sections and volumes surrounding ion bombardment tracks in GaAs using coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, A.; Hmelo, A. B.; Varga, K.; Feldman, L. C.; Tolk, N.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy analysis of band-edge optical modification of GaAs irradiated with 400 keV Ne++ for doses between 1011-1013 cm-2. We relate this optical modification to the structural damage density as predicted by simulation and verified by ion channeling analysis. Crystal damage is observed to cause optical modification that reduces the amplitude of the optoacoustic signal. The depth-dependent nature of the optoacoustic measurement allows us to determine optical damage cross-sections along the ion track, which are found to vary as a function of position along the track. Unexpectedly, we find that this optical modification is primarily dependent on the structural damage density and insensitive to the specific defect configuration along the ion track, suggesting that a simple model of defect density along the track is sufficient to characterize the observed optical changes. The extent of optical modification is strongly probe frequency-dependent as the frequency is detuned from the GaAs band edge. As determined from the experimental measurements, the spatial extent of optical modification exceeds the spatial extent of the structural disorder by an order of magnitude.

  14. WE-E-BRE-11: New Method to Simulate DNA Damage Using Ionization Cross-Sections and a Geometrical Nucleosome Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, P; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To obtain probability distributions of various DNA damage types as a function of the incident electron kinetic energy. Methods: Using Geant4-DNA electron ionization cross-sections, we calculated path length distributions for electrons of energies between 10 eV and 1 MeV, defined as the length between two subsequent interactions. These path lengths were then convolved with probability distributions for the creation of same-strand damage, opposite-strand damage, clustered damage, isolated damage, and same DNA strand target damage. These probability distributions of DNA damage were obtained by a Monte Carlo routine calculating probabilities of interaction in DNA targets inside a nucleosome geometrical model. Results represent the probability of a secondary electron, initially created inside a DNA strand target, of undergoing its next interaction: (1) in the opposite strand (DSB), (2) in the same strand (SSB+), (3) in either the opposite or same-strand (clustered), (4) in the same DNA target (multiple-hit) or (5) more than 10 base pairs away (isolated). Results: Electrons with kinetic energy between 50 and 250 eV have a maximal probability of creating DSB, SSB+, clustered damage and multiple-hits in the same target The probabilities for these damage patterns have values of 2.5%, 4.3%, 6.7% and 5.4%, respectively. Isolated damage is most probable between 700 eV to 900 eV with a probability of 0.2%. Conclusion: We obtained DNA damage probability distributions as a function of electron incident energy. We showed that electrons with kinetic energies between 50 and 250 eV have the highest probability of producing complex forms of DNA damage (DSB, SSB+). We also showed that a double ionization within the same DNA target is the most frequent outcome occurring 5% of the time. It is expected that electron slowing down spectra can be convolved with our formalism to calculate source specific DNA damage patterns. Research grants from governments of Canada and Quebec. PP

  15. Poor reproductive health among a group of socially damaged Middle Eastern women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gohar Mohammadi1, Sedigheh Amiraliakbari2, Ali Ramezankhani3, Hamid Alavi Majd41The International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, 3School of Health, 4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Science, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: Despite the scope of violence against women and its importance for reproductive health, few data are available on the reproductive health issues among women having experienced violence.Methods: This study described the reproductive disorders complicating social harm among 98 socially damaged women seeking care from drop-in centers who were of Persian ancestry, able to communicate and comprehend the contents of the questionnaire, and had history of domestic violence. The questionnaire had five dimensions: demographics, reproductive health, sexual performance, sexual behavior, and violence. Reproductive health included data on gestation, unplanned pregnancy, abortion, contraception, and cervical cancer screening. Data on sexual performance was acquired via the Persian version of sexual function scale, which has been demonstrated to have acceptable external validity in Iranian population. For sexual function, data was gathered on age at first intercourse and whether a participant had ever engaged in an oral or anal sexual activity.Results: Mean age of participants was 33.4 years. Forty-seven percent of participants were married, 34.8% were divorced, 9.8% were widowed, and 8.7% were single. Mean age at first marriage was 16.4 (4.3 years and mean age at first sexual relationship was 16 (3.9 years. Illiteracy was observed among 18.5% of participants. Elementary education was reported by 22.8%, while only 3.3% of participants reported academic studies. Fifty-five percent were unemployed and 44.6% reported to be working at the time of the study. It was observed that 72.8% of participants were inflicted physically, as

  16. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  17. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  18. Higher bone turnover is related to spinal radiographic damage and low bone mineral density in ankylosing spondylitis patients with active disease: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Arends

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is characterized by excessive bone formation and bone loss. Our aim was to investigate the association of bone turnover markers (BTM with spinal radiographic damage and bone mineral density (BMD in AS patients with active disease. METHODS: 201 consecutive AS outpatients of the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included. Serum markers of bone resorption (C-telopeptides of type-I collagen, sCTX and bone formation (procollagen type-I N-terminal peptide, PINP; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, BALP were measured. Z-scores were used to correct for the normal influence that age and gender have on bone turnover. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers according to modified Stoke AS Spinal Score (mSASSS. The presence of complete bridging (ankylosis of at least two vertebrae was considered as measure of more advanced radiographic damage. Low BMD was defined as lumbar spine and/or hip BMD Z-score ≤ -1. RESULTS: Of the 151 patients with complete data, 52 (34% had ≥ 1 complete bridge, 49 (33% had ≥ 1 syndesmophyte (non-bridging, and 50 (33% had no syndesmophytes. 66 (44% had low BMD. Patients with bridging had significantly higher sCTX and PINP Z-scores than patients without bridging (0.43 vs. -0.55 and 0.55 vs. 0.04, respectively. Patients with low BMD had significantly higher sCTX Z-score than patients with normal BMD (-0.08 vs. -0.61. After correcting for gender, symptom duration, and CRP, sCTX Z-score remained significantly related to the presence of low BMD alone (OR: 1.60, bridging alone (OR: 1.82, and bridging in combination with low BMD (OR: 2.26. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study in AS patients with active and relatively long-standing disease demonstrated that higher serum levels of sCTX, and to a lesser extent PINP, are associated with the presence of complete bridging. sCTX was also associated with low BMD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm that serum levels of s

  19. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  20. Proximal tubule dysfunction is associated with podocyte damage biomarkers nephrin and vascular endothelial growth factor in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Petrica

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate as to whether early diabetic nephropathy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus may be attributed to the glomerulus or to the proximal tubule. Urinary excretion of nephrin and vascular endothelial growth factor may increase even in the normoalbuminuria stage. In the course of diabetic nephropathy, the proximal tubule may be involved in the uptake of urinary nephrin and vascular endothelial growth factor.Two groups of consecutive Type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients (38 normo-, 32 microalbuminuric and 21 healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study and evaluated concerning the relation of proximal tubule dysfunction with the podocyte biomarkers excretion, assessed by ELISA methods. The impact of advanced glycation end-products on this relation was also queried.Urinary alpha1-microglobulin and kidney injury molecule-1 correlated with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (R2 = 0.269; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.125; p < 0.001, nephrinuria (R2 = 0.529; p<0.001; R2 = 0.203; p < 0.001, urinary vascular endothelial growth factor (R2 = 0.709; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.360; p < 0.001, urinary advanced glycation end-products (R2 = 0.578; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.405; p < 0.001, serum cystatin C (R2 = 0.130; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.128; p<0.001, and glomerular filtration rate (R2 = 0.167; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.166; p < 0.001; nephrinuria and urinary vascular endothelial growth factor correlated with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (R2 = 0.498; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.227; p<0.001, urinary advanced glycation end-products (R2 = 0.251; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.308; p < 0.001, serum cystatin C (R2 = 0.157; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.226; p < 0.001, and glomerular filtration rate (R2 = 0.087; p = 0.007; R2 = 0.218; p < 0.001.In Type 2 diabetes mellitus there is an association of proximal tubule dysfunction with podocyte damage biomarkers, even in the normoalbuminuria stage. This observation suggests a potential role of the proximal tubule in urinary nephrin and urinary vascular endothelial

  1. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  2. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  3. A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gursatej; Kaur, Gurpreet; Nisar, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.

  4. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  5. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  6. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  8. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  9. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  10. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  11. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  12. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  13. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  14. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  15. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  16. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  17. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  18. Differential cross sections of positron hydrogen collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于荣梅; 濮春英; 黄晓玉; 殷复荣; 刘旭焱; 焦利光; 周雅君

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed.

  19. Systematics of (n,2n) Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experimental data of (n, 2n) cross sections were collected and evaluated as complete as possible. There are 640 sets of experimental data for 130 nuclei. The data were fitted to the expressions that describe the

  20. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  1. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  2. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2000-01-01

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  3. Bond scission cross sections for alpha-particles in cellulose nitrate (LR115)

    CERN Document Server

    Barillon, R; Chambaudet, A; Katz, R; Stoquert, J P; Pape, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemical damage created by alpha-particles in cellulose nitrate (LR115) have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. This technique enables identifying the sensitive bonds and giving an order of magnitude of their scission cross sections for given alpha-particle energies. The high cross sections observed suggest a new description of the track etch velocity in this material.

  4. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  5. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoj Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  6. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, JH (India)

    2015-09-15

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  7. Photodisintegration Cross Section of 241Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity of 240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  8. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Geitz, G; Grothe, M; Haas, T; Hartmann, H; Haun, D; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mass, A; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Rembser, C; Schattevoy, R; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Hultschig, H; Iga, Y; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Manczak, O; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Mainusch, J; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Kuzmin, V A; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Daniels, D C; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Luffman, P; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Oh, B Y; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Hubbard, B; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Crombie, M B; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Kochocki, J A; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B; Levy, A

    1995-01-01

    Dijet production by almost real photons has been studied at HERA with the ZEUS detector. Jets have been identified using the cone algorithm. A cut on xg, the fraction of the photon energy participating in the production of the two jets of highest transverse energy, is used to define cross sections sensitive to the parton distributions in the proton and in the photon. The dependence of the dijet cross sections on pseudorapidity has been measured for xg \\ge 0.75 and xg < 0.75. The former is sensitive to the gluon momentum density in the proton. The latter is sensitive to the gluon in the photon. The cross sections are corrected for detector acceptance and compared to leading order QCD calculations.

  9. Calculating Cross Sections of Composite Interstellar Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Voshchinnikov, N V; Voshchinnikov, Nikolai V.; Mathis, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Interstellar grains may be composite collections of particles of distinct materials, including voids, agglomerated together. We determine the various optical cross sections of such composite grains, given the optical properties of each constituent, using an approximate model of the composite grain. We assume it consists of many concentric spherical layers of the various materials, each with a specified volume fraction. In such a case the usual Mie theory can be generalized and the extinction, scattering, and other cross sections determined exactly. We find that the ordering of the materials in the layering makes some difference to the derived cross sections, but averaging over the various permutations of the order of the materials provides rapid convergence as the number of shells (each of which is filled by all of the materials proportionately to their volume fractions) is increased. Three shells, each with one layer of a particular constituent material, give a very satisfactory estimate of the average cross...

  10. Reaction cross section of 22C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  11. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  12. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  13. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  14. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35

  15. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  16. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  17. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  18. Power corrections in eikonal cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We discuss power corrections associated with the infrared behavior of the perturbative running coupling in the eikonal approximation to Drell-Yan and other annihilation cross sections in hadron-hadron scattering. General properties of the eikonal approximation imply that only even powers of the energy scale are necessary.

  19. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  20. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  1. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  2. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  3. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  4. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-04-15

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  5. MCNPX Simulations for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Tesinsky, Milan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents MCNPX simulations of the SCANDAL set-up used at the Theodor Svedberg Laboratory for neutron scattering cross-section measurements. The thesis describes processes and data important for the upcoming off-line data analysis. In the experiment, neutrons scattered off the target are converted to protons which are stopped in scintillator crystals. The results of presented simulations include a description of the proton spectra in dependence of the neutron-to-proton conversion a...

  6. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, Inna [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    At high collision energies accessible at ep collider HERA hard hadronic jets can be produced. At leading order, at low virtualities of the exchanged photon, two processes contribute to the jet production. In the direct photon process an almost real photon interacts as a point-like particle with a parton of the proton. In contrast in resolved processes the photon fluctuates to an hadronic state. The measurements of the jet production give an important information about the structure of the photon and the proton. Dijet cross sections have been measured in the reaction ep{yields} e+jet+jet+X with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of average jet transverse energy and presudorapidity for dijet events with E{sub T}{sup jet1} > 21 GeV, E{sub T}{sup jet2} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 for {gamma}p centre-of-mass energies in range 142 < W{sub {gamma}p} < 293 GeV and photon virtuality Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, the dijet cross section was measured as a function of the fraction of the incoming photon momentum taken by the dijet system. The dijet cross sections were also measured as functions of the dijet invariant mass, M{sub jj} and scattering angle in the dijet centre-of-mass system for E{sub T}{sup jet1(2)} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 and M{sub jj} > 60 GeV. Next-to-leading order calculations give a good description of the measurements. These measurements can be used to further constraint the gluon component of the proton parton density function at medium to high x.

  7. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  8. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  9. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  10. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  11. Inelastic cross section measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of the rate of proton–proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, √s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurements of the inelastic proton–proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, √s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. For ATLAS the events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic cross-section of 60.3 ± 2.1 mb is measured for ξ > 5×10−6, where ξ is calculated from the invariant mass, MX, of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV. For CMS a new method to measure the inelastic pp cross section ha...

  12. Regional cross section program for Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treworgy, J.D.; Whitaker, S.T. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

    1989-08-01

    For the first time, the Illinois State Geological Survey will publish a network of regional cross sections portraying the structural and stratigraphic framework of the entire Illinois basin. The network of 16 structural cross sections radiating outward from the Union Oil 1 Cisne Community well (Sec. 3, T1N, 7E, Wayne County, Illinois) will consist of wireline logs showing formation boundaries and gross lithofacies of the entire stratigraphic column for over 140 wells. Indiana and Kentucky portions of the network will be prepared in conjunction with their respective state geological surveys. Wireline logs are being digitized and stored to allow reproduction of log curves at different scales and in various combinations. Initial cross sections will be published at a vertical scale of 1 in. = 400 ft and a horizontal scale of 1 in. = 8 mi (1:500,000). To assure the most accurate structural and lithologic portrayals possible, numerous wireline logs are being examined in addition to the 140 illustrated on the sections. Available seismic data, sample and core descriptions, and existing structure, isopach, and facies maps are also being used. Text describing the sections will be included on each sheet. Topics will cover a brief history of deposition and structural evolution, distribution of source rocks, reservoir rocks and seals, and significant fields and plays.

  13. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  14. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  15. New cross sections for H on H2 collisional transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qianxia

    The cross section for H on H2 collisions is important for astrophysics as well as our understanding of the simple chemical systems. This is the simplest atom-molecule cross section. With a new H3 potential surface by Mielke et al., we have modified the ABC code by Skouteris, Castillo and Manolopoulos to calculate new cross sections. These cross sections are compared to previous cross section calculations.

  16. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  17. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  18. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  19. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  20. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  1. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  2. Automatic Computation of Cross Sections in HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Ishikawa, T; Jimbo, M; Kaneko, T; Kato, K; Kawabata, S; Kon, T; Kurihara, Y; Kuroda, M; Nakazawa, N; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, H

    2000-01-01

    For the study of reactions in High Energy Physics (HEP) automatic computation systems have been developed and are widely used nowadays. GRACE is one of such systems and it has achieved much success in analyzing experimental data. Since we deal with the cross section whose value can be given by calculating hundreds of Feynman diagrams, we manage the large scale calculation, so that effective symbolic manipulation, the treat of singularity in the numerical integration are required. The talk will describe the software design of GRACE system and computational techniques in the GRACE.

  3. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Top quark cross section measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Skubic, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive top quark pair production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The measurements are performed requiring one or two electrons or muons in the final state. Various experimental techniques are compared. The most precise result requires events with an electron and a muon of opposite sign and uses the full data-set at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are in good agreement with a recent NNLO+NNLL QCD calculation. Measurements of the differential top quark pair production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are also presented. The measurements are performed requiring one electron or muon in the final state and are carried out differentially in the reconstructed top transverse momentum, and the invariant mass, rapidity and transverse momentum of the top pair system. These measurements probe our understanding of top pair production in the TeV regi...

  5. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  6. Surface Reconstruction for Cross Sectional Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美和; 唐泽圣

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,a new solution to the problem of reconstructing the surface of 3D objects over a set of cross-sectional contours is proposed.An algorithm for single branch contours connection,which is based on the closest local polar angle method,is first presented.Then the branching problems(including non-singular branchin and singular branching)are completely solved by decomposing them into several single-branching problems.Finally,these methods are applied to the reconstruction of the external surface of a complexly shaped object such as the cellular region of human brain.The results show that the presented methods are practical and satisfactory.

  7. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  8. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  9. Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gholizade, H

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

  10. Electroweak Boson Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the ATLAS prospects for the measurement of W and Z pro- duction cross-section at the LHC. The electron and muon decay channels are considered. Focusing on the early data taking phase, strategies are presented that allow a fast and robust extraction of the signals. An overall uncertainty of about 5% can be achieved with 50 pb−1 in the W channels, where the background uncertainty dominates (the luminosity measurement uncertainty is not discussed here). In the Z channels, the expected preci- sion is 3%, the main contribution coming from the lepton selection efficiency uncertainty. Extrapolating to 1 fb−1 , the uncertainties shrink to incompressible values of 1-2%, de- pending on the final state. This irreducible uncertainty is essentially driven by strong interaction effects, notably parton distribution uncertainties and non-perturbative effects, affecting the W and Z rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. These effects can be constrained by measuring these distributions. Al...

  11. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Xiao Long; LuHanLin; Yu Wei Xiang; Zhao Wen Rong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of sup 7 sup 1 Ga(n, gamma) sup 7 sup 2 Ga, sup 9 sup 4 Zr(n, gamma) sup 9 sup 5 Zr and sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Ir(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir sup m sup 1 sup + sup g sup , sup m sup 2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of sup 7 sup 2 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  12. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Filipescu, D. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Tesileanu, O. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 (Romania); Shima, T.; Takahisa, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  13. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys of Dental Student Values: Limitations of Cross-Sectional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, Joseph S.

    Surveys of dental student values are described that were designed to assess value ratings by four dental classes in 1976, annual value ratings of a freshman class as they progressed through their four year program, and the usefulness of the cross-sectional design versus the longitudinal design. Each of the two surveys, which were conducted by the…

  14. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, B K [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Joshipura, K N [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Mason, N J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes-MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-14

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 3}F{sub 8} and CF{sub 3}I and the CF{sub x} (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF{sub x} (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  15. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  16. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  17. Finite sum expressions for elastic and reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, Charles M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Maung, Khin Maung, E-mail: khin.maung@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Mead, Lawrence R., E-mail: lawrence.mead@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Blattnig, Steve R., E-mail: steve.r.blattnig@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear cross section calculations are often performed by using the partial wave method or the Eikonal method through Glauber theory. The expressions for the total cross section, total elastic cross section, and total reaction cross section in the partial wave method involve infinite sums and do not utilize simplifying approximations. Conversely, the Eikonal method gives these expressions in terms of integrals but utilizes the high energy and small angle approximations. In this paper, by using the fact that the lth partial wave component of the T-matrix can be very accurately approximated by its Born term, the infinite sums in each of the expressions for the differential cross section, total elastic cross section, total cross section, and total reaction cross section are re-written in terms of finite sums plus closed form expressions. The differential cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O,{sup 12}C+{sup 12}C, and p+{sup 12}C elastic scattering. Total cross sections, total reaction cross sections, and total elastic cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C scattering.

  18. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  20. Radar Cross-section Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar cross-section (RCS is an important study parameter for defence applications specially dealing with airborne weapon system. The RCS parameter guides the detection range for a target and is therefore studied to understand the effectiveness of a weapon system. It is not only important to understand the RCS characteristics of a target but also to look into the diagnostic mode of study where factors contributing to a particular RCS values are studied. This further opens up subject like RCS suppression and stealth. The paper discusses the RCS principle, control, and need of measurements. Classification of RCS in terms of popular usage is explained with detailed theory of RF imaging and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR. The various types of RCS measurement ranges are explained with brief discussion on outdoor RCS measurement range. The RCS calibration plays a critical role in referencing the measurement to absolute values and has been described.The RCS facility at Reseach Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, is explained with some details of different activities that are carried out including RAM evaluation, scale model testing, and diagnostic imaging.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.204-212, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.341

  1. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  2. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  3. First measurement of unpolarized SIDIS cross section and cross section ratios from a $^3$He target

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, X; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liu, T; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wang, Y; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zhao, Y X; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2016-01-01

    The unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) differential cross sections in $^3$He($e,e^{\\prime}\\pi^{\\pm}$)$X$ have been measured for the first time in Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 performed with a $5.9\\,$GeV $e^-$ beam on a $^3$He target. The experiment focuses on the valence quark region, covering a kinematic range $0.12 < x_{bj} < 0.45$, $1 < Q^2 < 4 \\, \\textrm{(GeV/c)}^2$, $0.45 < z_{h} < 0.65$, and $0.05 < P_t < 0.55 \\, \\textrm{GeV/c}$. The extracted SIDIS differential cross sections of $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production are compared with existing phenomenological models while the $^3$He nucleus approximated as two protons and one neutron in a plane wave picture, in multi-dimensional bins. Within the experimental uncertainties, the azimuthal modulations of the cross sections are found to be consistent with zero.

  4. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  5. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  6. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  7. A Theoretical Study of Photoabsorption Cross Sections of Na2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; GAO Xiang; HAN Xiao-Ying; LI Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the framework of quantum defect theory, we calculate photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+. Based on our calculations, there is an absorption window in the photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+, and more than one bump above the absorption window. The calculated photoabsorption cross sections provide an explanation for the abnormal bump in the experimental measurements of Hudson, which is a long-standing experimental puzzle.

  8. Flow in Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    In this thesis steady, laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of non-circular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (a) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (b) to consider non-circular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (c) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent -shaped cross sections and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the

  9. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  10. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  11. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  12. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  13. Heisenberg's Universal (lns)**2 Increase of Total Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, H G; Nicolescu, Basarab

    2003-01-01

    The (lns)**2 behaviour of total cross-sections, first obtained by Heisenberg 50 years ago, receives now increased interest both on phenomenological and theoretical levels. In this paper we present a modification of the Heisenberg's model in connection with the presence of glueballs and we show that it leads to a realistic description of all existing hadron total cross-section data.

  14. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Er isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun-ar-Rashid, A.K.M. [Univ. of Chittagong, Department of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Igashira, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The neutron reaction cross sections of {sup 166,167,168,170}Er from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV were studied. The cross sections were calculated with a variety of nuclear-reaction models by different codes. The calculations were mainly based on the statistical and optical modes. In the calculation, the Optical Model Parameters (OMP) for {sup nat}Er were determined. The calculated capture cross sections are in good agreement with the very recent measurements. The calculated total cross sections of {sup 166,168,170}Er are also in good agreement with the experimental results at 14 MeV. The direct inelastic scattering cross sections for the first excited state of the above nuclei were calculated by Distorted-Wave Born-Approximation (DWBA). The direct and semi-direct (DSD) capture cross sections were also calculated. The pre-equilibrium correction was done. The parameters for the electric-dipole pygmy resonance and the depression factor were extracted from a comparison between the calculated and very recent observed capture gamma-ray spectra. The other cross sections, such as (n,n'), (n,2n) and (n,p) reactions and, the emitted-particle (n,p,d,etc.) spectra from these reactions were also calculated. In the thermal and resonance region, the total, elastic scattering and capture cross sections were derived from the resonance parameters. (author)

  15. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  16. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  17. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  18. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  19. Nucleon-x sub c sub J dissociation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Feng You Ceng; Xu Xiao Ming

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-x sub c sub J dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent inter-exchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmueller-Type quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium

  20. Modeling and analysis of ground target radiation cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiang; LOU GuoWei; LI XingGuo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the passive millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer detection, the ground target radiation cross section is modeled as the new token for the target MMW radiant characteristics. Its ap-plication and actual testing are discussed and analyzed. The essence of passive MMW stealth is target radiation cross section reduction.

  1. On the scattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.

    1973-01-01

    A general formula is derived for the scattering cross section of a passiven-element linear array consisting of isotropic radiators. When all the reactances are tuned out and scattering in the mirror direction is investigated, it is found thatA_{sr}, the relative scattering cross section is equal ...

  2. Determination of Electron Collision Cross Sections Set for Tetramethysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-Claude BORDAGE

    2007-01-01

    A swarm analysis technique based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to derive low energy electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane (TMS).The calculated swarm parameters with this first available cross sections set is consistent with measured values of the swarm parameters.Calculations of transport parameters in mixtures of TMS with argon are also presented.

  3. Ni elemental neutron induced reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divadeenam, M.

    1979-03-01

    A completely new evaluation of the nickel neutron induced reaction cross sections was undertaken as a part of the ENDF/B-V effort. (n,xy) reactions and capture reaction time from threshold to 20 MeV were considered for /sup 58/ /sup 60/ /sup 61/ /sup 62/ /sup 64/Ni isotopes to construct the corresponding reaction cross section for natural nickel. Both experimental and theoretical calculated results were used in evaluating different partial cross sections. Precompound effects were included in calculating (n,xy) reaction cross sections. Experimentally measured total section data extending from 0.7 MeV to 20 MeV were used to generate smooth cross section. Below 0.7 to MeV elastic and capture cross sections are represented by resonance parameters. Inelastic angular distributions to the discrete isotopic levels and elemental elastic angular distributions are included in the evaluated data file. Gamma production cross sections and energy distribution due to capture and the (n,xy) reactions were evaluated from experimental data. Finally, error files are constructed for all partial cross sections.

  4. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-01

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  5. Cross-section measurements in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Petti, R

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment collected valuable neutrino data samples, matching both the large statistics of massive calorimeters and the reconstruction quality of bubble chambers. This paper describes the recent measurements of neutrino cross-sections on carbon target. The approach followed for cross-section modeling is also explained.

  6. Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.

  7. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  8. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  9. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  10. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  11. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi, E-mail: minaxivinod@yahoo.co.in [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India); Limbachiya, Chetan, E-mail: chetanlimbachiya2@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Desai, Hardik, E-mail: hardikdesai.phy@gmail.com; Vinodkumar, P. C., E-mail: p.c.vinodkumar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India)

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  12. First-principles calculation of multiphoton absorption cross section of α-quartz under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory-based first-principles calculations have been used to study the ionization process and electron excitation. The results show that the number of excited electrons follows the power law σ k I k at peak intensities of I key role. The multiphoton absorption cross section of α-quartz σ k is further calculated to be 3.54 × 1011 cm-3 ps-1 (cm2/TW)6. Using the plasma model, the theoretical results of the damage threshold fluences are consistent with the experimental data, which validates the calculated value of multiphoton absorption cross section. By employing the calculated cross section value in the plasma model, the damage threshold fluences are theoretically estimated, being consistent with the experimental data, which validates the calculated value of multiphoton absorption cross section. The preliminary multiscale model shows great potential in the simulation of laser processing.

  13. Density-dependent photoabsorption cross sections of atomic Xe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Guang

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the photoabsorption cross sections of atomic xenon with number densities varying from ideal gas to condensed matter has been studied by an alternative view in the present work. The alternative expressions of the photoabsorption cross sections presented by Sun et al recently were used with the local field models that has proven to be generalized easily to multiatomic systems including molecules and condensed phase systems. The present results show that the variation of the photoabsorption cross sections of atomic xenon in the giant resonance region from the isolated to the condensed conditions is very small, which agrees well with the variation law of the solid and gas experiments.

  14. Ionization cross section of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, al - Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Bfb77@kazsu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2008-05-01

    In present work the electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated, based on pseudopotential model of interaction between plasma particles which accounts correlation effects. It is calculated with help of two methods: classical and quantum - mechanical (Born approximation). The ionization cross section is compared with corresponding results of other authors and experimental data. It has been shown that it is very important to take into account an influence of the surrounding during consideration of ionization processes.

  15. Cross section to multiplicity ratios at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-06-27

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio σ{sup el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  16. LHCb cross-section measurements with heavy flavour jets

    CERN Multimedia

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Cross-section measurements of jets originating from the hadronization of beauty ($b$) and charm ($c$) quarks at LHCb give the unique opportunity to probe Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) at low and large momentum fraction and to test the Standard Model in the forward region. In this poster the production of $t\\bar{t}$ pairs in the forward region, the measurement of the $W+b\\bar{b}$ and $W+c\\bar{c}$ cross-section and the measurement of the $Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ cross-section are presented.

