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Sample records for 6-year dietary history

  1. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  2. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkiel, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macro...

  3. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra;

    2016-01-01

    adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were...... measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake...... and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss...

  4. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  5. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  6. Screening history of women with cervical cancer: a 6-year study in Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann-Hansen, O.; Niemann, I.; Dinesen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    To identify possible weaknesses in cervical screening in Aarhus County, 10 years after the programme was introduced, screening histories were examined. A major problem for the screening programme was that 31% of women were never screened and 61% under-screened, the latter group being significantly...... dominated by older women and high-stage tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/1...

  7. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L;

    2015-01-01

    Background:In contrast to the physiological expectation, observational studies show that greater protein intake is associated with subsequent body weight (BW) gain. An increase in fat-free mass (FFM) due to anabolic effects of protein could explain this.Objective:To examine associations between...... protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...... urinary nitrogen collection at baseline was done. In total, 330 participants with DHI, of whom 227 had validated and complete 24-hour urine collection, were analyzed. Macronutrient energy substitution models were used.Results:Mean estimated protein intake was 14.6 E% from DHI and 11.3 E% from urinary...

  8. Study of the association of socio-demographic factors and feeding practices with the dietary intake in 3-6years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Naser; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the association of social factors and feeding practices with the diet in 3- 6 years old children. A cross-sectional study of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht, Iran in 2011. Measures included social factors, aspects of parental control practices and the child's diet. Mothers reported both their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of child feeding practices were assessed by using Comprehensive Feeding...

  9. 3~6岁儿童骨密度水平及其膳食影响因素%Bone mineral density levels and dietary influence factors of 3 to 6 years old children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the bone mineral density changes with age and influence by dietary factors of 3 to 6 years old children.Methods:The bone mineral density changes of 460 cases of 3 to 6 years old children were detected.The influence by dietary factors on the bone mineral density were summarized according to the questionnaire.Results:The bone mineral density of 3 to 6 years old children increased year by year with the age increasing,reached a peak at 6 years old ,and had a slight decrease after 6 years old.The dietary influence factors included the influences of pick fresh,the intake of vitamins and carbonated drinks on the bone mineral density.Conclusion:The bone mineral density of 3 to 6 years old children increases with the age increasing, reaches a peak at 6 years old.The bone mineral density is influenced by dietary factors.%目的:研究3~6岁儿童骨密度随年龄变化以及受膳食因素的影响。方法:检测460例3~6岁儿童的骨密度变化,根据调查问卷总结骨密度受膳食因素的影响。结果:3~6岁儿童骨密度随年龄增长而逐年升高,在6岁时达到峰值,6岁以后则略有下降趋势。膳食因素影响包括:因挑食和蛋白质、维生素以及碳酸饮料的摄入量对骨密度的影响。结论:3~6岁儿童随年龄的增长骨密度随着增长,6岁时达到峰值,骨密度受膳食因素的影响作用。

  10. Analysis of dietary behavior of children aged 1-6 years in Changning district%长宁区1-6岁儿童饮食行为现状分析及探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 蔡文秀; 鲁巧珍; 黄璧琨; 金星明

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解长宁区儿童饮食行为问题发生的现况及其影响因素,为儿童饮食行为问题的干预提供参考依据.方法 对长宁区1-6岁儿童采用整群系统抽样,对儿童照养人进行问卷调查,内容包括儿童的饮食行为现状和影响因素.结果 儿童饮食行为问题发生率为45.20%.而家长报告的儿童饮食行为问题为59.57%.与儿童饮食行为问题有关的因素为:儿童年龄(χ2=27.572,P<0.001)、呼吸道感染频率(χ2=8.418,P<0.05)、便秘(χ2=33.217,P<0.001)、胃食管返流(χ2=9.152,P<0.01)、气质(χ2=58.184,P<0.001)、照养人的饮食行为(χ2=10.035,P<0.01).结论 1-6岁儿童饮食行为问题发生率高.对高发人群要重点加强饮食行为的培养和干预;儿童饮食行为问题类化于照养人饮食行为问题,应开展饮食行为问题的家庭综合干预.%Objective To investigate the status of dietary behavior and its influencing factors on 1- to 6-years old children in Changning district, and to provide reference for intervention measures on dietary behavior problems of children. Methods 1- to 6-years old children in Changning district were selected with cluster and system sampling and their caregivers were surveyed with questionnaire about dietary behavior and its influencing factors. Results The prevalence of dietary behavior problems was 45. 2% and the rate reported by parents was 59. 6% . The prevalence of dietary behavior prohlems was influenced by age( x2 = 27. 572 ,P<0. 001 , frequency of upper respiratory tract infection( x2 = 8. 418 ,P<0. 05 ) , constipation(x2 = 33. 217 , P < 0. 001 ) , gastroesophageal efflux( x2 =9. 152 , P < 0. 01 ) , temperament ( x2 = 58. 184 ,P< 0. 01 )and dietary behavior of caregivers( x2 = 10. 035 , P < 0. 001 ). Gender , frequency of diarrhea , frequency of tonsillitis and saprodontia had nothing to do with the prevalence of dietary hehavior prohlems ( P>0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence of dietary behavior

  11. Association between intake of dietary protein and 3-year-change in body growth among normal and overweight 6-year-old boys and girls (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke Jah; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone (GH) affects linear growth and body composition, by increasing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis. The intake of protein (PROT) as well as the specific amino acids arginine (ARG) and lysine (LYS) stimulates GH....../IGF-I secretion. The present paper aimed to investigate associations between PROT intake as well as intake of the specific amino acids ARG and LYS, and subsequent 3-year-change in linear growth and body composition among 6-year-old children. DESIGN: Children's data were collected from Copenhagen (Denmark), during...... 2001-2002, and again 3 years later. Boys and girls were separated into normal weight and overweight, based on BMI quintiles. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. Associations between change (Delta) in height, FMI and FFMI, respectively, and habitual PROT intake as well...

  12. Survey on dietary behavior of simple obese children aged 0-6 years%0~6岁单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫淑平; 高敬文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary behavior of obese children aged 0-6 years and analyze the causes of obesity, so as to provide guidance for dietary behavior of simple obese children. Methods In the Fifth Hospital of Xi' an City 105 obese children ( obese group ) and another 105 normal weight children ( control group ) were selected, and questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information. Results There were significant differences in feeding behavior, eating behavior, food selection, eating environment between obese group and control group (x2 value was 62. 89, 34. 56, 53. 19 and 15. 36, respectively, all P <0. 01 ). Ingesting large amount of staple food and eating meat, dairy products, sweet food, fried food, snacks and supper were found in obese children. The proportion of not receiving high education among obese children' s mothers was relatively high. Conclusion Besides genetic factors, childhood obesity is closely related with dietary behavior.%目的 调查0~6岁肥胖儿童的饮食行为,分析其肥胖原因,为单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为提供指导依据.方法 选取在西安市第五医院儿保门诊肥胖儿童(肥胖组)和体重正常儿童(对照组)各105名,采用问卷调查的方式取得相关资料并加以分析.结果 肥胖组儿童的饮食行为在喂养行为、进食行为、食物选择、进食环境与对照组存在显著性差异,χ2值分别为62.89,34.56,53.19,15.36,均P<0.01.肥胖组儿童摄入主食量大,爱吃肉类食品、奶制品、甜食、油炸类食品,爱吃零食、夜宵.肥胖组儿童母亲未接受高等教育者的比例较大(χ2=23.44,P<0.01).结论 除遗传因素外,儿童肥胖与饮食行为有密切关系.

  13. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerofotis, Christos D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Nakas, Christos T; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful - dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  14. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Nyberg

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243 and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7 and control groups (n = 7. The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1 Health information for parents, 2 Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3 Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA, with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04, as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03. There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003. At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings

  15. Validity and reproducibility of a Spanish dietary history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Guallar-Castillón

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reproducibility of food and nutrient intake estimated with the electronic diet history of ENRICA (DH-E, which collects information on numerous aspects of the Spanish diet. METHODS: The validity of food and nutrient intake was estimated using Pearson correlation coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls collected every 2 months over the previous year. The reproducibility was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients between two DH-E made one year apart. RESULTS: The correlations coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls for the main food groups were cereals (r = 0.66, meat (r = 0.66, fish (r = 0.42, vegetables (r = 0.62 and fruits (r = 0.44. The mean correlation coefficient for all 15 food groups considered was 0.53. The correlations for macronutrients were: energy (r = 0.76, proteins (r= 0.58, lipids (r = 0.73, saturated fat (r = 0.73, monounsaturated fat (r = 0.59, polyunsaturated fat (r = 0.57, and carbohydrates (r = 0.66. The mean correlation coefficient for all 41 nutrients studied was 0.55. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two DH-E was greater than 0.40 for most foods and nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: The DH-E shows good validity and reproducibility for estimating usual intake of foods and nutrients.

  16. 鞍山市3所幼儿园4~6岁幼儿饮食行为调查%Study on Dietary Behavior Status Quo Lnvestigation of 4 to 6 Years Old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高保盛; 白燕; 李书倩; 侯冬岩

    2013-01-01

    To understand the difference among kindergarten 4~6 years old from Anshan children’ s eating be-havior,this study uses cluster sampling method to investigate children’ s eating behavior by questionnaire and observationThe object of this investigation is 256 children from 3 kindergartens of Anshan cityKap level is dif-ferent from age significantly,and not different from gender significantlySo,children’ s breakfast situation is une-ven,excessive snacks and picky generally existCounterparts in kindergarten need to carry out effective and tar-geted nutrition education,enhance the cooperation between family and kindergarten,and develop children’ s healthy eating habits together;Parents should have confidence to correct poor eating habits and lay the founda-tion for children’ s physical and mental health development.%为了解鞍山市不同幼儿园4~6岁幼儿饮食行为状况,本研究运用整群抽样的方法选取鞍山市3所不同层次幼儿园的256名幼儿,采用问卷调查和观察法对饮食行为进行调查。调查发现幼儿早餐状况参差不齐,存在过度零食、挑食、偏食现象。幼儿园需要有效开展营养教育,加强家园合作关系,共同培养幼儿健康饮食行为习惯。

  17. Hip dysplasia in a 6-year-old Salz ram

    OpenAIRE

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan José; Sáez, Teófilo; Sever, Ramón; Marca, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    A 6-year old Salz ram was presented with a history of poor body condition, progressive gait abnormalities, pelvic limb lameness, and difficulty with copulation. Based on the history, clinical signs, hip palpation, and radiography, a diagnosis of hip dysplasia, previously unreported in sheep, was made.

  18. Variation in dietary histories among the immigrants of Machu Picchu: Carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates dietary composition during infancy and childhood among 71 adults interred at the site of Machu Picchu, a royal Inca estate in the southern highlands of Peru. Recent research suggests that the majority of individuals were members of the cosmopolitan yana and aclla servant classes, and immigrated to the site from different regions; individual dietary histories may have been similarly varied. Diet was estimated at multiple points in early life through characterization of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in tooth enamel and dentin, which preserve isotopic values from the first years of life. These data were compared to isotopic data from modern food samples, and analyzed using recently-published statistical models. A subset of individuals also has existing bone collagen isotopic data, which reflects diet from the last decade of life and thus permits comparison over the life course. Results indicate significant variation in enamel δ13C (approximately 12%o), dentin δ13C (approximately 9%o) and δ15N (approximately 8%o) between individuals across the study population. These findings suggest substantial variability in diet during infancy and childhood, and support interpretations that this population was primarily yanacona or mixed yanaconalacllacona. This study also highlights the utility of multi-tissue isotopic analysis in more nuanced reconstruction of diet in the ancient Andes

  19. Dietary patterns and associated lifestyles in individuals with and without familial history of obesity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vohl Marie-Claude

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial history of obesity (FHO and certain dietary habits are risk factors for obesity. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were 1 to derive dietary patterns using factor analysis in a population of men and women with and without FHO; 2 to compare mean factor scores for each dietary pattern between individuals with and without FHO; and 3 to examine the association between these patterns and anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Methods A total of 197 women and 129 men with a body mass index 2 were recruited. A positive FHO (FHO+ was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO- as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Mean factor scores were compared using general linear model among men and women according to FHO. Regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between anthropometric, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables, and each dietary pattern. Results Two dietary patterns were identified in both men and women : the Western pattern characterized by a higher consumption of red meats, poultry, processed meats, refined grains as well as desserts, and the Prudent pattern characterized by greater intakes of vegetables, fruits, non-hydrogenated fat, and fish and seafood. Similar Western and Prudent factor scores were observed in individual with and without FHO. In men with FHO+, the Western pattern is negatively associated with age and positively associated with physical activity, smoking, and personal income. In women with FHO-, the Prudent pattern is negatively associated with BMI and smoking and these pattern is positively associated with age and physical activity. Conclusion Two dietary patterns have been identified among men and women with and without FHO. Although that FHO does not seem to influence the adherence to dietary

  20. Stable isotope series from elephant ivory reveal lifetime histories of a true dietary generalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Jacqueline; Codron, Daryl; Sponheimer, Matt; Kirkman, Kevin; Duffy, Kevin J; Raubenheimer, Erich J; Mélice, Jean-Luc; Grant, Rina; Clauss, Marcus; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2012-06-22

    Longitudinal studies have revealed how variation in resource use within consumer populations can impact their dynamics and functional significance in communities. Here, we investigate multi-decadal diet variations within individuals of a keystone megaherbivore species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), using serial stable isotope analysis of tusks from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These records, representing the longest continuous diet histories documented for any extant species, reveal extensive seasonal and annual variations in isotopic--and hence dietary--niches of individuals, but little variation between them. Lack of niche distinction across individuals contrasts several recent studies, which found relatively high levels of individual niche specialization in various taxa. Our result is consistent with theory that individual mammal herbivores are nutritionally constrained to maintain broad diet niches. Individual diet specialization would also be a costly strategy for large-bodied taxa foraging over wide areas in spatio-temporally heterogeneous environments. High levels of within-individual diet variability occurred within and across seasons, and persisted despite an overall increase in inferred C(4) grass consumption through the twentieth century. We suggest that switching between C(3) browsing and C(4) grazing over extended time scales facilitates elephant survival through environmental change, and could even allow recovery of overused resources. PMID:22337695

  1. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes.

  2. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    : Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......: In men GI was directly related to changes in total cholesterol (DeltaTC), regression coefficient (beta) = 0.0044 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0008-0.0081) and GL was positively related to changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (DeltaLDL), beta = 0.1554 (95% CI: 0.0127-0.2982). Furthermore...

  3. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    LAMONT, LINDA S.

    2009-01-01

    I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008). These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007). T...

  4. Bridging Developmental Boundaries: Lifelong Dietary Patterns Modulate Life Histories in a Parthenogenetic Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Roark, Alison M.; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the effects of lifelong intake patterns on performance is challenging for many species, primarily because of methodological constraints. Here, we used a parthenogenetic insect (Carausius morosus) to determine the effects of limited and unlimited food availability across multiple life-history stages. Using a parthenogen allowed us to quantify intake by juvenile and adult females and to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and life-history responses to intake, all without the ...

  5. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    OpenAIRE

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria; Papagiannouli, Lisa; Twetman, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors. Methods: The study group consisted of 814 preschool children. A questionnaire on family, demographic and socioeconomic factors, general health, oral hygiene and dietary behavior was completed by the parents. Children were examined for cavitated and white-spot lesions (WSL). Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and buffer capacit...

  6. Dietary history contributes to enterotype-like clustering and functional metagenomic content in the intestinal microbiome of wild mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Künzel, Sven; Fernandes, Ricardo; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Rosenstiel, Philip; Baines, John F

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the origins of gut microbial community structure is critical for the identification and interpretation of potential fitness-related traits for the host. The presence of community clusters characterized by differences in the abundance of signature taxa, referred to as enterotypes, is a debated concept first reported in humans and later extended to other mammalian hosts. In this study, we provide a thorough assessment of their existence in wild house mice using a panel of evaluation criteria. We identify support for two clusters that are compositionally similar to clusters identified in humans, chimpanzees, and laboratory mice, characterized by differences in Bacteroides, Robinsoniella, and unclassified genera belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. To further evaluate these clusters, we (i) monitored community changes associated with moving mice from the natural to a laboratory environment, (ii) performed functional metagenomic sequencing, and (iii) subjected wild-caught samples to stable isotope analysis to reconstruct dietary patterns. This process reveals differences in the proportions of genes involved in carbohydrate versus protein metabolism in the functional metagenome, as well as differences in plant- versus meat-derived food sources between clusters. In conjunction with wild-caught mice quickly changing their enterotype classification upon transfer to a standard laboratory chow diet, these results provide strong evidence that dietary history contributes to the presence of enterotype-like clustering in wild mice.

  7. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A 6 year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushruta Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical presentations of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and its response to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 28 women of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia evaluated over a period of 6 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Patients were evaluated on the basis of their age, number of deliveries, history of abortion or molar pregnancy, and the treatment received. All patients were scored on the basis of WHO scoring system. Patients with low risk (score /=7 received multiple agent chemotherapy with EMACO regimen. After completion of chemotherapy patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years. The response to treatment was evaluated during follow-up by clinical examination, beta hCG levels and imaging as and when required. Results: Out of 28 women only 27 could be evaluated, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Out of 27 patients, 18 patients (66.67% achieved complete remission with the first-line chemotherapy and additional 25.92% (7/27 achieved complete remission with second line chemotherapy resulting in complete remission of 92.5% (25/27. Conclusion: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is curable if patient is properly evaluated and scored. It shows good response to chemotherapy.

  8. Stable isotope series from elephant ivory reveal lifetime histories of a true dietary generalist

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jacqueline; Codron, Daryl; Sponheimer, Matt; Kirkman, Kevin; Duffy, Kevin J.; Raubenheimer, Erich J.; Mélice, Jean-Luc; Grant, Rina; Clauss, Marcus; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have revealed how variation in resource use within consumer populations can impact their dynamics and functional significance in communities. Here, we investigate multi-decadal diet variations within individuals of a keystone megaherbivore species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), using serial stable isotope analysis of tusks from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These records, representing the longest continuous diet histories documented for any extant s...

  9. Bridging developmental boundaries: lifelong dietary patterns modulate life histories in a parthenogenetic insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Roark

    Full Text Available Determining the effects of lifelong intake patterns on performance is challenging for many species, primarily because of methodological constraints. Here, we used a parthenogenetic insect (Carausius morosus to determine the effects of limited and unlimited food availability across multiple life-history stages. Using a parthenogen allowed us to quantify intake by juvenile and adult females and to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and life-history responses to intake, all without the confounding influences of pair-housing, mating, and male behavior. In our study, growth rate prior to reproductive maturity was positively correlated with both adult and reproductive lifespans but negatively correlated with total lifespan. Food limitation had opposing effects on lifespan depending on when it was imposed, as it protracted development in juveniles but hastened death in adults. Food limitation also constrained reproduction regardless of when food was limited, although decreased fecundity was especially pronounced in individuals that were food-limited as late juveniles and adults. Additional carry-over effects of juvenile food limitation included smaller adult size and decreased body condition at the adult molt, but these effects were largely mitigated in insects that were switched to ad libitum feeding as late juveniles. Our data provide little support for the existence of a trade-off between longevity and fecundity, perhaps because these functions were fueled by different nutrient pools. However, insects that experienced a switch to the limited diet at reproductive maturity seem to have fueled egg production by drawing down body stores, thus providing some evidence for a life-history trade-off. Our results provide important insights into the effects of food limitation and indicate that performance is modulated by intake both within and across life-history stages.

  10. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Lamont

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008. These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007. This anthropological fact, and some recent laboratory evidence, argues against the need to increase the protein RDA for athletes from 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day to 1.2 to 1.4 g per kilogram per day (ACSM, 2000. Our research group found that amino acids make a small contribution (2 - 3% of total to endurance energy needs (Lamont et al, 1999 and that athlete's have similar oxidation rates if corrections are made for oxygen consumption and fat-free body mass. Others report that a short-term training program of 38-days reduces amino acid use during exercise and down-regulates a critical enzyme in the oxidative pathway in order to spare this nutrient (McKenzie et al., 2000 Yet sport nutritionists and physiologists continue to recommend an increased protein RDA for this group. If one does a Google search using the words exercise and protein you would literally get millions of citations recommending the athlete to increase their protein intake. One reason for this continued recommendation, I believe, is that the laboratory procedure used to justify an increased protein RDA (field-based nitrogen balance measurements has many methodological shortcomings that are not recognized by the sports science community (Lamont, 2008. The problems with this technique are so great that its scientific fidelity has been questioned (Lamont, 2008. And as Longo and colleagues have highlighted (2008 the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence for

  11. A Gunpowder Tattoo in a 6-Year-Old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Seth; Barros, Brittany; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2016-05-01

    Gunpowder tattoos result from explosion and subsequent traumatic implantation of pigmented granules into varying layers of the skin. This report details the case of a 6-year-old with a gunpowder tattoo on the face. PMID:27040733

  12. Healthful Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhu, Yeyi; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Ley, Sylvia H; Forman, John P; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James; Bowers, Katherine; Strøm, Marin; Hansen, Susanne; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-06-01

    Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses' Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors for hypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61-0.94; P for linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58-0.90; P for trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56-0.88; P for trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  13. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  14. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  15. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  16. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome in a 6-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Priya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old boy presented with abnormal habitus since birth, delayed language development, history of frequent falls since 9 months, and fever since 1 week. He was found to have hyperandrogenic features, generalized paucity of fat, generalized muscular overdevelopment, and brownish pigmentation over the flexural creases. Skin biopsy demonstrated features suggestive of acanthosis nigricans with an absence of subcutaneous tissue. After further investigation, a diagnosis of Berardinelli-Seip syndrome with bilateral pneumonia and generalized tonic clonic seizures was made. Clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of this rare disorder have been discussed.

  17. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of concur......Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...... of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  18. Giant aneurysm in 6 years old child - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms rare in childhood is. Even among the reported series of childhood aneurysms, it is unusual to find their occurrence in children less than 7 years old. The pathogenesis of these lesions is also a matter of debate and speculations. The peak age of incidence of juvenile cerebral aneurysms appear to be 12 years, occurrence below the age of 7 being rarity. We show a case of 6 years old boy with giant aneurysm. found because of episodes of headache and vomiting. Discussion of pathogenesis for the rare pathology. After discussion of multidisciplinary team, of neuroradiologist and neurosurgeons was decided to be perform endovascular embolization, because of the better outcome for the patient. We performed endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with achieving total embolization. The patient recovery completely, and after 4 days went home. (authors) Key words: GIANT ANEURYSM. SACCULAR ANEURYSM. EMBOLIZATION. STENT ASSISTED COILING

  19. Cavitary lung lesion 6 years after renal transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Arun Kumar; Arava, Sudheer; Bagchi, Soumita; Madan, Karan; Das, Chandan J; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses of a cavitary lung lesion in renal transplant recipients would include infection, malignancy and less commonly inflammatory diseases. Bacterial infection, Tuberculosis, Nocardiosis, fungal infections like Aspergillosis and Cryptococcosis need to be considered in these patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis usually presents 16-21 mo after transplantation, more frequently in patients who have a high level of cumulative immunosuppression. Here we discuss an interesting patient who never received any induction/anti-rejection therapy but developed both BK virus nephropathy as well as severe pulmonary Cryptococcal infection after remaining stable for 6 years after transplantation. This case highlights the risk of serious opportunistic infections even in apparently low immunologic risk transplant recipients many years after transplantation. PMID:27358792

  20. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain.

  1. Calibration of the dietary data obtained from the Brazilian center of the Natural History of HPV Infection in Men study: the HIM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araujo Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the regressions calibration for the dietary data that were measured using the quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ in the Natural History of HPV Infection in Men: the HIM Study in Brazil. A sample of 98 individuals from the HIM study answered one QFFQ and three 24-hour recalls (24HR at interviews. The calibration was performed using linear regression analysis in which the 24HR was the dependent variable and the QFFQ was the independent variable. Age, body mass index, physical activity, income and schooling were used as adjustment variables in the models. The geometric means between the 24HR and the calibration-corrected QFFQ were statistically equal. The dispersion graphs between the instruments demonstrate increased correlation after making the correction, although there is greater dispersion of the points with worse explanatory power of the models. Identification of the regressions calibration for the dietary data of the HIM study will make it possible to estimate the effect of the diet on HPV infection, corrected for the measurement error of the QFFQ.

  2. Comprehensive Treatment of Hypodontia in 6 Years Old Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Desi Pratamasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis described as a certain developemntal disorder that is a lacking in the number of teeth present intraorally. Hypodontia is an agenesis with the absence of one or several teeth. In most of the population, the prevalence is 3,5 - 6,5% with 0,3-0,4% for a severe hypodontia (an absence of 6 teeth or more clinically. Agenesis affects permanent dentition more often than primary dentition, and the incidence of agenesis is greater in female than male patients. Agenesis might be a result of environmental and genetic factors. It is necessary to have a comprehensive treatment for a case of hypodontia, which involves restorative, orthodontic, a prosthetic treatment based on the children's growth and development. In the present case, a patient of 6 years and 5 months old girl was diagnosed with severe hypodontia. The treatment of choice included a removable orthodontic appliance for the upper jaw and a removable space maintainer for the lower jaw. The removable orthodontic appliance served as an interceptive orthodontic treatment to correct anterior crossbites, and the child will be referred to the orthodontist to treat a Class III skeletal malocclusion. The space maintainer was to be used until the patient's condition become favorable for a permanent fixed bridge or steel removable partial denture.

  3. Urologist Directed Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement: 6 Years Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Yonguc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report our results on percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN and classify our complications with the modified Clavien Classification System (CCS in 6 years. Material and Method: Eight hundred fourteen PCN insertions were performed in 722 patients (538 men and 184 women at our institution. PCN insertion was performed under ultrasound for dilated pelvicalyceal system and ultrasound/fluoroscopy for nondilated system. PCN was considered successful if the catheter was drained urine spontaneously. Number of complications was registered. Results: Primary successful PCN insertion was achieved in 770 of the 814 procedures (94.5%. The success rates for nondilated and dilated systems were 71.1% and 97.7%, respectively. Our overall complication rate was 17.3%. According to the modified CCS grades I, II, III, IV, and V were 9%, 1.2%, 6.2%, 0.3%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Age, grade of the hydronephrosis, serum creatinine levels, and mean hemoglobin levels were statistically significant parameters for the occurrence of complications. The nondilated system has statistically significant parameter affecting the complication rates. Discussion: Percutaneous nephrostomy is a well-known procedure in the treatment of temporary or permanent drainage of an obstructed system. It is very important to define the complications related to interventions for interpretation of clinical comparisons more accurately. Modified CCS is a reproducible system to evaluate the complications of PCN.

  4. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  5. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  6. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sorbitol, commonly used as a sweetener in many dietetic foods, candies, and gums; and fructose, also used ... everyone. A physician can take a brief dietary history and with a 2–3 week diary of ...

  7. DSAEK for implantable collamer lens dislocation and corneal decompensation 6 years after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Mattar, Zoraida; Gomez-Bastar, Arturo; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Navas, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman with a history of high myopia underwent uneventful implantation of phakic posterior chamber implantable collamer lenses (ICLs) 6 years earlier in both eyes with a visual acuity of 20/20 bilaterally. The patient presented as an emergency with sudden decreased vision in her right eye after blunt trauma. Slit-lamp examination showed a partially dislocated ICL in the anterior chamber, associated with ocular hypertension. It was decided to treat her with topical ocular hypotensive agents and surgical repositioning of the ICL. There was a progressive loss of endothelial cells and decreased visual acuity. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty was needed to correct the endothelial failure. This case presents a potential complication of the ICL several years after implantation, and should be considered in these types of procedures. PMID:22823028

  8. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National... final rule makes two changes to the agency's specifications for the Hybrid III six-year-old child dummy, and the Hybrid III six-year-old weighted child test dummy. First, to improve the durability of...

  9. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  10. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  11. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  12. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  13. Breath-holding spells: Prevalence and risk factors in under 6-year old children at south of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tootoonchi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine breath- holding spells (BHS prevalence and risk factors in under 6- year- old children, we interviewed mothers of 400 children in a cross- sectional study in 5 health centers at south of Tehran in autumn 1999. 33 children (8.25% had history of BHS (Male: 19, Female: 14 25 cases were between 2-4 years old (mean: 40±17 months. Seventy percent of cases (23 had onset of attacks after 6 months of age (mean: 10 monthis and the commonest frequency was one spell per month (78.79%. Painful experience and falling and striking the head wee the common triggering factors (79% and 76% respectively and there was significant association between BHS and history of fallin and severe striking of the head. There was no significant associations between BHS and sex, birth weight, birth order, delivery method, type of labor initiating and duration of labor.

  14. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  15. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sujin YOO; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  16. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  17. Dietary carbohydrates and change in physical performance of elderly Europeans. SENECA 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, I; Schroll, K; Tetens, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in association with physical performance in elderly Europeans. Design Cross-sectional and prospective study. Physical performance was measured using the Physical Performance Test (PPT) score on a scale from 0 to 27, where hig...... glycaemic diet was associated with a low physical performance at baseline but not 6 years later. Cross-sectional associations may in part be caused by variations in age, BMI, physical activity, self-perceived health, chronic diseases and geographic location....... scores indicate a better physical performance. Habitual diets were measured using diet history interviews and dietary GI and GL were estimated from table values. Setting Eight towns/centres from the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action (SENECA) in 1993 and 1999. Subjects...

  18. Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Devore (Elizabeth); F. Grodstein (Francine); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M.J. Stampfer (Meir); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Rotterdam Study previously found that higher dietary intakes of vitamins E and C related to lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) over 6 years of follow-up. Objective: To study consumption of major dietary antioxidants relative to long-term risk of dementia. D

  19. Vaginal foreign body in a 6 year old girl: a game for the child but a challenge for the gynaecologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Chaurasia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6 year old girl visited our gynaecology out-patient department of S.R.N hospital, Allahabad, India with the complaint of relapsing blood stained vaginal discharge for 3 months. Different gynaecologists, including us, tried treating the condition with different courses of antibiotics. To each, the girl responded only for few days and relapsed again. We investigated completely into the background of the childs home and school environment, her playing habits and her behaviour with her kins. Then, we got her various investigations done but with no derangement. With the backup of her history, examination and investigations, we performed another detailed examination of her genitals. The findings were intriguing as to their cause, and it definitely was a lesson to all of us. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 518-520

  20. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physical fitness that can be used in the method of primary selection for gymnastics.

  1. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  2. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  3. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Garcia-Godoy; R. Frankenberger; U. Lohbauer; A.J. Feilzer; N. Krämer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural str

  4. Hiatus hernia in a 6-year-old boy: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Vikram Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiatus hernia refers to upward displacement of the stomach through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus into the thoracic cavity. It is rare in children and may be asymptomatic or may present with various symptoms. We are reporting a case of sliding hiatus hernia detected incidentally in a 6 year old boy.

  5. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  6. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  7. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  8. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  9. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.;

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...

  10. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  11. Resource allocation to kin, friends, and strangers by 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Kin altruism has been widely observed across species, including humans. However, few studies have discussed the development of kin altruism or its relationship with theory of mind. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children allocated resources between themselves and kin, a friend, or a stranger in three allocation tasks where the allocation either incurred a cost, incurred no cost, or conferred a disadvantage. The results showed that, compared with 3- and 4-year-olds, 5- and 6-year-olds acted more altruistically toward kin and that kin altruism was uncorrelated with theory of mind. These findings suggest that, within the context of resource allocation, kin altruism emerges toward the end of early childhood and probably differs from other prosocial behavior that relies solely on the understanding of others' perspectives. PMID:27336694

  12. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Meth...

  13. Influence of Young Children (3-6 years) on Organic Food Consumption in their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Freyer, B.; Haberkorn, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our interest was to analyse families with young children (3-6 years) to understand their consumption patterns of organic foods. To understand the influence of children on organic food consumption, as well as the role and impact of kindergarten, we studied the attitudes, habits and behaviour of 24 mothers and one couple through qualitative interviews. We found that children positively influence the consumption of organic food in the families, and that organic foods served in kindergartens is h...

  14. Total Fluoride Intake and Urinary Excretion in German Children Aged 3–6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Haftenberger, Marjolein; Viergutz, Gabriele; Neumeister, Volker; Hetzer, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calcula...

  15. Nutritional Status of Preschool (2-6 Years of Age) Children

    OpenAIRE

    MIDYAT, Levent; AKSIT, Sadık; GOKCE, Sule; YAGCI, Rasit Vural

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical life period because of its importance for supplying regular and adequate nutrition, and giving essential nutritional education to the children. In the present study, between January 2004 and March 2006, food consumption of 2- to 6-year-old children from different socioeconomic levels in Izmir was investigated. Anthropometric measurements of these 518 children were also recorded. SPSS 14.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Total duration of breastfeed...

  16. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău; Romina Marina Sima; Nicolae Bacalbașa; Liana Pleș; Anca Daniela Stănescu

    2016-01-01

    Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 ...

  17. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Karajibani; Mahdeyeh Shaykhei; Farzaneh Montazerifar; Monir Eftekharenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. D...

  18. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    G. Babu Kl; Nagarathna, J; Subramaniam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. ...

  19. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  20. Dynamics of development motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys 4-6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrishko S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determination of level of development motive capabilities is examined. Directions of prognostication inclination of children of early age are rotined to the certain type of motive activity. The complex testing of individual possibilities of boys is conducted 4-6 years. Comparative description of indexes of motive function is presented during six testing. Certain the loud speaker of development of motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys. The...

  1. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  2. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic Minke Whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle

  3. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  4. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaas, T. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht, P0 Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Kamphuis, D.J. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  5. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis.

  6. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  7. Retrocaval ureter presenting at 6 years of age in a girl child – An extreme rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kajal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Retrocaval ureter is one of the very rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of retrocaval ureter in a 6-year-old girl who presented with right flank pain and hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was made on intravenous urography which showed typical “J” shape deformity in the proximal dilated ureter with moderate hydronephrosis. CT scan delineated the course of ureter. The patient was operated and findings were confirmed. The ureter was transected near the pelvis and a pyeloureteric anastomosis with pre-caval transposition of the ureter was performed and the patient was discharged in fair health.

  8. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants.

  9. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  10. Comparison of age-specific cataract prevalence in two population-based surveys 6 years apart

    OpenAIRE

    Rochtchina Elena; Wang Jie; Tan Ava; Mitchell Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study, we aimed to compare age-specific cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract prevalence in two surveys 6 years apart. Methods The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 participants (82.4% of those eligible) in cross-section I (1992–4) and 3509 participants (75.1% of survivors and 85.2% of newly eligible) in cross-section II (1997–2000, 66.5% overlap with cross-section I). Cataract was assessed from lens photographs following the Wisconsin Cat...

  11. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  12. Dynamics of development motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys 4-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrishko S.G.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determination of level of development motive capabilities is examined. Directions of prognostication inclination of children of early age are rotined to the certain type of motive activity. The complex testing of individual possibilities of boys is conducted 4-6 years. Comparative description of indexes of motive function is presented during six testing. Certain the loud speaker of development of motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys. The general tendencies of change of these indexes are exposed during three years.

  13. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, E.; V. Mujica; ORREGO, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; M. Vásquez; L. Díaz; Andrews, M.; M. Arredondo

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-fou...

  14. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop......-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11). Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90(th) percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05). PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  15. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  16. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT USING LEST 0 TO 6 AMONG CHILDREN 0 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiji K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This descriptive study was conducted toassess the speech and language development anddelay among children 0 - 6 years.450 Children 0 - 6 years age groups were taken for the study . Each child was given the corresponding LEST and given a PASS if he or she had performed the test. Of the 450 children screened , 5.5 % had delay , 2.2 % had only questionable delay. Of the 25 children who had delay 15 (60% were males. There is strong hazardous association between sex and speech delay. Statistical test also shows that there is association between speech Delay and Sex i . e . , t he result is highly Statistically Significant , ( p< 0.005 . Hence males have more speech Delay than Females. LEST – this simple validatedor standardized scree ning tool will be useful for professionals to give early intervention. The Statistical method used is Chi - Square test. This test can be extrapolated to the general population. This test - LEST has been validated by Nair M.K.C et al.KEY WORDS : Speech delay , Language delay , LEST

  17. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old Boy with Advanced Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid MALAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Malak M, Barzgar M. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old boy with Advanced Renal Failure. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(2:61-63. AbstractBaclofen is a drug for many diseases for all ages, but it is hazardous in patients with renal failure. This article talks about a case of baclofen overdose in a child with renal failure.A 6-year-old boy admitted to the emergency department with a loss of consciousness, hypotonia, and areflexia following administration of 20 mg baclofen (1mg/kg/daily in total dose for his voiding dysfunction. His laboratory tests showed advanced renal failure. After withholding the medication andsupportive therapy, he recovered completely after two days. After arousal, he complained of insomnia, strange sensations on the skin, intentional tremors, and ataxia. He left the hospital in good condition in three days.Renal function control before baclofen administration is mandatory especially in high-risk groups. A total dose of 1mg/kg lead to encephalopathy in children with advanced renal failure, with subtle persistent complaints persist are often overlooked for a while.

  18. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

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    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  19. Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maslamani, I.; Walton, M. E. M.; Kennedy, H. A.; Al-Mohannadi, M.; Le Vay, L.

    2013-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents one of the more northerly extremes of mangrove distribution in the Indo-Pacific, and is populated only by Avicennia marina, due to its tolerance of high salinity and wide temperature extremes. Recent studies suggest that in the arid coastal environment of the western Arabian Gulf, export of carbon and nitrogen from mangroves to adjacent habitats may be limited, though it is not clear if this is due to low productivity or physical factors such as the lack of freshwater flow and the tidal regime. Although seagrass and macroalgal habitats are relatively much more dominant by area, with only small pockets of mangrove around the edges of embayments, it is not evident if inwelling from these habitats support mangrove fauna. Year-round sampling in mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar, indicates that Palaemon khori, an endemic shrimp species, is strongly associated with mangroves throughout its post-settlement life cycle, from recruitment as small 9-10 mm juveniles through to mating and egg production. Rapid post-recruitment growth (k = 1.8, L∞ = 42 mm for females, k = 1.5, L∞ = 35 mm for male) means that most individuals reached adult size in the first few months after settlement, with reproduction occurring in the following spring. As might be expected from year-round residence in the mangrove, dual 13C and 15N isotope analysis indicated a strong contribution of mangroves to shrimp tissue growth (Mean and 95% confidence range, 37% and 27-48%), but with a weaker significant contribution from particulate organic matter (20% and 1-37%), mangrove epiphytes (16% and 2-33%) and seagrasses (9% and 0.2-18%). Other primary producers contribute the remaining 18% to shrimp nutrition but the 95% confidence ranges include zero, suggesting possibly non-significant roles in supporting the shrimp population. This dietary information supports the view that fauna resident within arid mangrove systems are mainly dependent on localised retention and cycling of

  20. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Under 6-year Olds in South Khorasan, Iran

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    Hassan Mehrjoofard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Malnutrition is one of the important health problems throughout the world, particularly in developing countries, which has undesirable effects on mental and physical health of children. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of malnutrition in children under 6 years old in Privince South Khorasan, Iran, in 2007. Methods:This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was conducted on children under 6 years old in South Khorasan Iran, belonging to six urban and rural regions applying multistage cluster sampling methodology. Data were collected through measuring weight and height, structural questionnaires Anthropometric Nutrution Indicators Survey, and face-to-face interviews with mothers. Malnutrition was measured on the basis of the indices underweight, wasting and stunting. The obtained data was analyzed by means of chi-square test in the packages SPSS and EPI-Info 2000, taking α= 0.05 as the significant level. Findings:Out of 1807 children 51.7% were males, 52.2% living in urban areas, and 37% were under 24 months old. Weight index was normal in 52.2% children, 34.4% lightly underweight, 11.7% moderately underweight and 1.2% severely underweight. Prevalence of underweight had a significant relationship to habitation, mothers' job and parents education level. According to stunting criteria, 55% were normal, 28.4% lightly stunted 12.7% were moderate, and 3.9% severe stunted. Stunting also had a significant relationship to habitation, age, mothers job, and parents' level of education. Wasting criteria showed that 67.8% were normal 24.7% light, 5.9% moderate and 1.6% had severe wasting. This had a significant relationship to sex and habitation. Conclusion:Prevalence of malnutrition was in children and its relationship to socioeconomic variables, measures such as increasing parents education - especially mothers knowledge - constancy of breast feeding until the age of 2 years, and promoting nutrition status

  1. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B S; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  2. SCREENING OF THE PSYCHICAL DISTURBANCES OF THE CHILDREN FROM 3 TO 6 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CAKAROVA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of optimal physical and psychical development of the child is first-degree health care. Discovering the psychical disturbances in time and reasons that cause is a precondition for adequate treatment and prophylaxis.The objects of our study are 490 children from 3 to 6 years old. We used the screening test of McCuire J. and N. Nichman.We found a relatively high percent of children with psychical disturbances. They are noticed more often in the younger children. To specify psychical disturbances we made some additional studies. The early discovering of psychical disturbances gives the possibility for timely treatment and recovery of normal psychical state of child.

  3. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  4. MEMORY AND LANGUAGE IN TESTIMONIES OF 3- TO 6- YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva A. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The testimony of pre-school children is, in many cases, the main and only evidence in criminal proceedings. Memory and language are two main components in the statement of the child and they require special analysis, not only because of the important role they play, but also because of the relationship between the two capacities. The vulnerability of memory and its ability to be altered by suggestions, as well as the variability of language development in the 3- to 6-year-old child, are two factors that influence the collection of testimony. These factors, together with the interviewer’s skill in adapting the interview to the child, may obtain reliable information that is free of subjectivity and that will facilitate the investigation of the allegations. This article presents an overview of both capabilities, language and memory, from the perspective of child witness testimony as evidence in criminal proceedings.

  5. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  6. Gamma-ray upper limits on magnetars with 6 years of Fermi-LAT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F; de Ona-Wilhelmi, Emma

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for gamma-ray emission from 20 magnetars using 6 years of Fermi, Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently-known magnetars is found. We derived the most stringent upper limits to date on the 0.1--10 GeV emission of Galactic magnetars, which are estimated between $\\sim10^{-12}-10^{-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Gamma-ray pulsations were searched for the four magnetars having reliable ephemerides over the observing period, but none were detected. On the other hand, we also studied the gamma-ray morphology and spectra of seven Supernova Remnants associated or adjacent to the magnetars.

  7. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  8. Nitrogen saturation in humid tropical forests after 6 years of nitrogen and phosphorus addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Zhang, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    factor when N saturation has been reached. Although this hypothesis has been tested in temperate forests, whether they can be directly applied to N-saturated tropical forests remain poorly addressed. To test this hypothesis, soil inorganic N, soil N mineralization and nitrification rate, soil N2......O emission rate and nitrate (NO3-) leaching rate were measured in an N-saturated old-growth tropical forest in southern China, after 6 years of N and P addition. We hypothesized that N addition would stimulate further N saturation, but P addition might alleviate N saturation. As expected, our......-saturated tropical forests can be negative and that P addition can alleviate N saturation in such tropical systems....

  9. Comparison of age-specific cataract prevalence in two population-based surveys 6 years apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochtchina Elena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we aimed to compare age-specific cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular (PSC cataract prevalence in two surveys 6 years apart. Methods The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 participants (82.4% of those eligible in cross-section I (1992–4 and 3509 participants (75.1% of survivors and 85.2% of newly eligible in cross-section II (1997–2000, 66.5% overlap with cross-section I. Cataract was assessed from lens photographs following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Cortical cataract was defined if cortical opacity comprised ≥ 5% of lens area. Nuclear cataract was defined if nuclear opacity ≥ Wisconsin standard 4. PSC was defined if any present. Any cataract was defined to include persons who had previous cataract surgery. Weighted kappa for inter-grader reliability was 0.82, 0.55 and 0.82 for cortical, nuclear and PSC cataract, respectively. We assessed age-specific prevalence using an interval of 5 years, so that participants within each age group were independent between the two surveys. Results Age and gender distributions were similar between the two populations. The age-specific prevalence of cortical (23.8% in 1st, 23.7% in 2nd and PSC cataract (6.3%, 6.0% was similar. The prevalence of nuclear cataract increased slightly from 18.7% to 23.9%. After age standardization, the similar prevalence of cortical (23.8%, 23.5% and PSC cataract (6.3%, 5.9%, and the increased prevalence of nuclear cataract (18.7%, 24.2% remained. Conclusion In two surveys of two population-based samples with similar age and gender distributions, we found a relatively stable cortical and PSC cataract prevalence over a 6-year period. The increased prevalence of nuclear cataract deserves further study.

  10. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE AGED BETWEEN 0-6 YEARS

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    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study documenting spontaneous and coordinated growth changes in young Romanian children with cleft palate is developed, for identifying the functional adaptations of oral cavity to the disrupted architecture of palate in children with cleft palate, the 3D analysis of maxillary casts being applied to visualize, evaluate and measure maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate, as well as to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be imagined from the dimensional changes produced in the first 6 years of life. Two experimental groups were involved in the study, a former one, including 44 patients with cleft palate (16 boys and 28 girls, aged between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in the St.Mary University Children Hospital from Ia[i. The resulting maxillary casts were 3D scanned at Multinr company, in Sf. Gheorghe. The maxillary alveolar arch lines, the 4 Stilmann points (TD, TS, CD, CS and the maxillary interincisive point were identified and marked by the orthodontist, being reproduced with 6 degrees of tridimensional freedom. The coordinates of this point were transferred to the CAD system, to graphically recreate the computerized three-dimensional alveolar arch. 4 direct measurements have been made, namely: anterior and posterior diameter of the alveolar maxillary arch, length of the alveolar arch and depth of the palate. Student’s t test, both simple and bivariate, performed with SPSS 13.0 soft, showed statistic significance for the dimensional differences of the alveolar maxillary arch in children with cleft palate, comparatively with the healthy control group. Conclusion: Cleft palate patients have narrower and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and a flattened palate.