  17. Hadronic Cross Sections, Elastic Slope and Physical Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Fagundes, D A

    2012-01-01

    An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

  18. Measurement of Heavy Quark cross-sections at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati

    2007-09-01

    Abstract: The measurement of heavy quark cross-sections provides important tests of the QCD theory. This paper reviews recent measurements of single b-quark and correlated b-quark cross-sections at CDF. Two new measurements of the single b-quark production at CDF agree with the first result from CDF Run II. This clarifies the experimental situation and confirms the recent agreement of theoretical prediction with data. A new measurement of the correlated b{bar b} cross-section with dimuon events at CDF is presented. It agrees with theory and it does not confirm the anomalously large b{bar b} cross-section seen in Run I by CDF and D0 in dimuon events.

  19. Inclusive and pion production neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the experimental data on the inclusive double differential cross section by neutrinos charged current, measured by T2K, with the same model which was successful for the MiniBooNE quasielastic cross sections. As in our previous analysis the multinucleon component is needed in order to reproduce the data. For the total cross section our evaluation is smaller than the SciBooNE data above 1 GeV. This indicates the opening of a new channel not included in our evaluation, presumably the two pion emission channel. We also check that our description holds for the exclusive single pion production channel by confronting our evaluation with the MiniBooNE double differential cross section for a single charged pion and the Q^2 distribution. Both are compatible with data.

  20. Trilogy of LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Slide shown at Aspen 2013 - Higgs Quo Vadis, March 10-15, 2013, Aspen, CO, USA. The activity of LHC Higgs Cross Section Woking Group was reported putting emphasis on current theoretical issues in Higgs physics towards precision Higgs measurements.

  1. Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-Guang; SUN Wei-Guo; CHENG Yah-Song

    2005-01-01

    Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal.The studies also indicate that both the real part ε'and the imaginary part ε" of the complex dielectric constant ε,and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.

  2. Longitudinal Vibrations of Rheological Rod With Variable Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katica(Stevanovic)HEDRIH; AleksandarFILIPOVSKI

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal vibrations of rheological rod with variable cross section are examined.Particular solutions and eigenfunction are accomplished for natural vibrations of the rod with hereditary material of standard hereditary body.Some examples are given.

  3. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badikov, S.A. [JSC Energy and Industry Analytica, 127287, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  4. Top quark pair cross section prospects in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The observation of the top quark will be an important milestone in ATLAS. This talk reviews methods that ATLAS plans to use to observe the top quark pair production process and measure its cross section.

  5. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  6. Charm meson scattering cross sections by pion and rho meson

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Zi Wei; Ko, C M

    2001-01-01

    Using the local flavor SU(4) gauge invariance in the limit of vanishing vector-meson masses, we extend our previous study of charm-meson scattering cross sections by pion and rho meson, which is based only on the pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar-vector meson couplings, to include also contributions from the couplings among three vector mesons and among four particles. We find that diagrams with light-meson exchanges usually dominate the cross sections. For the processes considered previously, the additional interactions lead only to diagrams involving charm-meson exchanges and contact interactions, and the cross sections for these processes are thus not much affected. Nevertheless, these additional interactions introduce new processes with light-meson exchanges and increase significantly the total scattering cross sections of charm mesons by pion and rho meson.

  7. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Sugohara, RT; Homem, MGP; Iga, I; de Souza, GLC; MACHADO, LE; Ferraz, JR; dos Santos, AS; Brescansin, LM; Lucchese, RR; Lee, MT

    2013-01-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e(-)-DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using th...

  8. Partial wave scattering cross sections for He-HBr collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chun-Ri; Feng Er-Yin; Wang Rong-Kai; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A new anisotropic potential is fitted to ab initio data. The close-coupling approach is utilized to calculate state-to-state rotational excitation partial wave cross sections for elastic and inelastic collisions of He atom with HBr molecule based on the fitted potential. The calculation is performed separately at the incident energies: 75, 100 and 200 meV. The tendency of the elastic and inelastic rotational excitation partial wave cross sections varying with total angular quantum number J is obtained.

  9. The thermal neutron scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terburg, B.P.

    1992-05-01

    The availability of 27 1 STP krypton-86 gas, an isotope with unknown thermal neutron scattering cross section, was an excellent occasion to determine the (bound atom) scattering cross section and its coherent part by application of the neutron transmission method and neutron interferometry. The transmission method was applied in a diffractometer, a Larmor spectrometer and a TOF-spectrometer. In addition to {sup 86}Kr also natural krypton ({sup n}Kr) was used for sample in the diffractometer. The diffractometer measurements result in bound atom scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub s}=8.92(46) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub s}=7.08(95) b for {sup n}Kr. The Larmor transmission measurements lead to a final result {sigma}{sub s}=8.44(9) b for {sup 86}Kr. In the TOF-spectrometer the wavelength-dependent total cross section of water was determined. Coherent neutron scattering lengths were determined using the neutron interferometry method with a skew symmetric neutron interferometer. Scans with {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr led to b{sub c}=8.07(26) fm for {sup 86}Kr and 7.72(33) fm for {sup n}Kr, corresponding to coherent scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub c}=8.18(53) b and 7.49(64) b respectively. Due to the large errors in the bound atom scattering cross section and coherent scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr, the incoherent cross section of both gases, {sigma}{sub i} = 0 within its inaccuracy, {sigma}{sub i}=0.26(54) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub i}=0.41(1.15) b for {sup n}Kr. (orig.).

  10. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  11. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, Fernando; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  12. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornet Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  13. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne [Manchester U.

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  14. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Tudora, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra) as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f) and 237Np(n, f)) both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  15. Nucleon-nucleon collision profile and cross section fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczynski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon collision profile, being the basic entity of the wounded nucleon model, is usually adopted in the form of hard sphere or the Gaussian shape. We suggest that the cross section fluctuations given by the gamma distribution leads to the profile function which smoothly ranges between the both limiting forms. Examples demonstrating sensitivity of profile function on cross section fluctuations are discussed.

  16. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  17. Elastic cross sections for electron-carbon scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun-Bo; Wang Yang; Zhou Ya-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We used the close-coupling optical (CCO) approach to investigate the open-shell carbon atom. The elastic cross sections have been presented at the energies below 90eV, and the present CCO results have been compared with other theoretical results. We found that polarization and the continuum states have significant contributions to the elastic cross sections. The present calculations show that the CCO method is capable of calculating electron scattering from open-shell atoms.

  18. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  19. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  20. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  1. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  2. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  3. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  4. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  5. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  6. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  7. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  8. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  9. Cross-section fluctuations in chaotic scattering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Torleif E. O.; Dietz, Barbara; Richter, Achim

    2016-10-01

    Exact analytical expressions for the cross-section correlation functions of chaotic scattering systems have hitherto been derived only under special conditions. The objective of the present article is to provide expressions that are applicable beyond these restrictions. The derivation is based on a statistical model of Breit-Wigner type for chaotic scattering amplitudes which has been shown to describe the exact analytical results for the scattering (S )-matrix correlation functions accurately. Our results are given in the energy and in the time representations and apply in the whole range from isolated to overlapping resonances. The S -matrix contributions to the cross-section correlations are obtained in terms of explicit irreducible and reducible correlation functions. Consequently, the model can be used for a detailed exploration of the key features of the cross-section correlations and the underlying physical mechanisms. In the region of isolated resonances, the cross-section correlations contain a dominant contribution from the self-correlation term. For narrow states the self-correlations originate predominantly from widely spaced states with exceptionally large partial width. In the asymptotic region of well-overlapping resonances, the cross-section autocorrelation functions are given in terms of the S -matrix autocorrelation functions. For inelastic correlations, in particular, the Ericson fluctuations rapidly dominate in that region. Agreement with known analytical and experimental results is excellent.

  10. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B

    2002-07-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  11. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toburen, L H; Shinpaugh, J L; Justiniano, E L B

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes that can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured ejected electron energy spectra.

  12. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  13. Simulation of multistatic and backscattering cross sections for airborne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Albert W.

    1986-07-01

    In order to determine susceptibilities of airborne radar to electronic countermeasures and electronic counter-countermeasures simulations of multistatic and backscattering cross sections were developed as digital modules in the form of algorithms. Cross section algorithms are described for prolate (cigar shape) and oblate (disk shape) spheroids. Backscattering cross section algorithms are also described for different categories of terrain. Backscattering cross section computer programs were written for terrain categorized as vegetation, sea ice, glacial ice, geological (rocks, sand, hills, etc.), oceans, man-made structures, and water bodies. PROGRAM SIGTERRA is a file for backscattering cross section modules of terrain (TERRA) such as vegetation (AGCROP), oceans (OCEAN), Arctic sea ice (SEAICE), glacial snow (GLASNO), geological structures (GEOL), man-made structures (MAMMAD), or water bodies (WATER). AGCROP describes agricultural crops, trees or forests, prairies or grassland, and shrubs or bush cover. OCEAN has the SLAR or SAR looking downwind, upwind, and crosswind at the ocean surface. SEAICE looks at winter ice and old or polar ice. GLASNO is divided into a glacial ice and snow or snowfields. MANMAD includes buildings, houses, roads, railroad tracks, airfields and hangars, telephone and power lines, barges, trucks, trains, and automobiles. WATER has lakes, rivers, canals, and swamps. PROGRAM SIGAIR is a similar file for airborne targets such as prolate and oblate spheroids.

  14. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  15. Parameterized total cross sections for pion production in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Norbury, J W; Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2006-01-01

    Total inclusive cross sections for neutral and charged pion production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions have been calculated and compared to experiment. Nucleon-nucleon theoretical cross sections have been scaled up to nuclear collisions using a scaling factor similar to $(A_PA_T)^{2/3}$, where $A_P$ and $A_T$ are the nucleon numbers of the projectile and target nuclei. Variations in the power of this scaling factor have been studied and a good fit to experiment is obtained with a small modification of the power. Theoretical cross sections are written in a form that is very suitable for immediate input into transport codes.

  16. Investigates on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Projectile with Triangular Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Wen-jun; WANG Zhong-yuan; LI Yan; QIAN Ji-sheng

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of projectiles with triangular and circular cross sections are investigated respectively by use of free-flight experiment. Processed the experiment data, curves of flight velocity variation and nutation of both projectiles are obtained, based on the curves, their aerodynamic force and moment coefficients are found out by data fitting, and their aerodynamic performances are compared and analyzed. Results show that the projectile with triangular cross section has smaller resistance, higher lift-drag ratio, better static stability, higher stability capability and more excellent maneuverability than those of the projectile with circular cross section, therefore it can be used in the guided projectiles; under lower rotation speed, the triangular section projectile has greater Magnus moment leading to bigger projectile distribution.

  17. The photon scattering cross-sections of atomic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grunefeld, Swaantje J; Cheng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We present a unified view of the frequency dependence of the various scattering processes involved when a neutral hydrogen atom interacts with a monochromatic, linearly-polarized photon. A computational approach is employed of the atom trapped by a finite-sized-box due to a finite basis-set expansion, which generates a set of transition matrix elements between $E0$ pseudostates. We introduce a general computational methodology that enables the computation of the frequency-dependent dipole transition polarizability with one real and two different imaginary contributions. These dipole transition polarizabilities are related to the cross-sections of one-photon photoionization, Rayleigh, Raman, and Compton scattering. Our numerical calculations reveal individual Raman scattering cross-sections above threshold that can rapidly vanish and revive. Furthermore, our numerical Compton cross-sections do not overtly suffer from the infra-red divergence problem, and are three orders-of-magnitude higher than previous analy...

  18. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  19. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  20. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, Johan [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  1. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaine Schulte

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  2. Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.

  3. Total Cross Section in $\\gamma\\gamma$ Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Todorova-Nová, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M

    2001-01-01

    The reaction e+e- -> e+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons for quasi-real photons is studied using data from root(s) = 183 GeV up to 202 GeV. Results on the total cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e- hadrons) and sigma(+e- gamma* gamma* -> e+e- hadrons) are given for the two-photon centre-of-mass energies 5 GeV < Wgammagamma < 185 GeV. The total cross section of two real photons is described by a Regge parametrisation. We observe a steeper rise with the two-photon centre-of-mass energy as compared to the hadron-hadron and the photon-proton cross sections. The data are also compared to the expectations of different theoretical models.

  4. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  5. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  6. Theoretical results for top-quark cross sections and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    I present new results and updates for total cross sections and differential distributions in top-antitop pair and single-top production. Soft-gluon corrections are added to exact fixed-order results to provide the best predictions at approximate N$^3$LO for $t{\\bar t}$ production and approximate NNLO for single-top production. Total cross sections and top-quark transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions are presented and compared with data at LHC and Tevatron energies. The cusp anomalous dimension at three and higher loops is also discussed.

  7. Kriging approach for the experimental cross-section covariances estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garlaud A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the classical use of a generalized χ2 to determine the evaluated cross section uncertainty, we need the covariance matrix of the experimental cross sections. The usual propagation error method to estimate the covariances is hardly usable and the lack of data prevents from using the direct empirical estimator. We propose in this paper to apply the kriging method which allows to estimate the covariances via the distances between the points and with some assumptions on the covariance matrix structure. All the results are illustrated with the 2555Mn nucleus measurements.

  8. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-15

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  9. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  10. Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: navin@ganil.fr; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-01-11

    An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.

  11. Inactivation cross section of yeast cells irradiated by heavy ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Inactivation cross sections for haploid yeast cell strain211a have been calculated as 1-hit detector based on the tracktheory in an extended target mode and a numerical calculation ofradial dose distribution. In the calculations, characteristic dose D0 is a fitted parameter which is obtained to be 42 Gy, and "radius"of hypothetical target a0 is chosen to be 0.5μm which is about the sizeof nucleus of yeast cells for obtaining an overall agreement withexperimental cross sections. The results of the calculations are inagreement with the experimental data in high LET (linear energy transfer) including the thindown region.

  12. Approximate formulas for total cross section for moderately small eikonal

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The eikonal representation for the total cross section is considered. The approximate formulas for a moderately small eikonal are derived. In contrast to the standard eikonal integrals, they contain no Bessel functions, and, hence, no rapidly oscillating integrands. The formulas obtained are applied to numerical evaluations of the total cross section for a number of particular expressions for the eikonal. It is shown that for pure imaginary eikonals the relative error of O(10^(-5)) can be achieved. Also two improper triple integrals are analytically calculated.

  13. High-mass dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Ahn, S H; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani, R; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martens, J; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Park, S K; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sar, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shche, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zakrzewski, J A; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2002-01-01

    Dijet differential cross sections for the reaction e+p -> e+ + jet + jet + X in the photoproduction regime have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 42.7 pb**{-1}. The cross sections are given for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 134 e+ Z0 X} < 5.9 pb. Upper limits on the photoproduction of new heavy resonances decaying into two jets are also presented for masses in the range between 60 GeV and 155 GeV.

  14. Electron transport in silicon nanowires having different cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscato Orazio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport phenomena in silicon nanowires with different cross-section are investigated using an Extended Hydrodynamic model, coupled to the Schrödinger-Poisson system. The model has been formulated by closing the moment system derived from the Boltzmann equation on the basis of the maximum entropy principle of Extended Thermodynamics, obtaining explicit closure relations for the high-order fluxes and the production terms. Scattering of electrons with acoustic and non polar optical phonons have been taken into account. The bulk mobility is evaluated for square and equilateral triangle cross-sections of the wire.

  15. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K [The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kotoku, J [Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Horikawa, Y [Juntendo University, Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  16. Electromagnetic Cylindrical Transparent Devices with Irregular Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transparent device is very important for antenna protection. In this paper, the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section are developed based on the coordinate transformation. The equivalent two-dimensional (2D transparent devices under TE plane and cylindrical wave irradiation is designed and studied by full-wave simulation, respectively. It shows that although the incident waves are distorted in the transformation region apparently, they return to the original wavefronts when passing through the device. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the cylindrical transparent devices with arbitrary cross section we developed.

  17. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  18. Transition to chaotic scattering: signatures in the differential cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Adriane B; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Grebogi, Celso

    2008-10-01

    We show that bifurcations in chaotic scattering manifest themselves through the appearance of an infinitely fine-scale structure of singularities in the cross section. These "rainbow singularities" are created in a cascade, which is closely related to the bifurcation cascade undergone by the set of trapped orbits (the chaotic saddle). This cascade provides a signature in the differential cross section of the complex pattern of bifurcations of orbits underlying the transition to chaotic scattering. We show that there is a power law with a universal coefficient governing the sequence of births of rainbow singularities and we verify this prediction by numerical simulations.

  19. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  20. Modelling of reaction cross sections and prompt neutron emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate nuclear data concerning reaction cross sections and the emission of prompt fission neutrons (i.e. multiplicity and spectra as well as other fission fragment data are of great importance for reactor physics design, especially for the new Generation IV nuclear energy systems. During the past years for several actinides (238U(n, f and 237Np(n, f both the reaction cross sections and prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra have been calculated within the frame of the EFNUDAT project.

  1. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  2. Top quark pair cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results in the measurement of the top-quark pair production cross section obtained with data collected by the CMS detector at LHC accelerator. The analyses are performed in the dilepton, single lepton and full hadronic decay modes. Additionally to the inclusive measurements of $\\mathrm{\\sigma_{\\mathrm{t\\bar{t}}}}$ at 7, 8 and 13$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$, the CMS collaboration provides for the first time the cross section at 5.02$\\mathrm{\\;TeV}$. Results are confronted with the latest and most precise theoretical calculations.

  3. LHC and Tevatron results on the tt differential cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00213443; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I will present a review of the most recent $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross sections measurement performed by LHC and Tevatron experiments. After a brief introduction, I will describe the mea- surements of fiducial and full phase-space differential cross sections based on events with exactly two, one or zero charged leptons in the final state. These results are compared to predictions made with Monte Carlo generators with next-to-leading order accuracy or next-to-next-to leading order numerical calculations.

  4. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-08-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  5. Heat Transfer in a Concrete Composite Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klabník Maroš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the spread of heat in 2D coupled cross section with respect to the material characteristics and boundary conditions of calculation. Heat transfer was simulated in the program ANSYS in time interval up to 180 minutes. Nine various models were created to investigate the rate of influence of the changes in thermal material characteristics such as the specific heat capacity coefficient and thermal conductivity, upon the course and difference of temperature in the concrete cross-section. The comparison of results obtained using non-linear and constant values of the variables in simulation was made, too.

  6. Recent integral cross section validation measurements at the ASP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Packer, L W; Gilbert, M; Lilley, S; Pampin, R

    2013-01-01

    This work presents new integral data measured at the ASP 14 MeV neutron irradiation facility at Aldermaston in the UK, which has recently become available for fusion-related work through the CCFE materials programme. Measurements of reaction products from activation experiments using elemental foils were carried out using gamma spectrometry in a high efficiency, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and associated digital signal processing hardware. Following irradiation and rapid extraction to the measurement cell, gamma emissions were acquired with both energy and time bins. Integral cross section and half-life data have been derived from these measurements. Selected integral cross section values are presented from the measurement campaigns.

  7. Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...

  8. 粘钢加固损伤混凝土箱型桥墩的抗震性能Ⅱ:动力响应数值分析%Anti-seismic properties of damaged concrete bridge piers with hollow cross-section strengthened with adhering steel platesⅡ:numerical analysis on seismic dynamic responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓江东; 宗周红; 黎雅乐; 刘爱荣

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility method and the fiber model were used to numerically simulate the earth-quake dynamic response of the damaged concrete bridge piers with hollow cross-section strengthened with adhering steel plates.The performance index,such as the seismic forces at the piers bottom, pier top displacement and residual stiffness,were analyzed,and on the basis of model tests the seis-mic mechanics behaviors of the strengthened piers were comprehensively studied.The analysis re-sults show that the failure modes of the strengthened bridge piers under the earthquake actions are al-so displayed as the occurrences of plastic hinge in the superior margin of the steel plates,which coin-cides with the pier model testing results.The comparison of the seismic performances before and af-ter strengthening validates the effectiveness of the strengthening method with steel plates of making new plastic hinge.The effects of the initial damage degree,steel plate thickness and slenderness rati-os on the seismic safety degrees of the bridge piers are small.However,when the axial compression ratio is large,the seismic safety degrees decrease quickly.%针对具有初始弯曲损伤的粘钢加固混凝土箱型桥墩,采用柔度法和纤维模型,进行了系统的地震动力响应数值模拟计算,分析了地震作用下加固桥墩的地震剪力、墩顶位移、剩余刚度等性能指标,并在拟静力试验的基础上综合研究其抗震加固力学行为。分析结果表明,地震荷载作用下地震中桥墩仍然发生加固钢板上缘产生塑性铰的破坏模式,与拟静力试验结果一致。加固前后桥墩抗震性能的对比结果表明,经粘钢加固形成新塑性铰的加固方式可有效增强桥墩的抗震能力。初始损伤程度、加固钢板厚度和长细比等对加固桥墩抗震安全度的影响较小。大轴压情况下,安全度快速降低。

  9. Phase shifts as functions of the cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Kaekebeke, M.; Roo, M. de

    1975-01-01

    We show that an elastic scattering amplitute may be defined as an implicit function of the differential cross section. A practical method is given for a numerical investigation of this dependence, both in the elastic and in the inelastic regions. In particular, we consider the case of a polynomial a

  10. On the maximum backscattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1974-01-01

    The maximum backscattering cross section of an equispaced linear array connected to a reactive network and consisting of isotropic radiators is calculated forn = 2, 3, and 4 elements as a function of the incident angle and of the distance between the elements. On the basis of the results obtained...

  11. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  12. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Almaraz-Calderon S.; Carnelli P. F. F.; Rehm K. E.; Albers M.; Alcorta M.; Bertone P.F.; Digiovine B.; Esbensen H.; Fernandez Niello J. O.; Henderson D.; Jiang C.L.; Lai J; Marley S. T.; Nusair O.; Palchan-Hazan T.

    2015-01-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  13. Event history analysis and the cross-section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....

  14. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Section of Nitrogen Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Rong-Mei; ZHOU Ya-Jun; WANG Yang; JIAO Li-Guang

    2006-01-01

    The direct ionization cross sections for electron scattering by nitrogen are calculated by applying an equivalentlocal optical model from 15eV to 1100eV. The present results are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical calculation results.

  15. (, 3) Differential cross section of He (21) and He (23)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kshamata Muktavat; M K Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    The angular distribution of the five-fold differential cross section for the electron impact double ionization of He (21 ) and He (23 ) has been studied. The kinematical conditions for maxima/minima in the angular distribution for the two cases have been compared. The two-step process for the double ionization is found to contribute very little in the triplet case.

  16. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  17. NNLO corrections to the Higgs production cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, V. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusii, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Smith, J. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Neerven, W.L. van [Instituut-Lorentz, Universiteit Leiden, PO Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2004-10-01

    We discuss the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections to the total cross section for (pseudo-) scalar Higgs boson production. The computation is carried out in the e.ective Lagrangian approach which emerges from the standard model by taking the limit mt->{approx} where mt denotes the mass of the top quark.

  18. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  19. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  20. Estimating Dynamic Models from Repeated Cross-Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.J.C.M.; Vella, F.

    2000-01-01

    A major attraction of panel data is the ability to estimate dynamic models on an individual level. Moffitt (1993) and Collado (1998) have argued that such models can also be identified from repeated cross-section data. In this paper we reconsider this issue. We review the identification conditions u

  1. Single top cross section and properties measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Single top quarks can be produced via the t, tW, and s channel. Studying these processes provides a test of the theory of electroweak interactions involving heavy quarks. Recent results on cross section and property measurements in pp collisions by the CMS collaboration at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV are reviewed.

  2. Cross-sectional imaging patterns of desmoplastic fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Wirtz, D.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out the cross-sectional imaging characteristics of desmoplastic fibroma (DF). In 3 patients with histologically proven DF, the imaging characteristics obtained with cross-sectional techniques were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographs and CT scans were available in all patients, and plain and contrast-enhanced MR examinations in 2 patients. Compared with conventional radiographs, CT allowed more accurate assessment of the extent of bone destruction including cortical breakthrough and articular invasion. Intramedullary tumor growth and soft tissue extension was best detected with MRI. Apart from heterogeneity on MR images, DF displayed nonspecific low signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images and an intermediate to high signal intensity including areas of low intensity on T2-weighted images. Desmoplastic fibroma showed a distinct, inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Although cross-sectional imaging features of DF are nonspecific, some MR characteristics, such as inhomogeneous contrast enhancement and the presence of low-intensity regions on T2-weighted images, are helpful in determining the differential diagnosis. Cross-sectional imaging of DF is useful for local staging of the tumor because it provides valuable information about the extent of bone destruction as well as medullary and extraosseous spread. (orig.)

  3. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-body Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term, and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li + 208Pb. For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the alpha + t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the 'Coulomb' and 'nuclear' breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest...

  4. Measurement of MA fission cross sections at YAYOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Ohki, Shigeo; Wakabayashi, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Fission cross section ratios of minor actinide nuclides (Am-241, Am-243) relative to U-235 in the fast neutron energy region have been measured using a back-to-back (BTB) fission chamber at YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. A small BTB fission chamber was developed to measure the fission cross section ratios in the center of the core at YAYOI reactor. Dependence of the fission cross section ratios on neutron spectra was investigated by changing the position of the detector in the reactor core. The measurement results were compared with the fission cross sections in the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 libraries. It was found that calculated values of Am-241 using the JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by about 15% than the measured value in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6(eV)). And, good agreement can be seen the measured value and calculated value of Am-243 using the JENDL-3.2 data in the center of the core (the neutron average energy is 1.44E+6)(eV), but calculated values of Am-243 using the ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 data are lower by 11% and 13% than the measured value. (author)

  5. Fission Product Neutron Cross Section Library and Its Reliability Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Jing; SUN; Zheng-jun; LIU; Ting-jin; SHU; Neng-chuan

    2013-01-01

    A complete library of neutron cross section data has been developed for fission product nuclides.It contains data for 1 121 fission product nuclides of mass number A from 66 to 172 and atomic numbers Z from 22 to 72,where involves a lot of very short-lived radioactive ones.The data were taken from better

  6. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  7. Total cross sections for (e sup - -He) ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.K. (Novodaya Vidyalaya, Manipur, (IN)); Keka Basu Choudhury, (Jadavpur Univ. Calcutta, (IN). Dept. of Physics); Mazumdar, P.S.; Brajamani, S. (Manipur Univ. (IN). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron impact ionization have been calculated in the energy range 40-150 eV in a distorted wave model which employs distorted waves for the incident, scattered and ejected electrons. The present results are compared with experimental results and other theoretical predictions.

  8. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  9. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Laser diagnostics are fast-response, non-intrusive and species-specific tools perfectly applicable for studying combustion processes. Quantitative measurements of species concentration and temperature require spectroscopic data to be well-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, tunable Difference Frequency Generation laser and fixed wavelength helium-neon laser. The studied species are methane, methanol, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, ethanol, propylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is used for the measurements of the absorption cross-sections and the integrated band intensities of the 13 hydrocarbons. The spectral region of the spectra is 2800 – 3400 cm-1 (2.9 – 3.6 μm) and the temperature range is 673 – 1100 K. These valuable data provide huge opportunities to select interference-free wavelengths for measuring time-histories of a specific species in a shock tube or other combustion systems. Such measurements can allow developing/improving chemical kinetics mechanisms by experimentally determining reaction rates. The Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser is a narrow line-width, tunable laser in the 3.35 – 3.53 μm wavelength region which contains strong absorption features for most hydrocarbons due to the fundamental C-H vibrating stretch. The absorption cross-sections of propylene are measured at seven different wavelengths using the DFG laser. The temperature range is 296 – 460 K which is reached using a Reflex Cell. The DFG laser is very attractive for kinetic studies in the shock tube because of its fast time response and the potential possibility of making species-specific measurements. The Fixed wavelength

  10. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  11. Elastic breakup cross sections of well-bound nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, K; Gade, A; Tostevin, J A; Baugher, T; Chajecki, Z; Coupland, D; Famiano, M A; Ghosh, T K; Howard, G F Grinyer M E; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Manning, B; Meierbachtol, K; Quarterman, P; Ratkiewicz, A; Sanetullaev, A; Showalter, R H; Stroberg, S R; Tsang, M B; Weisshaar, D; Winkelbauer, J; Winkler, R; Youngs, M

    2014-01-01

    The 9Be(28Mg,27Na) one-proton removal reaction with a large proton separation energy of Sp(28Mg)=16.79 MeV is studied at intermediate beam energy. Coincidences of the bound 27Na residues with protons and other light charged particles are measured. These data are analyzed to determine the percentage contributions to the proton removal cross section from the elastic and inelastic nucleon removal mechanisms. These deduced contributions are compared with the eikonal reaction model predictions and with the previously measured data for reactions involving the re- moval of more weakly-bound protons from lighter nuclei. The role of transitions of the proton between different bound single-particle configurations upon the elastic breakup cross section is also quantified in this well-bound case. The measured and calculated elastic breakup fractions are found to be in good agreement.