  11. Changes in BMI over 6 years: the role of demographic and neighborhood characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324

  12. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  13. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  14. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  15. An overview of new insights from 6 years of salinity data from SMOS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of salt held in surface seawater are becoming ever-more important for oceanographers and climatologists to gain a deeper understanding of ocean circulation and Earth's water cycle. ESA's SMOS mission is proving essential for this aim. Launched in 2009, SMOS has provided the longest continuous record (now ~6 years) of sea-surface salinity measurements from space. The salinity of surface seawater is controlled largely by the balance between evaporation and precipitation, but freshwater from rivers and the freezing and melting of ice also cause changes in concentrations. Along with temperature, salinity drives ocean circulation - the thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, plays a key role in the global climate. With a wealth of salinity data from SMOS now in hand complemented by measurements from the NASA-CONAE Aquarius satellite, which uses a different measuring technique. In this talk we shall provide an overview of how the SMOS mission - now celebrating 6 years in orbit - is providing detailed global measurements of SSS. An ensemble of key ocean processes for climate and biochemistry can now be determined and monitored for the first time from space : the detailed salinity structure of tropical instability waves along the equator and the salt exchanged across major oceanic current fronts, the occurrences of large-scale salinity anomalies in the Pacific and Indian oceans related to important climate indexes are also well-evidenced in the six year-long data. In addition, the dispersal of freshwater into the ocean from the major large tropical rivers (Amazon, Orinoco and Congo), their impact on tropical cyclone (TC) intensification and the oceanic imprints of the intense rainfall in the ITCZ and under TC can now be regularly monitored to better understand the variability of the oceanic part of the global water cycle. We will present how SMOS data, along with concurrent in situ Argo ocean-profile data, other satellite observations of sea

  16. The sentinel node procedure in cutaneous melanoma: an overview of 6 years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to survey the worldwide history and experience with the SN procedure since Morton et al.'s report 1992. The technique is described, and its validity and the variables that influence is success are considered. The staging function of the procedure and its potential role in respect of the use of adjuvant therapy are also addressed

  17. Insomnia, daytime sleepiness and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in the elderly: a 6-year prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jaussent

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine 1 the associations between history of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CVD and insomnia complaints and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, and 2 the relationships between sleep complaints and future CVD in persons over 65. METHODS: CVD was assessed at baseline and during two, four, and six-year follow-up in 5494 non-demented subjects. Self-reported insomnia complaints (poor sleep quality, difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintening sleep, and early morning awakening, EDS and sleep medication use were evaluated at baseline. Logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models, with delayed entry and age of participants as the time scale, were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. RESULTS: At baseline, 748 participants had a past-history of CVD. A past-history of CVD was associated with EDS (OR = 1.28 95%CI = [1.05-1.57] and the number of insomnia complaints (OR = 1.26 95%CI = [1.03-1.55] for 1-2 insomnia complaints; OR = 1.32 95%CI = [1.03-1.71] for ≥3 complaints. In longitudinal analyses, neither the four components of insomnia nor the number of insomnia complaints were significantly associated with first or recurrent CVD events (n = 391 events. EDS was independently associated with future CVD events even after adjusting for prescribed sleep medication and past-history of CVD (HR = 1.35 95%CI = [1.06-1.71]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the relationships between sleep complaints and CVD could be complex. Insomnia complaints are more likely a consequence of CVD, whereas EDS appears to be a determinant of CVD independently of past-history of CVD. EDS screening may thus constitute a means of detecting persons at high risk of CVD.

  18. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  19. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations. PMID:24825088

  20. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 6 Year Olds of Yazd City

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    M Sadr Bafghi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common psychiatric disorder in school age children and has a negative effect on the individual’s general functions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in preschool 6 year old children in Yazd in 2005 and the influence of gender, birth weight, birth order and parental education on ADHD. Methods: 400 preschool children including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected randomly through sampling method and the data of the cross sectional research was collected via compiled questionnaires based on the DSM-IV criteria and interview of parents. Data of this investigation was analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The results showed that general prevalence of ADHD was 16/3% and more in boys (19/5% than girls (13%. Most of the parents of the affected children were illiterate or uneducated. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, birth weight, order and ADHD frequency. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of ADHD among children in Yazd and its undesirable outcome, it is recommended to have a preventive mental health program for screening and treatment.

  1. 1-6 Years Aged Childrens Mothers First Aid for Burns Observation in Mardin City Center

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    Betul Battaloglu Inanc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available        Aim: In this study, we aimed to determine the mothers’ knowledge levels about burns and first aid. When they encounter burns, what will they do in the first instance and emergency application. At the end of this research correct information given to mothers. Aimed to supply the deficiency information. Material and Method: 25-49 age group of mothers who have 1-6 years aged childrens’ in the study were choisen ramdomly. After being informed about the study, only volunteries for questionnaires were used. There were a thousand mothers. Results: Children’ 21.6 % have burns. 81.4% burns were in their house , 18.6 % burns were out of their house. Often burns case were 2-4 years aged group children. 89.6 % mothers found themselves have no true knowledge about first aid for burns. Discussion: Mothers’ knowledge more deficient about the first aid for the burns. In this regard mothers’ lack of knowledge must be correct with the training activities to be applied. Prime necessity of the mothers were informed about the right applications.

  2. Prevalence of Hearing disorders in 3-6 year old Children of Kindergartens in Yazd City

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    Z Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important

  3. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

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    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  4. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

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    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  5. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  6. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms--6 years of experience with Ella stent-graft system

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    Koecher, Martin E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Utikal, Petr; Koutna, Jirina; Bachleda, Petr; Buriankova, Eva; Herman, Miroslav; Bucil, Jiri; Benysek, Vladimir; Cerna, Marie; Kojecky, Zdenek

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 6-year results of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treatment by Ella stent-grafts with regard to safety and effectivity in relation to morphology of the aneurysm. Methods: From a group of 172 patients with AAA, in whom elective endovascular treatment was considered, 120 of them (69.8%) were found to be suitable for this type of therapy. The bifurcated type of stent-graft was implanted in 97 patients, uniiliacal type in 19 patients and only four patients were found to be suitable for tubular type of stent-graft. Additional necessary procedures (internal iliac artery occlusion or contralateral common iliac artery occlusion in a group of patients with uniiliacal type of stent-graft) were performed surgically during the stent-graft implantation. CT and US controls were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, later every 12 months. Results: Primary technical success was achieved in 109 of the 120 patients (91%). Primary endoleak was recorded in 11 patients (primary endoleak type Ia in seven patients, type Ib in three patients and type IIIa in one patient). Assisted technical success after reintervention or spontaneous seal was 98.3%. Surgical conversion was indicated in two patients (1.7%). Perioperative mortality rate was 3.3%. Total average follow-up period was 20.7 months (range from 2 to 60 months). In nine patients (7.5%) secondary endoleak type II was found at control CT or US, in three patients partial thrombosis of the stent-graft was found. There was no aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Conclusion: Treatment of AAA with Ella stent-graft system is effective and safe. Bifurcated stent-graft is the most frequently used type. Uniiliacal type of stent-graft is used by us only in cases of complicated morphology.

  7. Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision of breast papillomas: review of 6-years experience

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    Maxwell, A.J. [Bolton Breast Unit, Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: anthony.maxwell@rbh.nhs.uk

    2009-08-15

    Aim: To review the outcome of vacuum-assisted removal of breast papillomas performed in the Bolton Breast Unit. Materials and methods: Twenty-six benign breast papillomas were excised using an ultrasound-guided, vacuum-assisted technique under local anaesthetic over a 6-year period. An 8 G Mammotome was used for 12 lesions, an 11 G Mammotome for 13 lesions and a 7 G EnCor for one lesion. The mean lesion size was 9 mm (range 3-17 mm). The mean number of cores taken per case was nine. Results: One patient developed a post-procedure haematoma, which did not require treatment. There were no other short-term complications. None of the papillomas were associated with atypia or malignancy. Subsequent breast imaging (mostly routine screening mammography) was reviewed and evidence of recurrence recorded. To date, 16 patients have received at least one subsequent routine screening mammogram, with a mean follow-up to latest mammogram of 30 months. Mammographic evidence of papilloma regrowth has been observed in two patents, with a third patient presenting with recurrence of the original symptom of a palpable lump. All three recurrent lesions were surgically excised and confirmed to be benign papillomas. These lesions measured 6, 12, and 15 mm prior to the original vacuum-assisted excision. Conclusion: The findings suggests that vacuum-assisted removal is a satisfactory alternative to surgery for the majority of patients, but that particular attention should be paid to ensuring complete lesion removal in view of the relatively high recurrence rate in this series.

  8. The pattern of psoriatic arthritis in Kashmir: A 6-year prospective study

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    Shagufta Rather

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence, clinical presentation, and patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA vary in different parts of the world. The scenario of PsA in west is different from that of Asia. Moreover, the oligoarticular type which was considered most prevalent earlier has been replaced by polyarticular type. Aim: The study was to the clinical profile of psoriasis patients associated with PsA in Kashmir valley of India. Materials and Methods: This was a noninterventional, observational, prospective, hospital-based study involving 150 successive patients of PsA over a span of 6 years. Severity of the skin and nail involvement was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI, respectively. PsA was diagnosed by classification criteria for PsA. The number and pattern of swollen and tender joints was counted and classified by Moll and Wright′s classification criteria. Results: Plaque-type psoriasis was the most common clinical type, observed in 122 (81.33% patients followed by erythrodermic psoriasis in 10 (6.66% patients and pustular psoriasis in eight (5.33% patients. PsA occurred between 30 and 40 years of age in 105 (70% patients. The cutaneous involvement occurred before joint involvement in 113 (75.33%, while they occurred simultaneously in 30 (20% cases and the PsA preceded the skin involvement in seven (4.66% cases. Symmetrical polyarthritis was the commonest clinical presentation and was seen in 90 (60% patients. Nail involvement due to psoriasis was present in 120 (80% patients. Commonest nail change found was pitting and seen in 60 (40% patients. Conclusion: The clinical pattern of PsA varies in different parts of the world. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of PsA in a given area is necessary for the successful management of this disease.

  9. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-01

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. PMID:26861385

  10. EQAS for peripheral blood morphology in Spain: a 6-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G; Merino, A; Domingo, A; Jou, J M; Reverter, J C

    2008-12-01

    The Spanish haematology external quality assessment scheme (EQAS), established in 1984, is run by the Spanish Haematology and Haemotherapy Association (AEHH) [Quality Assurance in Health Care 3 (1991) 75] and functions to evaluate the quality and reproducibility of the assessment of diagnostic samples by clinical laboratories. The Hospital Clinic of the University of Barcelona (HCB) serves as the EQAS Coordination Centre and follows the guidelines established by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology [Annali dell'Istituto superiore di Sanità 31 (1995) 95; International Journal of Hematology 68 (1998) 45]. During the period 2001-2006, replicates of 25 different blood films were sent to 604 EQAS participants for cell morphology evaluation. Some patient details corresponding to the samples were disclosed, such us age, sex, haemoglobin value and white blood cell count. The participants were asked to select up to four significant morphology features using a coding list, provided by the Coordination Centre, which included significant morphological alterations that appear in haematopoietic cells. For each survey, individual results were assessed against the morphological reference results (MRR) established by the Cytology Group of the AEHH ('true' answers). This paper describes the organization of the 6-year-long study and the evaluation of laboratory performance for blood smear interpretation by the Spanish haematology EQAS. Different performance levels were detected relative to the laboratory category. Laboratories providing services to hospitalized patients showed higher performances compared with laboratories providing services to nonhospitalized patients. Pathological lymphoid cells were the most difficult to identify by the participants. To improve the results in EQAS peripheral blood morphology, the development of specific cytology educational trainings is discussed. PMID:18983297

  11. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

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    Denisa-Oana Bălălău

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 cases occurred one or more of the risk factors that lead to EPH, divided equally across the two groups above. The main two types of surgery are a more frequent subtotal hysterectomy, which is the preferred type of EPH as it takes less time and is associated with fewer complications, and a total hysterectomy. The majority of procedures were performed at patients over 35 years old (9 of 12, with a median age of 31,16 (ranging from 21 to 44 years old. The most important risk factor present across the lot was multiparity (11 from 12, with cicatricial uterus being the second one (4 of 12. ICU median time was 4,5 days (ranging from 3 to 15 days, with a median blood transfusion necessity of around 2,4 I.U per patient. There were no mother or newborn reported deaths, neither PTSD following EPH.EPH is a procedure performed as last-resort, life-saving surgery, leaving no time for mental preparation of the patients. This may predispose to negative psychological outcomes, especially because they are not part of decision-making process due to the emergency character of hysterectomy.

  12. Ewing sarcoma of the bone in children under 6 years of age.

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    Maria Antonietta De Ioris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. METHODS: The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23% patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58-83% and 72% (95% CI 57-83% for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17-60% and 21% (95% CI 5-45% for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01, while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P = 0.002. In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000-2008 were 89% (95% CI 71-96% and 86% (95% CI 66-94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

  13. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

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    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  14. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  15. Observing the Interstellar Medium Flow over the Past 6 Years with IBEX-Lo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, T.; Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Wurz, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed the interstellar neutral (ISN) gas flow over the past 6 years during the winter/spring when the Earth's motion opposes the ISN flow direction. Since IBEX observes near the perihelion of the interstellar atom trajectories, we are able to use an analytical model (Lee et al. 2012) based upon orbital mechanics to determine characteristics of the interstellar flow. The interstellar inflow latitude, velocity, and temperature are coupled to the inflow longitude and are restricted by the IBEX observations to a narrow valley in this parameter space (McComas et al. 2012). In our original analysis we found that the small spacecraft spin axis pointing out of the ecliptic plane had a significant influence on the determination of the ISN inflow vector (Möbius et al. 2012; Bzowski et al. 2012). Introducing the spacecraft spin axis tilt into the analytical model has shown that IBEX observations with various spin axis tilt orientations can help restrict the natural degeneracy of the ISN flow parameters as a function of inflow longitude. The IBEX operations team was able to successfully point the spin axis to be in the ecliptic during the 2012 and 2013 seasons and about 5 degrees below the ecliptic during the 2014 season. With this robust data set we are able to further test and develop the analytical model while producing a more comprehensive analysis of the ISN Flow parameters. We found that in its current implementation the analytical model describes the ISN flow most precisely for the spin axis orientation exactly in the ecliptic. This analysis refines the derived ISN flow parameters with a possible reconciliation between velocity vectors found with IBEX and Ulysses, but at a substantially higher temperature than previously reported.

  16. Detection of CMV DNA in the perilymph of a 6-year-old boy with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, Ina; Soetens, Oriane; Vleurinck, Leen; Gordts, Frans; Leus, Astrid; Naessens, Anne

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who received a cochlear implant for profound sensorineural hearing loss after being born with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Even after 6 years, CMV DNA was still found in the perilymph of the cochlea. Our case shows that CMV DNA can be present in the cochlea years after congenital CMV infection, and it can explain why progressive and/or late-onset hearing loss occurs in these children. PMID:27304443

  17. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  18. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  19. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  20. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: disease control and quality of life at 6 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may yield disease control for prostate cancer in a brief, hypofractionated treatment regimen without increasing treatment toxicity. Our report presents a 6-year update from 304 low- (n = 211), intermediate- (n = 81), and high-risk (n = 12) prostate cancer patients who received CyberKnife SBRT. The median PSA at presentation was 5.8 ng/ml. Fifty-seven patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for up to one year. The first 50 patients received a total dose of 35 Gy in 5 fractions of 7 Gy. The subsequent 254 patients received a total dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy. Toxicity was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary and rectal toxicity scale. Biochemical failure was assessed using the nadir + 2 definition. No patients experienced Grade III or IV acute complications. Fewer than 5% of patients experienced any acute Grade II urinary or rectal toxicities. Late urinary Grade II complications were observed in 4% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 9% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Five (2%) late Grade III urinary toxicities occurred in patients who were treated with 36.25 Gy. Late Grade II rectal complications were observed in 2% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 5% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) scores initially decreased, but later returned to baseline values. An overall decrease of 20% in the sexual QOL score was observed. QOL in each domain was not differentially affected by dose. For patients that were potent prior to treatment, 75% stated that they remained sexually potent. Actuarial 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 97% for low-risk, 90.7% for intermediate-risk, and 74.1% for high-risk patients. PSA fell to a median of 0.12 ng/ml at 5 years; dose did not influence median PSA levels. In this large series with long-term follow-up, we found excellent biochemical control rates and

  1. Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L A de Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI or waist circumference (WC. METHOD: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5-6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n=2,008; blood n=1,300, African descent (n=199; blood n=105, Turkish (n=108; blood n=57 and Moroccan (n=194; blood n=94. Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.36 and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03-0.16 compared to Dutch children (reference group. Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25-3.54, DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11-4.13, glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00-0.25 and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02-0.25. Higher BMI values were found in all non-Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53-1.03 kg/m(2 and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99-2.38 and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11-2.19 children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

  2. Antitumor Immunity and Dietary Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise R. Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which natural dietary compounds exert their antitumor effects have been the focus of a large number of research efforts in recent years. Induction of apoptosis by inhibition of cell proliferative pathways is one of the common means of cell death employed by these dietary compounds. However, agents that can activate an antitumor immune response in addition to a chemotherapeutic effect may be useful adjuvants or alternative therapies for the treatment of cancer. The focus of this review is to highlight representative dietary compounds, namely Withania somnifera, Panax ginseng, curcumin and resveratrol with special emphasis on their antitumor immune mechanism of action. Each of these dietary compounds and their sources has a history of safe human use as food or in herbal medicine traditions, potentially making them ideal therapeutics. Here we report the recent advances in the cellular immune mechanisms utilized by these compounds to induce antitumor immunity. Taken together, these findings provide a new perspective for exploiting novel dietary compounds as chemoimmunotherapeutic anti-cancer agents.

  3. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  4. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in...... relation to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors...... involved and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of...

  5. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  6. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    -surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal...... lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed...

  7. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, J.S. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Aust-Agder, Sykehusvn 1, N-4800 Arendal (Norway); Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O. [MR Center, Medical Section, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway); Vik, T. [Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim (Norway); Brubakk, A.M. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-06-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  8. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test ...

  9. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year Children

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Mostafavi; Vahid Ziaee; Hakimeh Akbari; Samaneh Haji-Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing.Methods: In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test...

  10. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Castetbon Katia; Andreyeva Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2...

  11. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  12. Sperm banking for male reproductive preservation: a 6-year retrospective multi-centre study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Zong; Yao, Kang-Shou; Xu, Peng; Huang, Yi-Ran; Li, Zheng

    2010-05-01

    Sperm banking can preserve male fertility effectively, but the current conditions of sperm cryopreservation in China have not been investigated. This retrospective investigation was based on data collected at multiple centres in China from January 2003 to December 2008. The collected data included urogenital history, indication for cryopreservation, semen parameters, use rate, type of assisted reproductive technique (ART) treatment and pregnancy outcome. The study population included 1 548 males who had banked their semen during the study period at one of the clinics indicated above. Approximately 1.9% (30/1 548) of the cryopreserved semen samples were collected from cancer patients; about 88.8% (1 374/1 548) of the patients had banked their semen for ART and 8.6% (134/1 548) had a male infertility disease (such as anejaculation, severe oligozoospermia and obstructive azoospermia). The total use rate of cryopreserved semen was 22.7% (352/1 548), with 119 live births. The cancer group use rate was 6.7% (2/30), with one live birth by intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI). The ART group use rate was 23.2% (319/1 374), with 106 live births. The reproductive disease group use rate was 23.1% (31/134), with 12 live births. The semen parameters in each category varied; the cancer patient and infertility disease groups had poor semen quality. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI were the most common ART treatments for cryopreserved sperm. Semen cryopreservation as a salvage method is effective, but in many conditions it is underutilized, especially in cancer patients. Lack of awareness, urgency of cancer treatment and financial constraints are the main causes of the low access rate. The concept of fertility preservation should be popularized to make better use of this medical service in China. PMID:20348941

  13. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  14. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  15. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deleflie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2, supposed to be constant (secular, and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.Key words. secular variation of J2, 18.6 year tide, mean orbital motione

  16. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma: A Novel Report from Nigeria in a 6-Year-Old Girl, and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Ohegbulam, Samuel; Ndubuisi, Chika; Okwunodulu, Okwuoma; Okorie, Emeka; Nkwerem, Sunday; Okonkwo, Onyiye; Aniume, Onyeka; Nnamani, Sunday; Nwokoro, Onyekachi; Eni, Anthony; Nwideyi, Isaiah; Nzegwu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature. PMID:27746877

  17. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma: a novel report from Nigeria in a 6-year-old girl, and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Nzegwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature.

  18. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  19. Dietary Behaviors Predict Glycemic Control in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Nansel, Tonja; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Wysocki, Tim; Laffel, Lori M. B.; ,

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between dietary adherence and glycemic control among youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 119 youth aged 9–14 years (mean ± SD 12.1 ± 1.6 years) with diabetes duration ≥1 year (5.4 ± 3.1 years). Dietary adherence was assessed using the Diabetes Self-Management Profile diet domain. Higher score defined greater dietary adherence. Glycemic control was determined by A1C. RESULTS—Dietary adherenc...

  20. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Biomarkers predicting development of atopic disease are needed for targeted preventive measures and to study if disease pathology may be active prior to onset of symptoms. Objective To investigate whether eosinophil protein-X, leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (prostaglandin...... D2 metabolite) assessed in urine from healthy at-risk neonates precede development of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life. Methods We measured eosinophil protein-X (N=369), leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 (N=367), and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (N=366) in urine from 1-month-old children participating...... untill age 6 years. Associations between urinary biomarkers and development of atopic traits were investigated using general estimating equations, logistic regression and Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results Eosinophil protein-X in the urine of the asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates...

  1. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    OpenAIRE

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice; Zahra, Jesmond; Debbie A Lawlor

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children’s physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children.Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5 to 6 year-old children’s objectively-assessed physical activity.Methods: 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurtu...

  2. The socio-emotional responses to ostracism of 4-6 years children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sham, Oi-tao, Tiffany; 沈愛道

    2014-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have social-communication deficits and are often targets of bullying or ostracism. However, in the past, little has been done to examine these children’s response to negative social interactions. This study investigated how children with Autism Spectrum Disorder detect and respond to ostracism. Thirty 4-6 years old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were either included or excluded via an online ball-tossing game. Participant’s detection, feel...

  3. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees, whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest. Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1 decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2 increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world.

  4. Changes in cortical thickness in 6-year-old children open their mind to a global vision of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Nicolas; Leroux, Elise; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier; Simon, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees), whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest). Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1) decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2) increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness) and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness) cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world. PMID:25110675

  5. Oral health in 4-6 years children with cleft lip/palate: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oro-facial clefts are a major public health problem. Children with clefts rarely escape dental complications. Aims: This study was to determine differences in the dental caries experience, gingival health, and prevalence malocclusion, enamel defects and oral mucosal lesions among 4-6 year old children with and without cleft in Panchkula. Materials and Methods: The sampling frame consisted of 4-6 year old children with clefts visiting Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Panchkula, India. As a control group an age (±3 months and gender-matched sample from the same geographical areas were recruited. Dental caries status, gingival health status, developmental defect of enamel, malocclusion and oral mucosal health were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: Significant differences in dental caries and gingival health status were found between children with and without cleft. Anterior open-bite, increased overjet and oral mucosal lesions (P 0.05. Conclusion: Differences of oral health status exist among 4-6 year old children with and without clefts. Children fare worse in terms of dental caries, gingival health, oral mucosal health and malocclusion.

  6. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites in child and adult populations in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtiaga, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Alonso, Ana; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2013-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additive in food. The aim of this study was to assess dietary sulphite intake in adults aged 35-65 years and in children aged 4-18 years living in the Basque Country, northern Spain. We determined sulphite concentrations in 909 samples covering 16 food types. The maximum permitted levels were exceeded in 17% of samples. Making recommended assumptions for non-quantifiable results, estimates of mean lower and upper bounds were calculated for sulphite concentrations in each food type. These sulphite data were combined with consumption data derived from 8417 adults from the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Gipuzkoa, recruited in 1992-1995 using a diet history method, and 1055 children from the Basque Country Nutrition Children Survey, conducted in 2004-2005 using two 24-h recall questionnaires to assess diet. The results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The mean dietary exposure to sulphites was 0.08 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, only 11% of the ADI in the overall group of children (4-18 years old), but the acceptable intake was exceeded by 4% of 4-6 year olds. For the adults (35-65 years old), the mean dietary exposure was 0.31 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, 45% of the ADI, but the acceptable intake was exceeded in 14.6% of cases. The major contributing foods were minced meat and other meat products for children and wine for adults.

  7. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  8. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  9. Changes in levels of haemoglobin A1c during the first 6 years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, V.; Hansen, Lars Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the variability in levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during the first six years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes in relation to possible predictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample from general practice of 581 newly diagnosed...... the first 6 years after the diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes, changes in levels of HbA(1c) show considerable inter-individual variability with age as the only long-term predictor. The results indicate that it is important to monitor changes in HbA(1c) more closely and intensify treatment of those often...