  12. Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.

    1999-07-01

    The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.

  13. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  14. Precision predictions of exclusive jet cross sections at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangal, Shireen

    2015-10-15

    With the discovery of the Higgs boson, a central objective of the LHC Higgs program is to study its properties in detail by exploring different production and decay channels. This requires precise theoretical predictions of inclusive cross sections as well as differential and exclusive cross sections. In this thesis, we study perturbative uncertainties in the fixed-order (FO) predictions of exclusive jet cross sections and obtain resummed predictions for a new class of rapidity-dependent jet veto observables, focusing on Higgs production via gluon gluon fusion (ggF) at the LHC. Experimental analyses at the LHC often use jet binning and jet selection cuts to distinguish between different Higgs production mechanisms and to separate signal from backgrounds. Such jet vetoes and jet selection cuts induce Sudakov logarithms of the ratio of the veto scale and the hard scale in the process. In the limit of very tight jet vetoes, these logarithms can become large and introduce large uncertainties in the FO predictions of cross sections. By resumming these large logarithms to all orders, the perturbative uncertainties can be considerably reduced. Whether in FO or resummed predictions, a consistent treatment of uncertainties in different jet bins is required. In the first part of the thesis, we studied in detail the perturbative uncertainties in the NLO predictions for pp→H+2-jets via ggF for the vector boson fusion (VBF) selection cuts used by ATLAS and CMS in their H→γγ analyses. Our study shows that, while applying strong restrictions on additional emissions is expected to increase the sensitivity to the VBF signal and reduce the ggF contribution, it is not necessarily beneficial for distinguishing the VBF and ggF production modes because of the quickly increasing ggF uncertainties. In the second part of the thesis, we introduce rapidity-dependent jet veto observables for which the transverse momentum of a jet is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity

  15. Evolving roles of cross-sectional imaging in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarotto, Andrea; Orlando, Stefania; Coletta, Marina; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella; Caprioli, Flavio

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of cross-sectional imaging techniques for the clinical management of Crohn's disease patients has steadily grown over the recent years, thanks to a series of technological advances, including the evolution of contrast media for magnetic resonance, computed tomography and bowel ultrasound. This has resulted in a continuous improvement of diagnostic accuracy and capability to detect Crohn's disease-related complications. Additionally, a progressive widening of indications for cross-sectional imaging in Crohn's disease has been put forward, thus leading to hypothesize that in the near future imaging techniques can increasingly complement endoscopy in most clinical settings, including the grading of disease activity and the assessment of mucosal healing or Crohn's disease post-surgical recurrence.

  16. Deuterium target data and precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Aaron S; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, $F_A(q^2)$, which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of $F_A$ from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of $F_A$. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to $r_A^2=0.46(22) \\,{\\rm fm}^2$, with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as $\\sigma(\

  17. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J; Harris, L J

    2002-11-19

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  18. Simultaneous Evaluation of Fission Cross Sections for Cm Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Y.-O.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fission Cross Sections for a complete set of Cm-isotopes, 240-250Cm, have been calculated in the incident energy range from above resonance region to 20 MeV. This work aims at providing the fission cross sections with consistent set of model parameters for Cm isotopes, as a part of a complete evaluation including covariance files for several minor actinides which play a great role in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC design and applications as well as the design of new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN-IV. This was accomplished by means of computational analyses carried out with the nuclear model code EMPIRE-2.19 which is the modular system of nuclear reaction codes. A Fission model of this work took into account transmission derived in the WKB approximation within an optical model through a double-humped fission barrier.

  19. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  20. Simultaneous Evaluation of Fission Cross Sections for Cm Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. I.; Gil, C.-S.; Lee, Y.-O.

    2010-03-01

    Fission Cross Sections for a complete set of Cm-isotopes, 240-250Cm, have been calculated in the incident energy range from above resonance region to 20 MeV. This work aims at providing the fission cross sections with consistent set of model parameters for Cm isotopes, as a part of a complete evaluation including covariance files for several minor actinides which play a great role in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) design and applications as well as the design of new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN-IV). This was accomplished by means of computational analyses carried out with the nuclear model code EMPIRE-2.19 which is the modular system of nuclear reaction codes. A Fission model of this work took into account transmission derived in the WKB approximation within an optical model through a double-humped fission barrier.

  1. Determining the Factorizability of Hard Scattering Cross-Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hornig, Andrew; Ovanesyan, Grigory

    2009-01-01

    The rules of soft-collinear effective theory can be used naively to write hard scattering cross-sections as convolutions of separate hard, jet, and soft functions. We describe an intuitive method to determine, at a given order in perturbation theory, whether these functions are truly infrared safe or not and, thus, whether or not the cross-sections factorize. Using angularity distributions as an illustrative example, we look for regions of integration in the sum of Feynman diagrams contributing to the jet and soft functions where the integrals become infrared divergent. Our analysis is independent of an explicit infrared regulator, and simultaneously clarifies how to distinguish infrared and ultraviolet singularities when pure dimensional regularization is used to regulate both.

  2. Radar Cross Section measurements on the stealth metamaterial objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Fan, Kim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    have been realized in the form of thin, flexible metallized films of polyimide [1]. Here we apply a near-unity absorbing MM as a way to reduce the radar cross section of an object, and consider the real-life situation where the probe beam is significantly larger than the MM film and the object under...... investigation. We use a terahertz radar cross section (RCS) setup [2] for the characterization of the RCS of a real object covered with an absorbing MM film designed for high absorption in the THz frequency range, specifically at 0.8 THz. The results are in a form of 2D maps (sinograms), from which the RCS...

  3. Shrink-wrapped isosurface from cross sectional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y K; Hahn, J K

    2007-12-01

    This paper addresses a new surface reconstruction scheme for approximating the isosurface from a set of tomographic cross sectional images. Differently from the novel Marching Cubes (MC) algorithm, our method does not extract the iso-density surface (isosurface) directly from the voxel data but calculates the iso-density point (isopoint) first. After building a coarse initial mesh approximating the ideal isosurface by the cell-boundary representation, it metamorphoses the mesh into the final isosurface by a relaxation scheme, called shrink-wrapping process. Compared with the MC algorithm, our method is robust and does not make any cracks on surface. Furthermore, since it is possible to utilize lots of additional isopoints during the surface reconstruction process by extending the adjacency definition, theoretically the resulting surface can be better in quality than the MC algorithm. According to experiments, it is proved to be very robust and efficient for isosurface reconstruction from cross sectional images.

  4. Cross section generation for LWR pin lattices simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Macedo, Anderson A.P.; Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The majority of the neutron data library provided with the MCNP code is set at room temperature. Therefore, it is important to generate continuous energy cross section library for MCNP code for different temperatures. To evaluate the methodology used, the criticality calculations obtained using MCNP with the cross section generated at DEN/UFMG, are compared with the criticality data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmarks Experiments about the PIN lattices for light water reactors. It was used nuclear data from the ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.1 and TENDL-2014, which were processed using the NJOY99 code for different energies and temperatures. This code provides the nuclear data in ACE libraries, which then are added to MCNP libraries to perform the simulations. The results indicate the methodology efficiency developed by DEN/UFMG. (author)

  5. NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber for Fission Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ryan; Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    In order to design safer and more efficient Generation IV nuclear reactors, more accurate knowledge of fission cross sections is needed. The goal of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) used by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration is to measure the cross sections of several fissile materials to within 1% uncertainty. The ability of the TPC to produce 3D ``pictures'' of charged particle trajectories will eliminate unwanted alpha particles in the data. Another important source of error is the normalization of data the U-235 standard. NIFFTE will use the H(n,n)H reaction instead, which is known to better than 0.2%. The run control and monitoring system will eventually allow for nearly complete automation and off-site monitoring of the experiment. This presentation will cover the need for precision measurements and an overview of the experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Energy Research.

  6. Influence of the target excitations on neutron cross section calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, R.; Lubian, J. [Center for Applied Studies to Nuclear Development, Havana (Cuba)

    1994-12-31

    Considerable progress has been made in the use of the nuclear models and methods to derive physically meaningful parameters for model calculations. In this sense, we analyze the influence of the collective modes of excitation of the target nucleus on the cross section calculations in some medium atomic-weight nuclei, where spectroscopic studies show evidence of anharmonic vibrations, nonaxial deformations and so on. Coupled channel calculations for low-energy neutron inelastic scattering to collective states in {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr and {sup 62}Ni isotopes are made using the Davydov-Chaban model (DCM). It is shown, that the consideration of the structural features of the target nucleus excitation in the cross section calculations guarantees the agreement with the experimental measurements.

  7. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  8. Improved estimate of the cross section for inverse beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of the conserved vector current, relating the vector weak and isovector electromagnetic currents, plays a fundamental role in quantitative description of neutrino interactions. Despite being experimentally confirmed with great precision, it is not fully implemented in existing calculations of the cross section for inverse beta decay, the dominant mechanism of antineutrino scattering at energies below a few tens of MeV. In this article, I estimate the corresponding cross section and its uncertainty, ensuring conservation of the vector current. While converging to previous calculations at energies of several MeV, the obtained result is appreciably lower and predicts more directional positron production near the reaction threshold. These findings suggest that in the current estimate of the flux of geologically produced antineutrinos the 232Th and 238U components may be underestimated by 6.1 and 3.7%, respectively. The proposed search for light sterile neutrinos using a 144Ce--144Pr source is predi...

  9. Isotope Dependence of Superheavy Nucleus Formation Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zu-Hua; BAG Jing-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical process in the superheavy nucleus synthesis is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional Smolu-chowski equation. Special attention is paid to the isotope dependence of the cross section for the superheavy nucleus formation by means of making a comparison among the reaction systems of 54Fe + 204Pb, 56Fe + 206Pb, and 58Fe + 208Pb. It is found by this comparison that the formation cross section is very sensitive to the conditional saddle-point height and the neutron separation energy of the compound nucleus. Reaction systems with lower height of conditional saddle-point and smaller neutron separation energy are more favourable for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus.

  10. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri;

    2016-01-01

    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  11. Inclusive photon cross section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cueto , Ana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of prompt photon production in proton-proton collisions provide a testing ground for perturbative QCD with a hard colourless probe. This kind of measurements were recently used to investigate novel approaches to the description of parton radiation, showcasing the importance of resummation of threshold logarithms in QCD and of electroweak corrections, further they are also sensitive at leading order to the gluon density in the proton. ATLAS has made public very recently the first measurements of inclusive photon production in the new kinematic regime opened by the 13 TeV collisions with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^{-1}. The inclusive photo-production cross section is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy above 125 GeV in different regions of photon pseudorapidity. Next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD and Monte Carlo event-generator predictions are compared to the measured cross section and provide an adequate description of the data.

  12. Higgs Boson Cross Section from CTEQ-TEA Global Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dulat, Sayipjamal; Gao, Jun; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Pumplin, Jon; Schmidt, Carl; Stump, Daniel; Yuan, C -P

    2013-01-01

    We study the uncertainties of the Higgs boson production cross section through the gluon fusion subprocess at the LHC (with $\\sqrt s=7, 8$ and $14$ TeV) arising from the uncertainties of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) and of the value of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$. These uncertainties are computed by two complementary approaches, based on the Hessian and the Lagrange Multiplier methods within the CTEQ-TEA global analysis framework. We find that their predictions for the Higgs boson cross section are in good agreement. Furthermore, the result of the Lagrange Multiplier method supports the prescriptions we have previously provided for using the Hessian method to calculate the combined PDF and $\\alpha_s$ uncertainties, and to estimate the uncertainties at the $68%$ confidence level by scaling them from the 90% confidence level.

  13. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaraz-Calderon S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  14. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  15. Measurement of Charmonium Production Cross Section at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2010-01-01

    The great abundance of charmonium states, collected from the start up of LHC, allows to study its production mechanism. In particular the total and differential $J/\\psi$ production cross section are measured in the transverse momentum range [0;10] GeV/$c$ and in the pseudorapidity range $y \\in$ [2.5;4]. The measurements are performed disentagling the prompt (direct production in $pp$ collisions and feed down from excited charmonium states) and delayed ($b$-hadron decays products) component.

  16. ${\\rm t\\bar{t}}$ cross section measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Diez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the most recent measurements of inclusive top quark pair production cross section is presented. The results are obtained using data collected with the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 5.02, 7, 8 and 13 TeV. The data are compared with the predictions from perturbative QCD calculations at full NNLO+NNLL accuracy.

  17. Inclusive jet cross-section measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2007-05-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  18. Inclusive parton cross sections in photoproduction and photon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, T; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Aïd, S; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bergstein, H; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Salesch, S G; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Sánchez, E; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1995-01-01

    Photoproduction of 2-jet events is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. Parton cross sections are extracted from the data by an unfolding method using leading order parton-jet correlations of a QCD generator. The gluon distribution in the photon is derived in the fractional momentum range 0.04\\le x_\\gamma \\le 1 at the average factorization scale 75 GeV^2.

  19. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion.

  20. Slow Wave Characteristics of Helix Structure with Elliptical Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian-Xiang; WEI Yan-Yu; GONG Yu-Bin; Fu Cheng-Fang; YUE Ling-Na; WANG Wen-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel helix slow wave structure with an elliptical cross section shielded by an elliptical waveguide.The rf characteristics including dispersion properties,interaction impedance of zero mode in this structure have been studied in detail.The theoretical results reveal that weaker dispersion even abnormal dispersion characteristics is obtained with the increasing eccentricity of the elliptical waveguide,while the interaction impedance is enhanced by enlarging the eccentricity of elliptical helix.

  1. NURSE STAFFING AND MEDICATION ERRORS: CROSS SECTIONAL OR LONGITUDINAL RELATIONSHIPS?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We used autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) modeling to examine the relationship between change in nurse staffing and change in medication errors over 6 months in 284 general medical-surgical nursing units. We also investigated the impact of select hospital and nursing unit characteristics on the baseline level and rate of change in medication errors. We found essentially no support for a nurse staffing – medication error relationship either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Few hospita...

  2. Overview of recent U235 neutron cross section evaluation work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubitz, C. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This report is an overview (through 1997) of the U235 neutron cross section evaluation work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), AEA Technology (Harwell) and Lockheed Martin Corp.-Schenectady (LMS), which has influenced, or appeared in, ENDF/B-VI through Release 5. The discussion is restricted to the thermal and resolved resonance regions, apart from some questions about the unresolved region which still need investigation. The important role which benchmark testing has played will be touched on.

  3. The tau+ tau- production cross section near threshold revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Next-to-next-to-leading contributions to the cross section sigma(e+e- -> tau+tau-) at energies close to threshold are analysed, taking into account the known non-relativistic effects and O(alpha^2) corrections. The numerical changes with respect to previous works are small, but the new corrections give a true estimate of the uncertainty in the theoretical calculation.

  4. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  5. Semiclassical limit of the scattering cross section as a distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshtanov, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider quantum scattering from a compactly supported potential $q$. The semiclassical limit amounts to letting the wavenumber $k \\to \\infty$ while rescaling the potential as $k^2 q$ (alternatively, one can scale Planck's constant $\\hbar \\searrow 0$). It is well-known that, under appropriate conditions, for $\\om \\in \\bbS_{n-1}$ such that there is exactly one outgoing ray with direction $\\om$ (in the sense of geometric optics), the differential scattering cross section $|f(\\om,k)|^{2}$ ten...

  6. The total top-pair production cross section at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Falgari, P., E-mail: p.falgari@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Klein, S. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Piclum, J. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Schwinn, C. [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ubiali, M.; Yan, F. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We present results for the total top-pair production cross section at the Tevatron and the LHC. Our predictions supplement fixed-order results with resummation of soft logarithms and Coulomb singularities to next-to-next-to-leading (NNLL) logarithmic accuracy and include top-antitop bound-state effects. The effects of resummation, the dependence on the PDF set used, the residual sources of theoretical uncertainty and their implication for measurements of the top-quark mass are discussed.

  7. The physics of neutrino cross sections: theoretical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The present status of neutrino cross section physics is reviewed focusing on the recent theoretical developments in quasielastic scattering, multi-nucleon contributions to the inclusive scattering and pion production on nucleons and nuclei. A good understanding of these processes is crucial to meet the precision needs of neutrino oscillation experiments. Some of the challenges that arise in the consistent description of MiniBooNE and MINERvA recent data are discussed.

  8. Relativistic elastic differential cross sections for equal mass nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Werneth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of relativistic kinematics are studied for nuclear collisions of equal mass nuclei. It is found that the relativistic and non-relativistic elastic scattering amplitudes are nearly indistinguishable, and, hence, the relativistic and non-relativistic differential cross sections become indistinguishable. These results are explained by analyzing the Lippmann–Schwinger equation with the first order optical potential that was employed in the calculation.

  9. Relativistic elastic differential cross sections for equal mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, C.M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Maung, K.M.; Ford, W.P. [The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    The effects of relativistic kinematics are studied for nuclear collisions of equal mass nuclei. It is found that the relativistic and non-relativistic elastic scattering amplitudes are nearly indistinguishable, and, hence, the relativistic and non-relativistic differential cross sections become indistinguishable. These results are explained by analyzing the Lippmann–Schwinger equation with the first order optical potential that was employed in the calculation.

  10. nxs a program library for neutron cross section calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boin, M.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of routines for calculating neutron scattering and absorption cross sections on the basis of crystal structure descriptions is presented and implemented in the new and reusable nxs program library. An example program providing a graphical user interface to the nxs functions is created to demonstrate their usage. The flexibility of the library and the possibilities for multiple areas of application are shown by further examples involving Monte Carlo neutron simulations concerned ...

  11. An Analysis of EM Railgun Cross Section Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    release; distribution is unlimited. i Introduction Electromagnetic (EM) railguns are of interest to the military due to their ability to achieve...state of the art technology. While other organizations worked on the power supply and other aspects of the railgun , Benét’s goal was to develop ways... Railgun Cross Section Designs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Joshua B. Root Vince

  12. Cross sections and kinematics of proton induced fragmentation of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streibel, T.; Roecher, H.; Huentrup, G.; Heinrich, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-01

    Charge changing fragmentation cross sections for C at a proton energy of about 70 MeV were measured. The discrepancies between measurement and model predictions indicate the necessity of further investigations. We have also measured distributions of fragment emission angles which can be described using a model with a momentum transfer to the fragmenting nucleus. The developed model leads to predictions for momentum distributions of proton induced target fragments of C at small energies. (orig.)

  13. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by te...

  14. Top quark pair production cross section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortiana, Giorgio; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.

    2008-04-01

    Top quark pair production cross section has been measured at the Tevatron by CDF and D0 collaborations using different channels and methods, in order to test standard model predictions, and to search for new physics hints affecting the t{bar t} production mechanism or decay. Measurements are carried out with an integrated luminosity of 1.0 to 2.0 fb{sup -1}, and are found to be consistent with standard model expectations.

  15. Neutrino and Antineutrino Cross sections at MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections-among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil. Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.

  16. Total ionisation cross sections in (e/sup +/-Li) scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.K.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1988-06-28

    Total ionisation cross sections for the positron impact ionisation of the lithium atom are calculated using a distorted-wave approximation in which both the effect of screening in the final state of the system and the distortion of the outgoing waves are taken into account. The present results are different from those using the first Born approximation and from an earlier distorted-wave calculation by other workers.

  17. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  18. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  19. Electron impact cross sections of vibrationally and electronically excited molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung-Sik, E-mail: jsyoon@nfri.re.kr [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2, Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-Do, 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Young; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Choi, Heechol [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2, Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-Do, 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Geun [National Center for Standard Reference Data, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Doryong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vijay [B-82, Aarohi Twin Bungalows, Near Govt. Tubewell, Bopal, Ahmedabad-380058 (India)

    2014-10-30

    It is well known that the electron impact cross sections for elastic and inelastic processes for the vibrationally and electronically excited molecules are predominantly different than those for molecules in the ground state. Collisions of low energy electrons with excited molecules play an important role in explaining the behavior of gas discharges in laser and plasma physics, in planetary atmospheres, stars, and interstellar medium and in plasmas widely used in the fabrication of microelectronics. This explains as to why there is a need for having validated sets of electron impact cross sections for different processes. This work reviews the subject of electron collisions with vibrationally and electronically excited molecules in a comprehensive way. The survey has been carried out for a few excited molecules such as H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, HD, HT, DT, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. This review includes the discussion on the methods to produce and detect vibrationally and electronically excited molecules. We will take up the cross section data available in the literature for such molecules on electron scattering, dissociation, ionization and attachment processes and will discuss, evaluate and well-validate the same wherever and whenever possible.

  20. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  1. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic f...

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for the Weak s Process

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, M; Kaeppeler, F; Gallino, R; Pignatari, M; Uberseder, E

    2009-01-01

    In past decades a lot of progress has been made towards understanding the main s-process component that takes place in thermally pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. During this process about half of the heavy elements, mainly between 90=8Msolar) and is much less understood. A better characterization of the weak s component would help disentangle the various contributions to element production in this region. For this purpose, a series of measurements of neutron-capture cross sections have been performed on medium-mass nuclei at the 3.7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator at FZK using the activation method. Also, neutron captures on abundant light elements with A<56 play an important role for s-process nucleosynthesis, since they act as neutron poisons and affect the stellar neutron balance. New results are presented for the (n,g) cross sections of 41K and 45Sc, and revisions are reported for a number of cross sections based on improved spectroscopic information.

  3. Peripheral nerve imaging: Not only cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano

    2016-08-28

    Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves. The relative drawback of peripheral nerve US is the long learning curve and the deep anatomic competence to evaluate even small nerves. In the recent years, the role of US in peripheral nerve evaluation has been widened. In the past, nerve US was mainly used to assess nerve-cross sectional area, but now more advanced measurements and considerations are desirable and can boost the role of peripheral nerve US. Nerve echotexture evaluation was defined in 2010: The ratio between the hypoechoic and hyperechoic areas of peripheral nerves on US was called "nerve density". For evaluation of patients who have peripheral neuropathies, the role of peripheral nerve is US wider than simple cross-sectional area evaluation. Quantitative measurements describing the internal fascicular echotexture of peripheral nerves introduce the concept of considering US as a possible quantitative imaging biomarker technique. The potential of nerve US has started to be uncovered. It seems clear that only cross-sectional area measurement is no more sufficient for a comprehensive US evaluation of peripheral nerves.

  4. Reconciling cross-sectional with longitudinal observations on annual decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, W M

    1993-01-01

    In summary, numerous factors may contribute to observed differences between longitudinally and cross-sectionally derived measures of annual decline in lung function. The direction and magnitude of these differences appear hard to predict. Furthermore, although these differences can be minimized by careful modeling of the data, they cannot, in general, be completely avoided. It seems plausible, however, that both types of studies should give similar qualitative comparisons of risk factor effects if appropriately modeled. Longitudinal studies are likely to provide the most accurate and reliable estimates of lung function decline for both individuals and populations. Such data may be especially useful in identifying individuals with accelerated declines in lung function but who still have "normal" lung function as measured cross-sectionally. However, such studies require careful attention to quality control and typically require at least 4 years of follow-up before the noise in the data settles down. Multiple measurements, preferably four or more, are also necessary to reliably detect and adjust for survey effects. Cross-sectional studies, on the other hand, are simpler, cheaper, and quicker to conduct than are longitudinal studies. They may be particularly useful as a screening tool for identifying potentially affected or high-risk subjects (e.g., those with low levels of lung function) who may require further medical follow-up and/or ongoing monitoring. Both types of studies have a role in population-based occupational health hazard assessments.

  5. Detecting Neutrinos from AGN New Fluxes and Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G C

    1996-01-01

    New information on the structure of the nucleon from the HERA ep collider leads to higher neutrino cross sections for the processes nu_mu + N --> mu + X needed to calculate the expected rates of astrophysical neutrino induced muons in large detectors either under construction, or in the design stage. These higher cross sections lead to higher muon rates for arrival angles where neutrino attenuation in the earth is less important. On the other hand, new estimates of AGN neutrino fluxes suggest that the expected muon rates in these detectors may be much lower than previously calculated. I use the new cross sections to calculate the expected muon rates and angular distributions in large detectors for a variety of AGN models and compare these rates with the atmospheric neutrino backrounds (from both conventional decay channels and the "prompt" charmed meson decay channels). If the lowest flux estimates are correct, there may be diffculties in determining the origin of a small excess of muons, due to the large unc...

  6. Infrared Gluon Resummation and pp total cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Pancheri, Giulia; Grau, A; Shekhovtsova, O; Srivastava, Yogendra N

    2014-01-01

    We address here the problem of describing both the total and the elastic proton-proton cross-section, through the four outstanding features of hadron scattering: (i) the optical point; (ii) the forward peak, (iii) the dip and (iv) the subsequent descent at larger momentum transfers. These issues are discussed through an eikonal model for the elastic amplitude where the matter distribution in impact parameter space is given by resummed soft gluons down into the infrared (IR) region. The asymptotic growth of the total cross-section is obtained in a mini-jet model and the taming (saturation) at high energies is related to confinement realized here through an IR singular strong coupling constant alpha_s(Q^2). We present an ansatz that links the IR singularity of alpha_s(Q^2) to that of asymptotic freedom (AF) (at lowest order). Through this model, we illustrate the problems that arise in a generic one-channel eikonal model employed for a description of the measured differential elastic cross-section at LHC7.

  7. Measuring Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Sections without Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, L. A.; Schiller, A.; Cooper, J. R.; Hoffman, R. D.; McMahan, M. A.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Mitchell, G.; Tavukcu, E.; Guttormsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on radioactive nuclei play a significant role in nuclear astrophysics and many other applied nuclear physics topics. However, the majority of these cross sections are impossible to measure due to the high-background of the targets and the low-intensity of neutron beams. We have explored the possibility of using charged-particle transfer reactions to form the same "pre-compound" nucleus as one formed in a neutron-induced reaction in order to measure the relative decay probabilities of the nucleus as a function of energy. Multiplying these decay probabilities by the neutron absorption cross section will then produce the equivalent neutron-induced reaction cross section. In this presentation I will explore the validity of this "surrogate reaction" technique by comparing results from the recent 157Gd(3He,axng)156-xGd experiment using STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) at GAMMASPHERE with reaction model calculations for the 155Gd(n,xng)156-xGd. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts number W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL), AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and the Norwegian Research Council (Oslo).

  8. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Baglio, J; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Brein, O; Collins-Tooth, C; Dawson, S; Dean, S; Denner, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Grazzini, M; Hackstein, C; Hahn, T; Harlander, R; Hartonen, T; Heinemeyer, S; Huston, J; Kalinowski, A; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Lee, J S; Lehti, S; Maltoni, F; Mazumdar, K; Moch, S -O; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Nason, P; Neu, C; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilaftsis, A; Potter, C T; Puljak, I; Qian, J; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rzehak, H; Schumacher, M; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stöckli, F; Thorne, R S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Weiglein, G; Weydert, C; Yu, J; Zaro, M; Zirke, T

    2011-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the first 10 months' activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Sections Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the status-of-art on Higgs Physics at the LHC integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The Report is more than a mere collection of the proceedings of the general meetings. The subgroups have been working in different directions. An attempt has been made to present the first Report from these subgroups in a complete and homogeneous form. The subgroups' contributions correspondingly comprise the main parts of the Report. A significant amount of work has been performed in providing higher-order corrections to the Higgs-boson cross sections and pinning down the theoretical uncertainty of the Standard Model predictions. This Report comprises explicit numerical results on total cross sections, leaving the issues of event selection cuts and differential distributions to future publications. The subjects for further study a...

  9. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  10. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, S; et al.

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.

  11. Measuring the FSR-inclusive $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Gluza, J; Jadach, Stanislaw; Jegerlehner, F

    2003-01-01

    Final state radiation (FSR) in pion--pair production cannot be calculated reliably because of the composite structure of the pions. However, FSR corrections have to be taken into account for a precise evaluation of the hadronic contribution to g-2 of the muon. The role of FSR in both energy scan and radiative return experiments is discussed. It is shown how FSR influences the pion form factor extraction from experimental data and, as a consequence, the evaluation of a_mu^had. In fact the O(alpha) FSR corrections should be included to reach the precision we are aiming at. We argue that for an extraction of the desired FSR--inclusive cross section sigma^(gamma)_had a photon--inclusive scan measurement of the ``e+e- to pi+pi- + photons'' cross section is needed. For exclusive scan and radiative return measurements in contrast we have to rely on ad hoc FSR models if we want to obtain either sigma^(gamma)_had or the FSR--exclusive cross section sigma^(0)_had. We thus advocate to consider seriously precise photon--...

  12. Asymptotic Behaviour of Pion--Pion Total Cross--Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Greynat, David; Vulvert, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    We derive a sum rule which shows an inconsistency between the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient of the Froissart-Martin bound and well known properties of $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes in QCD. We next compute the total cross sections for $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$, $\\pi^{\\pm} \\pi^0$ and $\\pi^0 \\pi^0$ scattering within the framework of the constituent chiral quark model (C$\\chi$QM) in the limit of a large number of colours $\\mathrm{N_c}$ and discuss their asymptotic behaviours. The same $\\pi\\pi$ cross sections are also discussed within the general framework of Large-$\\mathrm{N_c}$ QCD and we show that it is possible to make an Ansatz for the isospin $I=1$ and $I=0$ spectrum which satisfy the Froissart-Martin bound with coefficients which, contrary to the Lukaszuk-Martin coefficient, are not singular in the chiral limit and have the correct Large-$\\mathrm{N_c}$ counting. We finally propose a simple phenomenological model which matches the low energy behaviours of the $\\sigma_{\\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^0}^{\\rm total}(s)$ cross section predicted by the C...

  13. Neutrino-Nucleus Cross Sections for Oscillation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations physics is entered in the precision era. In this context accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction of systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino-nucleus cross sections which in the hundreds-MeV to few-GeV energy region are known with a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of the neutrino-nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we overview general aspects of the neutrino-nucleus cross sections, both theoretical and experimental views. Then we focus on these quantities in different reaction channels. We start with the quasielastic and quasielastic-like cross section, putting a special emphasis on multinucleon emission channel which attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for th...

  14. Quenching of Cross Sections in Nucleon Transfer Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, B P; Freeman, S J

    2013-01-01

    Cross sections for proton knockout observed in (e,e'p) reactions are apparently quenched by a factor of ~0.5, an effect attributed to short-range correlations between nucleons. Here we demonstrate that such quenching is not restricted to proton knockout, but a more general phenomenon associated with any nucleon transfer. Measurements of absolute cross sections on a number of targets between 16O and 208Pb were analyzed in a consistent way, with the cross sections reduced to spectroscopic factors through the distorted-wave Born approximation with global optical potentials. Across the 124 cases analyzed here, induced by various proton- and neutron-transfer reactions and with angular momentum transfer l=0-7, the results are consistent with a quenching factor of 0.55. This is an apparently uniform quenching of single-particle motion in the nuclear medium. The effect is seen not only in (d,p) reactions but also in reactions with A=3 and 4 projectiles, when realistic wave functions are used for the projectiles.

  15. Activation Cross Sections Improvements needed for IFE Power Reactors Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A; Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; FalQuina, R; Latkowski, J; Reyes, S

    2003-10-02

    Uncertainties in the prediction of the neutron induced long-lived activity in the natural elements from H to Bi due to activation cross section uncertainties are estimated assuming as neutron environment those of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero vessel structures. The latest available activation cross section data are employed. The random variables used in the uncertainty analysis have been the concentration limits (CL's) corresponding to hands-on recycling, remote recycling and shallow land burial, quantities typically considered in ranking elements under waste management considerations. The CL standard value (CL{sub nom}), i.e. without uncertainties, is compared with the 95th percentile CL value (CL95). The results of the analysis are very helpful in assessing the quality of the current activation data for IFE applications, providing a rational basis for programmatic priority assignments for new cross sections measurements or evaluations. The HYLIFE-II results shown that a significant error is estimated in predicting the activation of several elements. The estimated errors in the Sombrero case are much less important.

  16. Origami tubes with reconfigurable polygonal cross-sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, E T; Paulino, G H; Tachi, T

    2016-01-01

    Thin sheets can be assembled into origami tubes to create a variety of deployable, reconfigurable and mechanistically unique three-dimensional structures. We introduce and explore origami tubes with polygonal, translational symmetric cross-sections that can reconfigure into numerous geometries. The tubular structures satisfy the mathematical definitions for flat and rigid foldability, meaning that they can fully unfold from a flattened state with deformations occurring only at the fold lines. The tubes do not need to be straight and can be constructed to follow a non-linear curved line when deployed. The cross-section and kinematics of the tubular structures can be reprogrammed by changing the direction of folding at some folds. We discuss the variety of tubular structures that can be conceived and we show limitations that govern the geometric design. We quantify the global stiffness of the origami tubes through eigenvalue and structural analyses and highlight the mechanical characteristics of these systems. The two-scale nature of this work indicates that, from a local viewpoint, the cross-sections of the polygonal tubes are reconfigurable while, from a global viewpoint, deployable tubes of desired shapes are achieved. This class of tubes has potential applications ranging from pipes and micro-robotics to deployable architecture in buildings.

  17. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1¯10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties.

  18. Final combined deep inelastic scattering cross sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, M

    2016-01-01

    The combination is presented of all inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross sections previously published by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations at HERA for neutral and charged current $ep$ scattering for zero beam polarisation. The data were taken at proton beam energies of 920, 820, 575 and 460 GeV and an electron beam energy of 27.5 GeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb$^{-1}$ and span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, $Q^2$, and Bjorken $x$. The correlations of the systematic uncertainties were evaluated and taken into account for the combination. The combined cross sections were input to QCD analyses at leading order, next-to-leading order and at next-to-next-to-leading order, providing a new set of parton distribution functions, called HERAPDF2.0. Additionally, the inclusion of jet-production cross sections made a simultaneous and precise determination of parton distributions and the strong coupling constant possible. Brief highlights of the re...

  19. Photosensitizer-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles with high cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimland, Jennifer L; Wu, Changfeng; Ramoutar, Ria R; Brumaghim, Julia L; McNeill, Jason

    2011-04-01

    We report a novel nanoparticle that is promising for photodynamic therapy applications, which consists of a π-conjugated polymer doped with a singlet oxygen photosensitizer. The nanoparticles exhibit highly efficient collection of excitation light due to the large excitation cross-section of the polymer. A quantum efficiency of singlet oxygen production of 0.5 was determined. Extraordinarily large two-photon excitation cross-sections were determined, indicating promise for near infrared multiphoton photodynamic therapy. Gel electrophoresis of DNA after near-UV irradiation in the presence of nanoparticles indicated both purine base and backbone DNA damage.

  20. Re/Os cosmochronometer: measurement of neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosconi, M.

    2007-12-21

    This experimental work is devoted to the improved assessment of the Re/Os cosmochronometer. The dating technique is based on the decay of {sup 187}Re (t{sub 1/2}=41.2 Gyr) into {sup 187}Os and determines the age of the universe by the time of onset of nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis mechanisms, which are responsible for the {sup 187}Re/{sup 187}Os pair, provide the possibility to identify the radiogenic fraction of {sup 187}Os exclusively by nuclear physics considerations. Apart from its radiogenic component, {sup 187}Os can be synthesized otherwise only by the s process, which means that this missing fraction can be reliably determined and subtracted by proper s-process modeling. On the other hand, {sup 187}Re is almost completely produced by the r process. The only information needed for the interpretation as a cosmic clock is the production rate of {sup 187}Re as a function of time. The accuracy of the s-process calculations that are needed to determine the nucleosynthetic abundance of {sup 187}Os depends on the quality of the neutron capture cross sections averaged over the thermal neutron spectrum at the s-process sites. Laboratory measurements of these cross sections have to be corrected for the effect of nuclear levels, which can be significantly populated at the high stellar temperatures during the s process. The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os and {sup 188}Os have been measured at the CERN n TOF facility in the range between 0.7 eV and 1 MeV. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections have been determined for thermal energies from 5 to 100 keV with an accuracy around 4%, 3%, and 5% for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os, respectively. Since, the first excited state in {sup 187}Os occurs at 9.75 keV, the cross section of this isotope requires a substantial correction for thermal population of low lying nuclear levels. This effect has been evaluated on the basis of resonance data derived in the (n, {gamma

  1. From ZZ to ZH : How Low Can These Cross Sections Go or Everybody, Let's Cross Section Limbo!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Emanuel Alexandre [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2009-08-01

    We report on two searches performed at the D0 detector at the Fermi National Laboratory. The first is a search for Z di-boson production with a theoretical cross section of 1.4 pb. The search was performed on 2.6 fb-1 of data and contributed to the first observation of ZZ production at a hadron collider. The second is a search for a low mass Standard Model Higgs in 4.2 fb-1 of data. The Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson where the Higgs decays hadronically and the Z decays to two leptons. The ZZ search was performed in both the di-electron and di-muon channels. For the ZH search, we will focus on the muonic decays where we expanded the traditional coverage by considering events in which one of the two muons fails the selection requirement, and is instead reconstructed as an isolated track. We consider Higgs masses between 100 and 150 GeV, with theoretical cross sections ranging from 0.17 to 0.042 pb, and set upper limits on the ZH production cross-section at 95% confidence level.

  2. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties Report of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Andersen, J R; Artoisenet, P; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Becher, T; Bernlochner, F U; Bolognesi, S; Bolzoni, P; Boughezal, R; Buarque, D; Campbell, J; Caola, F; Carena, M; Cascioli, F; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Choi, S Y; David, A; de Aquino, P; Degrassi, G; Del Re, D; Denner, A; van Deurzen, H; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Dittmaier, S; Dührssen, M; Ellis, R K; Ferrera, G; Fidanza, N; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Frederix, R; Frixione, S; Gangal, S; Gao, Y; Garzelli, M V; Gillberg, D; Govoni, P; Grazzini, M; Greiner, N; Griffiths, J; Gritsan, A V; Grojean, C; Hall, D C; Hays, C; Harlander, R; Hernandez-Pinto, R; Höche, S; Huston, J; Jubb, T; Kadastik, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kashif, L; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Klees, R; Krämer, M; Krauss, F; Laureys, A; Laurila, S; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Liebler, S; Liu, X; Logan, E; Luisoni, G; Malberti, M; Maltoni, F; Mawatari, K; Maierhoefer, F; Mantler, H; Martin, S; Mastrolia, P; Mattelaer, O; Mazzitelli, J; Mellado, B; Melnikov, K; Meridiani, P; Miller, D J; Mirabella, E; Moch, S O; Monni, P; Moretti, N; Mück, A; Mühlleitner, M; Musella, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Neubert, M; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Ossola, G; Peraro, T; Peters, K; Petriello, F; Piacquadio, G; Potter, C T; Pozzorini, S; Prokofiev, K; Puljak, I; Rauch, M; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rietkerk, R; Rizzi, A; Rotstein-Habarnau, Y; Salam, G P; Sborlini, G; Schissler, F; Schönherr, M; Schulze, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Smillie, J M; Stål, O; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J F; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Tackmann, F J; Taylor, P T E; Tommasini, D; Thompson, J; Thorne, R S; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Tran, N V; Trócsányi, Z; Ubiali, M; Vazquez Acosta, M; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Wagner, C; Walsh, J R; Wang, J; Weiglein, G; Whitbeck, A; Williams, C; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G; Zanetti, M; Zaro, M; Zerwas, P M; Zhang, C; Zirke, T J E; Zuberi, S

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered p...

  3. Theoretical investigation of energy deposition and electron capture cross-sections for helium ion impact on formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 62251 (Mexico); Sabin, John R. [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)]. E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu; Deumens, Erik [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States); Ohrn, Yngve [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611-8435 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The subject of the work presented here is related to damage caused by energetic, charged particle radiation such as electrons, protons, and alpha particles to prebiotic matter such as that found in interstellar space. The calculations are carried out using an all electron, all nuclei, scheme that explicitly treats the electron-nuclear coupling. We present results for the no-capture, as well as the single and double electron capture probabilities, as well as for the 1s and 2l (l = s, p) contributions to the electron capture cross-sections of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles on formaldehyde molecules. We find that the summed cross-section peaks at 10 keV/amu, and has a plateau between 0.1 and 1 keV/amu. We also present preliminary results for the nuclear, ro-vibrational and electronic stopping cross-section. We find a large contribution to the electronic stopping cross-section and a maximum shifted towards higher energies in the nuclear stopping cross-section, when compared to SRIM results. We interpret this to be a consequence of molecular bonding.

  4. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections in JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Shibata, Keiichi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu [CRC Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Neutron cross sections of 337 nuclides in JENDL-3.3 are presented in figures and tables. In the tables, shown are cross sections at 0.0253 eV and 14 MeV, Maxwellian average cross sections (kT = 0.0253 eV), resonance integrals and fission spectrum average cross sections. The average cross sections calculated with typical reactor spectra are also tabulated. The numbers of delayed and total neutrons per fission are given in figures. (author)

  5. Neutron Cross Section Covariances for Structural Materials and Fission Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoblit, S.; Cho, Y.-S.; Herman, M.; Mattoon, C. M.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Obložinský, P.; Pigni, M. T.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe neutron cross section covariances for 78 structural materials and fission products produced for the new US evaluated nuclear reaction library ENDF/B-VII.1. Neutron incident energies cover full range from 10 eV to 20 MeV and covariances are primarily provided for capture, elastic and inelastic scattering as well as (n,2n). The list of materials follows priorities defined by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the major application being data adjustment for advanced fast reactor systems. Thus, in addition to 28 structural materials and 49 fission products, the list includes also 23Na which is important fast reactor coolant. Due to extensive amount of materials, we adopted a variety of methodologies depending on the priority of a specific material. In the resolved resonance region we primarily used resonance parameter uncertainties given in Atlas of Neutron Resonances and either applied the kernel approximation to propagate these uncertainties into cross section uncertainties or resorted to simplified estimates based on integral quantities. For several priority materials we adopted MF32 covariances produced by SAMMY at ORNL, modified by us by adding MF33 covariances to account for systematic uncertainties. In the fast neutron region we resorted to three methods. The most sophisticated was EMPIRE-KALMAN method which combines experimental data from EXFOR library with nuclear reaction modeling and least-squares fitting. The two other methods used simplified estimates, either based on the propagation of nuclear reaction model parameter uncertainties or on a dispersion analysis of central cross section values in recent evaluated data files. All covariances were subject to quality assurance procedures adopted recently by CSEWG. In addition, tools were developed to allow inspection of processed covariances and computed integral quantities, and for comparing these values to data from the Atlas and the astrophysics database KADoNiS.

  6. Neutron Cross Section Covariances for Structural Materials and Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoblit, S.; Hoblit,S.; Cho,Y.-S.; Herman,M.; Mattoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Oblozinsky,P.; Pigni,M.T.; Sonzogni,A.A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe neutron cross section covariances for 78 structural materials and fission products produced for the new US evaluated nuclear reaction library ENDF/B-VII.1. Neutron incident energies cover full range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV and covariances are primarily provided for capture, elastic and inelastic scattering as well as (n,2n). The list of materials follows priorities defined by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the major application being data adjustment for advanced fast reactor systems. Thus, in addition to 28 structural materials and 49 fission products, the list includes also {sup 23}Na which is important fast reactor coolant. Due to extensive amount of materials, we adopted a variety of methodologies depending on the priority of a specific material. In the resolved resonance region we primarily used resonance parameter uncertainties given in Atlas of Neutron Resonances and either applied the kernel approximation to propagate these uncertainties into cross section uncertainties or resorted to simplified estimates based on integral quantities. For several priority materials we adopted MF32 covariances produced by SAMMY at ORNL, modified by us by adding MF33 covariances to account for systematic uncertainties. In the fast neutron region we resorted to three methods. The most sophisticated was EMPIRE-KALMAN method which combines experimental data from EXFOR library with nuclear reaction modeling and least-squares fitting. The two other methods used simplified estimates, either based on the propagation of nuclear reaction model parameter uncertainties or on a dispersion analysis of central cross section values in recent evaluated data files. All covariances were subject to quality assurance procedures adopted recently by CSEWG. In addition, tools were developed to allow inspection of processed covariances and computed integral quantities, and for comparing these values to data from the Atlas and the astrophysics database KADoNiS.

  7. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kwangzoo [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  8. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  9. Validation of minor actinides fission neutron cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Verification of neutron fission cross-sections of minor actinides from some recently available evaluated nuclear data libraries was carried out by comparison of the reaction rates calculated by the MCNP6.1 computer code to the experimental values. The experimental samples, containing thin layers of 235U, 237Np, 238,239,240,241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, and 247Cm, deposited on metal support and foils of 235U (pseudo-alloy 27Al + 235U, 238U, natIn, 64Zn, 27Al, and multi-component sample alloy 27Al + 55Mn + natCu + natLu + 197Au, were irradiated in the channels of the tank containing fluorine salts 0.52NaF + 0.48ZrF4, labelled as the Micromodel Salt Blanket, inserted in the lattice centre of the MAKET heavy water critical assembly at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. This paper is a continuation of earlier initiated scientific-research activities carried out for validation of the evaluated fission cross-sections of actinides that were supposed to be used for the quality examination of the fuel design of the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors, and consequently, determination of transmutation rates of actinides, and therefore, determination of operation parameters of these reactor facilities. These scientific-research activities were carried out within a frame of scientific projects supported by the International Science and Technology Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency co-ordinated research activities, from 1999 to 2010. Obtained results confirm that further research is needed in evaluations in order to establish better neutron cross-section data for the minor actinides and selected nuclides which could be used in the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors.

  10. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroğlu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-02-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH3-CH2-CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750-3300 cm-1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm-1 and at seven different pressures (4-33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde.

  11. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  12. Acoustic propagation in ducts with varying cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Telionis, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to derive the equations that describe the spatial and temporal variation of the amplitudes and phases of a wave packet propagating in slowly varying hard-walled or lined ducts. The analysis is carried out for rectangular as well as circular ducts. These equations are statements of the conservation of energy. For large admittance or high-frequency modes, an approximate expression is obtained for the attenuation. This expression shows that all possible acoustic modes are attenuating. The results also show that decreasing the cross sectional area can lead to elimination of some of the acoustic modes.

  13. Total cross sections for pion charge exchange on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, J.

    2006-04-28

    This work describes the measurement of total SCX cross sections employing a new 4{pi} scintillation counter to perform transmission measurements in the incident pion energy range from about 38 to 250 MeV. A small 4{pi} detector box consisting of thin plastic scintillators has been constructed. The transmission technique, which was used, relates the number of transmitted charged pions to that of incident beam pions and this way effectively counts events with neutral products. The incoming negative pions were counted by three beam defining counters before they hit a target of very well known size and chemical composition. The target was placed in the box detector which was not sensitive to the neutral particles resulting from the SCX. The total cross section for emerging neutral particles was derived from the comparison of the numbers of the incoming and transmitted charged particles. The total SCX cross section on hydrogen was derived from the transmissions of a CH{sub 2} target, a carbon target and an empty target. For a detailed offline analysis all TDC, QDC and FADC information was recorded in an event by event mode for each triggered beam event. Various corrections had to be applied to the data, such as random correction, the detection of neutrals in the detector, Dalitz decay, pion decay and the radiative pion capture. This measurement covers, as the only experiment, the whole {delta}-resonance and the sp-interference region in one single experimental setup and improves the available data base for the SCX reaction. It is shown that the description of the SCX cross sections is improved if the s-wave amplitudes, that have been fixed essentially by elastic pion-nucleon scattering data, is reduced by (4{+-}1.5)%. The exact value depends on the SCX literature data included and on the parameters of the {delta}{sup 0} Breit-Wigner resonance describing the p{sub 33}-waves. This shows that p-wave as well as s-wave effects should be considered in studies of isospin

  14. Inelastic proton cross-section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Myska, Miroslav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Poster describes the recent measurement of the inelastic cross-section at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector, extracted with independent measurements of the rate of inelastic collisions and the LHC luminosity. The result of 79.3 $\\pm$ 2.9 mb has been obtained after extrapolation to the full phase space and is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. In addition, the fraction of diffractive events is measured using two event selections. The low-luminosity data of total integrated luminosity of 60.1 $\\mu b^{-1}$ recorded in June 2016 was used.

  15. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  16. Scattering cross section of metal catalyst atoms in silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Cartoixa, X.

    2010-01-01

    A common technique to fabricate silicon nanowires is to use metal particles (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu, Al) to catalyze the growth reaction. As a consequence, the fabricated nanowires contain small concentrations of these metals as impurities. In this work we investigate the effect of the metallic...... strength of the different metal atoms. We find that Au, Ag, and Cu impurities have very similar scattering cross sections, while Al differs from the rest. Impurities located in the center of the wires scatter significantly more than impurities close to or at the surface. The results for nanowires...

  17. Cross-sectional Imaging Review of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anant; Kaza, Ravi K; Vummidi, Dharshan R

    2016-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem, genetic disorder characterized by development of hamartomas in the brain, abdomen, and thorax. It results from a mutation in one of 2 tumor suppressor genes that activates the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. This article discusses the origins of the disorder, the recently updated criteria for the diagnosis of TSC, and the cross-sectional imaging findings and recommendations for surveillance. Familiarity with the diverse radiological features facilitates diagnosis and helps in treatment planning and monitoring response to treatment of this multisystem disorder.

  18. Differential Cross Section and Polarization of Radiative Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ze-Qing; LI Yue-Ming; DUAN Bin; ZHANG Hong; YAN Jun

    2009-01-01

    The formulae of photon angular distribution and polarization degree for radiative recombination are presented to include the contribution of multipoles and their correlations.A fully relativistic code is then developed to calculate the photon angular distribution and polarization.The calculated polarization degree and differential cross-sections agree well with that of Scofild's results within 10%.The effects of multipoles on polarization and angular distribution are investigated.The polarization and the angular distribution become asymmetric when the multipoles are accounted as the electron energy increases.

  19. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis.

  20. Phenomenological dirac optical potential for neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichi; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Because of limitation on neutron-incident data, it is difficult to obtain global optical model potential for neutrons. In contrast, there are some global optical model potentials for proton in detail. It is interesting to convert the proton-incident global optical potentials into neutron-incident ones. In this study we introduce (N-Z)/A dependent symmetry potential terms into the global proton-incident optical potentials, and then obtain neutron-incident ones. The neutron potentials reproduce total cross sections in an acceptable degree. However, a comparison with potentials proposed by other authors brings about a confused situation in the sign of the symmetry terms. (author)

  1. Positronium beam production and scattering cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Dawn Elizabeth

    In this work, the efficiency for the production of a monoenergetic positronium beam via the charge-exchange reaction of a positron beam in a gaseous target has been determined for molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen. In the case of molecular nitrogen, it has been found that the energy range over which a useful intensity of collimated positronium may be produced can be extended to 250eV, 100eV higher than previously achieved. This should enable measurements of the total and partial positronium cross-sections at correspondingly higher energies, where target inelastic effects are expected to be significant A recent measurement of the integrated positronium formation cross-section for xenon found a larger yield of positronium atoms compared to the other noble gases. A shoulder was also seen 10eV above the peak and it was suggested that this might be due to the production of positronium in an excited state. These findings have provided an incentive to investigate the collimated positronium production efficiency from xenon, which has been found to be surprisingly low. The quantum state of the beam atoms has also been found to be dominantly ground state. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed Total cross-sections for positronium-gas scattering have been extracted from the measurements of the positronium beam production efficiency for both molecular nitrogen and xenon. These quantities have also been determined directly by measuring the intensity of the positronium beam transmitted through a gas cell via the Beer-Lambert Law. A good consistency is found between the values obtained using this method and those determined indirectly. Recently, measurements have been made of the absolute integrated cross-section for the fragmentation of positronium in collision with helium atoms, along with the longitudinal energy distributions of the residual positrons in the energy range -Ep/=13-33eV. Measurements of the latter indicate a peak close to half the residual

  2. WW production cross section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Baishali; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurement of $W^{+}W^{-}$ production process empowers our understanding of Standard Model and also probes new physics phenomena at higher energies. This talk presents the total and fiducial cross section measurement of $W^{+}W^{-}$ process at a centre-of-energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2015. The events are selected in the leptonic decay channel i.e both W decaying into two leptons (electrons, muons) and associated missing transverse momentum.

  3. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    James, G D; Michaudon, A; Michaudon, A; Cierjacks, S W; Chrien, R E

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Fission and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross-Sections is the first volume in a series on Neutron Physics and Nuclear Data in Science and Technology. This volume serves the purpose of providing a thorough description of the many facets of neutron physics in different fields of nuclear applications. This book also attempts to bridge the communication gap between experts involved in the experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear properties and those involved in the technological applications of nuclear data. This publication will be invaluable to those interested in studying nuclear fis

  4. Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, B.Y.; Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, K.

    2013-01-01

    The cross section of stock returns has substantial exposure to risk captured by higher moments of market returns. We estimate these moments from daily Standard & Poor's 500 index option data. The resulting time series of factors are genuinely conditional and forward-looking. Stocks with high...... exposure to innovations in implied market skewness exhibit low returns on average. The results are robust to various permutations of the empirical setup. The market skewness risk premium is statistically and economically significant and cannot be explained by other common risk factors such as the market...... excess return or the size, book-to-market, momentum, and market volatility factors, or by firm characteristics....

  5. Semi-inclusive jet cross sections within SCET

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We review the definition of semi-inclusive jet functions within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and their application to inclusive jet cross sections. As an example, we consider both the inclusive production of jets and the jet fragmentation function in proton-proton collisions. The semi-inclusive jet functions satisfy renormalization group (RG) equations which take the form of standard timelike DGLAP evolution equations, analogous to collinear fragmentation functions. By solving these RG equations, the resummation of potentially large single logarithms $(\\alpha_s \\ln R)^n$ can be achieved. We present numerical results at NLO+NLL$_R$ accuracy and compare to existing data from the LHC.

  6. Neutron halo in 14B studied via reaction cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction cross sections (σR for the neutron-rich nucleus 14B on Be, C, and Al targets have been measured at several energies in the intermediate energy range of 45–120 MeV/nucleon. The present experimental σR show a significant enhancement relative to the systematics of stable nuclei. The nucleon density distribution was deduced through the fitting procedure with the modified Glauber calculation. The necessity of a long tail in the density distribution was found, which is consistent with the valence neutron in 2s1/2 orbital with the small empirical one-neutron separation energy in 14B.

  7. Truncated cross-sectional average length of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Guillot, Michel

    2015-01-01

    of developed countries. The truncated cross-sectional average length of life (TCAL) is a new measure that captures historical information about all cohorts present at a given moment and is not limited to countries with complete cohort mortality data. The value of TCAL depends on the rates used to complete...... the cohort series, but differences between TCALs of two populations remain similar irrespective of the data used to complete the cohort series. This result is illustrated by a comparison of TCALs for the US with those for Denmark, Japan, and other high-longevity countries. Specific cohorts that account...

  8. Experimental Investigation Of Polymeric Compound Cross Section Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayas Al-Mahasne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the characteristic of the compound cross section springs on models made from polymeric materials (organic glass. Two constructive variants of the compound spring sections were specified with the help of criteria of similarity. The criterion of similarity of natural and model springs was determined by the simulation method at particular spring deflection. The problem of simulation was brought to accurate determination of the magnitudes that characterize the physical and mechanical properties of materials for natural and model springs. It was experimentally proved that the use of the proposed new type of springs significantly increases the spring stiffness.

  9. Fission cross section calculations of actinides with EMPIRE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman,M.; Capote,R.

    2010-04-30

    The cross sections of the neutron induced reactions on {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am, {sup 242,246}Cm carried out in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV with EMPIRE code are presented, emphasizing the fission channel. Beside a consistent, accurate set of evaluations, the paper contains arguments supporting the choice of the reaction models and input parameters. A special attention is paid to the fission parameters and their uncertainties.

  10. Measurement of Beauty Particle Lifetimes and Hadroproduction Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an experimental search for beauty particles produced in fixed target hadronic interactions. The essential feature of the proposed experimental technique is the use of two specially designed pieces of hardware~-~a high precision ``decay detector'' and a fast secondary vertex trigger processor. If these devices perform to our expectations, we should be able to obtain sufficient data sample to address several important physics issues, including measurements of the lifetimes of charged and neutral B~mesons, the B~hadroproduction cross-section, and possibly B$^0$- $ \\bar{B} ^0 $ mixing.