  10. Waist circumference compared with other obesity parameters as determinants of coronary artery disease in essential hypertension: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Tsioufis, Costas; Mazaraki, Anastasia; Liatakis, Ioannis; Koutra, Evaggelia; Kordalis, Athanasios; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Flessas, Dimitrios; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive role of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) for the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a cohort of essential hypertensive patients. We followed up 2266 essential hypertensive individuals (mean age, 57.8 years; males, 1083; office blood pressure (BP), 143/89 mm Hg) who were free of cardiovascular disease for a mean period of 6 years. All subjects had at least one annual visit and, at baseline, underwent blood sampling and a complete echocardiographic study to determine the left ventricular (LV) mass index. CAD was defined as a history of myocardial infarction or significant coronary artery stenosis that was revealed by angiography or a coronary revascularization procedure. The incidence of CAD throughout the follow-up period was 2.33%. Hypertensive individuals who developed CAD (n=53) had a greater baseline WC (101.1±11.7 vs. 96.4±12 cm, P=0.005), WHR (0.94±0.07 vs. 0.89±0.08 cm, Pobesity.

  11. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  12. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. PMID:25644386

  13. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  14. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  15. Pronounced lipoatrophy in HIV-infected men receiving HAART for more than 6 years compared with the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, AB; Lindegaard, B; Obel, N;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV......-infected men who had received HAART for at least 6 years and 34 HIV-negative men. Regional body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting metabolic parameters were obtained. Associations between regional body fat distribution and metabolic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: HIV......-infected patients and controls did not differ with regard to height and lean body mass. Compared with controls, HIV-infected men had reduced total fat mass (median 12.3 versus 19.2 kg, P

  16. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth.

  17. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne;

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...... established and described previously2. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected aged, the infants received 3 different types of nutrition: A: human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier C: preterm formula. At 6 years of age, a dexa scan was performed......: It seems that HM is the preferable nutrition for preterm born children if a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass is regarded optimal. The results are not all significant, which might be due to the small sample size. Investigations of the remaining infants are awaited....

  18. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in Shiraz, Iran: a 6-Year- Study of 768 Patients (2004-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabion HR.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Information about etiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma is important for prevention and appropriate treatments of such injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to conduct an analysis of maxillofacial injuries transferred and/or referred to the department of maxillofacial Surgery at Chamran emergency hospital, Shiraz, over a 6-year-period with special reference to age, gender, occupation, date, type, site, etiology and clinical management. Materials and Method: The data for this study were collected and reviewed retrospec-tively from the records and radiographs of 768 patients who were treated for maxillofacial trauma in the department of maxillofacial surgery at the Shiraz Chamran Emergency Hospital, Iran, between 2004 and 2010. Results: A total of 730 of the subjects were the patients with fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was 26.6± 12.6 years, ranging from 2 to 81 years. Traffic accident was the most frequent etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures irrespective of gender (69.9% for men and 54.2% for women, whereas the second most frequent cause of injuries was falling down (9.8% for men and 21.5% for women .The other etiologies were assault (5.2%, sport related injuries (1.3% and firearm injuries (1%. Regarding the head injuries in patients with maxillofacial fractures, brain contusion was seen in 227(29.6% patients and 13.5% of patients had lacerations in the facial soft tissue. The monthly distribution peaked in October, with 81 cases (10.5%, which seems to have been due to schools opening. The next highest incidence was in December, with 80 cases (10.4%, probably because of the changing weather's effect on road traffic. Conclusion: Isolated mandibular fracture due to the road traffic accident was the most common type of maxillofacial injuries in the city of Shiraz.

  20. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p reintegration of accident victims. PMID:26687330

  1. Bohmian Histories and Decoherent Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories -- sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their ...

  2. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  3. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  4. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  5. An Intervention Using Graduated Extinction to Decrease Bed-Sharing in 2- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberds-Roach, David L.; Short, Mary B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-case-design experiment examined an intervention to decrease bed-sharing in children, ages 2 through 6. Three sessions were conducted with each parent. At the first session, parents described bed-sharing history and began collecting baseline data. At the second session, parents were instructed to employ the intervention. At the third…

  6. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical pattern and causative agents--a 6 year series from Chandigarh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the different clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR and to determine the causative drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective, hospital based study was carried out over a period of 6 years recording various cutaneous ADR. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with cutaneous ADR were enrolled in the study. The most common types of cutaneous ADR patterns were maculopapular rash (34.6%, fixed drug eruption (FDE (30% and urticaria (14%. The drugs most often incriminated for the various cutaneous ADR were antimicrobials (42.6%, anticonvulsants (22.2% and NSAIDs (18%. Anticonvulsants were implicated in 41.6% of maculopapular rashes. Sulfonamides accounted for 43.3% and NSAIDs for 30.7% of FDE. Urticaria was caused mainly by NSAIDs(24.3% and penicillins(20%. Anticonvulsants were responsible for 43.8% of life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pattern and drugs causing cutaneous ADR are similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Cutaneous ADR patterns and the drugs causing various reactions are changing every year, which may be due to the emergence of newer molecules and changing trends in the use of drugs.

  7. The 3-6-year results of a modular noncemented low-bending stiffness hip implant. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H U

    1993-06-01

    A review of the 3-6-year clinical and radiographic results of a modular noncemented stem has been carried out. This is a three-part stem consisting of a head, stem, and proximal sleeve. The stems are split distally like a clothespin in the coronal plane to reduce bending stiffness. No mechanical failures have occurred, including no bead separation from the single-layer porous-coated taper lock sleeves. Of the 48 cases, 13 had smooth stems distally while the rest were fluted. Five of the fluted stems were solid, that is, nonsplit. Clinical results are 93.7% excellent, 4.2% good, and 2.1% poor with the Harris hip rating. There have been no revisions. Thigh pain incidence with the distal split stem was 4.4%. Radiographic follow-up evaluations revealed nonprogressive radiolucency around one of the ingrowth sleeves. When inserted in varus the smooth stems developed some radiolucency around the distal end. Fluting of the stem appeared to prevent this. PMID:8326303

  8. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  9. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eJovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children’s judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by 40%. Neither the adults’ nor the children’s discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children’s visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children’s and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant.

  10. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  11. The Effect of Distraction Technique on the Pain of Dressing Change among 3-6 Year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kaheni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn dressings, debridement, surgical incisions, skin grafting and physical therapy are some of painful treatments of burn. According to the studies, distraction techniques have a significant effect on patients’ pain. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of distraction on pain of dressing change in second degree burn in 3-6 year-old children. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial study, was conducted on 80 hospitalized children with second degree burn in 2015. Playing a video computer game for children during the dressing change procedure was the intervention for the interventional group. Also the intensity of pain was measured by behavioral pain scale for children (FLCC scale during dressing. This scale was completed for patients without no intervention in the control group during dressing. Results Pain intensity mean in the interventional group (2.575 ± 1.807 had significant changes in comparison with the control group (8.025 ± 1.187 (P

  12. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  13. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  15. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello-Moura ACV

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient.

  16. Sedentary behaviour, visceral fat accumulation and cardiometabolic risk in adults: a 6-year longitudinal study from the Quebec Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour has recently emerged as a unique risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality. One factor that may explain this relationship is visceral adiposity, which is prospectively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. The objective of the present study was to determine whether sedentary behaviour was associated with increased accumulation of visceral fat or other deleterious changes in cardiometabolic risk over a 6-year follow-up period among adult participants in the Quebec Family Study. METHODS: The current study included 123 men and 153 women between the ages of 18 and 65. Total sedentary time and physical activity were assessed by self-report questionnaire. Cross-sectional areas of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were assessed using computed tomography. Cardiometabolic biomarkers including fasting insulin, glucose, blood lipids, HOMA-Insulin Resistance, and oral glucose tolerance were also measured. All variables of interest were collected at both baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, baseline BMI, physical activity, energy intake, smoking, education, income and menopausal status, baseline sedentary behaviour was not associated with changes in visceral adiposity or any other marker of cardiometabolic risk. In the longitudinal model which adjusted for all studied covariates, every 15-minute increase in sedentary behaviour from baseline to follow-up was associated with a 0.13 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI = 0.02, 0.25. However, there was no association between changes in sedentary behaviour and changes in visceral adiposity or other markers of cardiometabolic risk. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that neither baseline sedentary behaviour nor changes in sedentary behaviour are associated with longitudinal changes in visceral adiposity in adult men and women. With the exception of waist circumference, the present study did

  17. Ozone variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere from the first 6 years of IASI observations (2008-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespes, Catherine; Hurtmans, Daniel; Emmons, Louisa K.; Safieddine, Sarah; Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we assess how daily ozone (O3) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp-A platform can contribute to the analyses of the processes driving O3 variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere and, in the future, to the monitoring of long-term trends. The temporal evolution of O3 during the first 6 years of IASI (2008-2013) operation is investigated with multivariate regressions separately in four different layers (ground-300, 300-150, 150-25, 25-3 hPa), by adjusting to the daily time series averaged in 20° zonal bands, seasonal and linear trend terms along with important geophysical drivers of O3 variation (e.g. solar flux, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)). The regression model is shown to perform generally very well with a strong dominance of the annual harmonic terms and significant contributions from O3 drivers, in particular in the equatorial region where the QBO and the solar flux contribution dominate. More particularly, despite the short period of the IASI data set available up to now, two noticeable statistically significant apparent trends are inferred from the daily IASI measurements: a positive trend in the upper stratosphere (e.g. 1.74 ± 0.77 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° S), which is consistent with other studies suggesting a turnaround for stratospheric O3 recovery, and a negative trend in the troposphere at the mid-latitudes and high northern latitudes (e.g. -0.26 ± 0.11 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° N), especially during summer and probably linked to the impact of decreasing ozone precursor emissions. The impact of the high temporal sampling of IASI on the uncertainty in the determination of O3 trend has been further explored by performing multivariate regressions on IASI monthly averages and on ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements.

  18. Infliximab therapy for moderately severe Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis: a retrospective comparison over 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alzafiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raed Alzafiri1, Christina A Holcroft2, Paula Malolepszy1, Albert Cohen1, Andrew Szilagyi11Jewish General Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Infliximab has shown benefit in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC.Objective: Evaluation of long-term outcome of therapy for both diseases.Methods: We analyzed retrospectively patients treated at infusion centers from one institution. Demographic, laboratory parameters leading up to biologic therapy and the subsequent pattern of outcomes in either disease were established as a database. Initial failure, subsequent need to change therapy, or need to adjust therapy were evaluated. Kruskal–Wallis (nonparametric tests to compare two groups and Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis were used to compare outcomes.Results: Over approximately 6 years, 71 CD and 26 UC patients received 999 and 215 infusions, respectively, for a median of 62 months. Of these, 17% for CD and 19% for UC patients were primary failures. Following the start of infliximab, 18% of CD and 11% of UC patients required stoppage and switching to another type of therapy. In either CD or UC patients, 54% or 62%, respectively, continued therapy without the need to change to other treatments. Few serious side effects were noted. No important statistically significant differences in treatment patterns or outcome were observed between the groups.Discussion: Long-term treatment of both inflammatory bowel diseases reflects outcomes of clinical trials.Conclusions: This study emphasizes similarities between CD and UC and reports therapeutic success for an extended time.Keywords: infliximab, inflammatory bowel diseases

  19. Study of occlusal characteristics of primary dentition and the prevalence of maloclusion in 4 to 6 years old children in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhayya, Deepak P.; Shyagali, Tarulatha R.; Dixit, Uma B.; Shivaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background : To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and to determine the different occlusal characteristics in primary dentition of 4 to 6 years old children in India. Materials and Methods : The target population comprised 4 to 6 years old children attending different nursery, kindergarten and primary schools of Bagalkot city. Stratified cluster random sampling procedure was executed to collect the representative sample. Each subject was assessed for various occlusal characteristics. ...

  20. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  1. Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern:Findings from NHANES Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suthat; Liangpunsakul

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the association between macronutrient dietary patterns and alcohol consumption using the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey METHODS:A total of 9877 subjects(5144 males) constituted the study cohort.Dietary interviews were conducted with all examinees by a trained dietary interviewer in a mobile examination center(MEC).Subjects reported all foods and beverages consumed except plain drinking water for the previous 24-h time period.Physical examination and history of alcoho...

  2. Dietary patterns are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a representative study population of German adults

    OpenAIRE

    Heidemann, Christin; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Richter, Almut; Mensink, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Studies that investigated complex actual eating behaviours of the general population and their relation to cardiometabolic risk markers are sparse. We aimed to identify dietary patterns within a nationally representative sample of 4025 German adults by factor analysis based on validated dietary history interviews. Furthermore, we evaluated associations of the derived dietary patterns with abnormalities clustered within the metabolic syndrome and related metabolic markers by logistic regressio...

  3. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  4. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the “urinary lithogenic risk factors” such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled tria...

  5. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  6. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  7. 上海市0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖的现状及流行变化趋势%The status and variation tendency of prevalence of simple obesity among the children aged 0~6 years old in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 魏梅; 姚国英; 方秉华

    2011-01-01

    目的:对上海市儿童单纯性肥胖症流行病学调查资料进行分析,以掌握0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖症发展的变化规律,并探讨儿童单纯性肥胖症的影响因素.方法:采用分阶段、不等比例、随机整群抽样的方法,3岁以下以居委会为单位,3~6岁以幼儿园为单位整群抽样,原则上与1995年调查点一致.对402名单纯性肥胖儿童和394名配对健康儿童的体格测量值、个人史、喂养和饮食习惯、生活习惯、家庭情况和家长认知等方面信息进行分析,并与1996年、1986年,以及2006年全国九市调查结果相比较.结果:上海儿童单纯性肥胖检小率为3.26%,20年间增长6.76倍,增长主要发生在前10年.儿童单纯性肥胖的检出率随年龄增长而呈上升趋势,4岁后开始明显增高,6岁组为发病高峰,其发病率为7.84%.0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖发生率男童高于女童,以轻度为主,占肥胖儿童总数的61.68%.随着儿童年龄的增长,肥胖度加重.儿童肥胖与主要照看人、进食速度、摄食蔬菜等因素相关.结论:随着社会经济的发展,儿童肥胖的发生率呈上升趋势.应加强对儿童期肥胖的研究和干预工作.%Objective: To analyze the epidemiological survey data of simple obesity among the children in Shanghai, in order to grasp the change regularity of simple obesity among the children aged 0 ~ 6 years old, and explore the effect factors of simple obesity among children.Methods: A disproportionate stratified randomized cluster sampling method was used in the study; for the children under 3 years,a neighborhood committee was a survey unit, for the children aged 3 ~6 years old, a kindergarten was a unit, which were consistent with the survey points in 1995.The data including measured values of physical examination, individual histories, feeding and dietary habits, living habits, family situations and cognitive levels of parents were analyzed among 402 children with simple

  8. Dietary Intake Research in Asian Children: Significance and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Food intake studies have a long history. However, until a few decades ago, there was limited quantitative data on feeding patterns and food intake in infants and children living in South Asia. The recent SEANUT study and MING study have provided several new insights into the dietary patterns of children living in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The complexity and variety of Asian diets makes the collation of dietary information a challenge. The double burden of under-nutrition and over-nutrition is prevalent in many Asian countries. Compared to obesity, stunting is widespread in South East Asia. Our future challenge is to develop food intake assessment techniques which can be refined and made available as a common dietary assessment tool across this region. Successful nutritional intervention can only be achieved if we know what Asian children eat. Dietary intake research will be a key factor in realizing our goal to eradicate malnutrition in this region. PMID:26598852

  9. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  10. Learning history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Hilary speaks here with Professor Rik Peters an historian-philosopher who develops the Learning History as a method for engaging with socially relevant action in Holland. Thinking of history as a way to bridge to practical scenario planning, he is helping cities in Holland grapple with integration o

  11. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  12. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  13. Is Imaging Time Between two Tc 99m DMSA Scans Sufficient for Reporting as Renal Parenchymal Scarring? Healed Parenchymal Renal Defect After 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to report a healed renal parenchymal defect after 6 years in a 9-year-old girl who was being followed for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. The first UTI was at the age of two. She was being followed with ultrasonography, urine analysis and urine culture since the first UTI. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scintigraphy was repeated four times up to the present day. She had a renal parenchymal defect reported as parenchymal scarring, which healed 6 years after the first DMSA scintigraphy.

  14. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    sensitivity and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were found. In conclusion, results from this PhD thesis suggest that diets prepared by low heat may reduce risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, it can currently not be concluded that AGEs are responsible...... complications. A potential pathophysiological role of dietary AGEs in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been discussed, as the contribution of dietary AGEs has been estimated to be larger than the amount of endogenously formed AGEs. Furthermore, the increased mortality associated with type 2...... diabetes and cardiovascular disease underlines the importance of identifying possible risk factors in the Western lifestyle. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if intake of dietary AGEs increases risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In an acute meal study, effects...

  15. Diet Redux: Outcomes from Reattempting Dietary Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Doerrer, Sarah C; Winesett, Steven P; Turner, Zahava; Henry, Bobbie J; Bessone, Stacey; Stanfield, Anthony; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2016-07-01

    The outcome for patients attempting dietary therapy for epilepsy a second time is unknown. Twenty-six subjects treated with the ketogenic diet as children who then began either the ketogenic diet or a Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) at least 6 months later were evaluated. The mean age at the first diet trial was 5.6 years and at the second diet trial was 11.5 years. Most restarted dietary therapy because of persistent seizures (65%) or recurrence after seizure freedom (19%). Overall, 77% had a ≥50% seizure reduction with the first diet, and 50% with the second diet, P = .04. Individual subject responses were largely similar, with 14 (54%) having identical seizure reduction both times, 9 worse (35%) with the second attempt, and 3 (16%) improved. The second diet trial was more likely to lead to >50% seizure reduction if the first trial was started at a later age (7.4 vs 3.9 years, P = .04).

  16. Promoting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  17. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products ...

  18. Analysing Mothers' Self-Efficacy Perception towards Parenting in Relation to Peer Relationships of 5-6 Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secer, Zarife; Gulay Ogelman, Hulya; Onder, Alev; Berengi, Semra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-efficacy perception of mothers' towards parenting on the peer relations of children aged between 5 and 6. The sample group of this study comprised of 200, 5-6 year old children (girls = 96, boys = 104), and their mothers. The Ladd and Profilet Child Behaviour Scale, the Peer…

  19. The Effect Inclusive Education Practice during Preschool Has on the Peer Relations and Social Skills of 5-6-Year Olds with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…

  20. Individual Differences in Growth in Executive Function across the Transition to School Predict Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors and Self-Perceived Academic Success at 6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Building on an existing latent variable analysis of executive function (EF) in children (N=191, 57% boys and 43% girls) making the transition to school (Hughes et al. (2010), "Developmental Neuropsychology", vol. 35, pp. 20-36), the current study both documented average developmental improvements from 4 to 6 years of age and examined individual…

  1. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  2. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  3. Changes in blood sugar content of dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation for 6 years. [Combined effects of physical stress, heat stress, and acute radiation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhunov, A.A.

    1978-10-26

    There have not been many studies of blood sugar concentration in animals exposed to chronic gamma radiation, and the results thereof are contradictory. Therefore, data on blood sugar levels in dogs during a 6-year exposure to gamma radiation and after discontinuation thereof are reported.

  4. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  5. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  6. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  7. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could...... influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  8. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  9. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  10. Dietary Supplements Use and Related Factors of Preschoolers in 3 Korean Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye Sil; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use, investigate the related factors associated with DS use among preschoolers and support the adequate nutrition. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey of mothers of children aged between 1 and 6 years who visited pediatric clinics in 3 Korean cities (Jeonju, Suncheon, Jeongeup) between October and November 2012 at Presbyterian Medical Center. The responses from 929 questionnaires were analyzed. Results Approximately 45.1% o...

  11. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  12. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  13. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  14. Both deterioration and improvement in activities of daily living are related to falls: a 6-year follow-up of the general elderly population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenhagen M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Stenhagen, Henrik Ekström, Eva Nordell, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Objectives: To determine the relationship between long-term change in activities of daily living (ADL and falls in the elderly and to identify characteristics of groups at risk for falls.Methods: This was a 6-year, prospective cohort study using data from the Good Aging in Skåne study in southern Sweden, involving 1,540 elderly subjects, including the oldest-old (age, 60–93 years. The subjects were recruited from the general population. ADL was measured at a baseline and follow-up assessment, using Sonn and Åsberg’s revised scale and the ADL staircase. Falls were recorded in a period of 6 months before the follow-up assessment. The association between falls and change in ADL was calculated using adjusted, multiple logistic regression analysis and presented in odds ratios (ORs.Results: Thirteen percent of the study population reported one or several falls in the measured period. Over the course of 6 years, one in four participants changed their ADL status, and parts of this category had an increased risk for falls compared with those who stayed independent in ADL or who had no change in the ADL staircase. Groups with different characteristics had a prominent risk for falls: those with a reduction of two to eight steps in the ADL staircase (OR, 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–10.11 and those becoming independent from dependency in instrumental ADL (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.89–9.00. The former group had advanced age with a greater burden of cognitive impairment, gait disability, arrhythmia, and fall risk medications. The latter group had a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease and low walking speed. Conclusion: Both deterioration and improvement in ADL over the course of 6 years increased the risk for falls in a general elderly population

  15. The formation of bases of culture of movement at children of 3–6 years old by means of rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Riabchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to open the versatility of a concept of culture as a phenomena and as a process which course provides the preservation of the most significant viable social relations conformably to a concept of culture of movements of children of 3-6 years old. Material and Methods: the analysis of special scientific literature in which theoretical and practical aspects of the creation of physical culture are stated. Results: questions of the creation of physical training of children of 3–6 years old taking into account their individual physical developments are considered. The most important provisions are noted in the structure of physical culture which doesn’t allow solving this problem with a full scientific validity now. Conclusions: the basic provisions are allocated which decision is a paramount task for the creation of the evidence-based system of physical training of children of the advanced preschool age.

  16. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population......-based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... are among the age groups with the highest use. Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use. Low parental educational level was associated with increased antibiotic use. Parents' income or employment status was not found to be associated with high antibiotic use....

  17. Residual β-Cell Function 3 to 6 Years After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Sand; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo determine the prevalence of residual -cell function (RBF) in children after 3-6 years of type 1 diabetes, and to examine the association between RBF and incidence of severe hypoglycemia, glycemic control, and insulin requirements.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 342 children (173...... boys) 4.8-18.9 years of age with type 1 diabetes for 3-6 years were included. RBF was assessed by testing meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations. Information regarding severe hypoglycemia within the past year, current HbA(1c), and daily insulin requirements was retrieved from the medical records....../mol]; P 0.2 nmol/L (mean +/- SE: 1.07 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.93 +/- 0.07 units/kg/day; P diabetes. Children with RBF...

  18. Dietary Macronutrients and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Glenda; Murray, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of macronutrient diets on sleep quantity and quality. Using a repeated-measures, randomized crossover study design, 36 young adults served as their own control, and consumed high protein, carbohydrate, fat, and control diets. Treatment orders were counterbalanced across the dietary groups. Following consumption of the study diets, sleep measures were examined for within-subject differences. Fatty acid intakes and serum lipids were further analyzed for differences. Sleep actigraphs indicated wake times and wake minutes (after sleep onset) were significantly different when comparing consumption of macronutrient diets and a control diet. Post hoc testing indicated high carbohydrate intakes were associated with significantly shorter (p Sleep Quality Index© post hoc results indicated high fat intake was associated with significantly better (p sleep in comparison with the other diets. These results highlight the effects that dietary manipulations may have on sleep. PMID:27170039

  19. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period

    OpenAIRE

    POSTEC, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    International audience Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarcha...

  20. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    OpenAIRE

    Anne ePostec; Marianne eQuéméneur; Méline eBes; Nan eMei; Fatma eBenaïssa; Claude ePayri; Christophe eMonnin; Bernard ePelletier; Linda eGuentas; Bernard eOllivier; Emmanuelle eGérard; Céline ePisapia; Martine eGérard; Bénédicte eMénez; Gaël eErauso

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal ...