  11. Double differential cross sections in e{sup -}-H ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, T.S.C. [Thoubal Coll., Manipur (India). Dept. of Physics; Singh, N.R. [S K Women`s Coll., Nambol, Manipur (India). Dept. of Physics; Deb, N.C. [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Babuyaima, M.; Mazumdar, P.S. [Manipur Univ., Canchipur (India). Dept. of Physics

    1995-10-14

    Double differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen have been studied within the framework of the distorted wave approximation which takes account of the effect of initial and final channel distortion. The incident energies considered are 40 eV, 100 eV and 250 eV and the ejected electron energies are 5 eV, 13.2 eV and 15 eV. The present results ar compared with the experimental as well as with available theoretical results and it is found that, except at lower ejection angles, the agreement between our results and the measured values is fair. (author).

  12. Proton-deuteron radiative capture cross sections at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, A A; Amir-Ahmadi, H R; Bacelar, J C S; Berg, A M van den; Castelijns, R; van Garderen, E D; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kiš, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J G; Wörtche, H J

    2011-01-01

    Differential cross sections of the reaction $p(d,^3{\\rm He})\\gamma$ have been measured at deuteron laboratory energies of 110, 133 and 180 MeV. The data were obtained with a coincidence setup measuring both the outgoing $^3$He and the photon. The data are compared with modern calculations including all possible meson-exchange currents and two- and three- nucleon forces in the potential. The data clearly show a preference for one of the models, although the shape of the angular distribution cannot be reproduced by any of the presented models.

  13. Thermal neutron cross-section libraries for aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantargi, F.; Granada, J. R.

    2010-08-01

    Solid phases of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture by volume of mesitylene and toluene, were studied as potential moderator materials for a cold neutron source. Existing information on the (lattice) translational and rotational modes of the different molecular species was used to produce generalized frequency spectra; the latter included the internal vibrational modes which in turn involved the analysis of the weights of the different modes. Cross-section libraries were generated in ENDF and ACE formats for hydrogen bounded in those materials at several temperatures, and were used in Monte Carlo calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with standard cryogenic materials like liquid hydrogen and solid methane, the best moderators in terms of cold neutron production. In particular, cross-section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. It was found that those aromatic hydrocarbons produce neutron spectra which are slightly warmer than that of solid methane while presenting a high resistance to radiation, conforming in this way a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials.

  14. CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR ENDF/B-VII.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERMAN, M.; ROCHMAN, D.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2006-06-05

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on neutron cross section evaluations for ENDF/B-VII (April 2005-May 2006). The purpose of the contract was to ensure seamless integration of the LANL neutron cross section evaluations in the new ENDF/B-VII library. The following work was performed: (1) LANL evaluated data files submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII were checked and, when necessary, formal formatting errors were corrected. As a consequence, ENDF checking codes, run on all LANL files, do not report any errors that would rise concern. (2) LANL dosimetry evaluations for {sup 191}Ir and {sup 193}Ir were completed to match ENDF requirements for the general purpose library suitable for transport calculations. A set of covariances for both isotopes is included in the ENDF files. (3) Library of fission products was assembled and successfully tested with ENDF checking codes, processed with NJOY-99.125 and simple MCNP calculations. (4) KALMAN code has been integrated with the EMPIRE system to allow estimation of covariances based on the combination of measurements and model calculations. Covariances were produced for 155,157-Gd and also for 6 remaining isotopes of Gd.

  15. Double-Differential Cross Section of 5He Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yu-Liang; DUAN Jun-Feng; ZHANG Jing-Shang; XU Guang

    2005-01-01

    The probability of 5He particle emission has been affirmed theoretically [J.S. Zhang, Science in China G47 (2004) 137]. In order to describe the 5He emission, the theoretical formula of the double-differential cross section of emitted 5He is to be established. Based on the pick-up mechanism, used for calculating the formula of d, t, 3He, α emissions, the theoretical formula of double-differential cross section of 5 He is obtained, which is expressed in the form of Legendre coefficients. In the case of low incident energies, the configuration [J.S. Zhang, Science in China G47 (2004)137; J.S. Zhang, Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 39 (2003) 83] is the dominant part in the reaction processes.The calculated result indicates that the forward peaked angular distribution of the composite particle emission is weaker than that of the emitted single nucleon due to pick-up nucleon from the Fermi sea. As an example, the reactions of n + 14N have been calculated, and the Legendre coefficients of d, t, 3He, α, 5He emissions are obtained respectively.The results show that the forward tendency is decided by the average momentum per nucleon in the emitted composite particles. The larger the average momentum is, the stronger the forward tendency is.

  16. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, Carolyn [Texas A& M University; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  17. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasson, O.A.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction measurements for the US Department of Energy nuclear programs which include waste disposal, fusion, safeguards, defense, fission, and personnel protection. These measurements are also useful to other energy programs which indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. The work includes the measurement of reference cross sections and related neutron data employing unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; the preservation of standard reference deposits and the development of improved neutron detectors and measurement methods. A related and essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the third year of this three-year interagency agreement. The proposed program and required budget for the following three years are also presented. The program continues the shifts in priority instituted in order to broaden the program base.

  18. Rosenbluth Separation of the π0 Electroproduction Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M.; Mazouz, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Desnault, C.; Deur, A.; El Fassi, L.; Ent, R.; Flay, D.; Friend, M.; Fuchey, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Horn, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Iqbal, S.; Itard, F.; Kang, Ho.; Kang, Hy.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Magne, M.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nuruzzaman, N.; Paremuzyan, R.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Rashad, M. N. H.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Russo, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sperduto, M. L.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yao, H.; Ye, Z.; Zana, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We present deeply virtual π0 electroproduction cross-section measurements at xB=0.36 and three different Q2 values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV 2 , obtained from Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E07-007. The Rosenbluth technique is used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component and, thus, is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Nonetheless, an indication of a nonzero longitudinal contribution is provided by the measured interference term σL T. Results are compared with several models based on the leading-twist approach of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models in which the scattering amplitude includes convolution terms of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. This experiment, together with previous extensive unseparated measurements, provides strong support to the exciting idea that transversity GPDs can be accessed via neutral pion electroproduction in the high-Q2 regime.

  19. Rosenbluth separation of the $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Defurne, M; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; Fassi, L El; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Jimenez-Arguello, A Marti; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabati, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zafar, A; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2016-01-01

    We present deeply virtual $\\pi^0$ electroproduction cross-section measurements at $x_B$=0.36 and three different $Q^2$--values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV$^2$, obtained from experiment E07-007 that ran in the Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The Rosenbluth technique was used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component, and thus is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. An indication of a non-zero longitudinal contribution is provided by the interference term $\\sigma_{LT}$ also measured. Results are compared with several models based on the leading twist approach of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models where the scattering amplitude is described by a convolution of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. Therefore, neutral pion electroproduction may offer the exciting possibil...

  20. Measuring astrophysically relevant 36Cl production cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tyler; Skulski, Michael; Ostdiek, Karen; Lu, Wenting; Clark, Adam; Nelson, Austin; Beard, Mary; Collon, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 36Cl (t1 / 2 = 0 . 301 Ma) is known to have existed in the Early Solar System (ESS), and evaluating its production sources can lead to better understanding of the processes taking place in ESS formation and their timescales. The X-wind model is used to explain 36Cl production via solar energetic particles from the young Sun, but is lacking empirical data for many relevant reactions. Bowers et al. (2013) measured the 33S(α,p)36Cl cross section at various energies in the range of 0.70-2.42 MeV/A, and found them to be systematically under predicted by Hauser-Feshbach statistical model codes TALYS and NON-SMOKER, highlighting the need for more empirical data for these cross sections. Recent results of the re-measurement of the 33S(α,p)36Cl reaction, providing greater coverage of the same energy range as Bowers et al., will be presented. Future plans for measurement of other 36Cl producing reactions will also be discussed.

  1. Numerical calculation of charge exchange cross sections for plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The diagnostics of impurity density and temperature in the plasma core in tokamak plasmas is carried out by applying the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) technique, where a fast beam of H atoms collides with the plasma particles leading to electron capture reactions with the impurity ions. The diagnostics is based on the emission of the excited ions formed in the electron capture. The application of the CXRS requires the knowledge of accurate state-selective cross sections, which in general are not accessible experimentally, and the calculation of cross sections for the high n capture levels, required for the diagnostics in the intermediate energy domain of the probe beam, is particularly difficult. In this work, we present a lattice numerical method to solve the time dependent Schrödinger equation. The method is based on the GridTDSE package, it is applicable in the wide energy range 1 - 500 keV/u and can be used to assess the accuracy of previous calculations. The application of the method will be illustrated with calculations for collisions of multiply charged ions with H. Work partially supported by project ENE2014-52432-R (Secretaria de Estado de I+D+i, Spain).

  2. Neutron Scattering Differential Cross Sections for 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Stephen T.; Hicks, S. F.; Nickel, M. T.; Block, S. G.; Peters, E. E.; Ramirez, A. P. D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    Because of the prevalence of its use in the nuclear energy industry and for our overall understanding of the interactions of neutrons with matter, accurately determining the effects of fast neutrons scattering from 12C is important. Previously measured 12C inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections found in the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) show significant discrepancies (>30%). Seeking to resolve these discrepancies, neutron inelastic and elastic scattering differential cross sections for 12C were measured at the University of Kentucky Acceleratory Laboratory for incident neutron energies of 5.58, 5.83, and 6.04 MeV. Quasi mono-energetic neutrons were scattered off an enriched 12C target (>99.99%) and detected by a C6D6 liquid scintillation detector. Time-of-flight (TOF) techniques were used to determine scattered neutron energies and allowed for elastic/inelastic scattering distinction. Relative detector efficiencies were determined through direct measurements of neutrons produced by the 2H(d,n) and 3H(p,n) source reactions, and absolute normalization factors were found by comparing 1H scattering measurements to accepted NNDC values. This experimental procedure has been successfully used for prior neutron scattering measurements and seems well-suited to our current objective. Significant challenges were encountered, however, with measuring the neutron detector efficiency over the broad incident neutron energy range required for these measurements. Funding for this research was provided by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  3. Alveolar echinococcosis: spectrum of findings at cross-sectional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Karabulut, Nevzat; Aydinli, Bulent; Ogul, Hayri; Yuce, Ihsan; Calik, Muhammet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Oto, Aytekin

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, which is endemic in many parts of the world. Without timely diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is dismal, with death the eventual outcome in most cases. Diagnosis is usually based on findings at radiologic imaging and in serologic analyses. Because echinococcal lesions can occur almost anywhere in the body, familiarity with the spectrum of cross-sectional imaging appearances is advantageous. Echinococcal lesions may produce widely varied imaging appearances depending on the parasite's growth stage, the tissues or organs affected, and the presence of associated complications. Although the liver is the initial site of mass infestation by E multilocularis, the parasite may disseminate from there to other organs and tissues, such as the lung, heart, brain, bones, and ligaments. In severe infestations, the walls of the bile ducts and blood vessels may be invaded. Disseminated parasitic lesions in unusual locations with atypical imaging appearances may make it difficult to narrow the differential diagnosis. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with standard and diffusion-weighted sequences, and MR cholangiopancreatography all provide useful information and play complementary roles in detecting and characterizing echinococcal lesions. Cross-sectional imaging is crucial for differentiating echinococcosis from malignant processes: CT is most useful for depicting the peripheral calcifications surrounding established echinococcal cysts, and MR imaging is most helpful for identifying echinococcosis of the central nervous system.

  4. Validation of elastic cross section models for space radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Xu, X.; Norman, R. B.; Ford, W. P.; Maung, K. M.

    2017-02-01

    The space radiation field is composed of energetic particles that pose both acute and long-term risks for astronauts in low earth orbit and beyond. In order to estimate radiation risk to crew members, the fluence of particles and biological response to the radiation must be known at tissue sites. Given that the spectral fluence at the boundary of the shielding material is characterized, radiation transport algorithms may be used to find the fluence of particles inside the shield and body, and the radio-biological response is estimated from experiments and models. The fidelity of the radiation spectrum inside the shield and body depends on radiation transport algorithms and the accuracy of the nuclear cross sections. In a recent study, self-consistent nuclear models based on multiple scattering theory that include the option to study relativistic kinematics were developed for the prediction of nuclear cross sections for space radiation applications. The aim of the current work is to use uncertainty quantification to ascertain the validity of the models as compared to a nuclear reaction database and to identify components of the models that can be improved in future efforts.

  5. Precise top quark cross-section results at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The measurements of the inclusive $t\\bar{t}$ cross section is presented for proton-proton collisions recorded at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 7 and 8 TeV by the ATLAS and the CMS experiments using the lepton+jets and the dilepton events. The most precise single measurement at 7 TeV is $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}} = 161.9\\pm2.5$(stat.)$^{+5.1}_{-5.0}$(syst.)$\\pm3.6$(lumi.)pb, using a luminosity of 2.3fb$^{-1}$. The measurements from the two experiments are also combined to reach higher precision. With a luminosity of about 1fb$^{-1}$, the combined cross-section is $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}}$ = 173.3$\\pm$2.3(stat.)$\\pm$9.8(syst.)pb. At $\\sqrt{s}=$8 TeV, $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}}$ is measured in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels with the CMS detector and the corresponding combined measurement is $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}} = 227\\pm3$(stat.)$\\pm11$(syst.)$\\pm10$(lumi.)pb.

  6. WW cross section and branching fraction measurements at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Malgeri, L

    1999-01-01

    In two years of running at energies above WW production threshold, LEP-II provided each experiment an integrated luminosity of ~80 pb /sup -1/ until the end of 1997. The amount of collected events, ~1000 /experiment, allows to measure with high precision the total e/sup + /e/sup -/ to WW cross section: sigma /sub WW/( square root s=182.7 Ge V)=15.89+or-0.40 pb and the W-boson decay branching fractions: BR(W to qq)=68.79+or-0.77% and BR(W to l nu /sub l/)=10.40+or-0.26%, both in good agreement with Standard Model expectations. The W decay branching fractions and the total WW cross section are also used to extract a value for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Mas kawa matrix element V /sub cs/ and to put stringent limits on the invisible W width, Gamma /sub W//sup in upsilon /. A preliminary and incomplete look at the first data of this year, which is foreseen to increase the available statistics by four times, is also herein presented. (14 refs).

  7. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections of fission product nuclei in JENDL-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [ed.

    1992-06-15

    Neutron cross sections of 172 nuclei in the fission product region stored in JENDL-3 are shown in graphs and tables. The evaluation work of these nuclei was made by the Fission Product Nuclear Data Working Group of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, in the neutron energy region from 10{sup {minus}5} eV to 20 MeV. Almost of the cross section data reproduced in graphs in this report. The cross section averaged over 38 energy intervals are listed in a table. Shown in order tables are thermal cross sections, resonance integrals, Maxwellian neutron flux average cross sections, fission spectrum average cross sections, 14-MeV cross sections, one group average cross sections in neutron flux of typical types of fission reactors and average cross sections in the 30-keV Maxwellian spectrum.

  8. Reducing cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method and effects on cross-section geometry and steady-flow profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbrock, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method, and the effects of data reduction on channel geometry and steady-flow profiles, were analyzed. Two reduction methods─standard and genetic algorithms─were used to reduce cross-sectional data from the Kootenai River in northern Idaho. Cross sections that are representative of meander, straight, braided, and canyon reaches were used to evalutate the reduction methods. Visual and hydraulic analyses were used to assess the methods. The genetic algorithm-reduced cross sections approximated the shape of the original cross sections better than the standard-reduced cross sections. A greater number of cross-sectional data points were needed for reduced cross sections in the straight reach, and even more in the braided reach, because a greater amount of data points are needed to adequately define cross sections that have greater topographic varability. For the genetic algorithm-reduction method, about 40 data points were needed to adequately define the shape of a reduced cross section in the braided reach compared to 10 to 20 data points in the meander and canyon reaches. The standard-reduction method needed about 70 data points for the braided reach and more than 30 points for the meander and canyon reaches. The genetic algorithm can effectively reduce data while staying within the threshold set by the maximum number of points to be included in the reduced dataset.

  9. Convective heat transfer of nanofluid flow through conduits with different cross-sectional shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Dehshiri-Parizi, Amir [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study investigates the laminar forced convective heat transfer of TiO{sub 2}/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections, experimentally. The effects of different parameters, such as cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number, and concentration of nanoparticles, on the enhanced heat transfer are examined by designing and assembling an experimental apparatus. Results show that adding a small amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. A conduit with a circular cross section performs better than conduits with square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections exhibit more relative enhancements than a conduit with a circular cross section.

  10. The stellar (n,gamma) cross section of 62Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Nassar, H; Ahmad, I; Berkovits, D; Bettan, M; Collon, P; Dababneh, S; Ghelberg, S; Greene, J P; Heger, A; Heil, M; Henderson, D J; Jiang, C L; Kaeppeler, F; Koivisto, H; O'Brien, S; Pardo, R C; Patronis, N; Pennington, T; Plag, R; Rehm, K E; Reifarth, R; Scott, R; Sinha, S; Tang, X; Vondrasek, R C

    2004-01-01

    The 62Ni(n,gamma)63Ni(t_1/2=100+-2 yrs) reaction plays an important role in nucleosynthesis by controlling the flow path of the slow neutron capture (s-) process. We have determined for the first time the total cross section of this reaction for a quasi-Maxwellian (kT=25 keV) neutron flux. The measurement was performed by a new technique of fast-neutron activation in which accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is applied to detect the 63Ni product nuclei. The experimental value of 22.6+-2.4 mb differs significantly from predicted values and affects the whole distribution of nuclei with A=60-90 produced by the weak s-process in massive stars.

  11. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural

  12. Cross sections, multiplicity and moment distributions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggio, P.C. [Laboratório de Ciências Matemáticas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Luna, E.G.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    The unitarity of the S-matrix requires that the absorptive part of the elastic scattering amplitude receives contributions from both the inelastic and the elastic channels. We explore this unitarity condition in order to describe, in a connected way, hadron–hadron observables like the total and elastic differential cross sections, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude and the inclusive multiplicity distributions in full phase space, over a large range of energies. We introduce non-perturbative QCD effects in the forward scattering amplitude by using the infrared QCD effective charge dependent on the dynamical gluon mass. In our analysis we pay special attention to the theoretical uncertainties in the predictions due to this mass scale variation. We also present quantitative predictions for the H{sub q} moments at high energies. Our results reproduce the moment oscillations observed in experimental data, and are consistent with the behavior predicted by QCD.

  13. Fast calculation method of complex space targets' optical cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Li, Yingchun; Guo, Huichao

    2013-06-10

    This paper utilizes the optical cross section (OCS) to characterize the optical scattering characteristics of a space target under the conditions of Sun lighting. We derive the mathematical expression of OCS according to the radiometric theory, and put forward a fast visualization calculation method of complex space targets' OCS based on an OpenGL and 3D model. Through the OCS simulation of Lambert bodies (cylinder and sphere), the computational accuracy and speed of the algorithm were verified. By using this method, the relative error for OCS will not exceed 0.1%, and it only takes 0.05 s to complete a complex calculation. Additionally, we calculated the OCS of three actual satellites with bidirectional reflectance distribution function model parameters in visible bands, and results indicate that it is easy to distinguish the three targets by comparing their OCS curves. This work is helpful for the identification and classification of unresolved space target based on photometric characteristics.

  14. NLO cross sections in 4 dimensions without DREG

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Pinto, R J; Rodrigo, G; Sborlini, G F R

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we present a new method for computing physical cross sections at NLO accuracy in QCD without using the standard Dimensional Regularisation. The algorithm is based on the Loop-Tree Duality theorem, which allow us to obtain loop integrals as a sum of phase-space integrals; in this way, transforming loop integrals into phase-space integrals, we propose a method to merge virtual and real contributions in order to find observables at NLO in $d=4$ space-time dimensions. In addition, the strategy described is used for computing the $\\gamma^*\\to q\\bar{q}(g)$ process. A more detailed discussion related on this topic can be found in Ref [1].

  15. Cosmic Solenoids Minimal Cross-Section and Generalized Flux Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, A; Davidson, Aharon; Karasik, David

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent general relativistic configuration describing a finite cross-section magnetic flux tube is constructed. The cosmic solenoid is modeled by an elastic superconductive surface which separates the Melvin core from the surrounding flat conic structure. We show that a given amount $\\Phi$ of magnetic flux cannot be confined within a cosmic solenoid of circumferential radius smaller than $\\frac{\\sqrt{3G}}{2\\pi c^2}\\Phi$ without creating a conic singularity. Gauss-Codazzi matching conditions are derived by means of a self-consistent action. The source term, representing the surface currents, is sandwiched between internal and external gravitational surface terms. Surface superconductivity is realized by means of a Higgs scalar minimally coupled to projective electromagnetism. Trading the 'magnetic' London phase for a dual 'electric' surface vector potential, the generalized quantization condition reads: $e/{hc} \\Phi + 1/e Q=n$ with $Q$ denoting some dual 'electric' charge, thereby allowing for a non-...

  16. Level density parameters from excitation cross sections of isomeric states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, E. A.; Batij, V. G.

    1992-03-01

    Cross section ratios were measured for the production of the isomeric pairs99m,gRh,101m,gRh,102m,gRh,104m,gRh and108m,gIn in the (p,n)-reaction,107m,gIn and109m,gIn in the ( p, γ)-reaction over the energy range up to 9 MeV, and116m,gSb and118m,gSb in the (α, n)-reaction up to 24 MeV. The experimental results for these nuclei as well as for other isometric pairs excited in the ( p, n)-reaction were analysed in the frame of the statistical model for extracting the level density parameter values in the vicinity of closed nucleon shells. The level density parameter behaviour is discussed in the range of nuclear mass numbers under study.

  17. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  18. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical...... knowledge and practical research competencies among orthopaedic nurses and their interest and motivation to increase these in everyday practice. A newly developed questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 87 orthopaedic nurses. Forty three orthopaedic nurses (49.4%) completed the questionnaire....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  19. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunny Aggarwal; Jagjit Singh; A. K. S. Jha; Man Mohan

    2012-09-01

    Semi-relativistic calculations are performed for the photoionization of Fe X (an important coronal ion) from its ground state 3s23p5($^{2}P^{0}_{3/2}$) and the first two excited states 3s23p5(${}^{2}P^{0}_{1/2}$) and 3s3p6(${}^{2}S_{1/2}$) using the Breit–Pauli -matrix method. A lowest 41 state eigenfunction expansion for Fe XI is employed to ensure an extensive treatment of auto ionizing resonances that affect the effective cross-sections. In the present calculations, we have considered all the important physical effects like channel coupling, exchange and short range correlation. The present calculations using the lowest 41 target levels of Fe XI in the LSJ coupling scheme are reported and we expect that the present results should enable more accurate modelling of the emission spectrum of highly excited plasma from the optical to the far UV region.

  20. Renormalization Scheme Dependence in a QCD Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Chishtie, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    From the perturbatively computed contributions to the $e^+e^- \\rightarrow$ hadrons cross section $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$, we are able to determine the sum of all leading-log (LL), next-to-leading-log (NLL) etc. contributions to $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ up to four loop order (ie, the N$^3$LL contributions) by using the renormalization group equation. We then sum all logarithmic contributions, giving the result for $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ in terms of the log-independent contribution and the RG $\\beta$-function. Two renormalization schemes are then considered, both of which lead to an expression for $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ in terms of scheme-independent parameters. Both schemes result in expressions for $R_{e^{+}e^{-}}$ that are independent of the renormalization scale parameter $\\mu$. They are then compared with purely perturbative results and RG-summed N$^{3}$LL results.

  1. Cross sections, multiplicity and moment distributions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Beggio, P C

    2013-01-01

    The unitarity of the $S$-matrix requires that the absorptive part of the elastic scattering amplitude receives contributions from both the inelastic and the elastic channels. We explore this unitarity condition in order to describe, in a connected way, hadron-hadron observables like the total and elastic differential cross sections, the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude and the inclusive multiplicity distributions in full phase space, over a large range of energies. We introduce non-perturbative QCD effects in the forward scattering amplitude by using the infrared QCD effective charge dependent on the dynamical gluon mass. In our analysis we pay special attention to the theoretical uncertainties in the predictions due to this mass scale variation. We also present quantitative predictions for the $H_{q}$ moments at high energies. Our results reproduce the moment oscillations observed in experimental data, and are consistent with the behavior predicted by QCD.

  2. Triple differential cross sections of magnesium in doubly symmetric geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Y. Sun; X, Y. Miao; Xiang-Fu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A dynamically screened three-Coulomb-wave (DS3C) method is applied to study the single ionization of magnesium by electron impact. Triple differential cross sections (TDCS) are calculated in doubly symmetric geometry at incident energies of 13.65, 17.65, 22.65, 27.65, 37.65, 47.65, 57.65, and 67.65 eV. Comparisons are made with experimental data and theoretical predictions from a three-Coulomb-wave function (3C) approach and distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). The overall agreement between the predictions of the DS3C model and the DWBA approach with the experimental data is satisfactory. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274215).

  3. [Pathogenesis of temporomandibular joint dysfunction. I. Cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágó, P

    1989-07-01

    The forming of the pathography is explained from several view points by the publications dealing with the aetiology of the mandible joint disfunction. One viewpoint emphasizes the role of teeth factors, another one stresses the significance of the mandible joint disfunction were examined in the course of statistical analyses, causality. For the epidemiologic examination of the mandible joint disfunction a questionary was worked out which was filled in by the examined persons, this followed by a clinical examination in which factors seemingly important concerning the development of the disease were examined. In knowledge of the statistical methods employed in the foregoing researches it was tried to elaborate the cross-sectional examination results in a modern way.

  4. Determining the thermal neutron absorption cross section of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreft, A.; Dydejczyk, A.; Gyurcsak, J.

    1984-07-01

    A new simple rapid and cost effective method of determining the thermal neutron absorption cross section of rocks is proposed. It uses samples of about 2 kg and a measuring set-up consisting of paraffin block, Pu-Be neutron source emitting roughly 5 x 10/sup 5/ n/s, BF/sub 3/ proportional counter and conventional counting equipment. The method has been tested with a set of 49 artificial samples and 95% confidence intervals of about 0.27 m/sup -1/ have been estimated for 2 x 300 s counting times. Measurements carried out for several basalt samples have been compared with results obtained by a pulsed neutron technique.

  5. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  6. Total cross sections for electron scattering from sulfur compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Xiao-Ming; Wang Yan-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The original additivity rule method cannot give good results for electron scattering from SO,SO2,SO2C12,SO2C1F,and SO2F2 molecules at low energy,because the electron-molecule scattering is simply reduced to electron-atom scattering.Considering the difference between the bound atom in a molecule and the corresponding free atom,the original additivity rule is revised.With the revised additivity rule,the total cross sections for electron scattering from these molecules are calculated over a wide energy range below 3000 eV and compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.A better agreement between them is obtained.

  7. Cross-sectional imaging of nontraumatic emergencies of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabousi, Abdullah; Patlas, Michael N; Scaglione, Mariano; Romano, Luigia; Soto, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Multiple nontraumatic splenic emergencies are encountered during the imaging of patients in emergency room. Occasionally, patients are investigated for symptoms of suspected splenic pathology, such as abscess, infarct, symptomatic splenic artery aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm, splenic torsion, or rupture. More often, however, splenic emergencies, such as splenic masses and splenic vein thrombosis, are detected in patients in the emergency room during the evaluation of nonspecific abdominal pain. It is essential for radiologists to be vigilant in the identification of nontraumatic splenic emergencies and to be familiar with interventional radiology management options for these pathologies. Our aim is to highlight factors affecting lesion detection on multiple imaging modalities and to discuss the advantages of different cross-sectional modalities for the diagnosis of splenic abnormalities. Finally, we review the management options with emphasis on interventional radiology where applicable.

  8. ABM11 PDFs and the cross section benchmarks in NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Moch, S -O

    2013-01-01

    We report an updated version of the ABKM09 NNLO PDF fit, which includes the most recent HERA collider data on the inclusive cross sections and an improved treatment of the heavy-quark contribution to deep-inelastic scattering using advantages of the running-mass definition for the heavy quarks. The ABM11 PDFs obtained from the updated fit are in a good agreement with the recent LHC data on the W- and Z-production within the experimental and PDF uncertainties. We also perform a determination of the strong coupling constant \\alpha_s in a variant of the ABM11 fit insensitive to the influence of the higher twist terms and find the value of \\alpha_s=0.1133(11) which is in good agreement with the nominal ABM11 one and our earlier determination.

  9. Requirements engineering for cross-sectional information chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, U; Cruel, E; Gök, M; Garthaus, M; Zimansky, M; Remmers, H; Rienhoff, O

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of literature on requirements engineering, little is known about engineering very generic, innovative and emerging requirements, such as those for cross-sectional information chains. The IKM health project aims at building information chain reference models for the care of patients with chronic wounds, cancer-related pain and back pain. Our question therefore was how to appropriately capture information and process requirements that are both generally applicable and practically useful. To this end, we started with recommendations from clinical guidelines and put them up for discussion in Delphi surveys and expert interviews. Despite the heterogeneity we encountered in all three methods, it was possible to obtain requirements suitable for building reference models. We evaluated three modelling languages and then chose to write the models in UML (class and activity diagrams). On the basis of the current project results, the pros and cons of our approach are discussed.

  10. Comments on high-energy total cross sections in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giordano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how hadronic total cross sections at high energy depend on the details of QCD, namely on the number of colours Nc and the quark masses. We find that while a “Froissart”-type behaviour σtot∼Blog2⁡s is rather general, relying only on the presence of higher-spin stable particles in the spectrum, the value of B depends quite strongly on the quark masses. Moreover, we argue that B is of order O(Nc0 at large Nc, and we discuss a bound for B which does not become singular in the Nf=2 chiral limit, unlike the Froissart–Łukaszuk–Martin bound.

  11. Role of Cross Sectional Imaging in Isolated Chest Wall Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shantiranjan; Sharma, Barun K.; Prakash, Arjun; Dhingani, Dhabal D.; Bora, Karobi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Isolated chest wall tuberculosis though a rare entity, the incidence of it has been on rise among immunocompromised population making it an important challenging diagnosis for the physicians. Its clinical presentation may resemble pyogenic chest wall abscess or chest wall soft tissue tumour. Sometimes it is difficult to detect clinically or on plain radiograph. Aim The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the common sites and varying appearances of isolated chest wall tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in Assam Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary care centre in North East India. The study group comprise of 21 patients (n=15 male and n=6 females) with isolated chest wall tuberculosis without associated pulmonary or spinal involvement who were subjected to Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CT/MRI) of the thorax following initial Ultrasonogram (USG) evaluation of the local site. Pathological correlation was done from imaging guided sampling of the aspirate or surgery. Results Variable sites of involvement were seen in the chest wall in our patients (n=21), with chest wall abscess formation being the most common presentation and rib being the most common bony site affected in the thoracic cage. Bony sclerosis was noted in 11 patients (52.4%), periosteal reaction in 10 patients (47.6%) and sequestration in five patients (23.8%). CT/MRI not only localized the exact site and extent of the abscesses which facilitated guided aspirations, but also helped in detecting typical bony lesions thereby, differentiating from pyogenic osteomyelitis besides ruling out associated pulmonary or pleural involvement in such patients. Conclusion Cross-sectional imaging plays an important role by giving a wholesome picture of both soft tissue and bony pathology. It is important to have adequate understanding of the radiologic manifestations of the chest wall involvement and

  12. Current distribution in ESD diodes; Cross section corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Gomer, R.

    1986-06-01

    The electron current distribution in diodes consisting of a rectangular crystal and an electron emitting filament parallel to and in front of it, used in several electron stimulated desorption (ESD) experiments has been determined by means of a dummy crystal constructed from uniformly transparent Lektromesh and a moveable, suitably constructed fine probe. It was found that for straight filaments the distribution was uniform along the narrow, but nearly triangular along the long dimension of the crystal. Calculated log signal versus time curves in ESD show considerable curvature, as often observed experimentally with such geometries. Filaments with a straight center, but coiled and shielded end sections provide uniform current distributions. When such filaments are used the curvature of the log signal versus time curves disappears for Kr desorption from W(110) but is still seen for oxygen desorption. The absolute fraction of filament current hitting the front surface of a crystal was also determined for various geometries by using a thin suppressor mesh in front of the dummy crystal. Cross sections for CO, O, and Kr ESD from W(110) were redetermined with a coiled end section filament. After correction for the fractions of current to the crystal and current non-uniformities previous results are in fairly reasonable agreement with the new values, except for the CO measurements of Leung, Vass, and Gomer, which are still high by a factor of 5. The new measurements permit a recalculation of excitation cross sections for neutral desorption. It is found that the latter are substantially smaller than corresponding gas phase values.

  13. Optical properties and cross-sections of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, E.; Brown, D. M.; Salciccioli, N.; Gomes, J.; Brown, A.; Siegrist, K.; Thomas, M. E.; Boggs, N. T.; Carter, C. C.

    2010-04-01

    There is an urgent need to develop standoff sensing of biological agents in aerosolized clouds. In support of the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System (JBSDS) program, lidar systems have been a dominant technology and have shown significant capability in field tests conducted in the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The release of biological agents in the open air is forbidden. Therefore, indirect methods must be developed to determine agent cross-sections in order to validate sensor against biological agents. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and liquid suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index of refraction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long wave infrared (LWIR). Using that result and the aerosols' particle size distribution as inputs to Mie calculations yields the backscatter and extinction cross-sections as a function of wavelength. Recent efforts to model field measurements from the UV to the IR have been successful. Measurements with aerodynamic and geometric particle sizers show evidence of particle clustering. Backscatter simulations of these aerosols show these clustered particles dominate the aerosol backscatter and depolarization signals. In addition, these large particles create spectral signatures in the backscatter signal due to material absorption. Spectral signatures from the UV to the IR have been observed in simulations of field releases. This method has been demonstrated for a variety of biological simulant materials such as Ovalbumin (OV), Erwinia (EH), Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and male specific bacteriophage (MS2). These spectral signatures may offer new methods for biological discrimination for both stand-off sensing and point detection systems.

  14. Neutron Cross Section Libraries for Cryogenic Aromatic Moderator Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantargi, Florencia [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, CNEA - UN Cuyo, Bariloche (Argentina); Granada, J.R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, CNEA - UN Cuyo, Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Sbaffoni, Maria Monica [Sede Central, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    The dynamics of a set of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, mesitylene and a 3:2 mixture (by volume) of mesitylene and toluene, all of them in solid phase, was studied as potential moderator materials for cold neutron sources. Cross section libraries were generated for hydrogen bounded in those materials, at several temperatures in ACE format, and they were used in MCNP calculations to analyze their neutron production compared with traditional materials like solid methane and liquid hydrogen. In particular, cross section libraries were generated at 20 K, which is the operating temperature of the majority of the existing cold neutron sources. Although solid methane is the best moderator in terms of cold neutron production, it has very poor radiation resistance, causing spontaneous burping even at fairly low doses. Such effect is considerably reduced in the aromatic hydrocarbons. On the other hand, all of them show a similar and significant neutron production, with the exception of benzene. Even though those aromatic materials are very easy to handle, the solid phases that produce an enhanced flux of cold neutrons correspond to amorphous structures rich in low-energy excitations, and they can be created through lengthy cooling processes requiring in many cases additional annealing stages. The 3:2 mesitylene-toluene mixture, that forms in a simple and direct manner the appropriate disordered structure, constitutes an excellent cryogenic moderator material, as it is able to produce an intense flux of cold neutrons while presenting high resistance to radiation, thus conforming a new and advantageous alternative to traditional moderator materials. (authors)

  15. Parenting Stress and Dimensions of Parenting Behavior : Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Links with Adolescents' Somatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseau, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study explored direct and indirect associations between adolescents' somatization, parenting stress, and three parenting dimensions (warmth, psychological control, and harsh punishment). First, the associations were explored cross-sectionally. Second, significant cross-sectional link

  16. Measurement of the ${240}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    Following proposal CERN-INTC-2010-042 / INTC-P-280 (“Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN’s n_TOF Facility”), the parallel measurement of the $^{240}$Pu(n,f) and $^{242}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-sections was carried out at n_TOF EAR-1. While the $^{242}$Pu measurement was successful, unexpected sample-induced damage to the detectors caused by the high α-activity of the 240Pu samples resulted in a deterioration of the detector performance over the data taking period of several months, which compromised the measurement. This obstacle can be eliminated by performing the measurement in EAR-2, where the higher neutron flux will allow collecting data in a much shorter time, thus preventing the degradation of the detectors. In addition to this obvious advantage, the measurement would also benefit from the stronger suppression of the sample-induced α-background, due to the shorter times-of-flight involved.

  17. Imaging pore space in tight gas sandstone reservoir: insights from broad ion beam cross-sectioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G.; Enzmann, F.; Urai, J. L.; Baerle, C.; Kukla, P. A.; Konstanty, J.

    2010-06-01

    Monetization of tight gas reservoirs, which contain significant gas reserves world-wide, represents a challenge for the entire oil and gas industry. The development of new technologies to enhance tight gas reservoir productivity is strongly dependent on an improved understanding of the rock properties and especially the pore framework. Numerous methods are now available to characterize sandstone cores. However, the pore space characterization at pore scale remains difficult due to the fine pore size and delicate sample preparation, and has thus been mostly indirectly inferred until now. Here we propose a new method of ultra high-resolution petrography combining high resolution SEM and argon ion beam cross sectioning (BIB, Broad Ion Beam) which prepares smooth and damage free surfaces. We demonstrate this method using the example of Permian (Rotliegend) age tight gas sandstone core samples. The combination of Ar-beam cross-sectioning facility and high-resolution SEM imaging has the potential to result in a step change in the understanding of pore geometries, in terms of its morphology, spatial distribution and evolution based on the generation of unprecedented image quality and resolution enhancing the predictive reliability of image analysis.

  18. Imaging pore space in tight gas sandstone reservoir: insights from broad ion beam cross-sectioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanty J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Monetization of tight gas reservoirs, which contain significant gas reserves world-wide, represents a challenge for the entire oil and gas industry. The development of new technologies to enhance tight gas reservoir productivity is strongly dependent on an improved understanding of the rock properties and especially the pore framework. Numerous methods are now available to characterize sandstone cores. However, the pore space characterization at pore scale remains difficult due to the fine pore size and delicate sample preparation, and has thus been mostly indirectly inferred until now. Here we propose a new method of ultra high-resolution petrography combining high resolution SEM and argon ion beam cross sectioning (BIB, Broad Ion Beam which prepares smooth and damage free surfaces. We demonstrate this method using the example of Permian (Rotliegend age tight gas sandstone core samples. The combination of Ar-beam cross-sectioning facility and high-resolution SEM imaging has the potential to result in a step change in the understanding of pore geometries, in terms of its morphology, spatial distribution and evolution based on the generation of unprecedented image quality and resolution enhancing the predictive reliability of image analysis.

  19. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R. G. Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Phenotypes of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Adults with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Real de Asua; Pedro Parra; Ramón Costa; Fernando Moldenhauer; Carmen Suarez

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the confluence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical atherosclerotic damage and cardiovascular events remain extremely rare in adults with Down syndrome (DS). We aim to determine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders in an adult cohort with DS and to compare our findings with adults without DS. Methods Cross-sectional study of 51 consecutively selected adults with DS living in the community and 51 healthy controls in an outpatient clinic of a tert...

  1. Total cross-section at LHC from minijets and soft gluon resummation in the infrared region

    CERN Document Server

    Pancheri, G; Grau, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2007-01-01

    A model for total cross-sections incorporating QCD jet cross-sections and soft gluon resummation is described and compared with present data on $pp$ and ${\\bar p}p$ cross-sections. Predictions for LHC are presented for different parameter sets. It is shown that they differ according to the small x-behaviour of available parton density functions.

  2. A compact fast-neutron producing target for high resolution cross section measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flaska, M.

    2006-01-01

    A proper knowledge of neutron cross sections is very important for the operation safety of various nuclear facilities. Reducing uncertainties in the neutron cross sections can lead to an enhanced safety of present and future nuclear power systems. Accurate neutron cross sections also play a relevant

  3. Ion mobility derived collision cross sections to support metabolomics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Williams, Jonathan P; Menikarachchi, Lochana; Thompson, J Will; Tyldesley-Worster, Richard; Halldórsson, Skarphédinn; Rolfsson, Ottar; Moseley, Arthur; Grant, David; Langridge, James; Palsson, Bernhard O; Astarita, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    Metabolomics is a rapidly evolving analytical approach in life and health sciences. The structural elucidation of the metabolites of interest remains a major analytical challenge in the metabolomics workflow. Here, we investigate the use of ion mobility as a tool to aid metabolite identification. Ion mobility allows for the measurement of the rotationally averaged collision cross-section (CCS), which gives information about the ionic shape of a molecule in the gas phase. We measured the CCSs of 125 common metabolites using traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TW-IM-MS). CCS measurements were highly reproducible on instruments located in three independent laboratories (RSD red blood cells using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with TW-IM-MS. The mean RSD was cells, an in vitro model used to study cancer development. Experimentally determined and computationally derived CCS values were used as orthogonal analytical parameters in combination with retention time and accurate mass information to confirm the identity of key metabolites potentially involved in cancer. Thus, our results indicate that adding CCS data to searchable databases and to routine metabolomics workflows will increase the identification confidence compared to traditional analytical approaches.

  4. Reaction cross-section predictions for nucleon induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Nobre, G P A; Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2010-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of the optical potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all the particle-hole (p-h) excitation states in the target and to all relevant pickup channels. These p-h states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. We calculated the reaction cross sections for the nucleon induced reactions on the targets $^{40,48}$Ca, $^{58}$Ni, $^{90}$Zr and $^{144}$Sm using the QRPA description of target excitations, coupling to all inelastic open channels, and coupling to all transfer channels corresponding to the formation of a deuteron. The results of such calculations were compared to predictions of a well-established optical potential and with experimental data, reaching very good agreement. The inclusion of couplings to pickup channels were an important contribution to the absorption. For the first time, calculations of excitatio...

  5. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  6. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  7. Use of Computer among Medical Students: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computer is a part of our daily life. In Medical Science it has become an essential product in every hospital. Starting from open heart surgeries to X rays to various clinical tests all are carried out by the help of computer. They communicate with each other by email, live chatting and they also use to take full advantage of technology. They also use the computer and internet nearly as much for social communication as they do for their educational purposes.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2010 at NMC, Birgunj, Nepal. The subjects of this survey were Undergraduate medical students.Results: Most of the students were in the age group of 21- 23yrs and 19 – 20 yrs. Males were more in number (62% compared with females. Among Ist yr students computer as a Source of information got priority but in IInd year students Source of information Preparing notes and reading Research articles were more important. Amusement and Preparing notes and reading Research articles were important factor for IIIrd & IVth Year students.Conclusion: The use of the laptop and personal computers along with internet connectivity is increasing. This is becoming a part of medical education in different parts of the globe. In this study on medical students we observed an association between the year of study and the purpose of computer and internet use. Computer assisted teaching learning activities should be encouraged for the improvement of medical science for the new generations.

  8. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  9. Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE for Defense, Science and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ronald O.

    2015-05-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays, fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. Highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.

  10. Cross Sectional Attitudes of Public Sculpture Matrix in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Akintunde Akintonde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture practice in the Southwestern Nigeria entails different types of attitudes. These attitudes are discernable from the stage of commissioning of work, its conceptualization to the display and uses in the public sphere generated diverse fundamental, constant technical issues. Some are explicitly alluring while others are absurd, fleeting and injurious to the practice. However, whatever attitude advanced in the public outdoor sculpture practice, it has not been discussed cross sectionally. The inadequate scholarship attention on the attitudinal issues in outdoor sculpture certainly created art historical gap apt to make the study of contemporary Nigeria art incoherent. Apparently, attitudinal studies certainly involve psychological measurement - a type of instrument that does not required descriptive survey. For this reason, the study was based on qualitative methods. The study categorised various attitudes in outdoor sculpture practice in the studied area into pre-unveiling, unveiling and post unveiling stages and critically examined them. Some attitudes in the practice of the art were observed to be stimulant for advancement; invariably others are clearly incongruous to the spirit of typical Yoruba societal value orientation in orderliness, therefore degrading and detrimental to the development of the outdoor sculpture in the public sphere.

  11. Automated NNLL + NLO resummation for jet-veto cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Thomas; Rothen, Lorena [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Frederix, Rikkert [CERN, TH Unit, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Neubert, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institut for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); LEPP, Cornell University, Department of Physics, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In electroweak-boson production processes with a jet veto, higher-order corrections are enhanced by logarithms of the veto scale over the invariant mass of the boson system. In this paper, we resum these Sudakov logarithms at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy and match our predictions to next-to-leading-order (NLO) fixed-order results. We perform the calculation in an automated way, for arbitrary electroweak final states and in the presence of kinematic cuts on the leptons produced in the decays of the electroweak bosons. The resummation is based on a factorization theorem for the cross sections into hard functions, which encode the virtual corrections to the boson production process, and beam functions, which describe the low-p{sub T} emissions collinear to the beams. The one-loop hard functions for arbitrary processes are calculated using the MadGraph5{sub a}MC rate at NLO framework, while the beam functions are process independent. We perform the resummation for a variety of processes, in particular for W{sup +}W{sup -} pair production followed by leptonic decays of the W bosons. (orig.)

  12. Oscillation of cylinders of rectangular cross section immersed in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Willcox, Michelle; Sader, John E.

    2010-05-01

    The ability to calculate flows generated by oscillating cylinders immersed in fluid is a cornerstone in micro- and nanodevice development. In this article, we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the hydrodynamic load experienced by an oscillating rigid cylinder, of arbitrary rectangular cross section, that is immersed in an unbounded viscous fluid. We also consider the formal limit of inviscid flow for which exact analytical and asymptotic solutions are derived. Due to its practical importance in application to the atomic force microscope and nanoelectromechanical systems, we conduct a detailed assessment of the dependence of this load on the cylinder thickness-to-width ratio. We also assess the validity and accuracy of the widely used infinitely-thin blade approximation. For thin rectangular cylinders of finite thickness, this approximation is found to be excellent for out-of-plane motion, whereas for in-plane oscillations it can exhibit significant error. A database of accurate numerical results for the hydrodynamic load as a function of the thickness-to-width ratio and normalized frequency is also presented, which is expected to be of value in practical application and numerical benchmarking.

  13. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getasew Legas Molla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  14. Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE for Defense, Science and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ronald O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays, fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. Highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.

  15. Coplanar (, 3) differential cross-section of He atom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Choubisa; A S Bhullar; K K Sud

    2003-06-01

    We present in this paper the results of our calculation of five-fold differential cross-section (FDCS) for (, 3) process on He atom in low momentum transfer and high electron impact energy in shake-off mechanism. The formalism has been developed in Born approximation using plane waves, Byron and Joachain as well as Le Sech and correlated BBK-type wave functions respectively for incident and scattered, bound and ejected electrons. The angular distribution of FDCS of our calculation is presented in various modes of coplanar geometry and comparison is made with the available experimental data. We observe that the present calculation is able to reproduce the trend of the experimental data. However, it differs in magnitude from the experiment. The present theory does not predict four-peak structure in summed mutual angle mode for lower excess ejected electron energies. We also discuss the importance of momentum transfer, post-collision interaction (PCI) and ion participation in the (, 3) process in constant 12 mode.

  16. Record Multiphoton Absorption Cross-Sections by Dendrimer Organometalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peter V; Watson, Laurance A; Barlow, Adam; Wang, Genmiao; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-02-12

    Large increases in molecular two-photon absorption, the onset of measurable molecular three-photon absorption, and record molecular four-photon absorption in organic π-delocalizable frameworks are achieved by incorporation of bis(diphosphine)ruthenium units with alkynyl linkages. The resultant ruthenium alkynyl-containing dendrimers exhibit strong multiphoton absorption activity through the biological and telecommunications windows in the near-infrared region. The ligated ruthenium units significantly enhance solubility and introduce fully reversible redox switchability to the optical properties. Increasing the ruthenium content leads to substantial increases in multiphoton absorption properties without any loss of optical transparency. This significant improvement in multiphoton absorption performance by incorporation of the organometallic units into the organic π-framework is maintained when the relevant parameters are scaled by molecular weights or number of delocalizable π-electrons. The four-photon absorption cross-section of the most metal-rich dendrimer is an order of magnitude greater than the previous record value.

  17. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuhei; Tamesue, Dai; Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance.

  18. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ..omega.. less than or equal 175 is discussed.

  19. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  20. Cross-Section Measurements in the Fast Neutron Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plompen, Arjan

    2006-04-01

    Generation IV focuses research for advanced nuclear reactors on six concepts. Three of these concepts, the lead, gas and sodium fast reactors (LFR, GFR and SFR) have fast neutron spectra, whereas a fourth, the super-critical water reactor (SCWR), can be configured to have a fast spectrum. Such fast neutron spectra are essential to meet the sustainability objective of GenIV. Nuclear data requirements for GenIV concepts will therefore emphasize the energy region from about 1 keV to 10 MeV. Here, the potential is illustrated of the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility and the Van de Graaff laboratory at IRMM to measure the relevant nuclear data in this energy range: the total, capture, fission and inelastic-scattering cross sections. In particular, measurement results will be shown for lead and bismuth inelastic scattering for which the need was recently expressed in a quantitative way by Aliberti et al. for Accelerator Driven Systems. Even without completion of the quantitative assessment of the data needs for GenIV concepts at ANL it is clear that this particular effort is of relevance to LFR system studies.

  1. A Cross-sectional Assessment of Knowledge of ASHA Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Government of India launched the th National Rural Health Mission on 5 April 2005. A new band of community based functionaries, named as Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA was proposed to escort and transport the client to reach the hospital and provide referral services in case of complications. A time to time assessment of the knowledge of ASHAs is essential as the success of government's health programmes in rural areas depends on them and hence the present study was undertaken. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Barai block rural area of Gwalior district and 88 ASHAs were included in the study as per the eligibility criteria. Results: 88.6 % & 85.2% of ASHAs responded for abdominal pain & bleeding respectively as complications during pregnancy and 88.6% and 85.20 % ASHAs responded for obstructed labor and excessive bleeding as complications during delivery.73.8 % ASHAs responded for antenatal care counseling followed by family planning (70.4%. Conclusion: There is a need to revise and update the knowledge of ASHA workers from time to time. On the job trainings of the ASHAs should be in process to develop necessary knowledge and skills with recent updates. The block level meetings should be utilized for the feedback, enhancing knowledge & solving the problem faced by the ASHAs.

  2. Systematics Study on Thermal Capture Radiation Cross Section for Fission Nuclides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Xi; WU; Hai-cheng; WANG; Ji-min

    2012-01-01

    <正>The research of the neutron capture radiation cross section is surveyed. The systematics of capture radiation cross section contains single energy cross section systematics, excitation function, and spectra systematics. This work gathers the experimental cross sections of actinide nuclei at the thermal energy, and evaluated data. 382 nuclei of ENDF/BⅦ.0, 398 nuclei of JENDL-4.0, 232 nuclei of CENDL-3.1, and the evaluation data of BNL are surveyed. Based on the evaluation, a set of capture cross sections for actinide nuclei at thermal energy is recommended.

  3. Invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Qi; Zhang Min; Yue Jian-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of phase complement, an anti-cloak with circular cross section can be made invisible to an object outside its domain. As the cloak with elliptic cross section is more effective to make objects invisible than that with circular cross section, a scaled coordinate system is proposed to design equivalent materials of invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement. The cloaks with conventional dielectric and double negative parameters are both simulated with the geometrical transformations. The results show that the cloak with elliptic cross section through phase complement can effectively hide the outside objects.

  4. Distinguishing the Transition Reach between Torrent and River Using Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Morphology in River Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F. Y.; Chen, S. C.; An, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    To distinguish a transition reach between river and torrent, this study designed a method to quantify the morphology of channel cross-section. The 5m DEM, which administered by central government, was used to obtain cross-sections from third and fourth order river of 10 main drainages in Taiwan with an interval of 140 to 150 m. We designed a Cross-Sectional Complex-Index (Ics) to determine the morphological complexity and quantify the degrees of wide-shallow for each sections. This index can be applied to define the location of notch, because it can be knew form river regime that a notch is defined as a narrow-deep cross-section and narrow-deep and relatively large slope to adjacent reach. Therefore, this study defined notch index (Inotch) as the gradient divided by cross-sectional complex-index, and applied it to present the distribution of notch-type sections in study drainages, and the results of field investigation in 22 site showed that a section can be defined as notch while Inotch is lager then 60. The distribution of notch in a drainage shown that the notch which conform our quantitative definitions almost concentrated into several reaches intersecting with some broad-shallow section, and the gradient of these reaches are between 2% to 3%. Therefore, we can define that these reaches are the transition reaches between river and torrent. There are 54 sites of transition reach in our study drainages, 80% of the sites had a watershed area within a range of 2000 to 6000 ha. It proof that our method can define transition reach effectively and consistently. In addition, because of the type of disaster is collapse and debris flow in torrent and flood damages in river. It can be found that type of disaster are derived from the river morphology. Therefore, our method and result can be applied to determine the disaster type and strategic planning of disaster prevention as a reference.

  5. Measurements of the total, elastic and inelastic pp cross section with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The total pp cross section is a fundamental property of the strong interaction which can not be calculated in perturbative QCD but only described based on phenomenological models. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the total inelastic protonproton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section at 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. A more precise measurement of the total pp cross section as well as elastic and inelastic contributions has been extracted from a measurement of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed this measurement in elastic data collected with high beta* optics at 8 TeV centreofmass energy with the ALFA Roman Pot detector. From the extrapolation of the differential elastic cross section to t=0, using the optical theorem, the total cross section is extracted in a luminositydependent method with unprecedented precision. In addition the nuclear s...

  6. Women and tobacco: A cross sectional study from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kathirvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a leading risk factor for different types of diseases globally. Tobacco smoking by women is culturally unacceptable in India, but still women smoke tobacco at various times of their life. Aims: The aim was to estimate the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among women and to study the associated sociodemographic factors. Settings And Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 30 years or over in an urban resettlement colony for the migrant population at Chandigarh, India. Methodology: The study included women used tobacco products on one or more days within the past 30 days. Through systematic random sampling, 262 women were studied. As a part of the study 144 bidi smoking women were interviewed using detailed semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing with Chi-squared test and logistic regression were done using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: Overall, the prevalence of tobacco use was 29.4% and that of bidi, zarda and hookah were 19.8%, 8.8%, and 2.7%, respectively. Around 6.2% women used tobacco during pregnancy. Teenage was the most common age of initiation of bidi smoking. Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of tobacco use was high among Hindu unemployed women with no formal education belonged to scheduled caste, and those having grandchildren. Conclusions: This study highlighted high rates of tobacco use and explored both individual and family factors related to tobacco use among women. Affordable, culturally acceptable, sustainable and gender-sensitive individual and community-specific interventions will reduce the prevalence and effects of tobacco use.

  7. Optimizing muscle power after stroke: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavric Verna A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide and results in muscle performance deficits and limitations in activity performance. Rehabilitation aims to address muscle dysfunction in an effort to improve activity and participation. While muscle strength has an impact on activity performance, muscle power has recently been acknowledged as contributing significantly to activity performance in this population. Therefore, rehabilitation efforts should include training of muscle power. However, little is known about what training parameters, or load, optimize muscle power performance in people with stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate lower limb muscle power performance at differing loads in people with and without stroke. Methods A cross-sectional study design investigated muscle power performance in 58 hemiplegic and age matched control participants. Lower limb muscle power was measured using a modified leg press machine at 30, 50 and 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM strength. Results There were significant differences in peak power between involved and uninvolved limbs of stroke participants and between uninvolved and control limbs. Peak power was greatest when pushing against a load of 30% of 1RM for involved, uninvolved and control limbs. Involved limb peak power irrespective of load (Mean:220 ± SD:134 W was significantly lower (p  Conclusions Significant power deficits were seen in both the involved and uninvolved limbs after stroke. Maximal muscle power was produced when pushing against lighter loads. Further intervention studies are needed to determine whether training of both limbs at lighter loads (and higher velocities are preferable to improve both power and activity performance after stroke.

  8. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages by a selective sample of Mexican population. Methods: Cross-sectional sample of 1,492 male and female adults between 18-65 years of age, drawn from 16 cities throughout Mexico. Self-reported fluid intake data collected over a 7-day consecutive period, recording intake of water, milk and derivatives, hot beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB, alcoholic beverages and others. Results: We found that 87.5% of adult males and 65.4% of adult females reported drinking below their recommended daily fluid intake (3 L for males and 2 L for females, and in 80% of the population SSB, not including hot beverages or milk and derivatives, accounted for a larger amount and proportion of fluid intake than plain water. Sixty-five percent of adult males and 66% of adult females consumed more than 10% of their estimated daily caloric intake from fluids. Fluid intake did not differ significantly by gender, but showed a declining trend with age. Conclusion: Our findings may have important implications for policy recommendations, as part of comprehensive strategies to promote the adoption of healthy life styles, in this case, promoting consumption of plain water while discouraging excessive consumption of caloric beverages.