  1. Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm due to acute pancreatitis in a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with L-aspariginase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Cæcilie Crawley; Laursen, Christian B; Dalby, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare phenomenon in children but its incidence seems to be increasing. In children, it is generally caused due to systemic illness, biliary disease, trauma, idiopathy and side effects of medicines like L-aspariginase. Acute pancreatitis is difficult to diagnose in children...... pseudoaneurysm due to acute pancreatitis in a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with L-aspariginase. He presented with fever, irritability and pain in his left groin region....

  2. Clinical manifestations of Hirschsprung’s disease: A 6-year course review on admitted patients in Guilan, north Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi, M.; F. Mansour-Ghanaei; R Jafarshad; Joukar, F; AH Bagherzadeh; F Tareh

    2007-01-01

    Background: Hirschsprung’s disease (H.D) is a congenital disease in which intestinal ganglionic cells are absent and can cause intestinal obstruction. The disease has various clinical manifestations and different lengths of bowel may be involved. Our aim was to study Hirschsprung’s clinical presentations and its rate of intestinal involvement in hospitalized patients in a 6-year course study in Guilan, north Province of Iran.Methods: We studied the patients with Hirschsprung’s referred to Gui...

  3. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074

  4. Academic Achievement Over Eight Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4–6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of...

  5. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakade Miyo; Akimitsu Osami; Wada Kai; Krejci Milada; Noji Teruki; Taniwaki Nozomi; Takeuchi Hitomi; Harada Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast) points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009) and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009) at breakfast. The positive an...

  6. Coordination of precision grip in 2–6 years-old children with autism spectrum disorders compared to children developing typically and children with developmental disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Jude David; Baranek, Grace T.; Chris eWiesen; Adrienne eMiao; Thorpe, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired motor coordination is prevalent in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and affects adaptive skills. Little is known about the development of motor patterns in young children with ASD between 2 and 6 years of age. The purpose of the current study was threefold: (1) to describe developmental correlates of motor coordination in children with ASD, (2) to identify the extent to which motor coordination deficits are unique to ASD by using a control group of children with other de...

  7. Dietary Teatment of Galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    H. Ehsani; M Kabiri

    1986-01-01

    For the time being, dietary treatment is the only available therapy for Galactosemia. This article indicates, with regard to the daily requirements of normal infants and children for protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals and vitamins, the possibilities of preparing appropriate diets for Galactosemic patients. Few instructions for preparing lactose and galactose free infant foods using MBF formula have been given. A list of foods not allowed for Galactosemic patients is also presented.

  8. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  9. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic f...

  10. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  11. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  12. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture. PMID:27585613

  13. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture.

  14. The development and evaluation of Persian rhyme awareness tasks for normal 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rhyme awareness is an important criterion for speech, language and writing processing. In Iran, there is no auditory tasks of rhyme awareness available for assessment of 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate Persian rhyme awareness tasks in 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: A hundred normal 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children (50 girls and 50 boys were randomly selected. The two rhyme awareness tasks of this study were rhyme detection and rhyme production. The validity and reliability of these tasks were studied by content validity index, intraclass correlation coefficient, and standard error of measurement. The correlation between tasks was studied by Pearson correlation and the mean scores of two sections were compared by easiness level method. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys were evaluated by independent t-test.Results: The results showed that the proposed tasks had appropriate validity and reliability. The ability of children in production section was significantly more than in detection section. The correlation of each of two sections with total tasks was significant (p0.05.Conclusions: The proposed tasks are appropriate for assessment of rhyme awareness skills with appropriate validity and reliability in both genders. Two Sections of the tasks had significant correlations and influence on together. The abilities of girls and boys were the same.

  15. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  16. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  17. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  18. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  19. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  20. Potted history

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  1. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  2. Dietary history and nutritional state in treated coeliac patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, B J; Bell, P M; Thomson, J M; Fee, D B; Wilson, E. A.; Love, A H

    1986-01-01

    The gluten content and nutritional adequacy of the diet of a group of adult coeliac patients supposedly following a gluten-free diet for at least one year were assessed. Results were considered in relation to the nutritional state of these patients, determined by anthropometric measurement, and the histological appearance of jejunal biopsies taken at the time of nutritional assessment. Imperfect gluten avoidance, mild malnutrition and mild histological abnormalities on jejunal biopsy were fre...

  3. Health effects of dietary fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Ötles; Selin Ozgoz

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water i...

  4. Dietary nitrate and nitrite: Benefits, risks, and evolving perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedale, Wendy; Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L

    2016-10-01

    Consumers have an illogical relationship with nitrite (and its precursor, nitrate) in food. Despite a long history of use, nitrite was nearly banned from use in foods in the 1970s due to health concerns related to the potential for carcinogenic nitrosamine formation. Changes in meat processing methods reduced those potential risks, and nitrite continued to be used in foods. Since then, two opposing movements continue to shape how consumers view dietary nitrate and nitrite. The discovery of the profound physiological importance of nitric oxide led to the realization that dietary nitrate contributes significantly to the nitrogen reservoir for nitric oxide formation. Numerous clinical studies have also demonstrated beneficial effects from dietary nitrate consumption, especially in vascular and metabolic health. However, the latest wave of consumer sentiment against food additives, the clean-label movement, has renewed consumer fear and avoidance of preservatives, including nitrite. Education is necessary but may not be sufficient to resolve this disconnect in consumer perception. PMID:26994928

  5. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  6. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs......In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  7. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became favour...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  8. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-yea...

  9. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet.The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1) modifying the average diet according to the Danish food based dietary guidelines, 2) and adjusting to ensure an iso-energy content and a nutrient content according to the Nordic Nutrient Recommendations. Af...

  10. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  11. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  12. Event-related brain potentials to change in the frequency and temporal structure of sounds in typically developing 5-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervast, Leena; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Zachau, Swantje; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Heinänen, Kaisu; Veijola, Mari; Heikkinen, Elisa; Suominen, Kalervo; Luotonen, Mirja; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-12-01

    The brain's ability to recognize different acoustic cues (e.g., frequency changes in rapid temporal succession) is important for speech perception and thus for successful language development. Here we report on distinct event-related potentials (ERPs) in 5-6-year-old children recorded in a passive oddball paradigm to repeated tone pair stimuli with a frequency change in the second tone in the pair, replicating earlier findings. An occasional insertion of a third tone within the tone pair generated a more merged pattern, which has not been reported previously in 5-6-year-old children. Both types of deviations elicited pre-attentive discriminative mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN) responses. Temporal principal component analysis (tPCA) showed a similar topographical pattern with fronto-central negativity for MMN and LDN. We also found a previously unreported discriminative response complex (P340-N440) at the temporal electrode sites at about 140 ms and 240 ms after the frequency deviance, which we suggest reflects a discriminative processing of frequency change. The P340 response was positive with a clear radial distribution preceding the fronto-central frequency MMN by about 30 ms. The results indicate that 5-6-year-old children can detect frequency change and the occasional insertion of an additional tone in sound pairs as reflected by MMN and LDN, even with quite short within-stimulus intervals (150 ms and 50 ms). Furthermore, MMN for these changes is preceded by another response to deviancy, temporal P340, which seems to reflect a parallel but earlier discriminatory process. PMID:26342552

  13. Intercommunication of anthropometric indexes and physical capabilities of children 4-6 years in prognostication of sporting results in a gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomazan А.А.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems and questions which are related to the process of selection of children (boys 4-6 years in the groups of initial preparation for employments by a sporting gymnastics are considered. Materials of the last publications are analyzed on this theme. The results of correlation anthropometric data and indexes of level of development of physical capabilities of children of this age group analysis are resulted in the article, with the purpose of determination of their perspective to employments by sport. More informing is certain for a selection to employments by a gymnastics morphological indexes of children of preschool age.

  14. A Case of Urethral Duplication Arising from the Posterior Urethra to the Scrotum with Urinary Stone in a 6-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Mori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a 6-year-old male with type IIA2 (Y-type using Effmann’s classification. The accessory urethra, in which a urinary stone existed, arose from the posterior urethra to the scrotum. Because of recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary discharge from the accessory urethra, surgical removal of the accessory urethra through a scrotal incision was performed. At 7-month postoperative follow-up the patient was completely free from urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection.

  15. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  16. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  17. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  18. Dietary sodium intake and the risk of airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, J.; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Knox, A; Wisniewski, A; Weiss, S.; Tattersfield, A

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors. METHODS--Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measure...

  19. Feasibility of Recruiting Families into a Heart Disease Prevention Program Based on Dietary Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Tracy L.; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Neil J. Spratt; Robin Callister; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, and program acceptability. Families were recruited into a pilot parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of a three month evidence-based dietary intervention, based on the Mediterranean ...

  20. Dietary therapy in gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C R; Cerda, J J

    1989-02-01

    Diet therapy is an important factor in overall care of most GI patients. Historically, diets have been used unscientifically in many of these patients without positive results. Nutritional care and diet therapy are critical for two reasons. First, malnutrition is an expected sequelae to most, if not all, GI diseases or disorders. Failure to eat, digest, or assimilate nutrients can provoke malnutrition in just a few weeks, although careful assessment of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and nutritional history by a trained professional can protect against this. Diet therapy through the elimination of offending foods such as wheat gluten or lactose, or inclusion of specialized products such as medium chain triglycerides or elemental formulas, can sustain nutritional status. Dietary components such as insoluble fiber appear to have physiologic effects, while soluble fibers may have metabolic effects important to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is a high potential for malnutrition in Crohn's disease during active and remittent phases. Elemental enteral formulas or TPN are used during the active phase to ensure optimal nutritional status and bowel rest. Hyperalimentation using the GI tract during remittent stage maintains this. Avoiding offending foods by Crohn's patients is an acceptable practice as long as entire categories of foods are not deleted. Avoiding all foods containing gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and oats, however, is a crucial prerequisite to recovery from celiac disease. Gluten is commonly used as a stabilizer, emulsifier, and extender in the food industry and is not always shown on food labels. Careful consultation with a registered dietitian can identify hidden sources of gluten in the diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2647390

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of an intranasal Sendai virus-based human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderson, Elisabeth; Branum, Kristen; Sealy, Robert E; Jones, Bart G; Surman, Sherri L; Penkert, Rhiannon; Freiden, Pamela; Slobod, Karen S; Gaur, Aditya H; Hayden, Randall T; Allison, Kim; Howlett, Nanna; Utech, Jill; Allay, Jim; Knight, James; Sleep, Susan; Meagher, Michael M; Russell, Charles J; Portner, Allen; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2015-03-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), resulting in tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year in the United States alone. No licensed vaccine is yet available. We have developed murine PIV-1 (Sendai virus [SeV]) as a live Jennerian vaccine for hPIV-1. Here, we describe vaccine testing in healthy 3- to 6-year-old hPIV-1-seropositive children in a dose escalation study. One dose of the vaccine (5 × 10(5), 5 × 10(6), or 5 × 10(7) 50% egg infectious doses) was delivered by the intranasal route to each study participant. The vaccine was well tolerated by all the study participants. There was no sign of vaccine virus replication in the airway in any participant. Most children exhibited an increase in antibody binding and neutralizing responses toward hPIV-1 within 4 weeks from the time of vaccination. In several children, antibody responses remained above incoming levels for at least 6 months after vaccination. Data suggest that SeV may provide a benefit to 3- to 6-year-old children, even when vaccine recipients have preexisting cross-reactive antibodies due to previous exposures to hPIV-1. Results encourage the testing of SeV administration in young seronegative children to protect against the serious respiratory tract diseases caused by hPIV-1 infections.

  2. The ability of 3- to 6-years-old Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During speech development in normal children, cluster reduction is one of the natural phonological processes. Children begin to produce some consonant clusters from the age of 2 years but ability to produce all consonant clusters continues up to 9. The main objective of this investigation was assessing the ability of Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words.Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative study, production of 19 clusters with stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, and glide consonants in 38 words were tested in 200 Persian-speaking children at the age of 3 to 6 years in kindergartens of Tehran, Iran. Content validity indexes of 38 words were above 0.80 and Cronbach’s alpha of split half was 0.91.Results: More than 75% of 3-years-old children were able to produce /xl/, /bz/, /rs/, and /xm/ clusters. Age was positively correlated with correct production scores of words (p=0.001 and was negatively correlated with cluster reduction scores (p=0.001. Conclusion: Three-years-old normal Persian-speaking children may use cluster reduction in words with consonant clusters but this phonological process decreased by increasing of age; so, most of the 6-years-old children could produce consonant clusters correctly. Place of articulation more than manner of articulation affect on correct production of consonant clusters.

  3. Osseointegrated implants in vertical ridge augmentation with a nonresorbable membrane: a retrospective study of 75 implants with 1 to 6 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Filippo; Grossi, Giovanni Battista; Fimanò, Maurizio; Maiorana, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate 75 implants inserted in vertically augmented bone at the time of or prior to implant placement after 1 to 6 years of prosthetic loading. The study included 21 patients (29 surgical sites). The vertical procedure was performed combining a titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with autograft (7 sites), allograft (5 sites), or auto-xenograft (17 sites). Healing was uneventful in 24 surgical sites. Three sites showed premature exposure, and two sites presented an abscess. Two implants were lost, for a cumulative survival rate of 93.6%. Mean bone remodeling at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years was 0.34, 0.72, 1.04, 0.84, 0.56, and 0.61 mm, respectively. The implant success rate was higher with a simultaneous approach (82.5%) compared with a staged approach (66.8%). Implants surrounded by keratinized mucosa revealed a higher success rate (82.1%) than those without it (58.4%). PMID:25734704

  4. Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almind Gitte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diabetic patients fear visual loss as the worst consequence of diabetes. In most studies the main eye pathology is assigned as the cause of visual impairment. This study analysed a broad range of possible ocular and non-ocular predictors of visual impairment prospectively in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were from a population-based cohort of 1,241 persons newly diagnosed with clinical, often symptomatic type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 40 years. After 6 years, 807 patients were followed up. Standard eye examinations were done by practising ophthalmologists. Results At diabetes diagnosis median age was 65.5 years. Over 6 years, the prevalence of blindness (visual acuity of best seeing eye ≤ 0.1 rose from 0.9% (11/1,241 to 2.4% (19/807 and the prevalence of moderate visual impairment (> 0.1; Conclusions In a comprehensive assessment of predictors of visual impairment, even in a health care system allowing self-referral to free eye examinations, treatable eye pathologies such as DR and cataract emerge together with age as the most notable predictors of continued visual loss after diabetes diagnosis. Our results underline the importance of eliminating barriers to efficient eye care by increasing patients' and primary care practitioners' awareness of the necessity of regular eye examinations and timely surgical treatment.

  5. Radiological imaging of congenital hand anomalies - a 6-year single-centre experience and what the hand surgeons want to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerety, E.L.; Hopper, M.A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grant, I. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Plastic Surgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-19

    Congenital hand anomalies present a rare but important physical and emotional challenge for children and parents. Radiological imaging is important for accurate diagnosis, to aid decision making and to monitor changes in the growing hand. The goal of any treatment is to help the child achieve his/her maximum potential, to provide a useful hand with attention to cosmesis. We investigated the range of congenital hand anomalies imaged in a tertiary referral centre. We examined the timing of imaging and the key clinical questions. The radiology imaging system was searched retrospectively for radiographs of congenital hand anomalies over a 6-year period. The images were reviewed and patient demographics, diagnosis and other imaging recorded. Over 6 years, 85 patients had imaging. Twenty-three patients had bilateral problems and 11 had recognised syndromes. The most common abnormalities imaged were duplicated thumbs (28 %), followed by syndactyly (18 %). Children were first imaged as early as 1 day old, with the median age of initial imaging 12 months. Thumb duplication and syndactyly are the most common conditions for which radiographs are requested at our hospital, although overall syndactyly is considered the most common congenital hand anomaly. For a variety of reasons, children are often imaged very early, before review by the Specialist in Children's Hand Surgery (despite surgery being unlikely before 1 year of age.) We discuss the classification systems and specific issues that hand surgeons want to know from the radiologists. (orig.)

  6. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Tanvir M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.

  7. 大地震的18.6年周期%The 18.6-year periodicity of great earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜品仁; 赵俊猛; 高祥林

    2011-01-01

    Dividing the world into 15 study areas and using the earthquake catalogue of Mw≥7. 0 during 1900~2009, we make a statistical analysis of the relationship between seismicity of each area and the period of lunar nodal motion. The result shows that among the 15 areas, 10 areas exhibit an 18. 6-year cycle of great earthquakes in statistical sense, which consists of a 12. 4-year active section and a 6. 2-year quiet section. In the eastern, northern, southern and western areas of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt, such a periodicity is present and their active sections have certain regularity. In terms of seismic events during the sixth cycle (1991~2009), this study has tested the stability and applicability of the 18. 6-year periodicity derived from earlier five cycles (1900- 1990). It is found that most of periodicities are stable in the regions with such characters. The possible mechanisms of the 18. 6-year periodicity are as follows: (1) Earthquakes are modulated by the 18. 6-year tide via day and half-day tides. (2) Effect of fluid tide in upper mantle (tide within the Earth). And (3) earthquakes are dictated by 18. 6-year tide through variation of Earth rotation.%将全球分为15个研究区,用1900~2009年Mw≥7.0地震目录,统计分析了各区大地震与月球交点运动周期的关系,得出15个研究区中有10个区,大地震存在统计意义上的18.6a周期:活跃段为12.4a,平静段为6.2a;环太平洋地震带北、南、西、东4大区的大地震,不仅有这样的周期,而且其地震活跃段的时间存在一定规律.用第6个18.6 a(1991~2009年)期间的大地震,检验据前5个18.6 a(1900~1990年)地震目录所得18.6 a周期的稳定性和实用性,发现有这种周期的地区多数的周期性是稳定的.大地震18.6 a周期的可能成因有:(1)18.6 a潮波通过调制日潮和半日潮调制大地震;(2)上地幔内流体的潮汐(地内潮)作用;(3)18.6 a潮波通过影响地球自转变化调制大地震.

  8. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

    2008-01-15

    A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

  9. Changes in social inequality with respect to health-related living conditions of 6-year-old children in East Germany after re-unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Germany re-unified in 1990, substantial social and economic changes have happened in East Germany, the former socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these socio-economic changes in East Germany on the association between social status, measured by parental educational level, and health-related living conditions of children during the ten-year period after re-unification. Methods In total, 25,864 6-year-old school beginner children (51.2% male and 48.8% female participated in cross-sectional studies which have been repeated every year from 1991 to 2000 in East Germany. Parental educational level as a social indicator was the independent variable. Dependent variables included not employed parents, small living space and health-related living conditions (e. g. damp housing, single oven heating and living at busy road. The relationships were described by odds ratios using logistic regression. Results A large overall effect of parental educational level on health-related living conditions was observed. The time trends showed that the situation regarding small living space, damp housing conditions and single oven heating improved from 1991 to 2000, while regarding not employed parents (1996–2000 and living at busy road (1991–2000 did not, but even deteriorated. 6-year old children with low parental educational level, who lived at the time of re-unification, were often under damp housing conditions and with single oven heating at homes. Nevertheless, this social inequality has almost vanished ten years later. In contrast, we found an increasing gap between low and high parental educational level with respect to the proportion of parents who were not employed (22%: 4% gain, or lived under cramped housing conditions (22%: 37% reduction, or close to a busy road (7% gain: 2% reduction. Conclusion The social inequalities which already existed under the socialist

  10. Treatment of an acute promyelocytic leukemia relapse using arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic in a 6-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Nathalie; Mattiello, V; Judas, C; Huezo-Diaz, P; Bourquin, J P; Gumy-Pause, F; Ansari, M

    2014-03-01

    In adult therapy, arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) are recognized as active treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The efficacy of this combination in pediatric APL has not yet been well established. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with relapsed APL, with a PML-RARα mutation, treated with a combination of ATO and ATRA. Over a period of 5 months, she received in total, 75 doses of intravenous ATO and 40 doses of oral ATRA. Currently, 22 months after relapse, she is still in complete remission. Here, we describe treatment of a relapsed APL in a child with limited treatment of ATO and ATRA and review the literature. PMID:24498972

  11. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shafie Bafti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age and dmft was determined using Poisson’s regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  12. Snoring and risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a 70 year old population. A 6-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Davidsen, Michael;

    1994-01-01

    heart disease (IHD) and stroke while controlling for the potential influence of major cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors. METHODS. In all, 804 70 year old males and females were classified according to snoring habits. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, blood pressure, body mass index, social group...... among snorers (relative risk [RR] = 1.8; (95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.6). When adjustments were made for the above confounders, no associations could be found between snoring and IHD, stroke or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS. In a 70 year old population, snoring is not associated with an increased......, plasma lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein), fasting blood glucose, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine were determined at baseline. RESULTS. Over a 6-year period (1984-1990) 88 suffered an IHD episode, 60 had a stroke and 180 died. A slightly higher stroke incidence was found...

  13. China's Developing Dietary Supplement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Crowther

    2011-01-01

    @@ With the increasingly large size and forward momentum of China's economy, one would think there has to be a well-developed dietary supplement industry.However, although China has been posting re-cord gains to its GDP, it is far behind the U.S., E.U.and Japan in regard to a well-defined and prosperous dietary supplement industry.With that said, having an established dietary supple-ment industry is not the measure by which countries are judged in terms of economic prowess.

  14. An analysis on physical development and nutrient status of 3-6-year-old children in kindergartens%3~6岁幼儿园儿童体格发育与营养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕青

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨深圳市西乡街道3~6岁幼儿园儿童体格发育与营养状况情况。方法对2008~2012年深圳市西乡街道3~6岁幼儿园儿童的体格发育及营养状况进行走访调查,内容包括对儿童的身高、体重、血常规等方面进行评价,并对调查结果进行分析记录。结果儿童身高、体重、生长发育合格率逐年上升,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);营养不良、发育迟缓、消瘦、贫血患儿逐年下降而肥胖儿逐年升高趋势,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论加强对幼儿园儿童体格发育的检查,可及时掌握儿童身高、体重、营养等身体状况,从而促进其生长发育水平,此外,加强幼儿园卫生保健工作的管理,提高保教人员的卫生知识培训,保证儿童膳食营养的均衡,可避免由营养缺乏和过剩而导致的营养不良、肥胖等问题的发生,同时加强儿童的体格锻炼,保证儿童健康快乐成长。%Objective To probe into the physical development and nutrient status of 3-6-year-old children in kindergartens in Xixiang Street of Shenzhen city. Methods The 3-6-year-old children in kindergartens in Xixiang Street of Shenzhen was interviewed and investigated from 2008 to 2012. The content covered the evaluations of height,weight and routine blood test. And,the investigation results were recorded and analyzed. Results The acceptance rate of height,weight and growing development of children were increased year by year,and the difference was significant(P<0.05);the number of children with malnutrition,hypoevolutism,marasmus and anemia was reduced yearly,and obese children showed an increasing trend,and the difference was significant(P < 0.05). Conclusion The examination of the physical development of children in kindergartens should be enhanced. Thus,we can grasp timely the health of children including height,weight and nutrient status,and promote their growing development

  15. Mid-upper arm circumference for age and undernutrition among 2 to 6 year old Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC is one of the simplest and easiest measures for large-scale screening programme for assessing undernutrition, especially among children. MUAC-based nutritional survey is easy to implement at the community level by the health workers or volunteers after minimum training. Methods: The present cross sectional study was done among Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. A total of 1013 children (Bauri = 499 and Santal = 514 aged 2-6 years were measured for MUAC. The normalized MUAC for age by z-scores were calculated using LMS method. Results: The age, sex and community specific sample distributions were prepared. Mean MUAC increased with age (except among Santal boys at the age of 6 years. The girls had higher median MUAC than boys at all ages except at 2 years. Prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition (following WHO was highest at the age of 3 years for boys (61.7 % and girls (36.5 %. Similarly, prevalence of undernutrition was highest (48.6 % and 47.4 % among Santal boys and girls at the age of 6 and 3 years, respectively. Significant sex difference (age combined in prevalence of undernutrition was observed among Bauris (χ2= 20.54, df= 8, p< 0.001 and Santals (χ2= 6.71, p< 0.05. Conclusion: High rate of undernutrition was observed among these children.. Our study clearly revealed that the median MUAC of children were lower than two standard references at all ages.

  16. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Emma; Souto-Alonso, Ana; Espinosa, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gómez, Federico P; Fuster, Carme; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Antó, Josep Maria; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2 years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6 years after clean-up work. In 2008/2009 a follow-up study was done in 230 never-smoking fishermen who had been exposed to clean-up work in 2002/2003 and 87 non-exposed fishermen. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness testing and the determination of respiratory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate were done identically as in the baseline survey in 2004/2005. Associations between participation in clean-up work and respiratory health parameters were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex and age. Information from 158 exposed (69%) and 57 non-exposed (66%) fishermen was obtained. Loss to follow-up in the non-exposed was characterised by less respiratory symptoms at baseline. During the 4-year follow-up period lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the levels of respiratory biomarkers of oxidative stress and growth factors had deteriorated notably more among non-exposed than among exposed. At follow-up, respiratory health indices were similar or better in clean-up workers than in non-exposed. No clear differences between highly exposed and moderately exposed clean-up workers were found. In conclusion, we could not detect long-term respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill. Methodological issues that need to be considered in this type of studies include the choice of a non-exposed control group and limitation of follow-up to subgroups such as never smokers.

  17. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maier-Nöth

    Full Text Available Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y and experimental (6y approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood.

  18. THE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE COMPLEX OF SPINE-PELVIS TRAITS AND THE FEET TRAITS IN BOYS AGED 4 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrozkowiak Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early diagnosis is one of meaningful elements of prevention and treatment of postural defects. The objective of the study was an attempt to determine the correlations among the spine - pelvis traits and the feet traits in the population of boys aged 4 to 6 years living in rural areas and cities. Material and method: The study group covered 1506 boys aged 4 to 6 years. The measurement of 104 traits of the spine-pelvis and feet complex was conducted by means of the projection Moiré method for computer-based examination of body posture. Results: there is not much publications on the influence and correlations between the complex of the pelvis-spine traits and the feet traits. There is a correlation between the forming foot type and formation of the spine. The proposed Steinmetz suggestion assuming that if the spine can be corrected with the foot then the foot can be corrected by means of the spine, raises a number of doubts. The author emphasizes the meaning of wearing corrective footwear since proper foot positioning provided by special shoes cannot be the cause of spinal deformities. Conclusions: The spine-pelvis trait in the population of boys most frequently revealing significant influence on the feet traits is the height and depth of thoracic kyphosis. The foot trait among the population of boys living in cities most frequently revealing significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was the value of the right foot length. In the rural population significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was revealed by: the length and height of the fifth longitudinal arch of the left foot.

  19. Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam/Hydroxyzine versus Chloral Hydrate/Hydroxyzine on 2-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Dental Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different drugs are used for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry either single or in combination. This study assessed the comparative effect of midazolam/hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine on 2-6 year-old uncooperative children needing dental treatment.A double blind cross-over randomized clinical trial was designed and 16 children aged 2-6 years with ASA1 status who were judged with negative to definitely negative behavior (according to Frankl were chosen. Cases were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received midazolam/hydroxyzine (MH at the first visit while the second group received chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine (CHH as the first medication. Both groups received the other regimen at the second visit. Midazolam 0.5mg/kg and chloral hydrate 50mg/kg with 1mg/kg hydroxyzine were administered. Cases were subsequently assessed for sedation and then dental treatment was performed. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (PR were measured before and after drug administration, as well as during and after dental treatment. The Houpt scale was also used for the level of sedation before, during and after treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcox-on signed rank test and the paired t-test.Sedative success rate was 64.3% in cases of MH and 33.3% in CHH. The difference between groups was significant (P=0.046. The success rate was significantly different between groups at different measurement stages as well (P<0.05. No difference was found on the child's behavior scale based on the type of drugs used first; this indicates no carry-over effect. Comparing the PR and SpO2 values at different readings showed no significant differences.Midazolam/hydroxyzine showed a significantly higher sedative effect than chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine in this study.

  20. Population dynamics in a 6-year old coppice culture of poplar. I. Clonal differences in stool mortality, shoot dynamics and shoot diameter distribution in relation to biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplar trees have the capacity to regrow a number of shoots after being coppiced. In April 1996, a high density field trial with 17 different poplar (Populus) clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. At the end of the establishment year (December 1996), all plants were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. Four years after the first coppicing in January 2001, the stand was cut back again. During 6 years (1996-2001), shoot diameters and number of stools and shoots were assessed every year for all clones. Before the second coppicing, biomass production of all clones was estimated. Significant clonal differences were found in stool mortality, number of shoots per stool and biomass production. After 6 years (December 2001), stool mortality averaged 7-65%. After the first coppicing (1997), the average number of shoots ranged between three and seven shoots per stool; after the second coppicing, the average number of shoots ranged between 8 and 19 shoots per stool. During the 4 years following the first coppicing, shoot density decreased exponentially, leaving mostly one or two dominant shoots per stool by the end of 2000. The other shoots had no significant influence on stool dry mass, since most of the surviving shoots were suppressed and small and made little contribution to total dry mass. The diameter of the dominant shoot(s) was the most important determinant of stool dry mass. Mean annual biomass production ranged from 2 to 11 Mg ha-1

  1. Quality of dietary control in phenylketonuric patients and its relationship with general intelligence Calidad del control de la dieta en pacientes fenilcetonúricos y su relación con la inteligencia general

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Vilaseca; N. Lambruschini; L. Gómez-López; Gutiérrez, A.; Fusté, E.; R. Gassió; R. Artuch; Campistol, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Assessment of the quality of dietary treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients and investigation of its relationship with the general intelligence of the patients. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 105 PKU treated patients. The index of dietary control (IDC) was calculated as the phenylalanine (Phe) data reduction in half-year medians and the mean of all medians throughout the patient's life. We calculated four different IDCs related to age: IDC-A (< 6 years), I...

  2. Deep history impacts present-day ecology and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Laurie J; Pianka, Eric R

    2005-05-31

    Lizards and snakes putatively arose between the early Jurassic and late Triassic; they diversified worldwide and now occupy many different ecological niches, making them ideal for testing theories on the origin of ecological traits. We propose and test the "deep history hypothesis," which claims that differences in ecological traits among species arose early in evolutionary history of major clades, and that present-day assemblages are structured largely because of ancient, preexisting differences. We combine phylogenetic data with ecological data collected over nearly 40 years to reconstruct the evolution of dietary shifts in squamate reptiles. Data on diets of 184 lizard species in 12 families from 4 continents reveal significant dietary shifts at 6 major divergence points, reducing variation by 79.8%. The most striking dietary divergence (27.6%) occurred in the late Triassic, when Iguania and Scleroglossa split. These two clades occupy different regions of dietary niche space. Acquisition of chemical prey discrimination, jaw prehension, and wide foraging provided scleroglossans access to sedentary and hidden prey that are unavailable to iguanians. This cladogenic event may have profoundly influenced subsequent evolutionary history and diversification. We suggest the hypothesis that ancient events in squamate cladogenesis, rather than present-day competition, caused dietary shifts in major clades such that some lizard clades gained access to new resources, which in turn led to much of the biodiversity observed today.

  3. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    OpenAIRE

    FUJII, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; UCHIDA, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...

  4. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plant, but many compounds may be responsible for valerian' ;s relaxing effect. Are botanical dietary supplements safe? Many ... before their full effects are achieved. For example, valerian may be effective as a sleep aid after ...

  5. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognizing Cataracts Health Capsules Predicting Response to Breast Cancer Drugs Volunteers Needed ... You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More When you reach for that bottle ...

  6. Dietary intervention in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jamison, Jennifer R.

    1987-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a disabling disease prevalent in modern society. Dietary prevention may be possible in a subgroup of individuals who appear to suffer food intolerance; dietary intervention, as an adjunct to other management strategies, may be useful in modifying the inflammatory response. The former suggestion is supported by anecdotal evidence; the latter by some in vitro experimentation which implicates arachidonic acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid tissue inflammatio...

  7. Dietary changes among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, G; Murphy, S; Shumay, D M; Kakai, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the limited scientific knowledge about dietary factors that affect cancer recurrence, dietary guidelines for cancer survivors are similar to general recommendations on healthy eating. This study explored the patterns of and motivation for, dietary changes among cancer patients. We conducted in-person interviews with 143 cancer survivors who were chosen from a mail survey on complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients. We applied qualitative analysis using the software package NUD*IST to sort and code the transcribed interviews. The majority of dietary changes reported by 69 cancer patients agreed with current nutritional recommendations, such as decreasing meat and fat intake and increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruits. However, many diet changers also reported the intake of herbal and vitamin supplements, many with unproven effects. The major themes for changing diet were hopes that nutrition would increase well-being, maintain health and prevent cancer recurrence and beliefs that foods that cause or prevent cancer should be avoided and increased, respectively. Many cancer patients use non-scientific reasons when deciding on dietary changes and supplement use. Increasing communication with health care providers may prevent the use of extreme diets, unproven and possibly harmful supplements and reduce exaggerated hopes related to the benefits of a particular dietary regimen. PMID:11827263

  8. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  9. Clinical manifestations of Hirschsprung’s disease: A 6-year course review on admitted patients in Guilan, north Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirschsprung’s disease (H.D is a congenital disease in which intestinal ganglionic cells are absent and can cause intestinal obstruction. The disease has various clinical manifestations and different lengths of bowel may be involved. Our aim was to study Hirschsprung’s clinical presentations and its rate of intestinal involvement in hospitalized patients in a 6-year course study in Guilan, north Province of Iran.Methods: We studied the patients with Hirschsprung’s referred to Guilan surgery referral center, Poursina Hospital, from 1995 to 2001. In this cross sectional descriptive- analytic study all data were collected from patients’ files and questionnaires including demographic data, clinical presentations, diagnostic methods, involved segments, surgical procedure techniques, surgical complicationsResults: We detected 58 cases of HD during these 6 years, who underwent surgery. 19 patients were female and 39 were male with age range from one day to 18 years old. Clinical findings were variable such as: constipation,abdominal distension, failure to pass mecunium, diarrhea and other less common manifestations. We found 3 different pathological types: rectosigmoid, ultra short-segment and total–colonic involved segment.There wasn’t any difference between presentations of disease in these 3 groups. Surgical procedures which were performed were: Swenson, Soave–Boley and Lynn. Early complications, which occurred duringthe first month after operation, contain anastomotic leakage, wound infection, hemorrhage and stenosis of anastomosis. Late complications, occurring at least one month after operation, comprise long-term constipation,enterocolitis, incontinence, obstruction due to adhesion. We didn’t find any significant difference between the complications of these surgical procedures and any accompanying anomalies except 3 ones.Conclusions: most of patients had a chronic course of constipation and abdominal distension

  10. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Design Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Settings Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. Participants A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Main outcome measure Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. Results 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. Conclusions NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to risk of ICU admission and complications and thereby improves traditional clinical-risk scores in the management of patients with CAP in the ED setting. Trial registration number

  11. Parents’ socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0–6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Arpi, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0–6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. Design A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population-based registers from Statistics Denmark. Setting Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. Subjects The population of children aged 0–6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Main outcome measures High use of antibiotics identified by number of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents’ education, employment status, income, child’s sex, and ethnic background. Results Ten percent of children accounted for 25% of the total use DDD. There was a clear tendency that the risk for high antibiotic use increased as parental educational level decreased. The risk for high use was the highest among children of mothers and fathers with basic schooling ≤10 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29–1.98, and OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.34–1.91, respectively). Low income and unemployment were not associated with high antibiotic use. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors can only partially explain differences in antibiotic use. Further research is needed to clarify the unequal distribution of antibiotic prescribing and the association between high antibiotic use and low educational level. This would provide valuable information in the planning of strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics among children. Key Points The Capital Region of Denmark has the highest rate of antibiotic prescribing in Denmark.Preschool children are among the age groups with the highest use.Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use.Low parental educational level was

  12. A 6-year follow-up of a large European cohort of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype: outcomes in late adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Marloes; Luman, Marjolein; Twisk, Jos W R; van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P; Thissen, Andrieke J A M; Faraone, Stephen V; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-09-01

    There are very few studies on the long-term outcome of children and adolescents with ADHD-combined type in Europe. The objective of the present study is to assess the 6-year outcome (including pharmacological treatment) of a large cohort of participants with ADHD-combined type (N = 347, mean age 11.4 years) in late adolescence and early adulthood. At study entry and follow-up (mean age 17.4 years), participants were comprehensively assessed on ADHD and comorbid disorders by structured psychiatric interviews and multi-informant questionnaires. Overall functioning was assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale. The retention rate was 75.6 %. The majority of participants (86.5 %) persisted in a DSM-5 ADHD diagnosis, 8.4 % had a subthreshold diagnosis, and 5.1 % remitted from the disorder at follow-up. Comorbidities decreased strongly; oppositional defiant disorder: 58 > 31 %, conduct disorder: 19 > 7 %. At follow-up, mood- and anxiety disorders were virtually non-existent following strict criteria (1-3 %). Percentage of children having had pharmacological treatment at any time increased from 79 to 91 %. On the Children's Global Assessment Scale, 48.5 % of participants were still functionally impaired at follow-up. Parental ADHD, higher ADHD symptom severity at baseline and higher parent-reported impairment at baseline positively predicted current ADHD symptom severity (R (2) = 20.9 %). Younger baseline age, higher ADHD symptom severity at baseline and higher parent-reported impairment at baseline were positively associated with poorer overall functioning (R (2) = 17.8 %). Pharmacological treatment had no (beneficial) impact on either ADHD symptom severity or overall functioning. Results confirm that ADHD is largely persistent into late adolescence with severity and family history for the disorder as important risk factors. PMID:26837866

  13. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  14. Graduates from a reformed undergraduate medical curriculum based on Tomorrow's Doctors evaluate the effectiveness of their curriculum 6 years after graduation through interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David CM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Methods Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. Results The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. Conclusion According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.

  15. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia over a 6-year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne ePostec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phyotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field. Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems.

  16. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  17. A single Legionella pneumophila genotype in the freshwater system in a ship experiencing three separate outbreaks of legionellosis in 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrine Ahlen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. Methods: Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE] and free-living amoebae, (FLA. Results: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was present in the ship's potable water system during every outbreak. Genotyping of the 2008 survey material showed two separate PFGE genotypes while those in 2009 and 2013 demonstrated the presence of only one of the two genotypes. FLA with intracellular L. pneumophila of the same genotype were also detected. Analyses of the freshwater system on a ship following three separate Legionella outbreaks, for L. pneumophila and FLAs, revealed a single L. pneumophila genotype and FLA (Hartmanella. Conclusions: It is reasonable to assume that the L. pneumophila genotype detected in the freshwater system was the causal agent in the outbreaks onboard. Persistence of an apparently low-pathogenic L. pneumophila genotype and FLA in a potable water system represent a potential risk for recurrent outbreaks.

  18. A single Legionella pneumophila genotype in the freshwater system in a ship experiencing three separate outbreaks of legionellosis in 6 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, Catrine; Aas, Marianne; Krusnell, Jadwiga; Iversen, Ole-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent legionella outbreaks at one and the same location are common. We have identified a single Legionella pneumophila genotype associated with recurrent Legionella outbreaks over 6 years. Methods Field emergency surveys following Legionella outbreaks were performed on a vessel in 2008, 2009 and 2013. Water samples from both the distribution and technical parts of the potable water system were analyzed with respect to L. pneumophila [Real-Time PCR, cultivation, serotyping and genotyping (PFGE)] and free-living amoebae, (FLA). Results Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was present in the ship's potable water system during every outbreak. Genotyping of the 2008 survey material showed two separate PFGE genotypes while those in 2009 and 2013 demonstrated the presence of only one of the two genotypes. FLA with intracellular L. pneumophila of the same genotype were also detected. Analyses of the freshwater system on a ship following three separate Legionella outbreaks, for L. pneumophila and FLAs, revealed a single L. pneumophila genotype and FLA (Hartmanella). Conclusions It is reasonable to assume that the L. pneumophila genotype detected in the freshwater system was the causal agent in the outbreaks onboard. Persistence of an apparently low-pathogenic L. pneumophila genotype and FLA in a potable water system represent a potential risk for recurrent outbreaks. PMID:27515183

  19. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  20. Variations in organic carbon, aggregation, and enzyme activities of gangue-fly ash-reconstructed soils with sludge and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during 6-year reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ningning; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Liping; Qian, Kuimei

    2016-09-01

    Mining activities can cause drastic disturbances in soil properties, which adversely affect the nutrient cycling and soil environment. As a result, many efforts have been made to explore suitable reclamation strategies that can be applied to accelerate ecology restoration. In this study, we reconstructed mine soils with fly ash, gangue, sludge, planted ryegrass, and inoculated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Pangzhuang mine of Xuzhou during 2009 to 2015. The soil aggregation process, enzyme activities (i.e., invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities), soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as other soil nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of the reconstructed mine soils were monitored during 6-year reclamation. The integrated application of sludge and AMF led to a promising reclamation performance of mining areas, in which soil aggregate stability, enzyme activities, SOC, and ryegrass biomass were effectively enhanced. The micro-aggregates ( 0.25 mm) during the reclamation, indicating that macro-aggregates were gradually formed from micro-aggregates during the pedogenesis of reconstructed mine soils. The correlation analysis shows that SOC contents in aggregate fraction of 0.25∼0.5 mm were correlated with aggregate distribution and enzyme activities. Enzyme activities, however, were not significantly correlated with aggregate distribution. The outcomes from the present study could enrich our understanding on soil property changes in pedogenesis process of reconstructed mine soils, and meanwhile, the employment of sludge combined with AMF is suggested to be an effective alternative for the mine soil reclamation.

  1. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4 °C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected.

  2. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. Results There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001) and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001) with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1. PMID:23277857

  3. Anterior Reconstruction of C2–C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1–C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1–C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2–C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2–C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies. PMID:26835212

  4. Anterior Reconstruction of C2-C3 Bodies in a 6-Year-Old Patient with a Huge Osteoblastoma: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective We report the youngest child diagnosed with upper cervical osteoblastoma and the first case operated on with our novel surgical approach. Methods Our patient underwent a two-stage surgery. During the first operation via a posterior approach, a subtotal resection of a C2 bony mass was performed. C3 was also subtotally resected due to tumor extension. Posterior fixation of C1-C5 was performed by C1 sublaminar hooks and C4 and C5 lateral mass screws. Ten days later, a total resection of the residual bony mass was performed through an anterior approach (between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid sheath). Reconstruction of C1-C3 was performed with C1 anterior sublaminar wiring and an expandable titanium cage. Results Successful reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies was achieved. At 2-year follow-up, the child was symptom-free. Imaging studies revealed no recurrence of tumor or instability. Conclusion A novel technique for reconstruction of C2-C3 vertebral bodies is demonstrated for the youngest case (a 6-year-old boy) of osteoblastoma in the literature. We recommend this approach for cervical spine reconstruction in patients who have an intact C1 arc and resected lower bodies.

  5. Variations in organic carbon, aggregation, and enzyme activities of gangue-fly ash-reconstructed soils with sludge and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during 6-year reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ningning; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Liping; Qian, Kuimei

    2016-09-01

    Mining activities can cause drastic disturbances in soil properties, which adversely affect the nutrient cycling and soil environment. As a result, many efforts have been made to explore suitable reclamation strategies that can be applied to accelerate ecology restoration. In this study, we reconstructed mine soils with fly ash, gangue, sludge, planted ryegrass, and inoculated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Pangzhuang mine of Xuzhou during 2009 to 2015. The soil aggregation process, enzyme activities (i.e., invertase, urease and acid phosphatase activities), soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as other soil nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of the reconstructed mine soils were monitored during 6-year reclamation. The integrated application of sludge and AMF led to a promising reclamation performance of mining areas, in which soil aggregate stability, enzyme activities, SOC, and ryegrass biomass were effectively enhanced. The micro-aggregates ( 0.25 mm) during the reclamation, indicating that macro-aggregates were gradually formed from micro-aggregates during the pedogenesis of reconstructed mine soils. The correlation analysis shows that SOC contents in aggregate fraction of 0.25∼0.5 mm were correlated with aggregate distribution and enzyme activities. Enzyme activities, however, were not significantly correlated with aggregate distribution. The outcomes from the present study could enrich our understanding on soil property changes in pedogenesis process of reconstructed mine soils, and meanwhile, the employment of sludge combined with AMF is suggested to be an effective alternative for the mine soil reclamation. PMID:27250093

  6. A Rare Case of Aggressive Fibromatosis Infiltrating Dorsal Muscles in a 6-Year-Old Patient – CT, MRI and Elastography Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term fibromatosis or desmoid tumor refers to a group of benign fibrous growths without metastatic potential but with a significant risk of local recurrence. These lesions typically present infiltrative growth pattern with local invasion of adjacent tissues. This tendency is the reason for a relatively high rate of local recurrence, even after surgical removal. Fibromatosis is a very rare condition in general population but occurs more frequently in one of the familial cancer predispositions known as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner syndrome. There are two main groups of fibromatosis: superficial (small, slow-growing lesions) and deep, also known as aggressive fibromatosis (large, rapid-growing lesions). We report a case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from an aggressive form of fibromatosis. The patient developed a large pathological mass extending from the neck to the loins. After incisional biopsy and histpoathological examination of the sample, a diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis was established. During the whole diagnostic process, different imaging techniques including CT, MRI and sonoelastography were used. As the surgical treatment was not possible, the patient was finally qualified for chemotherapy. Eventual diagnosis of aggressive fibromatosis is based on histopathological examination. However, it is an important condition that should be included in differential diagnosis of soft-tissue masses found in diagnostic imaging. Radiologists should be careful especially in defining the margins of infiltration in case of potential surgical treatment

  7. Can breakfast tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and morning exposure to sunlight promote morning-typology in young children aged 2 to 6 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakade Miyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tried to examine, from epidemiological and physiologic anthropological (Japanese culture on breakfast points of view, the integrated effects of the amount of tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake and the following exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology and sleep habits in young Japanese children aged 2 to 6 years, using the newly-evaluated calculating system of tryptophan (Tryptophan Index 2009 and vitamin B6 intake (VitaminB6 Index 2009 at breakfast. The positive and significant correlation was shown between the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E score and the Tryptophan Index and also the Vitamin B6 Index. This positive correlation between M-E score and amount of tryptophan intake was shown only by children who were exposed to sunlight for longer than 10min after breakfast. These results might support the following hypothesis: higher tryptophan and vitamin B6 intake at breakfast could promote the synthesis of serotonin via light stimulation in the morning in children.

  8. State changes in posture and arch of the foot in children aged 4 - 6 years with hypermobility of the joints under the influence of rehabilitation activities in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinichenko I. O.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rehabilitation activities in educational institutions on the dynamics of changes in the state and posture of the foot arch in children. The study involved 446 children aged from 4 to 6 years. The rehabilitation program lasted 10 weeks and consisted of 3 periods. Found that 35.88% of healthy children had impaired posture in the sagittal plane. Flatfoot detected in 64.46% of children with joint hypermobility. After the implementation of the rehabilitation program the value of the brachial arch indicators declined in children 3 major groups, respectively, 32.85 cm, 33.24 cm and 33.92 cm in all major groups established downward trend in the proportion of children with kyphotic posture and flat feet. The positive dynamics of changes in the values of posture in the sagittal plane was observed among children of all 3 major groups: shoulder width increased respectively by 1.55%, 3.09%, 4.77%.