  9. Morbidity patterns among rice mill workers: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Seema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India, a land of agriculture, has formed the scaffolding for many agro-based industries. Morbidity is more common among these industrial workers; hence, this study was conducted. Objectives: To study the morbidity pattern among the rice mill workers and the relationship between duration (years of working and their morbid status. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A pre-structured questionnaire was used to record the necessary information such as clinical history, sociodemographic profile, findings of clinical examination and performance of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. The study was conducted in three rice mills in an urban area under Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC, Department of Community Medicine, SSMC, Tumkur. A total of 75 workers were recruited for the study. The study was conducted in the month of October. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: Among these 75 workers, 42.66% had respiratory morbidity; among them, 10.66% had PEFR less than 200L/min. 26.66% had low backache and knee joint pain and 20% had generalized / musculo skeleton pain. 6.6% suffered from allergic conjunctivitis and 4% had skin allergy. Conclusion: High Prevalence of respiratory morbidity (42.66% and 8 (10.66% workers with decreased PEFR were found. It also showed that there was statistically significant relationship between duration (years of working and respiratory morbid condition. This condition can be prevented by good health education and appropriate usage of safety devices, and further studies are recommended.

  10. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshini Rajappan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in developing countries and Malaysia is of no exception. Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 reported that the prevalence of physical inactivity was 39.7% and the prevalence was higher for women (42.6% than men (36.7%. In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 reported that 43.7% (5.5 million of Malaysian adults were physically inactive. These statistics show that physically inactive is an important public health concern in Malaysia. College students have been found to have poor physical activity habits. The objective of this study was to identify the physical activity level among students of Asia Metropolitan University (AMU in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross sectional survey. A total of 100 participants comprising of 50 male and 50 female students were selected for the study by means of convenience sampling. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form was used to identify the physical activity level. Results: A greater percentage of males (56% showed high physical activity level than females (24%. In contrast, females showed high percentage of low physical activity level. Students in the age range of 22-25 years depicted more percentage (43.5% of high physical activity level. When comparison of physical activity levels were done among different races, Indian students showed greater percentage (61.8% of high physical activity level. Furthermore, students who were underweight and overweight had 50% and 46.7% of high physical activity levels respectively which are greater than the values observed in normal body weight students. Conclusion: The physical activity level among students was found satisfactory although the percentage of low level of physical activity was found higher in female students.

  11. Anemia in pregnancy in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, Jamaiyah; Das, Anita; Onn, Lim Teck; Sun, Chen Won; Nordin, Noraihan Mohd; Rampal, Sanjay; Bahrin, Safiah; Ganeslingam, Muralitharan; Kularatnam, Kumar Iswaran K; Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency during pregnancy. Except for a study conducted 10 years ago in Kelantan, Malaysia's available statistics are based on isolated small urban maternity hospital studies from the 1980s. There was therefore, a need for a large study at national level to estimate the magnitude of the problem in the country as well as to understand its epidemiology. This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2005, to assess the prevalence of anemia. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was used and 59 Ministry of Health (MOH) primary health care clinics were selected. Our final dataset consisted of 1,072 antenatal mothers from 56 clinics. The overall prevalence of anemia in this population was 35 % (SE 0.02) if the cut off level is 11 g/dL and 11 % (SE 0.03) if the cut-off level is 10 g/dL. The majority was of the mild type. The prevalence was higher in the teenage group, Indians followed by Malays and Chinese being the least, grandmultiparas, the third trimester and from urban residence. After multiple linear regression analysis, only gestational age remained significant. These findings are useful for our Maternal Health program planners and implementers to target and evaluate interventions. Work is in progress for outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies to best tackle this problem. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia is 35% and mostly of the mild type and more prevalent in the Indian and Malays.

  12. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

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    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  13. Cross section of reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181W and the influence of the spin cut-off parameter on the cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Jie; HU Bi-Tao

    2011-01-01

    In this work,the program Cindy was modified to calculate the formation cross section of each energy level of residual nucleus 181W resulting from the reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181 W.The concerned cross sections calculated at proton energy Ep=4.5-8.5 MeV agreed well with experimental results.The influence of the spin cut-off parameter in the energy level density model on the cross section was studied.The obtained results show that the influence of spin cut-off is obvious for lower energy levels.

  14. Systematic effects on cross-section data derived from reaction rates at a cold neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, Gašper, E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Becker, Björn [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Belgya, Tamás, E-mail: belgya.tamas@energia.mta.hu [Institute for Energy Security and Environmental Safety, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklós Street, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Genreith, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.genreith@frm2.tum.de [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Harada, Hideo, E-mail: harada.hideo@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, 319-1195 Ibaraki (Japan); Kopecky, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kopecky@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Radulović, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.radulovic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Sano, Tadafumi, E-mail: t-sano@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, 590-0494 Osaka (Japan); Schillebeeckx, Peter, E-mail: peter.schillebeeckx@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); and others

    2015-11-01

    The methodology to derive cross-section data from measurements in a cold neutron beam was studied. Mostly, capture cross-sections at thermal energy are derived relative to a standard cross-section, e.g. the cross-section of the {sup 1}H(n,γ), {sup 14}N(n,γ), or {sup 197}Au(n,γ) reaction, and proportionality between the standard and the measured cross-section, evaluated at different energies in the sub-thermal region, is often assumed. Due to this assumption the derived capture cross-section at thermal energy can be biased by more than 10%. Evidently the bias depends on how much the energy dependence of the cross-section deviates from a direct proportionality with the inverse of the neutron speed. The effect is reduced in case the cross-section is not derived at thermal energy but at an energy close to the average energy of the cold neutron beam. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that the bias can only be avoided in case the energy dependence of the cross-section is known and proper correction factors are applied. In some cases the results are also biased when the attenuation of the neutron beam within the sample is neglected in the analysis. Some of the cross-section data reported in the literature suffer from such bias effects. Hence, the results have to be corrected using the correction factors presented in this paper.

  15. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  16. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  17. Channel Cross Sections, Floodplains wabash_cross sections red line w/ crosssections identified, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, WABASH COUNTY GOVERNMENT.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Channel Cross Sections dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. It is...

  18. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  19. Numerical model for surge and swab pressures on wells with cross-section variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedevjcyk, Joao Victor; Junqueira, Silvio Luiz de Mello; Negrao, Cezar Otaviano Ribeiro [UTFPR - Federal University of Technology - Parana - Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: silvio@utfpr.edu.br, negrao@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Drilling is one of the most complex steps in petroleum exploration. The process is accomplished by rotating a drill bit to compress the rock formation. During drilling, a fluid is pumped into the well to lubricate and cool down the drill bit, to clean up the well, to avoid the formation fluid influx to the well and also to stabilize the borehole walls. Fluid circulation, however, can be interrupted for maintenance reasons and the drill pipe can be moved to remove the drill bit. The downward or upward movement of the drill pipe displaces the fluid within the well causing either under pressure (swab) or over pressure (surge), respectively. If the pressure at the well bore overcomes the formation fracture pressure, a loss of circulation can take place. On the other way round, the upward movement may reduce the pressure below the pore pressure and an inflow of fluid to the well (kick) can occur. An uncontrolled kick may cause a blowout with serious damages. The transient flow induced by the axial movement of the drill pipe is responsible for the pressure changes at the well bore. Nevertheless, the well bore cross section variation may modify the pressure change within the pipe. In this paper, the effects of diameter variation of the drilling well on the surge and swab pressures are investigated. The equations that represent the phenomenon (mass and momentum conservation) are discretized by the finite volume method. Despite its non-Newtonian properties, the fluid is considered Newtonian in this first work. The drill pipe is considered closed and the flow is assumed as single-phased, one-dimensional, isothermal, laminar, compressible and transient. A sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters is carried out. The cross-section changes cause the reflection of the pressure wave, and consequently pressure oscillations. (author)

  20. Impact of Thorium Capture Cross Section Uncertainty on the Thorium Utilized ADS Reactivity Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the researches on fast neutron spectrum system utilized thorium fuel are widely conducted. However, the recent thorium cross section libraries are limited compared to uranium cross section libraries. The impact of thorium cross section uncertainty on thorium fuel utilized accelerator driven system (ADS reactivity calculation is estimated in this study. The uncertainty of the keff caused by 232Th capture cross section of JENDL-4.0 is about 1.3%. The uncertainty of JENDL-4.0 is needed to be enhanced to provide more reliable results on reactivity calculation for the fast system. The impact of uncertainty of  232Th capture cross section of ENDF/B-VII is small (0.1%. Therefore, it will cause no significant impact of the thorium cross section library on the thorium utilized ADS design calculation.

  1. Comparing Production Cross Sections for QCD Matter, Higgs Boson, Neutrino with Dark Energy in Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the production cross sections for QCD matter, neutrino and dark energy due to acceleration of Universe is calculated. To obtain these cross sections, the Universe production cross section is multiplied by the particle or dark energy distribution in accelerating Universe. Also missing cross section for each matter and dark energy due to formation of event horizon, is calculated. It is clear that the cross section of particles produced near event horizon of Universe is much larger for higher acceleration of Universe. This is because as the acceleration of Universe becomes larger, the Unruh temperature becomes larger and the thermal radiations of particles are enhanced. There are different channels for producing Higgs boson in accelerating Universe. Universe maybe decay to quark and gluons, and then these particles interact with each other and Higgs boson is produced. Also, some Higgs boson are emitted directly from event horizon of Universe. Comparing Higgs boson cross sections via different c...

  2. Effects of cross-section on mechanical properties of Au nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming, E-mail: shuming.yang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Duongthipthewa, Anchalee; Wang, Yiming [State Key Laboratory for manufacturing system engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this paper is study of the effects of multiple cross-section of Au nanowire on mechanical properties. Different cross-section models of Au nanowires including circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and rectangular were simulated by finite element modeling using ABAQUS. In this study, the bending technique was applied so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition. The cross-sections had the length of 400 nm and the diameter of 40 nm, except the circular cross-section while the rest of the cross-sections had an equivalent diameter. Von Misses stresses distribution were used to define the stress distribution in the cross-section under loading condition, and elastic deformation was analyzed by the beam theory. The results disclosed that the circular and the rectangular models had highest and lowest strengths against plastic deformation, respectively.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport in variable cross-section nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) model is proposed to investigate the mechanism of phonon transport in variable cross-section silicon nanowires (NWs). Emphasis is placed on understanding the thermal rectification effect and thermal conduction in tapered cross-section and incremental cross-section NWs. In the simulations, both equal and unequal heat input conditions are discussed. Under the latter condition, the tapered cross-section NW has a more prominent thermal rectification effect. Additionally, the capacity of heat conduction in the tapered cross-section NW is always higher than that of the incremental one. Two reasons may be attributed to these behaviors: one is their different boundary conditions and the other is their different volume distribution. Although boundary scattering plays an important role in nanoscale structures, the results suggest the influence of boundary scattering on heat conduction is less obvious than that of volume distribution in NWs with variable cross-sections.

  4. New physics, the cosmic ray spectrum knee, and $pp$ cross section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, Aparna; McKay, Douglas W; Mukherjee, Parama

    2009-01-01

    We model new physics modifications to the total proton-proton cross section with an incoherent term that allows for missing energy above the scale of new physics. We explore the possibility that the new physics interaction alone can provide an explanation for the knee just above $10^6$ GeV in the cosmic ray spectrum. We add the constraint that the new physics must also be consistent with published $pp$ cross section measurements an order of magnitude and more above the knee. Allowing for the necessary rescaling of the cross section data in the light of the new physics, we find parameter ranges in several generic models that readily give good quality fits to recently published Tibet III spectrum analysis and to the rescaled direct cross section measurements. The rise in cross section required at energies above the knee is radical. Even before reaching design energy, the Large Hadron Collider can test this picture with total cross section measurements.

  5. Influence of the ab-initio nd cross sections in the critical heavy-water benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Morillon, B; Carbonell, J

    2013-01-01

    The n-d elastic and breakup cross sections are computed by solving the three-body Faddeev equations for realistic and semi-realistic Nucleon-Nucleon potentials. These cross sections are inserted in the Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear processes considered in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP). The results obtained using thes ab initio n-d cross sections are compared with those provided by the most renown international libraries.

  6. Ionization cross section for a strongly coupled partially ionized hydrogen plasma: variable phase approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Fazylhan.Baimbetov@kaznu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2009-05-29

    In the present work an electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated with the help of a variable phase approach to potential scattering. The Calogero equation is numerically solved, based on a pseudopotential model of interaction between partially ionized plasma particles, which accounts for correlation effects. As a result, scattering phase shifts are obtained. On the basis of the scattering phase shifts, the ionization cross section is calculated.

  7. Photoionization cross sections of the excited 3s3p 3Po state for atomic Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoli; Wan, Jianjie; Zhou, Xiaoxin

    2017-01-01

    The photoionization cross sections of the excited levels (3s3p 0,1,2,o 3P) of atomic Mg have been studied theoretically using both the nonrelativistic and fully relativistic R-matrix method. For the threshold cross sections, as previous nonrelativistic studies, present calculations show significant differences (a factor of 3) from former experimental values. Large discrepancies with experiment calls for additional measurements of the photoionization cross sections from the excited states of Mg.

  8. Anomaly in the KS0Σ+ photoproduction cross section off the proton at the K* threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration; Ewald, R.; Bantes, B.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Crede, V.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Ch.; Gridnev, A. B.; Gutz, E.; Hillert, W.; Hannappel, J.; Hoffmeister, P.; Jaegle, I.; Jahn, O.; Jude, T.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Kleber, V.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Menze, D.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L.; van Pee, H.; Roy, A.; Schadmand, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmieden, H.; Schoch, B.; Shende, S.; Sokhoyan, V.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.

    2012-07-01

    The γ+p→K0+Σ+ photoproduction reaction is investigated in the energy region from threshold to Eγ=2250 MeV. The differential cross section exhibits increasing forward-peaking with energy, but only up to the K* threshold. Beyond, it suddenly returns to a flat distribution with the forward cross section dropping by a factor of four. In the total cross section a pronounced structure is observed between the K*Λ and K*Σ thresholds.

  9. Absolute cross sections for charge capture from Rydberg targets by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaola, B.D.; Huang, M.; Winecki, S.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Kanai, Y. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lundeen, S.R.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Arko, S.A. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A crossed beam experiment has been used to measure absolute charge capture cross sections in collisions of slow highly charged xenon ions with laser excited Rydberg atoms. The cross sections were measured for scaled projectile velocities {ital nv}{sub {ital p}} from 1.0 to 6.0, for projectile charges of 8, 16, 32, and 40, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number of the target electron. Experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of classical models.

  10. Measurement of the 242Pu(n,f cross section at n_TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinganis A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. The 242Pu(n,f cross sections were measured at the CERN n_TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. In this work, preliminary results are presented along with a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code.

  11. Cross sections for H(-) and Cl(-) production from HCl by dissociative electron attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orient, O. J.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    A crossed target beam-electron beam collision geometry and a quadrupole mass spectrometer have been used to conduct dissociative electron attachment cross section measurements for the case of H(-) and Cl(-) production from HCl. The relative flow technique is used to determine the absolute values of cross sections. A tabulation is given of the attachment energies corresponding to various cross section maxima. Error sources contributing to total errors are also estimated.

  12. Theoretical cross section calculations of medical 13N and 18F radioisotope using alpha induced reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, F.; Karpuz, N.; ćetin, B.

    2017-02-01

    In medical physics, radionuclides are needed to diagnose functional disorders of organs and to diagnose and treat many diseases. Nuclear reactions are significant for the productions of radionuclides. It is important to analyze the cross sections for much different energy. In this study, reactional cross sections calculations on 13N, 18F radioisotopes are with TALYS 1.6 nuclear reaction simulation code. Cross sections calculated and experimental data taken from EXFOR library were compared

  13. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  14. New neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections at solar, reactor and supernova neutrino energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Toshio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable improvements in the evaluation of neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections are obtained based on new shell-model Hamiltonians with proper tensor components. New ν-induced reaction cross sections on 12C, 13C, 56Fe, 56Ni and 40Ar are presented, and predictions for nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions, ν-oscillation effects and low-energy reactor and solar neutrino detection are discussed based on these new cross sections.

  15. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  16. Measurements of Neutron Induced Cross Sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guber, K.H.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Koehler, P.E.; Leal, L.C.; Sayer, R.O.; Spencer, R.R.

    1999-09-20

    We have used the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure neutron total and the fission cross sections of 233U in the energy range from 0.36 eV to ~700 keV. We report average fission and total cross sections. Also, we measured the neutron total cross sections of 27Al and Natural chlorine as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  17. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes Group

    2016-06-17

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP® for these analytic test problems, simple_ace.pl and simple_ace_mg.pl.

  18. VELOCITY AND CONCENTRATION OF BUBBLES IN OZONIZATION COLUMNS WITH CROSS SECTIONS OF DIFFERENT SIZES

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Vieira Soares,Leonardo; Alamy Filho,José Eduardo; Daniel,Luiz Antonio; Schulz, Harry Edmar

    2008-01-01

    The size of the cross section of an ozonization column influences its hydrodynamic characteristics, which, on its turn, has effects on phenomena that depend on the relative movement between gas bubbles and liquid. To observe the influence of the cross sectional area on gas concentration and bubbles velocity, two columns were used. The first column had a square cross section with side of 0.19m and the second had a circular cross section with diameter of 0.10 m. The ascendant velocities of the ...

  19. Numerical computation of discrete differential scattering cross sections for Monte Carlo charged particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Jonathan A., E-mail: walshjon@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Palmer, Todd S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Urbatsch, Todd J. [XTD-IDA: Theoretical Design, Integrated Design and Assessment, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Generation of discrete differential scattering angle and energy loss cross sections. • Gauss–Radau quadrature utilizing numerically computed cross section moments. • Development of a charged particle transport capability in the Milagro IMC code. • Integration of cross section generation and charged particle transport capabilities. - Abstract: We investigate a method for numerically generating discrete scattering cross sections for use in charged particle transport simulations. We describe the cross section generation procedure and compare it to existing methods used to obtain discrete cross sections. The numerical approach presented here is generalized to allow greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data computed with this method compare favorably with discrete data generated with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Milagro. We verify the implementation of charged particle transport in Milagro with analytic test problems and we compare calculated electron depth–dose profiles with another particle transport code that has a validated electron transport capability. Finally, we investigate the integration of the new discrete cross section generation method with the charged particle transport capability in Milagro.

  20. Differential cross sections for the ionization of oriented H2 molecules by electron-impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Kaiser, C [UNIV MANCHESTER; Madison, D H [MISSOURI INST.; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV; Balance, J [ROLLINS COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    A nonperturbative close-coupling technique is used to calculate differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of H{sub 2} at an energy of 35.4 eV. Our approach allows cross sections for any orientation of the molecule with respect to the incident electron beam to be analyzed. New features in the resulting cross sections are found compared with the case where the molecular orientation is averaged, and also with cross sections for He at equivalent electron kinematics. When averaged over all possible molecular orientations, good agreement is found with recent experimental results.

  1. Total, direct and dissociative electron impact ionization cross sections of the acetylene molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN KUREPA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The total electron impact ionization cross sections of the acetylene molecule have been measured in the incident electron energy range from threshold to 1000 eV. These results are compared with other existing data, obtained by direct measurements of this molecular property or by indirect ones, via the partial ionization cross sections for the formation of different ions. Using three semiempirical equations, the total ionization cross sections were calculated and compared to available data, too. Direct and dissociative ionization cross sections were also calculated by a semiempirical equation and compared to existing data.

  2. Charge Exchange Cross Sections Measured at Low Energies in Q-Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1972-01-01

    A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%.......A new technique for measurements of charge exchange cross sections at low energies is described. The measurements are performed in a single‐ended Q machine. The resonance charge exchange cross section for Cs at 2 eV was found to be 0.6×10−13 cm2±20%....

  3. Preliminary Measurement of the Differential Cross Section from Neutrino-Nucleon Deeply Inelastic Scattering at Nutev

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, J.; collaboration, for the NuTeV

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results for the neutrino-nucleon differential cross section from the NuTeV experiment are presented. The extraction of the differential cross section from NuTeV is discussed and the structure functions $F_2$ and $\\Delta xF_3$ are presented. Comparisons are made with CCFR results.

  4. Nonlinear Collapse of General Thin-Walled Cross-Sections Under Pure Bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Thin-walled beams exhibit a nonlinear response to bending moments due to the progressive flattening of the crosssection, a behavior commonly referred to as the Brazier effect. Most approaches to model this effect are limited to either circular cross-sections or to cross-sections made of isotropic...

  5. A method of analysing experimental data of nuclear reaction cross sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengJun; ShenWen-Qing

    1997-01-01

    A method of analysing experimental data of nuclear reaction cross sections σr induced by radioactive beam is described.It can be used in analysis of experimental unclear reaction cross section data obtained by Na-isopope radioactive beams on different targets.Neutron halo has not been found in these nuclei.

  6. Integral cross sections for π-p interaction in the 3,3 resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Paul, M.; Schechter, M.; Altman, A.; Jennings, B. K.; Wagner, G. J.; Fazel, N.; Johnson, R. R.; Suen, N.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1993-03-01

    Total cross sections for the π-p single charge exchange and 20° “partial-total” cross sections have been measured between 126 and 202 MeV pion energy. The former are about 4% below similar results of Bugg et al. and (5-10)% below predictions made with currently accepted phase shifts. The latter agree quite well with calculations.

  7. Automatic Extraction of Tunnel Lining Cross-Sections from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Point Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Jian; Qiu, Wenge; Lei, Jin

    2016-10-06

    Tunnel lining (bare-lining) cross-sections play an important role in analyzing deformations of tunnel linings. The goal of this paper is to develop an automatic method for extracting bare-lining cross-sections from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds. First, the combination of a 2D projection strategy and angle criterion is used for tunnel boundary point detection, from which we estimate the two boundary lines in the X-Y plane. The initial direction of the cross-sectional plane is defined to be orthogonal to one of the two boundary lines. In order to compute the final cross-sectional plane, the direction is adjusted twice with the total least squares method and Rodrigues' rotation formula, respectively. The projection of nearby points is made onto the adjusted plane to generate tunnel cross-sections. Finally, we present a filtering algorithm (similar to the idea of the morphological erosion) to remove the non-lining points in the cross-section. The proposed method was implemented on railway tunnel data collected in Sichuan, China. Compared with an existing method of cross-sectional extraction, the proposed method can offer high accuracy and more reliable cross-sectional modeling. We also evaluated Type I and Type II errors of the proposed filter, at the same time, which gave suggestions on the parameter selection of the filter.

  8. Smoking and body fatness measurements : A cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travier, Noemie; Agudo, Antonio; May, Anne M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Luan, Jian'an; Besson, Herve; Wareham, Nick J.; Slimani, Nadia; Rinaldi, Sabina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Key, Tim J.; Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vrieling, Alina; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Ada; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Rohrmann, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Goran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Bjorn; Jakobsen, Mariane Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Toni; Odysseos, Andreani; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigates the cross-sectional relationship between tobacco smoking and body fatness. Methods. This cross-sectional study consisted of 469,543 men and women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study between 1992 a

  9. Preequilibrium and statistical model calculations for neutron activation cross sections on titanium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivascu, M.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    1986-01-01

    Calculated data are presented on (n,p), (n,n'p) and (n,2n) reaction cross sections for stable titanium isotopes in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV. An improved preequilibrium approach, allowing a unitary use of preequilibrium and equilibrium emission parameters, has increased the agreement between calculated and experimental cross sections.

  10. Using a Time Projection Chamber to Measure High Precision Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Brett [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    2014 LANSCE run cycle data will provide a preliminary 239Pu(n,f) cross section and will quantify uncertainties: PID and Target/beam non-uniformities. Continued running during the 2015 LANSCE run cycle: Thin targets to see both fission fragments and 239Pu(n,f) cross section and fully quantified uncertainties

  11. Ionization and capture in water: a multi-differential cross sections study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojón, Omar; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2012-11-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented to provide accurate multiple differential and total cross sections for describing the two most important ionizing processes, namely, ionization and capture induced by heavy charged particles in water. A detailed study of the influence of the target description on the cross section calculations is also provided.

  12. Comment on "Giant absorption cross section of ultracold neutrons in Gadolinium"

    OpenAIRE

    Felber, J.; Gaehler, R.; Golub, R.

    2000-01-01

    Rauch et al (PRL 83, 4955, 1999) have compared their measurements of the Gd cross section for Ultra-cold neutrons with an exptrapolation of the cross section for thermal neutrons and interpreted the discrepancy in terms of coherence properties of the neutron. We show the extrapolation used is based on a misunderstanding and that coherence properties play no role in absorption.

  13. Sum rules and moments for lepton-pair production. [Cross sections, Drell--Yan formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Sum rules on lepton-pair production cross sections are derived on the bases of the Drell--Yan formula and the known sum rules in leptoproduction. Also exact relations are obtained between the average transverse momenta squared of the valence quarks and moments of the dilepton cross sections. 12 references.

  14. Automatic Extraction of Tunnel Lining Cross-Sections from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jian Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel lining (bare-lining cross-sections play an important role in analyzing deformations of tunnel linings. The goal of this paper is to develop an automatic method for extracting bare-lining cross-sections from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point clouds. First, the combination of a 2D projection strategy and angle criterion is used for tunnel boundary point detection, from which we estimate the two boundary lines in the X-Y plane. The initial direction of the cross-sectional plane is defined to be orthogonal to one of the two boundary lines. In order to compute the final cross-sectional plane, the direction is adjusted twice with the total least squares method and Rodrigues' rotation formula, respectively. The projection of nearby points is made onto the adjusted plane to generate tunnel cross-sections. Finally, we present a filtering algorithm (similar to the idea of the morphological erosion to remove the non-lining points in the cross-section. The proposed method was implemented on railway tunnel data collected in Sichuan, China. Compared with an existing method of cross-sectional extraction, the proposed method can offer high accuracy and more reliable cross-sectional modeling. We also evaluated Type I and Type II errors of the proposed filter, at the same time, which gave suggestions on the parameter selection of the filter.

  15. MUXS: a code to generate multigroup cross sections for sputtering calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Robinson, M.T.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    This report documents MUXS, a computer code to generate multigroup cross sections for charged particle transport problems. Cross sections generated by MUXS can be used in many multigroup transport codes, with minor modifications to these codes, to calculate sputtering yields, reflection coefficients, penetration distances, etc.

  16. Systematic Characteristics of Fast Neutron Fission Cross Sections for Actinide Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The neutron fission cross sections of actinide nuclei are important data for the design of nuclear reactor and nuclear engineering, and so on. So far, there has been a certain amount of experimental data for the fission cross sections of actinide nuclei. However,

  17. Scattering chamber facility for double-differential cross-section measurement with 14 MeV DT neutron generator at IPR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAJAPATI P M; PANDEY BHAWNA; GUPTA N C; KUMAR SURESH; NAYAK B K; SAXENA A; SURYANARAYANA S V; JAKHAR S; VALA SUDHIRSINH; RAO C V S; BASU T K

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of double-differential cross-sections of 14 MeV neutron-inducedcharged-particle productions is very important for estimating the nuclear heating and radiation damage of a fusion reactor. Only a few experimental data are available even though the nuclear reaction cross-section data of structural materials are important in fusion nuclear technology. In this context,general purpose scattering chamber facility has been developed for accelerator-based 14 MeV DT neutron generator to measure double-differential nuclear reaction cross-section at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, IPR. It has been designed for experiments using silicon surface barrier detectors forthe online detection of charged particles. It offers flexibility in the arrangement of silicon surface barrier detectors.

  18. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  19. Electron impact total and ionization cross-sections for DNA based compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports computational results of the total (complete) and total ionization cross- sections, for electron impact on Uracil (C4H4N2O2) and PO3OH for impact energies from the ionization threshold to 2 keV. The total cross-section is evaluated using quantum mechanical approach using Spherical Complex Optical Potential (SCOP) presented as sum of the elastic and inelastic cross-sections. The ionization cross-sections are extracted from total inelastic cross-section using Complex Optical Potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous theoretical results. In absence of any theoretical or experimental data, present results for PO3OH will serve to fill the void in the data base and may also inspire the experimentalists for some measurements as it is very important target.