  9. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

    2016-07-01

    Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

  10. A 6-Year-Long Manipulation with Soil Warming and Canopy Nitrogen Additions does not Affect Xylem Phenology and Cell Production of Mature Black Spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Madjelia C E; Rossi, Sergio; Walsh, Denis; Morin, Hubert; Houle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N) depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] in Québec, QC, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4°C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected. PMID:26617610

  11. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been vastly popular for weight loss. The association between a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of 3 prepregnancy low-carbohydrate......, and it indicated closer adherence to a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern. RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using generalized estimating equations with log-binomial models. RESULTS: We documented 867 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 y follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons...... by age, parity, family history of diabetes, physical activity, or overweight status. CONCLUSIONS: A prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high protein and fat from animal-food sources is positively associated with GDM risk, whereas a prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high...

  12. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  13. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  14. The Relationship of Severe Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in a Group of 3- to 6-year-old Children in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edalat A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Early childhood caries can cause pain, discomfort and also inability to have a healthy nutrition .Malnutrition can be characterized when there is a weight, height, and body mass index (BMI deficiency. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severe early childhood caries (based on the dmft index and BMI in pre-school children in Shiraz. Materials and Method: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was enrolled on 202 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-6 years recruited from the kin-dergartens of different socio- economical parts of Shiraz, Iran. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated. The Z-scores were calculated em-ploying WHO Anthro software (www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ index.html to elucidate the subject’s status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (< -2 was considered as ab-normal. The relationship between dmft index and BMI was then investigated. Results: The mean of dmft was 4.13. From children with severe early childhood caries, 12.5%were under weight, 5% had height deficiency and 19.5% had BMI deficiency, however, there was no significant relationship between increasing dmft and the height, weight and BMI deficiency. Conclusion: There was not a linear correlation between severe early childhood caries and BMI, height, and weight deficiency. An incidence of 55% was yielded for severe early childhood caries which was an additional finding of this study.

  15. Prognostic value of cardiovascular MR imaging biomarkers on outcome in peripheral arterial disease: a 6-year follow-up pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Harrie; Westenberg, Jos; Setz-Pels, Wikke; Kersten, Erik; Tielbeek, Alexander; Duijm, Lucien; Post, Johannes; Teijink, Joep; de Roos, Albert

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore the prognostic value of outcome of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging biomarkers in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in comparison with traditional risk factors. Forty-two consecutive patients (mean age 64 ± 11 years, 22 men) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) were included. At baseline a comprehensive cardiovascular MRI examination was performed: CE-MRA of the infra-renal aorta and run-off vessels, carotid vessel wall imaging, cardiac cine imaging and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment. Patients were categorized for outcome at 72 ± 5 months follow-up. One patient was lost to follow-up. Over 6 years, six patients had died (mortality rate 14.6 %), six patients (14.6 %) had experienced a cardiac event and three patients (7.3 %) a cerebral event. The mean MRA stenosis class (i.e., average stenosis severity visually scored over 27 standardized segments) was a significant independent predictor for all-cause mortality (beta 3.0 ± standard error 1.3, p = 0.02). Descending aorta PWV, age and diabetes mellitus were interrelated with stenosis severity but none of these were significant independent predictors. For cardiac morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mean MRA stenosis class were associated, but only LVEF was a significant independent predictor (beta -0.14 ± 0.05, p = 0.005). Diabetes mellitus was a significant independent predictor for cerebral morbidity (beta 2.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.03). Significant independent predictors for outcome in PAD are mean MRA stenosis class for all-cause mortality, LVEF for cardiac morbidity and diabetes mellitus for cerebral morbidity. PMID:27209283

  16. Impact of the Family Health Strategy in dentistry in children under 6 years of a Network of Public Health Santiago de Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High rates of disease occur in childhood by dental decays; 10 years ago, the ESE Ladera of Cali implemented in Comuna 20 a Family Health Strategy (FHS. Objective: To evaluate the impact of the Family Health Strategy on the increase of oral health improvement in children under 6 years old at the municipality of Santiago de Cali 20. Material and methods: A Case Control study was conducted, taken as cases children from families of the Comuna 20 visited by FHS, and two controls. Finally, a multivariate multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of the variance explained by the variables from the different levels included in the statistical model. Results: dental care from tooth decays was higher in children from visited families, β coef. = -0.042, 95%IC (-0.06 to -0.001, dental care increased with age, β coef = 0.02, 95%CI (0.0070 to 0.044, dental care was higher among vulnerable families, β coef. = 0.03, 95%CI (0.01 to 0.14, and among families living in overcrowded houses, β coef. = 0.081, 95%IC (0.01-0.14. On Linear regression multilevel analysis, the increasing on dental productivity of the FHS was explained by age of the child (9.4%, variables of the second level found associated to increased productivity of the FHS were: house overcrowding and tobacco use among adults at home, they both explained 53% of the variability. Conclusions: Children of families visited by the FHS were 3 likely to be cared for tooth decay than children from families who were not visited and the variables associated with the increased productivity of the FHS on dental care were child’s age, and house overcrowding and tobacco consumption among adult family members of the child.

  17. Salivary-free fluoride ion concentration measured using a flow-injection analysis device and oral environment in 4-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Terumi; Uchikawa, Yoshimori; Shirase, Toshiomi

    2016-09-01

    Although fluoride (F) products are widely used for caries prevention, the safest and most effective modes of application, in particular for young children, remain to be elucidated. The limitations associated with the detection of ultra-low F ion concentrations are the major obstacles in accurately assessing the salivary F ion concentrations in children. This study aimed to measure accurate salivary-free F ion concentrations in children using a flow-injection analysis device and highlight the conditions or substances that influence changes in salivary content. Subjects were 4-6-year-old children, and we statistically compared the data involving the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs), the levels of Mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) cariogenic bacteria, and oral hygiene habits. The information on the latter was obtained using a parent/guardian questionnaire. The average free F ion concentration measured was 0.421 ± 0.158 μmol/L (0.008 ± 0.003 ppm), which was considerably lower than that obtained in previous studies using the conventional F electrode method. No significantly different correlations were seen between salivary-free F ion concentrations and dmfs, MS and LB levels. With regard to salivary-free F ion concentrations and oral hygiene habits, only finishing brush of subjects' teeth by guardians showed a significant difference. In summary, the frequency of brushing was shown to correlate with free F ion concentration in saliva of children. Further studies are needed to circumstantially evaluate some other substances in saliva and oral hygiene habits.

  18. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (industry in Viborg County, further improvements are possible. There should be more focus on improved exhaust ventilation, professional cleaning methods and avoiding use of compressed air. PMID:18407937

  19. Extended disease-free interval of 6 years in a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with G207 oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whisenhunt Jr TR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Whisenhunt Jr, Kiran F Rajneesh, James R Hackney, James M Markert Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a relentless primary central nervous system malignancy that remains resistant to conventional therapy despite major advances in clinical neurooncology. This report details the case of a patient who had failed conventional treatment for recurrent GBM and was ultimately treated with a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 vector, G207. Methods: Case report detailing the outcomes of one patient enrolled into the gene therapy arm of the Neurovir G207 protocol whereby stereotactic injection of 120 µL G207 viral suspension containing 1×107 plaque-forming units (or active viral particles was made into the enhancing region of the tumor. Results: In this patient, despite aggressive surgical resection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, tumor progression occurred. However, with G207 oncolytic therapy and brief exposures to second and third treatments, this patient had an extended survival time of 7.5 years and a 6-year apparent disease-free interval, an extraordinarily unusual finding in the pretemozolomide era. Conclusion: With minimal adjunctive chemotherapy, including one course of temozolomide, one course of procarbazine, and four cycles of irinotecan, the patient survived over 7 years before the next recurrence. Addition of G207 to this patient’s traditional therapy may have been the critical treatment producing her prolonged survival. This report demonstrates the potential for long-term response to a one-time treatment with oncolytic HSV and encourages continued research on oncolytic viral therapy for GBM. Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy, malignant glioma, tumor, herpes simplex, HSV-1, immunotherapy

  20. Air-displacement plethysmography pediatric option in 2-6 years old using the four-compartment model as a criterion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Allison, David B

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy, precision, bias, and reliability of percent fat (%fat) determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the pediatric option against the four-compartment model in 31 children (4.1 ± 1.2 years, 103.3 ± 10.2 cm, 17.5 ± 3.4 kg). %Fat was determined by (BOD POD Body Composition System; COSMED USA, Concord, CA) with the pediatric option. Total body water (TBW) was determined by isotope dilution ((2)H(2)O; 0.2 g/kg) while bone mineral was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar iDXA v13.31; GE, Fairfield, CT and analyzed using enCore 2010 software). The four-compartment model by Lohman was used as the criterion measure of %fat. The regression for %fat by ADP vs. %fat by the four-compartment model did not deviate from the line of identity where: y = 0.849(x) + 4.291. ADP explained 75.2% of the variance in %fat by the four-compartment model while the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 2.09 %fat. The Bland-Altman analysis showed %fat by ADP did not exhibit any bias across the range of fatness (r = 0.04; P = 0.81). The reliability of ADP was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV), within-subject SD, and Cronbach's α. The CV was 3.5%, within-subject SD was 0.9%, and Cronbach's α was 0.95. In conclusion, ADP with the pediatric option is accurate, precise, reliable, and without bias in estimating %fat in children 2-6 years old.

  1. 5~6岁幼儿社会退缩行为探究%Explore Social Withdrawal Behavior of 5-6 Years old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢

    2014-01-01

    Social withdrawal behavior is 5-6 years old children in the process of growing a common phenomenon, is one of the serious psychological and behavioral barriers to children. Social withdrawal behavior for the development of children's social interaction exists drawbacks. This paper describes the meaning of children's social withdrawal behavior and influence the behavior of pre-school children through a three-pronged analysis of the causes of observed behavior retreat, while the game made timely intervention, improve and create a good family environment and kindergarten children to develop scien-tific education programs and other countermeasures.%社会退缩行为是5~6岁幼儿成长中过程中常见的一种现象,是幼儿严重的心理行为障碍之一。社会退缩行为对于幼儿的社会互动性发展存在着弊端。本文阐述了幼儿社会退缩行为的涵义和影响,通过学前儿童行为观察从三方面分析了退缩行为产生的原因,同时提出了及时进行游戏干预、积极改善和营造良好的家庭环境及幼儿园制定科学的幼儿教育方案等对策。

  2. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  3. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoung A Kwon

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18. We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  4. Developmental changes in the influence of conventional and instrumental cues on over-imitation in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Cristina-Andreea; Gomez, Juan-Carlos; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that children in the preschool period are fastidious imitators who copy models with such high levels of fidelity that task efficiency may be compromised. This over-imitative tendency, and the pervasive nature of it, has led to many explorations and theoretical interpretations of this behavior, including social, causal, and conventional explanations. In support of the conventional account, recent research has shown that children are more likely to over-imitate when the task is framed using conventional verbal cues than when it is framed using instrumental verbal cues. The aim of the current study was to determine whether 3- to 6-year-old children (N=185, mean age=60 months) would over-imitate when presented with instrumental and conventional verbal cues, which varied only minimally and were more directly comparable between instrumental and conventional contexts than those used in previous studies. In addition to varying the overall context, we also varied the instrumental prompt used such that the cues provided ranged in the extent to which they provided explicit instruction to omit the irrelevant actions. Counter to our predictions, and the high levels of over-imitation witnessed in previous studies, the older children frequently over-imitated irrespective of the context provided, whereas the youngest children over-imitated selectively, including the irrelevant actions only when the task was presented in a conventional frame. We propose that the age differences found following an instrumental presentation are a result of the youngest children being more open to the motivation of learning the causality of the task, whereas the older children were more strongly motivated to adopt a social convention. PMID:26774258

  5. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A;

    2016-01-01

    , followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...

  6. Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’ The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific nutrient

  7. Popular history magazines and history education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thorp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.

  8. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  9. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG...... one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  10. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today's dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary ... might reduce the effectiveness of some types of cancer chemotherapy. Keep in mind that some ingredients found ...

  12. 76 FR 39111 - Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... NDI and any other dietary ingredients in the dietary supplement ``have been present in the food supply... notification requirements for dietary supplements that contain an NDI (62 FR 49886, September 23, 1997). The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry; Dietary Supplements:...

  13. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  14. Dietary pattern and risk of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Aloosh; Mansoureh Toghae; Mohammad Jamal Razeghi Jahromi; Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS. Methods Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 ...

  15. History of cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2013-10-01

    The history of human and animal cancers date back to antiquity. The earliest written document on cancer appeared on Egyptian papyrus. For centuries, the theory of "four humors" was the primary hypothesis that explained the cause for cancer.  Finally, in the 19th century a new era began with the detection of the cellular origin of cancer; in due course, the nature of this lethal disease was better recognized and led to further achievements in cancer treatment. During the 20th century researchers investigated several risk factors for cancer such as tobacco smoking and environmental chemicals, in addition to the carcinogenic role of certain viruses, occupational association of cancer, its relationship with certain hormones and dietary habits, and the genetic basis of cancer. These investigations resulted in more efficient cancer management. After the advent of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as two complementary therapeutic modalities to surgery, the campaign against cancer has improved. However, cancer remains a major health challenge that accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present paper briefly reviews the history of cancer in Iran, particularly during the last decades of the 20th century. PMID:24093147

  16. Dietary Aspects of Weight Management in Cats and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Parker, Valerie J

    2016-09-01

    The optimal weight loss diet for cats and dogs is best determined by obtaining a full dietary history and performing a detailed assessment of the pet, pet owner, and environment in which the pet lives. Incorporating information about pet and owner preferences allows for individualization of the weight management plan and has the potential to increase adherence. Calorie density, macronutrients, and micronutrient concentrations should be considered as part of a weight management plan. Owners should play an active role in the weight loss plan to have the best outcome. PMID:27289252

  17. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  18. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  19. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  20. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2-6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: "breathes with mouth ordinarily," "mouth is open ordinarily," and "mouth is open when chewing." We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: "snoring," "mouth is open during sleeping," and "mouth is dry when your child gets up." The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis.

  1. "Know your CD4 campaign": 6-year outcomes from a quality improvement initiative to promote earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Memiah

    2014-07-01

    institutional barriers to using CD4 cell testing. Specific on-site training was initiated for both providers, with regard to use of CD4 cell counts, and nurses, with advanced training to initiate routine CD4 testing. These activities were well received because all staff were able to review unlinked, site-based clinical data to appreciate gaps in a local care. Results: The number of CD4 samples obtained and recorded increased by 114% between May and October 2007 at targeted health facilities. ART enrollment increased by 62% between June and September 2007 without other significant change in care delivery. The median baseline CD4 at enrollment increased from 110 cells/mm 3 in June to 150 cells/mm 3 in September. Overall retention rate was 77% for 13,333 HIV patients enrolled in seven facilities. In September 2013, the cumulative 6-year overall retention rates are 77% for 53,040 patients enrolled in 42 health facilities in the region. Obstacles were addressed and community empowerment techniques used to stimulate change in established clinical behaviors. Conclusion: This "Know your CD4 campaign" initiative resulted in increased uptake of CD4 testing, treatment initiation and an unanticipated improvement in patient retention. With attention to patient, staff, and laboratory elements in resource-poor settings, decline in immune function and morbidity may be reduced and viral suppression prolonged. Empowering patients to be involved in their own care resulted in better overall adherence with HIV management. Local use of reviewed data can impact overall effectiveness of HIV care delivery. Simple quality improvement approaches impact sustainable change.

  2. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies...... composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple...... was 1.3 g/d (5th, 95th percentile: 0.4, 2.7 g/d) or 0.6% of the total energy intake (5th, 95th percentile: 0.2, 1.1%). No significant associations were observed between R-TFA intake and changes in body weight, waist and hip circumference or body fat percentage. CONCLUSIONS: R-TFA intake within the range...

  3. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  4. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  5. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  6. Cirurgia cardíaca videoassistida: 6 anos de experiência Video-assisted cardiac surgery: 6 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Antonio Fortunato Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A cirurgia cardíaca minimamente invasiva e videoassistida (CCVA tem aumentado em popularidade nos últimos 15 anos. As pequenas incisões têm sido associadas a um bom efeito estético e menor trauma cirúrgico, consequentemente, menor dor e rápida recuperação pós-operatória. OBJETIVOS: Apresentar nossa casuística com CCVA, após 6 anos de uso do método. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e seis pacientes foram submetidos à CCVA, após consentimento escrito, entre setembro de 2005 e outubro de 2011, sendo 50% do sexo masculino, com idade de 47,8 ± 15,4 anos, divididos em dois grupos: com circulação extracorpórea (CEC (GcCEC=105 pacientes: valvopatia mitral (47/105, valvopatia aórtica (39/105 e cardiopatia congênita (19/105 e sem CEC (GsCEC=31 pacientes: ressincronização cardíaca (18/31, tumor cardíaco (4/31 e revascularização miocárdica minimamente invasiva (6/31. No GcCEC, foi realizada minitoracotomia direita (3 a 5 cm e acesso femoral para canulação periférica. RESULTADOS: No GcCEC, a média de dias em UTI (DUTI e de internação hospitalar (DH foi, respectivamente, 2,4 ± 4,5 dias e 5,0 ± 6,8 dias. Doze pacientes apresentaram complicações no pós-operatório e cinco (4,8% foram a óbito. Noventa e três (88,6% pacientes evoluíram sem intercorrências, foram extubados no centro cirúrgico, permanecendo 1,8 ± 0,9 DUTI e 3,6 ± 1,3 DH. No GsCEC, foram 1,3 ± 0,7 DUTI e 2,9 ± 1,4 DH, sem intercorrências ou óbitos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados nesta casuística são comparáveis aos da literatura mundial e confirmam o método como opção à técnica convencional.INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive and video-assisted cardiac surgery (VACS has increased in popularity over the past 15 years. The small incisions have been associated with a good aesthetic effect and less surgical trauma, therefore less postoperative pain and rapid recovery. OBJECTIVES: To present our series with VACS, after 6 years of use of

  7. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  10. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  11. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  12. Dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-05-28

    Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most of the studies have focused on risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than overall diet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Japanese women. A total of 49 552 Japanese women were followed-up from 1995 to 1998 (5-year follow-up survey) until the end of 2012 for an average of 14·6 years. During 725 534 person-years of follow-up, 718 cases of breast cancer were identified. We identified three dietary patterns (prudent, westernised and traditional Japanese). The westernised dietary pattern was associated with a 32 % increase in breast cancer risk (hazard ratios (HR) 1·32; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·70; P trend=0·04). In particular, subjects with extreme intake of the westernised diet (quintile (Q) Q5_5th) had an 83 % increase in risk of breast cancer in contrast to those in the lowest Q1 (HR 1·83; 95 % CI 1·25, 2·68; P trend=0·01). In analyses stratified by menopausal status, postmenopausal subjects in the highest quintile of the westernised dietary pattern had a 29 % increased risk of breast cancer (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·76; P trend=0·04). With regard to hormone receptor status, the westernised dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positivetumours (HR 2·49; 95 % CI 1·40, 4·43; P trend<0·01). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. A westernised dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

  13. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  14. Dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products of residents in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junfei; Peng, Shaojie; Tian, Mingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Bo; Wu, Min; He, Gengsheng

    2015-01-01

    A dietary survey of 3431 residents was conducted by a 24-h dietary recall method in Shanghai, China, quarterly from September 2013 to September 2014. A total of 400 food samples were tested for aluminium concentration, including wheat flour and puffed products from 2011 to 2013. Probabilistic analysis was used to estimate the dietary exposure to aluminium from wheat and puffed products. The means of dietary aluminium exposure for children (2-6 years old), juveniles (7-17 years old), adults (18-65 years old) and seniors (over 65 years old) were 1.88, 0.94, 0.44 and 0.42 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) respectively, with a population average of 0.51 mg kg(-1) bw week(-1). The proportions of those who had aluminium exposure from wheat and puffed products lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were 77%, 90%, 97%, and 97% respectively from children to seniors. We estimated that the proportions of people at risk would decrease by 13%, 6%, 2% and 2% respectively under the new China National Standards - GB 2760-2014 National Food Safety for Standards for using food additives. The results indicated that aluminium from wheat flour and puffed products is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population in Shanghai; however, children were at a higher risk of excess aluminium exposure. Significant improvements in reducing the dietary exposure to aluminium are expected in the population, especially for children after the implementation of GB 2760-2014.

  15. Film and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  16. Who Owns History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

  17. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less e

  18. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  19. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  20. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  1. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  3. Why US children use dietary supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L; Gahche, Jaime J; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31%...

  4. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee-Seon; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a major lifestyle-related risk factor of various chronic diseases. Dietary intake can be assessed by subjective report and objective observation. Subjective assessment is possible using open-ended surveys such as dietary recalls or records, or using closed-ended surveys including food frequency questionnaires. Each method has inherent strengths and limitations. Continued efforts to improve the accuracy of dietary intake assessment and enhance its feasibility in epidemiological studies...

  5. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  6. Detecting psychosocial problems among 5-6-year-old children in Preventive Child Health Care: The validity of a short questionnaire used in an assessment procedure for detecting psychosocial problems among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, T.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hollander-Gijsman, M.den; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: An extended re-assessment of the psychometric properties of the LSPPK, an instrument aimed at identifying children with emotional and behavioural problems. Methods: Data came from a national sample in the Netherlands of parents of 1248 children (aged 5-6 years) interviewed by child healt

  7. Is dietary diversity an indicator of food security or dietary quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    Although dietary diversity is universally recognized as a key component of healthy diets, there is still a lack of consensus on how to measure and operationalize it. This paper focuses on the issues of dietary diversity in developing countries. It also draws upon experience from developed countries to address the following questions: 1. How is dietary diversity conceptualized, operationalized, and measured, and how does it relate operationally to dietary quality? 2. Is there an association be...

  8. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára;

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and age...... were examined in this case-control study in the Faroe Islands. Blood and hair samples were collected and a questionnaire recorded lifetime information on residence, dietary habits, smoking history, and occupational exposure to solvents, pesticides, and metals. Both unconditional and conditional...... logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in regard to relevant exposure variables. Increased ORs for dietary intakes of whale meat and blubber during adult life were statistically significant. The ORs for occupational exposure to solvents...

  9. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  10. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  12. Population groups in dietary transition

    OpenAIRE

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods: A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMedfor articles published in 19902011.Results: A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western or...

  13. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  14. 4~6岁儿童数学认知中的多元表征研究%A Study on Multi-representations in 4-6 Years Old Children's Mathematics Cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑾; 章佳颖

    2012-01-01

    The study took numbers, number operations and patterns as the starting point, and used individual interviews to investigate 120 children aged 4to6 years old in Shanghai in order to investigate the developmental characteristics and trends of multi-representations in 4 - to 6 - year-old children's mathematics cognition. The major findings of this study were as follows. The children aged 4 to 6 years developed initial multi-representation ability in numbers, number operations and patterns in the development of mathematics cognition. The children between 4 to 6 years of age had age differences in the number of the representation forms they used in the multi-representation tasks in numbers. The children between 4 to 6 years of age had significant age differences in the development of multi-representation in number operations. As the age of the children increased, the number of the representation forms that children used also increased. A significant positive correlation emerged between their multi-representation levels in number operations and the numbers of the representation forms they used. No significant age or gender differences were found in the development of 4 - to 6 - year - old children's multirepresentation in pattern. But the children between 4 to 6 years old had age differences in the number of the representation forms they used in the multi-representation tasks in pattern. Children aged from 4 to 6 years tend to use the real-world situations and manipulative aids, which both were descriptive representations. A significant positive correlations emerged between the 4 - to 6 - year - old children's multi-representation abilities in numbers and in number operation. Children's multi-representation abilities in number operations and in patterns also had a certain correlation.%本研究以早期儿童数学认知中的数、数运算以及模式三个维度为切入点,对来自上海市的120名4—6岁儿童采用个别面试法考察其数学认知中的多

  15. History of mathematics and history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  16. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  17. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David R; Haddad, Ella H; Lanou, Amy Joy; Messina, Mark J

    2009-05-01

    We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the "Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition" about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current and future US dietary guidelines. The most general recommendation of the panel was that future dietary guidelines, following the lead of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, should emphasize food-based recommendations and thinking to the full extent that evidence allows. Although nutrient-based thinking and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) may help ensure an adequate diet in the sense that deficiency states are avoided, the emphasis on DRIs may not capture many important nutritional issues and may inhibit a focus on foods. More generally, in the context of the conference on vegetarian nutrition, this report focuses on the history and structure of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, on various plant food-oriented recommendations that are supported by literature evidence, and on mechanisms for participating in the process of forming dietary guidelines. Among recommendations that likely would improve health and the environment, some are oriented toward increased plant food consumption and some toward vegetarianism. The literature on health effects of individual foods and whole lifestyle diets is insufficient and justifies a call for future food-oriented research, including expanding the evidence base for plant-based and vegetarian diets. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee's role should be carried forward to creation of a publicly accessible icon (eg, the current pyramid) and related materials to ensure that the science base is fully translated for the public.

  18. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  19. Applications of soluble dietary fibers in beverages

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Beristain; M. E. Rodríguez-Huezo; C. Lobato-Calleros; F. Cruz-Sosa; R. Pedroza-Islas; J. R. Verde-Calvo

    2006-01-01

    In this work the importance of soluble dietary fibers in the human diet is discussed. Traditional and new sources of soluble dietary fiber are mentioned, and a description of how to apply them in different types of beverages such as energy drinks, sport drinks, carbonated beverages and protein-based beverages in order to achieve enhanced functional properties is given.

  20. Diabetes and diet: Managing dietary barriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of coping with

  1. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is a major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants, and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product o...

  2. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Melvin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  3. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Melvin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  4. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  5. 38 CFR 51.140 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident. (a) Staffing. The facility management must employ a... American Dietetic Association. (b) Sufficient staff. The facility management must employ sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the dietary service. (c) Menus and nutritional...

  6. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., palatable, well-balanced diet that meets the daily nutritional and special dietary needs of each resident... programs. (b) Sufficient staff. The facility must employ sufficient support personnel competent to carry out the functions of the dietary service. (c) Menus and nutritional adequacy. Menus must— (1) Meet...

  7. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  8. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Manjeshwar S; Santosh K. Katiyar

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFIACATION: adverse effects;Animals;Antineoplastic Agents;Antineoplastic Agents,Phytogenic;Antioxidants;chemistry;Chemoprevention;drug therapy;Dermatology;dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Dietary Supplements;Evaluation;Humans;methods;Neoplasms,Radiation-Induced;prevention & control;Phytotherapy;radiation effects;Research;Skin;Skin Neoplasms;therapeutic use;toxicity;Ultraviolet Rays. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies have implicated solar ultra...

  9. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain polyunsaturate

  10. But Is It History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Neumann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Histories: narratives written by historians. Historians: academically trained specialists researching, and writing about, the past. The discipline of history:a set of conventions about the formats in which histories may be presented.   Historians, however, do not seem to be prominently represented among those experimenting with new formats, probing the limits of traditional genres or rethinking the relationship between the past and its rendering as history. This may be because historians are comfortable with a particular set of conventions and confident about their usefulness, or because they feel threatened by the idea that the distinction between proper and improper histories is arbitrary. This article argues for a challenge to the historical discipline from within, and for a fruitful dialogue between various groups of specialists competent in making histories out of the past.

  11. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  12. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  13. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  14. Development of a diet quality index assessing adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations and dietary guidelines in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Isabel; Gullberg, Bo; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Jan; Wallström, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, di...

  15. DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

  16. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions.

  17. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  18. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  19. CODEX-aligned dietary fiber definitions help to bridge the ‘fiber gap’

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive dietary fiber (DF) definition was adopted by the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (1) to reflect the current state of knowledge about DF, (2) to recognize that all substances that behave like fiber regardless of how they are produced can be named as DF if they show physiological benefits, and (3) to promote international harmonization for food labeling and food composition tables. This review gives the history and evolution of the state of DF knowledge as looked at by refin...

  20. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  1. Study on the Public Library's Strategy for Reading Promotion of Children Aged 0~6 Years Old%公共图书馆0~6岁儿童阅读推广策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光龙

    2015-01-01

    The period between 0 and 6 years old is the optimal period and critical period for for cultivating children's reading interest and developing children's reading habit. Starting from the development reality of children's cognitive thinking, this paper expounds that children's early reading promotion should adhere to children oriented concept, and probes into the concrete strategies for public library to carry out the reading promotion of children aged 0~6 years old.%0~6岁是培养儿童阅读兴趣、养成阅读习惯的最佳期和关键期. 从儿童思维认知发展实际出发,指出儿童早期阅读推广应坚持儿童本位的理念,探讨了公共图书馆开展0~6岁儿童阅读推广的具体策略.

  2. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  3. A history of the histories of econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel; Dupont-Kieffer, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    Econometricians have from the start considered historical knowledge of their own discipline as reflexive knowledge useful for delineating their discipline, that is, for setting its disciplinary boundaries with respect to its aims, its methods, and its scientific values. As such, the histories writte

  4. Construction of training proсess of tennis players aged 5-6 years, taking into account the specifics of the development and control of their coordination skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak A. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Presented results of the research to determine the features of the construction of the training process for young tennis players aged 5-6 years, in particular the specific application of pedagogical testing to test the level of development of their coordination skills. Material: The survey was attended by 30 experts. Results: Established that bigger part of coaches build the training process at the initial stage of preparation on the basis of the game approach and apply a program of the International Tennis Federation "Play and stay". About two-thirds of the coaches do not carry out a selection of tennis players aged 5-6 or make it only in individual cases. To assess the level of development of motor abilities are equally important coaches define pedagogical supervision and pedagogical testing. A significant proportion of respondents (43% previously had experience in assessing motor abilities of tennis players 5-6 years by mean of pedagogical tests. Conclusions: Overwhelming majority of coaches support the idea of having to modify the tests in accordance with the age characterristics of tennis players aged 5-6 years and expediency of complex assessment of the level of development of their coordination skills.

  5. Homes in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from the issue relating…

  6. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  7. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  8. Aggersborg through history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  9. Musikterapiens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Gennemgang af musikterapiens historie og udvikling i Danmark efter 2. verdenskrig. Revideret udgave af samme kapitel i "Musikterapi: Når ord ikke slår til" (2001).......Gennemgang af musikterapiens historie og udvikling i Danmark efter 2. verdenskrig. Revideret udgave af samme kapitel i "Musikterapi: Når ord ikke slår til" (2001)....

  10. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  11. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined. PMID:27038174

  12. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...... history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...

  13. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [3H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  14. Dietary fibre: consensus and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlani, R L

    1985-01-01

    Technological advances have reduced and refined man's plant food intake and consequently brought about an unprecedented decline in his consumption of dietary fibre (DF). The emergence of certain diseases selectively in regions which have been affected the most by this dietary change has led to an enhanced awareness of the functions of DF. DF is a heterogeneous group of substances which resist digestion by the endogenous enzymes of the human gut, although they are fermented to a substantial extent by the bacterial flora of the large intestine. Chemically, DF essentially consists of nonstarch polysaccharides and lignin, and its major constituents are cellulose, hemicelluose, lignin and pectin. The physiological effects of DF are attributable largely to its physicochemical properties. DF primarily affects gastrointestinal (GI) function; its effects are observable at all stages from ingestion through defaecation. It restricts caloric intake, shows gastric and small intestinal transit, and affects the activity of digestive enzymes and release of GI hormones. Its overall impact is to reduce apparent digestibility of nutrients marginally but consistently. In the large intestine, DF accelerates transit, supports bacterial growth and serves to hold water. As a result, the faecal weight and water content increase, and the transit time generally becomes shorter. Secondary to its GI effects, DF attenuates postprandial glycaemia and has long term effects on glucose tolerance and lipoprotein metabolism. These effects have important implications in the aetiopathogenesis of constipation and its sequelae including diverticulosis, cholesterol gallstones, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. DF has traditionally been used therapeutically for constipation; now its use in diabetes is also well established. Our appreciation of the role of DF in human nutrition has undergone a major change in the last two decades. From a redundant constituent of plant foods

  15. Population groups in dietary transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E. Wändell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods: A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results: A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated, overweight and obesity (14 articles were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles. For hypertension (three articles, dyslipidemia (four articles, and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles, the results were contradictory. Conclusions: Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention.

  16. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  17. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  18. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  19. Relationship between dietary iron intake, corrected for diet reporting error, and serum ferritin in Danish women aged 35-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, B L; Milman, N; Hansen, G L

    1996-06-01

    Several studies have failed to demonstrate an association between Fe status and intake of dietary Fe. However, in the long term, it seems logical to presume that body Fe reserves are, fundamentally, dependent on the intake of bioavailable dietary Fe. This discrepancy may depend on several factors: (1) interindividual variation in biological availability of dietary Fe (differences in intestinal absorption), (2) interactions between dietary Fe and absorption enhancers and inhibitors, (3) variations in physiological (menstruation, childbirth) or unphysiological (blood donation) Fe losses, (4) the failure to adjust dietary intake data for Fe supplements, (5) uncertain food composition data (discrepancies between calculated and chemically measured Fe content in the diet), and (6) diet reporting error (reported intake of dietary Fe may deviate considerably from the true intake). The present study examined associations between dietary intake of Fe (assessed by diet history interview) and Fe status (assessed by ferritin status) among 167 Danish women aged 35-65 years, who were not blood donors, by taking into account diet reporting error (assessed from p-amino benzoic acid-validated urinary N), physiological blood losses (menstruation, childbirth, abortions), and Fe supplementation. Our results indicate that the lack of a general association between Fe status and dietary Fe intake may, in part, be caused by selective diet reporting error. PMID:8774235

  20. Quantitative Determination of Vinpocetine in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M T; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-05-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6-5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  1. Regression of conjunctival tumor during dietary treatment of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Samuray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old girl presented with a hemorrhagic conjunctival lesion in the right eye. The medical history revealed premature cessation of breast feeding, intolerance to the ingestion of baby foods, anorexia, and abdominal distention. Prior to her referral, endoscopic small intestinal biopsy had been carried out under general anesthesia with a possible diagnosis of Celiac Disease (CD. Her parents did not want their child to undergo general anesthesia for the second time for the excisional biopsy. We decided to follow the patient until all systemic investigations were concluded. In evaluation, the case was diagnosed with CD and the conjunctival tumor showed complete regression during gluten-free dietary treatment. The clinical fleshy appearance of the lesion with spider-like vascular extensions and subconjunctival hemorrhagic spots, possible association with an acquired immune system dysfunction due to CD, and spontaneous regression by a gluten-free diet led us to make a presumed diagnosis of conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma.

  2. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001. There was registered signifi cant correlation between intake of dietary calcium and mineral bone density in examination (p<0.01 and in control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  3. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  4. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  5. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Geaney, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence and associated burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases is a global public health concern. The environments in which people live and work influences their dietary behaviours. Aim The focus of this thesis was on the effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions. The comparative effectiveness of a complex workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention were assessed both alone and in combination relat...

  6. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J.; Sijben, John W. C.; Broersen, Laus M.

    2016-01-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined...

  7. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ockene Ira S; Li Wenjun; Schneider Kristin L; Olendzki Barbara C; Ma Yunsheng; Merriam Philip A; Pagoto Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized contr...

  8. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2011-01-01

    The updated new edition of the classic and comprehensive guide to the history of mathematics. For more than forty years, A History of Mathematics has been the reference of choice for those looking to learn about the fascinating history of humankind's relationship with numbers, shapes, and patterns. This revised edition features up-to-date coverage of topics such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Poincaré Conjecture , in addition to recent advances in areas such as finite group theory and computer-aided proofs.: Distills thousands of years of mathematics into a single, approachable volume; Cover

  9. Science A history

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  10. 北京市亚北地区0~6岁儿童维生素D营养状况调查分析%Investigation and analysis on nutritional status of vitamin D in children aged 0 ~ 6years old in northern Asia area in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学梅; 郭素梅; 杨薇; 王秋月; 蔡菊英; 张秋生

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the nutritional status of vitamin D in children aged 0 ~ 6 years old in northern Asia area in Beijing, provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of rickets.Methods: 210 children aged 0 ~ 6 years old with suspected medical history of vitamin D deficiency and any non - specific neuropsychiatric symptoms in northern Asia area in Beijing were surveyed by a questionnaire about rickets related factors, and all of the children received physical examination, electrochemical luminescence analyzer (competition method) was used to detect the serum level of 25 -(OH) D3, then the results were analyzed statistically.Results: The average serum level of 25 - (OH) D3 in the children aged 0 ~ 6 years old in northern Asia area in Beijing was (25.463 ± 7.772) ng · ml- 1.There was significant difference in serum level of 25 - (OH) D3 among different age groups ( P < 0.01 ), but there was no significant difference between boys and girls ( P > 0.05 ).The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was 24.8%.The incidences of vitamin D deficiency in neonates, early infants and preschool children were high.Conclusion: The nutritional status of vitamin D in children aged 0 ~ 6 years old in northern Asia area in Beijing is inferior to that in South Asia area, the supplement of vitamin D in pregnant women, early infants and preschool children should be strengthened.%目的:了解北京市亚北地区0~6岁儿童维生素D营养状况,为佝偻病防治提供依据.方法:对北京市亚北地区0~6岁210例有可疑VitD摄入不足病史和佝偻病的任何一个非特异性神经精神症状的儿童进行佝偻病相关因素问卷调查、体格检查,采用电化学发光分析仪(竞争法)检测血清25-(0H)D3水平,对结果进行统计学分析.结果:北京市亚北地区0~6岁儿童血清25-(OH)D3平均水平(25.463±7.772)ag/ml,不同年龄段血清25-(OH)D3值差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),性别之间无统计学意义(P>0.05).

  11. Dietary and reproductive determinants of plasma organochlorine levels in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organo chlorine (OC) plasma levels and their dietary and reproductive determinants were investigated in 64 pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Prenatal exposure of newborns was evaluated in a subset of these womens in which umbilical cord blood was analyzed. To assess the influence of dietary factors on OC levels, a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire as completed by participants. Non dietary determinants were investigated through a general questionnaire that addressed reproductive history, lifestyle, and social-demographic characteristics. Both women and their newborns had detectable but low levels of OCs. The most frequently detected compound was p,p'-DDE, the main metabolite of p,p'-DDT. This compound was found in 97% of the women who participated in the study and in 67% of the umbilical cord blood samples, with levels ranging from 0.161 to 8.03 ppb and from 0.320 to 1.06 ppb, respectively. Among the OCs detected, only p,p'-DDE showed any correlation with dietary and non dietary factors. There was a positive correlation between maternal p,p'-DDE and the consumption of fish Pearson r=0.38,P=0.002) and chicken (Pearson r=0.26, P=0.042). The correlation between pork consumption and p,p'-DDE exhibited an inverse relationship (Pearson r=-0.25,P=0.052). Parity was the only non dietary factor hat showed a significant correlation (Pearson r=-0.36,P=0.004). The main determinants of p,p'-DDE levels in this group of women were fish consumption and parity, together explaining 28% of the variance (P<001), in a multivariate model

  12. DIETARY FIBER: DEFINTION, SOURCES AND EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in food rich in dietary fiber increased in the recent decades, and the importance of this food constituent has led to the development of a large market for fibre-rich products and ingredients. A high dietary fiber intake has been related to several physiological and metabolic effects. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned, but they are also promising sources of compounds which may be used because of their favourable technological or nutritional properties. Soluble dietary fiber is those components that are soluble in water and includes pectic substances and hydrocolloids. Good sources of soluble fibers include fruits, vegetables, legumes, soybeans, psyllium seeds and oat bran. Insoluble dietary fiber is those components that are insoluble in water and includes cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Whole grains are good sources of insoluble fiber. Comercialize fibre product have to perform some characteristic properties.doi:10.5219/125

  13. Dietary and medical management of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Silvi; Calle, Juan Camilo

    2016-06-01

    Dietary approaches and medical treatment can prevent recurrence of urinary stones. Some interventions are appropriate for all types of stones, but there are particular risk factors that may need directed therapy. PMID:27281259

  14. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    in Denmark, 1995. Subjects: Random sample from the civil registration system. A total of 852 men and 870 women aged 18-80y participated, a response rate of 58%. Interventions: A 7 day estimated dietary record was used to obtain information about the diet. Information about social background was gained...... significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  15. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  16. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  17. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  18. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina;

    2015-01-01

    explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary......BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study...... diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection...

  19. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  20. Dietary Guidelines 2010: selected messages for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    1 page This one-page document breaks down the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans into three categories: balancing calories, foods to increase, and foods to reduce. Two simple recommendations are made in each category.

  1. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid bioavailability.In a

  2. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about dietary supplements. These include TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, store clerks, friends, family, or the Internet. It is important to question recommendations from people who have no formal training in nutrition, botanicals, or medicine. While some of these sources, ...

  3. FDA vs. Ephedra: Dietary Supplement Regulation Under DSHEA

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Adam R.

    2002-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) dramatically changed the way dietary supplements are regulated in the United States. DSHEA created a new category of products defined as “dietary supplements,†and altered the way in which these products are regulated in an attempt to promote consumer access to dietary supplements. By weakening the FDA’s regulatory control of dietary supplements, DSHEA made it impossible for the F...

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, ...

  5. IUTAM a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  6. History of Catalan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We give a brief history of Catalan numbers, from their first discovery in the 18th century to modern times. This note will appear as an appendix in Richard Stanley's forthcoming book on Catalan numbers.

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Emergency Health Professionals Clinician Outreach (COCA) Crisis & Risk Communication (CERC) Laboratory Information Health Alert Network (HAN) ... Cleaning Public Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend ...

  8. Teaching American Environmental History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  9. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  10. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  11. Oral history database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  12. History Begins at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that high school history can be more interesting and useful if students are taught to formulate, evaluate, and use historical statements on the basis of evidence available in primary sources. Outlines a curriculum based on this thesis. (AV)

  13. GBM Accreting Pulsar Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For each source we plot the history of pulse frequency and pulsed flux measured using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) NaI detectors. For these measurements...

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch ... Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food ...

  15. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  16. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J. M.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CV...

  17. DIETARY FIBER: DEFINTION, SOURCES AND EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Michaela Jurasová

    2011-01-01

    The interest in food rich in dietary fiber increased in the recent decades, and the importance of this food constituent has led to the development of a large market for fibre-rich products and ingredients. A high dietary fiber intake has been related to several physiological and metabolic effects. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned, but they are also promising sources of compounds which may be used because of their favourable tec...

  18. School Lunch Source and Adolescent Dietary Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As rates of childhood obesity rise, the nutritional content of lunches eaten at school is more heavily scrutinized. We examined the association between dietary behaviors and the number of days that adolescents bring lunch to school. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data for 2,774 adolescents who responded to the 2005 California Health Interview Survey and reported dietary behaviors for a weekday. Results In bivariate analyses, adolescents who typically brought their lunch from...

  19. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-01-01

    It is biologically plausible for dietary factors to influence bladder cancer risk considering that beneficial as well as harmful components of a diet are excreted through the urinary tract and in direct contact with the epithelium of the bladder. However, studies that investigated the association between dietary factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have largely reported inconsistent results. The macronutrient intake and risk of BC could have yield inconsistent results across studies because o...

  20. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Aloosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:It has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However,dietary patterns associated with MS risk are unknown. This study was conducted to compare the dietary patterns of patients with MS and healthy controls to find the relationship between dietary patterns and MS.Methods:Usual dietary intake of 75 women with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS and 75 healthy controls were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire consisting of 168 food items. To define major dietary patterns, we used factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of MS.Results:Traditional pattern (high in low-fat dairy products,red meat, vegetable oil, onion, whole grain, soy, refined grains, organ meats, coffee, and legumes was inversely related to the risk of MS [odds ratio (OR = 0.15; 95%confidence interval (CI: 0.03-0.18; P = 0.028]. A similar inverse relationship was noted between MS risk andlacto-vegetarian (high in nuts, fruits, French fries, coffee,sweets and desserts, vegetables, and high-fat dairy products and vegetarian (high in green leafy vegetables, hydrogenated fats, tomato, yellow vegetables, fruit juices, onion, and other vegetablespatterns (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.82; P = 0.018 and OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.90; P = 0.026, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of MS was higher in those who had high animal fat dietary pattern (high in animal fats,potato, meat products, sugars, and hydrogenated fats and low in whole grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.63-2.94;P < 0.005.Conclusion:Our findings showed that the risk of RRMS can be affected by major dietary patterns.

  1. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shu; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Shastri, Anuradha; Su, Rui; Bapat, Priyanka; Kwun, InSook; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins and epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol, and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related-inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols r...

  2. Dietary prevention at home and abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaper, A G

    1980-01-01

    The main dietary recommendations towards the prevention/postponement of coronary heart disease (CHD) made in the U.K. in the last decade are reviewed. There is substantial agreement regarding the need for a reduction in the intake of saturated fats. It is suggested that only moderate changes in dietary polyunsaturated: saturated ratio may be sufficient to achieve changes in the incidence of CHD.

  3. Dietary intake in Swedish medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Tengvall, Marja; Ellegård, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background A 3 day food record is a part of the medical curriculum in Göteborg, and the dietary intake of medical students from 1987 to 1993 has been reported previously. Objective To study dietary intake in medical students, detect changes over time and qualitative differences between men and women, and compare with nutrition recommendations, intake in the Swedish population in general and in medical students in other countries. Design A 3 day estimated food record of 1737 students during th...

  4. Dietary intake in Swedish medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Tengvall, Marja; Ellegård, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background: A 3 day food record is a part of the medical curriculum in Göteborg, and the dietary intake of medical students from 1987 to 1993 has been reported previously. Objective: To study dietary intake in medical students, detect changes over time and qualitative differences between men and women, and compare with nutrition recommendations, intake in the Swedish population in general and in medical students in other countries. Design: A 3 day estimated food record of 1737 students d...

  5. Welfare and sustainability effects of dietary recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2015-01-01

    The paper develops a framework combining a model of rational behaviour under dietary constraints, an epidemiological model of diet-related mortality, and a life-cycle-analysis model of environmental impact, which permits the ex-ante assessment of dietary recommendations in multiple sustainability dimensions (i.e., taste cost, welfare effect, deaths avoided, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and acidification). It is applied to compare in a French context the relative effects and efficien...

  6. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Izadi; Leila Azadbakht

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key word...

  7. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  8. Knowledge management and history

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis; pauget, bertrand; Beretti, Annie; Tortorici, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    International audience Capitalisation of the history of a technology, a technique or a concept within an industrial company is relevant to historians. However it largely exceeds the historical problems from a Knowledge Management point of view. In this context, it can be the subject of specific approaches especially Knowledge Engineering. However, it faces two types of difficulties: - The techniques in History have few modelling tools, and are even rather reticent with the use of such tool...

  9. Economics, History, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Economics and history both strive to understand causation: economics using instrumental variables econometrics and history by weighing the plausibility of alternative narratives. Instrumental variables can lose value with repeated use because of an econometric tragedy of the commons bias: each successful use of an instrument potentially creates an additional latent variable bias problem for all other uses of that instrument - past and future. Economists should therefore consider historians' a...

  10. Transformation of History textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  11. Teaching History through English

    OpenAIRE

    Lasnik, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis discusses Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) as a new and innovative educational approach in different countries with the emphasis on the current status of CLIL in Slovenia. However, the main focus of the diploma thesis is to discuss the extent of using English in History lessons and out-of-school activities related to history topics among Year 8 and Year 9 primary school learners. Although CLIL has been part of the national curricula in several countries in E...

  12. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Results: Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults.

  13. Analyses of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism (rs41423247) as a potential moderator in the association between childhood overweight