  20. Spectral refractive index and extinction cross-section of BG spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, Marc B.; Boggs, Nathan T.; Jackman, Joany; Fainchtein, Raul; Carter, Christopher C.; Thomas, Michael E.

    2005-05-01

    Despite the wide spread need for optical cross-section data on single spore bio-aerosols, available databases are sparse and unreliable. Information reported is based on short path measurements on high concentration media containing particle clusters. This represents an upper bound to the single spore cross-section. Measurements on single spore aerosolized media demand long path lengths and moderate particle concentration. Transmittance measurements need to be in the single scatter limit as well. These requirements are often difficult to meet. We present a procedure that leads to aerosol extinction and backscatter cross-sections in a straightforward manner. Transmittance measurements of thin films of bio-aerosols are used to obtain the bulk refractive index. This result and the measured size distribution can be used in a T-matrix calculation to yield the desired cross-sections. To illustrate this technique, infrared cross-sections are obtained for Bacillus globigii.

  1. Impact of photon cross section systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo-determined depth-dose distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Eder; David, Mariano; deAlmeida, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    This work studies the impact of systematic uncertainties associated to interaction cross sections on depth dose curves determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The corresponding sensitivity factors are quantified by changing cross sections in a given amount and determining the variation in the dose. The influence of total cross sections for all particles, photons and only for Compton scattering is addressed. The PENELOPE code was used in all simulations. It was found that photon cross section sensitivity factors depend on depth. In addition, they are positive and negative for depths below and above an equilibrium depth, respectively. At this depth, sensitivity factors are null. The equilibrium depths found in this work agree very well with the mean free path of the corresponding incident photon energy. Using the sensitivity factors reported here, it is possible to estimate the impact of photon cross section uncertainties on the uncertainty of Monte Carlo-determined depth dose curves.

  2. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  3. Total and ionization cross-sections of N2 and CO by positron impact: Theoretical investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harshit N Kothari; K N Joshipura

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we report our calculations on several important total cross-sections (TCS) of positron impact on isoelectronic N2 and CO molecules, treated in the complex spherical potential formalism. Basically the total (complete) cross-section T consists of elastic and inelastic contributions. Our total inelastic cross-section (inel) contains ionization and electronic excitations together with positronium formation. Our goal here is to bifurcate inel further to deduce total ionization cross-section, using the `complex scattering potential–ionization contribution’ (CSP-ic) method of electron–atom/molecule scattering. The present range of positron energy is 15–2000 eV. All the resulting cross-sections are in a good general accord with the existing data. This work highlights the importance of various scattering channels in + - 2 and + - CO interactions at intermediate and high energies.

  4. Electron-Molecule Cross Sections for Plasma Applications: the Role of Internal Energy of the Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, M.; Celiberto, R.

    The role of internal excitation in affecting electron-molecule cross sections is analyzed for H2, N2 and O2 systems. Particula emphasis is given to the role of vibrational energy in affecting both resonant and non-resonant electron molecule cross sections. In general for resonant transitions the cross sections dramatically depends on the initial vibrational quantum number of the target, while a minor effect if found for direct (non-resonant) transitions. Cross sections in this last case reflect the form of Franck-Condon factors and Franck-Condon densities linking the relevant boun-bound or bound-continuum transitions. A similar behaviour is presented when the target is electronically excited. In this case, however, the enhancement of cross section is much higher.

  5. Brain regions involved in swallowing: Evidence from stroke patients in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited data available about the mechanisms of dysphagia and areas involving swallow after brain damage; accordingly it is hard to predict which cases are more likely to develop swallowing dysfunction based on the neuroimaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain lesions and dysphagia in a sample of acute conscious stroke patients.Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 113 acute conscious stroke patients (69 male mean [standard deviation (SD] age 64.37 [15.1], participated in this study. Two neurologists and one radiologist localized brain lesions according to neuroimaging of the patients. Swallowing functions were assessed clinically by an expert speech pathologist with the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA. The association of brain region and swallowing problem was statistically evaluated using Chi-square test. Results: Mean (SD MASA score for the dysphagic patients was 139.61 (29.77. Swallowing problem was significantly more prevalent in the right primary sensory (P = 0.03, right insula (P = 0.005, and right internal capsule (P = 0.05. Conclusion: It may be concluded from these findings that the right hemisphere lesions associated with occurring dysphagia. Further studies using more advanced diagnostic tools on big samples particularly in a perspective structure are needed.

  6. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kwame R. Gyamfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44% of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA and severely (71–90 dBA impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84. Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  7. Molecular Structures and Momentum Transfer Cross Sections: The Influence of the Analyte Charge Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Meggie N.; Bleiholder, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Structure elucidation by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods is based on the comparison of an experimentally measured momentum transfer cross-section to cross-sections calculated for model structures. Thus, it is imperative that the calculated cross-section must be accurate. However, it is not fully understood how important it is to accurately model the charge distribution of an analyte ion when calculating momentum transfer cross-sections. Here, we calculate and compare momentum transfer cross-sections for carbon clusters that differ in mass, charge state, and mode of charge distribution, and vary temperature and polarizability of the buffer gas. Our data indicate that the detailed distribution of the ion charge density is intimately linked to the contribution of glancing collisions to the momentum transfer cross-section. The data suggest that analyte ions with molecular mass 3 kDa or momentum transfer cross-section 400-500 Å2 would be significantly influenced by the charge distribution in nitrogen buffer gas. Our data further suggest that accurate structure elucidation on the basis of IMS-MS data measured in nitrogen buffer gas must account for the molecular charge distribution even for systems as large as C960 ( 12 kDa) when localized charges are present and/or measurements are conducted under cryogenic temperatures. Finally, our data underscore that accurate structure elucidation is unlikely if ion mobility data recorded in one buffer gas is converted into other buffer gases when electronic properties of the buffer gases differ.

  8. Positronium Formation Cross-Sections for Positron Scattering by Rubidium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bakry, Salah Yaseen

    Cross-sections for positron-rubidium (37Rb) scattering have been calculated using the Clementi-Roetti wavefunctions and a combination of the coupled-static and frozen-core approximations. The total cross-sections, calculated with eight partial waves corresponding to the total angular momentum ℓ=0 to ℓ=7, are determined over a wide region of scattering energies ranging from 2.7 to 300 eV. The resulting total cross-sections are compared with experimental results and those calculated by other authors. Our total collisional cross-sections display a pronounced peak at 5 eV, nearly consistent with the measurements of Parikh et al. [Phys. Rev. A 47, 1535 (1993)] and also reveal another peak at 7 eV, consistent with the experimental cross-section of Stein et al.23 in the neighborhood of 7 eV. The oscillating behavior of our total collisional cross-sections supports the possible existence of resonance, especially at low energy region. The effect of positronium formation on the total collisional cross-sections diminishes when the incident energy is larger than 100 eV.

  9. Improved calculation of displacements per atom cross section in solids by gamma and electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñera, Ibrahin, E-mail: ipinera@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Cruz, Carlos M.; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Cabal, Ana E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Espen, Piet Van; Remortel, Nick Van [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present a calculation procedure for dpa cross section in solids under irradiation. • Improvement about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section. • Improvement about 5–50% for the electron irradiation induced dpa cross section. • More precise results (20–70%) for thin samples irradiated with electrons. - Abstract: Several authors had estimated the displacements per atom cross sections under different approximations and models, including most of the main gamma- and electron-material interaction processes. These previous works used numerical approximation formulas which are applicable for limited energy ranges. We proposed the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM), which relates the established theories about atom displacements to the electron and positron secondary fluence distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study the MCCM procedure is adapted in order to estimate the displacements per atom cross sections for gamma and electron irradiation. The results obtained through this procedure are compared with previous theoretical calculations. An improvement in about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section is observed in our results on regard to the previous evaluations for the studied incident energies. On the other hand, the dpa cross section values produced by irradiation with electrons are improved by our calculations in about 5–50% when compared with the theoretical approximations. When thin samples are irradiated with electrons, more precise results are obtained through the MCCM (in about 20–70%) with respect to the previous studies.

  10. Importance of sarcomere length when determining muscle physiological cross-sectional area: a spine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Gerling, Michael E

    2012-05-01

    Muscle physiological cross-sectional area predicts the maximum capability of a muscle to generate isometric force. Biomechanical models often use estimates of individual muscle physiological cross-sectional area to partition internal forces among different muscles and predict joint forces and stability. In the spine literature, these physiological cross-sectional area values are generally obtained from imaging or cadaveric studies that have not accounted for a potential lengthened or shortened (and thus thinned or thickened, respectively) state of the muscles in question. Sarcomere length measurements can be used to normalize muscle lengths and correct for these length discrepancies. This article was designed to demonstrate potential effects of not accounting for instantaneous sarcomere length when calculating the physiological cross-sectional area of muscles of the spine region. Because some muscles of the spine region appear to be shortened and others lengthened in the neutral spine posture, both over- and under-estimations of physiological cross-sectional area are possible. Specifically, it is shown that the muscle physiological cross-sectional area could be over-estimated or under-estimated by as much as + 36% (multifidus) and -21% (rectus abdominis), respectively. This differential error effect poses difficulties in accurately estimating individual muscle forces and subsequent spine forces and stability that result from biomechanical models incorporating physiological cross-sectional area data obtained in the absence of sarcomere length measurements. Future work is needed to measure the dynamic range of sarcomere lengths of all spinal muscles to ensure correct inputs to biomechanical models.

  11. Heavy Ion SEU Cross Section Calculation Based on Proton Experimental Data, and Vice Versa

    CERN Document Server

    Wrobel, F; Pouget, V; Dilillo, L; Ecoffet, R; Lorfèvre, E; Bezerra, F; Brugger, M; Saigné, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a method to calculate single event upset (SEU) cross sections by using experimental data. Valuable tools such as PROFIT and SIMPA already focus on the calculation of the proton cross section by using heavy ions cross-section experiments. However, there is no available tool that calculates heavy ion cross sections based on measured proton cross sections with no knowledge of the technology. We based our approach on the diffusion-collection model with the aim of analyzing the characteristics of transient currents that trigger SEUs. We show that experimental cross sections could be used to characterize the pulses that trigger an SEU. Experimental results allow yet defining an empirical rule to identify the transient current that are responsible for an SEU. Then, the SEU cross section can be calculated for any kind of particle and any energy with no need to know the Spice model of the cell. We applied our method to some technologies (250 nm, 90 nm and 65 nm bulk SRAMs) and we sho...

  12. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  13. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (∼ 50 MeV to ∼ 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are available now. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results. Our current results indicate this is, in fact, the case.

  14. Total Reaction Cross Sections in CEM and MCNP6 at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerby, Leslie M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region ($\\sim$50 MeV to $\\sim$5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky {\\it et al.} model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are available now. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results. Our current...

  15. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 4. Deciphering the Nature of the Higgs Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D. [National Univ. of San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); et al.

    2016-10-25

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group in the period 2014-2016. The main goal of the working group was to present the state-of-the-art of Higgs physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first part compiles the most up-to-date predictions of Higgs boson production cross sections and decay branching ratios, parton distribution functions, and off-shell Higgs boson production and interference effects. The second part discusses the recent progress in Higgs effective field theory predictions, followed by the third part on pseudo-observables, simplified template cross section and fiducial cross section measurements, which give the baseline framework for Higgs boson property measurements. The fourth part deals with the beyond the Standard Model predictions of various benchmark scenarios of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, extended scalar sector, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and exotic Higgs boson decays. This report follows three previous working-group reports: Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002), Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002), and Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs properties (CERN-2013-004). The current report serves as the baseline reference for Higgs physics in LHC Run 2 and beyond.

  16. Development of a Multi-Group Neutron Cross Section Library Generation System for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Hong, Ser Gi; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Ha Yong; Koo, Bon Seung; Shim, Hyung Jin; Park, Sang Yoon

    2008-10-15

    This report describes a generation system of multi-group cross section library which is used in the KARMA lattice calculation code. In particular, the theoretical methodologies, program structures, and input preparations for the constituent programs of the system are described in detail. The library generation system consists of the following five programs : ANJOY, GREDIT, MERIT, SUBDATA, and LIBGEN. ANJOY generates automatically the NJOY input files and two batch files for automatic NJOY run for all the nuclides considered. The automatic NJOY run gives TAPE 23 (PENDF output file of BROADR module of NJOY) and TAPE24 (GENDF output file of GROUPR module of NJOY) files for each nuclide. GREDIT prepares a formatted multi-group cross section file in which the cross sections are tabulated versus temperature and background cross section after reading the TAPE24 file. MERIT generates the hydrogen equivalence factors and the resonance integral tables by solving the slowing down equation with ultra-fine group cross sections which are prepared with the TAPE 23 file. SUBDATA generates the subgroup data including subgroup levels and weights after reading the MERIT output file. Finally, LIBGEN generates the final multi-group library file by assembling the data prepared in the previous steps and by reading the other data such as fission product yield data and decay data.The multi-group cross section library includes general multi-group cross sections, resonance data, subgroup data, fission product yield data, kappa-values (energy release per fission), and all the data which are required in the depletion calculation. The addition or elimination of the cross sections for some nuclides can be easily done by changing the LIBGEN input file if the general multi-group cross section and the subgroup data files are prepared.

  17. Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.

  18. Modeling plasma-based CO2 conversion: crucial role of the dissociation cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    Plasma-based CO2 conversion is gaining increasing interest worldwide. A large research effort is devoted to improving the energy efficiency. For this purpose, it is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the CO2 conversion. The latter can be obtained by computer modeling, describing in detail the behavior of the various plasma species and all relevant chemical processes. However, the accuracy of the modeling results critically depends on the accuracy of the assumed input data, like cross sections. This is especially true for the cross section of electron impact dissociation, as the latter process is believed to proceed through electron impact excitation, but it is not clear from the literature which excitation channels effectively lead to dissociation. Therefore, the present paper discusses the effect of different electron impact dissociation cross sections reported in the literature on the calculated CO2 conversion, for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a microwave (MW) plasma. Comparison is made to experimental data for the DBD case, to elucidate which cross section might be the most realistic. This comparison reveals that the cross sections proposed by Itikawa and by Polak and Slovetsky both seem to underestimate the CO2 conversion. The cross sections recommended by Phelps with thresholds of 7 eV and 10.5 eV yield a CO2 conversion only slightly lower than the experimental data, but the sum of both cross sections overestimates the values, indicating that these cross sections represent dissociation, but most probably also include other (pure excitation) channels. Our calculations indicate that the choice of the electron impact dissociation cross section is crucial for the DBD, where this process is the dominant mechanism for CO2 conversion. In the MW plasma, it is only significant at pressures up to 100 mbar, while it is of minor importance for higher pressures, when dissociation proceeds mainly through collisions of CO2 with heavy

  19. Average cross section measurement for 162Er (γ, n) reaction compared with theoretical calculations using TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.

    2017-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung photon beam delivered by a linear electron accelerator has been used to experimentally determine the near threshold photonuclear cross section data of nuclides. For the first time, (γ, n) cross section data was obtained for the astrophysical important nucleus 162Er. Moreover, theoretical calculations have been applied using the TALYS 1.6 code. The effect of the gamma ray strength function on the cross section calculations has been studied. A satisfactorily reproduction of the available experimental data of photonuclear cross section at the energy region below 20 MeV could be achieved. The photon flux was monitored by measuring the photons yield from seven well known (γ, n) reactions from the threshold energy of each reaction up to the end-point energy of the photon beam used. An integrated cross-section 87 ± 14 mb is calculated for the photonuclear reaction 162Er (γ, n) at the energy 9.2-14 MeV. The effective cross section estimated using the TALYS code range between 89 and 96 mb depending on the γ-strength function used. To validate the method for the estimation of the average cross-section data of 162Er (γ, n) reaction, the same procedure has been performed to calculate the average cross-section data of 197Au (γ, n) and 55Mn (γ, n) reactions. In this case, the photons yield from the rest well known (γ, n) reactions was used in order to monitoring the photon flux. The results for 162Er (γ, n), 197Au (γ, n) and 55Mn (γ, n) are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained by TALYS 1.6. So, the present indirect process could be a valuable tool to estimate the effective cross section of (γ, n) reaction for various isotopes using bremsstrahlung beams.

  20. Influence of strut cross-section of stents on local hemodynamics in stented arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongfei; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Wanhua

    2016-05-01

    Stenting is a very effective treatment for stenotic vascular diseases, but vascular geometries altered by stent implantation may lead to flow disturbances which play an important role in the initiation and progression of restenosis, especially in the near wall in stented arterial regions. So stent designs have become one of the indispensable factors needed to be considered for reducing the flow disturbances. In this paper, the structural designs of strut cross-section are considered as an aspect of stent designs to be studied in details. Six virtual stents with different strut cross-section are designed for deployments in the same ideal arterial model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are performed to study how the shape and the aspect ratio (AR) of strut cross-section modified the local hemodynamics in the stented segments. The results indicate that stents with different strut cross-sections have different influence on the hemodynamics. Stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts for circular arc or elliptical arc can significantly enhance wall shear stress (WSS) in the stented segments, and reduce the flow disturbances around stent struts. The performances of stents with streamlined cross-sectional struts are better than that of stents with non-streamlined cross-sectional struts for rectangle. The results also show that stents with a larger AR cross-section are more conductive to improve the blood flow. The present study provides an understanding of the flow physics in the vicinity of stent struts and indicates that the shape and AR of strut cross-section ought to be considered as important factors to minimize flow disturbance in stent designs.

  1. GIS-based data model and tools for creating and managing two-dimensional cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteaker, Timothy L.; Jones, Norm; Strassberg, Gil; Lemon, Alan; Gallup, Doug

    2012-02-01

    While modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is robust in handling maps and data in plan view, the software generally falls short when representing features in section view. Further complicating the issue is the fact that geologic cross sections are often drawn by connecting a series of wells together that do not fall along a single straight line. In this case, the x-axis of the cross section represents the distance along the set of individual lines connecting the series of wells, effectively "flattening out" the cross section along this path to create a view of the subsurface with which geologists often work in printed folios. Even 3D-enabled GIS cannot handle this type of cross section. A GIS data model and tools for creating and working with two-dimensional cross sections are presented. The data model and tools create a framework that can be applied using ESRI's ArcGIS software, enabling users to create, edit, manage, and print two-dimensional cross sections from within one of the most well-known GIS software packages. The data model is a component of the arc hydro groundwater data model, which means all two-dimensional cross sections are inherently linked to other features in the hydrogeologic domain, including those represented by xyz coordinates in real world space. Thus, the creation of two-dimensional cross sections can be guided by or completely driven from standard GIS data, and geologic interpretations established on two-dimensional cross sections can be translated back to real world coordinates to create three-dimensional features such as fence diagrams, giving GIS users the capacity to characterize the subsurface environment in a variety of integrated views that was not possible before. A case study for the Sacramento Regional Model in California demonstrates the application of the methodology in support of a regional groundwater management plan.

  2. Theoretical studies on the photoionization cross-sections of solid silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Guang; Sun Wei-Guo

    2005-01-01

    An alternative expression for photoionization cross-section of atoms or molecules and a dielectric influence function (DIF) in a high-density system proposed recently are used to study the photoionization cross-sections of solid silver. It is suggested that a density turning point (DTP) of a photoionized system may be viewed as the critical point where the photoionization properties of atoms in a real system may have a notable change. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross-sections are in good agreement with the experimental results of a silver crystal both in structure and in magnitude.

  3. Estimation of Fractionally Integrated Panels with Fixed Effects and Cross-Section Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N, T panel data models with fixed effects, common factors allowing cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...... is estimated in first differences after factor removal by projection on the cross-section average. The pooled conditional-sum-of-squares estimate is root-NT consistent but the normal asymptotic distribution might not be centered, requiring the time series dimension to grow faster than the cross-section size...

  4. Quasinormal modes, stability analysis and absorption cross section for 4-dimensional topological Lifshitz black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Central de Chile, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil en Obras Civiles, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile); Moncada, Felipe; Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Temuco (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    We study scalar perturbations in the background of a topological Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions. We compute analytically the quasinormal modes and from these modes we show that topological Lifshitz black hole is stable. On the other hand, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section and we show that there is a range of modes with high angular momentum which contributes to the absorption cross section in the low frequency limit. Furthermore, in this limit, we show that the absorption cross section decreases if the scalar field mass increases, for a real scalar field mass. (orig.)

  5. Study of the cross section determination with the PRISMA spectrometer: The 40Ar + 208Pb case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Jelavić Malenica, D.; Mărginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    The PRISMA spectrometer's response function was successfully applied to match three angular and magnetic settings over a wide angular range for measurements of quasi-elastic reactions in 40Ar + 208Pb . The absolute scale of cross sections has been obtained by using the Rutherford cross section at the forward angles and the information from the energy distributions measured with the spectrometer without and with coincidences with the CLARA γ-array. The semi-classical model GRAZING has been used to test the unfolding procedure and for comparison with the corrected cross sections.

  6. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section at D0 Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agram, Jean-Laurent [Univ. of Upper Alsace, Mulhouse (France)

    2004-12-17

    This work describes the measurement of inclusive jets cross section in the DØ experiment. This cross section is computed as a function of jet transverse momentum, in several rapidity intervals. This quantity is sensitive to the proton structure and is crucial for the determination of parton distribution functions (PDF), essentially for the gluon at high proton momentum fraction. The measurement presented here gives the first values obtained for Tevatron Run II for the cross section in several rapidity intervals, for an integrated luminosity of 143 pb-1. The results are in agreement, within the uncertainties, with theoretical Standard Model predictions, showing no evidence for new physics.

  7. Variation of photoabsorption cross section of atomic silver from isolated to condensed conditions*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Guang; Gong Yu-Bing; Qu Zhao-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the local-field on the photoabsorption cross section of the atomic silver is studied in detail by using the Clausius-Mossotti(CM)model and the Onsager model separately.The variations of the photoabsorption cross section of atomic silver with number density and radius of the environmental interaction cavity are studied systematically by using more general expressions for the photoabsorption cross sections,proposed by Sun et al recently.It has proved to be reasonable to model the optical response properties of bulky material by coupling the property of isolated atom with the environmental effccts in the present work.

  8. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Danagoulian, A; Annand, J R M; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Bosted, P; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chang, T H; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; De Jager, C W; Degtyarenko, P; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Egiyan, K; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Hamilton, D J; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Howell, C; Hunyady, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Ketikyan, A; Khandaker, M; Koubarovski, V; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J; Lindgren, R A; Mamyan, V H; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moussiegt, P; Nanda, S; Nathan, A M; Nelyubin, V V; Nikolenko, D M; Norum, B E; Paschke, K; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Punjabi, V A; Rachek, Igor A; Radyushkin, A; Reitz, B; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu V; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Stoler, P; Sulkosky, V; Tajima, S; Todor, L; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiang, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-01-01

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/ 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross-section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  9. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-01-29

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  10. Total Cross Sections and Event Properties from Real to Virtual Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, C; Friberg, Christer; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    A model for total cross sections with virtual photons is presented. In particular gamma*-p and gamma*-gamma* cross sections are considered. Our approach extends on a model for photoproduction, where the total cross section is subdivided into three distinct event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. With increasing photon virtuality, the latter two decrease in importance. Instead Deep Inelastic Scattering dominates, with the direct class being the O(alpha_s) correction thereof. Hence, the model provides a smooth transition between the two regions. By the breakdown into different event classes, one may aim for a complete picture of all event properties.

  11. Total Cross Sections and Event Properties from Real to Virtual Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Christer; 10.1088/1126-6708/2000/09/010

    2009-01-01

    A model for total cross sections with virtual photons is presented. In particular gamma*-p and gamma*-gamma* cross sections are considered. Our approach extends on a model for photoproduction, where the total cross section is subdivided into three distinct event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. With increasing photon virtuality, the latter two decrease in importance. Instead Deep Inelastic Scattering dominates, with the direct class being the O(alpha_s) correction thereof. Hence, the model provides a smooth transition between the two regions. By the breakdown into different event classes, one may aim for a complete picture of all event properties.

  12. An empirical fit to estimated neutron emission cross sections from proton induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moumita Maiti; Maitreyee Nandy; S N Roy; P K Sarkar

    2003-01-01

    Neutron emission cross section for various elements from 9Be to 209Bi have been calculated using the hybrid model code ALICE-91 for proton induced reactions in the energy range 25 MeV to 105 MeV. An empirical expression relating neutron emission cross section to target mass number and incident proton energy has been obtained. The simple expression reduces the computation time significantly. The trend in the variation of neutron emission cross sections with respect to the target mass number and incident proton energy has been discussed within the framework of the model used.

  13. Influence of angular momentum on evaporation residue cross section as a probe of nuclear dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei; WU Feng

    2008-01-01

    By calculating the excess of the evaporation residue cross sections of the 200pb nucleus over that predicted by the standard statistical model as a function of nuclear viscosity coefficient using a Langevin equation combined with a statistical decay model, it is found that high angular momentum not only amplifies the dissipation effects on the excess of the evaporation residue cross sections, but also considerably increases the sensitivity of this excess to the nuclear viscosity coefficient. These results suggest that on the experimental side, to accurately obtain the information of nuclear dissipation inside the saddle point by measuring the evaporation residue cross section, it had better populate those compound systems with high spins.

  14. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  15. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  16. Two-loop corrections to the triple Higgs boson production cross section

    CERN Document Server

    de Florian, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compute the QCD corrections for the triple Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion, within the heavy-top approximation. We present, for the first time, analytical results for the next-to-leading order corrections, and also compute the soft and virtual contributions of the next-to-next-to-leading order cross section. We provide predictions for the total cross section and the triple Higgs invariant mass distribution. We find that the QCD corrections are large at both perturbative orders, and that the scale uncertainty is substantially reduced when the second order perturbative corrections are included.

  17. Deep inelastic cross-section measurements at large y with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aggarwal, R; Antonelli, S; Arslan, O; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Bachynska, O; Barakbaev, A N; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bokhonov, V; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Brock, I; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Brzozowska, B; Bussey, P J; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; D'Agostini, G; Dementiev, R K; Devenish, R C E; Dolinska, G; Drugakov, V; Dusini, S; Ferrando, J; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Gach, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, L K; Gogota, O; Golubkov, Yu A; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grzelak, G; Gueta, O; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hartner, G; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Iudin, A; Januschek, F; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Kanno, T; Karshon, U; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Khein, L A; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Kondrashova, N; Kononenko, O; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kotz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Lohr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Maeda, J; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Martin, J F; Mergelmeyer, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Mujkic, K; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nigro, A; Nobe, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Olkiewicz, K; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlanski, W; Perrey, H; Pokrovskiy, N S; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Samojlov, V; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schorner-Sadenius, T; Schwartz, J; Shcheglova, L M; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Sola, V; Solano, A; Spiridonov, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stewart, T P; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tassi, E; Temiraliev, T; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Trofymov, A; Trusov, V; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zotkin, D S

    2014-01-01

    The reduced cross sections for $e^{+}p$ deep inelastic scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different centre-of-mass energies, $318$, $251$ and $225$ GeV. The cross sections, measured double differentially in Bjorken $x$ and the virtuality, $Q^2$, were obtained in the region $0.13\\ \\leq\\ y\\ \\leq\\ 0.75$, where $y$ denotes the inelasticity and $5\\ \\leq\\ Q^2\\ \\leq\\ 110$ GeV$^2$. The proton structure functions $F_2$ and $F_L$ were extracted from the measured cross sections.

  18. Proton capture cross section of 7Be and the flux of high energy solar neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone, B.W.; Elwyn, A. J.; Davids, C. N.; Koetke, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The low energy cross section for the 7Be(p, γ)8B reaction has been measured by detecting the delayed α particles from the 8B beta decay. Detailed discussion is presented of the analysis of the radioactive 7Be target including the use of two independent methods to determine the 7Be areal density. The direct capture part of the cross section is subtracted from the total cross section to deduce resonance parameters for the 1+ first excited state in 8B. The zero-energy astrophysical S factor infe...

  19. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  20. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at √{ s} = 7 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Gartner, J.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Roinishvili, V.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.

    2013-05-01

    A measurement is presented of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of √{ s} = 7 TeV. Using the CMS detector at the LHC, the inelastic cross section is measured through two independent methods based on information from (i) forward calorimetry (for pseudorapidity 3 200 MeV / c. The measurements cover a large fraction of the inelastic cross section for particle production over about nine units of pseudorapidity and down to small transverse momenta. The results are compared with those of other experiments, and with models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions.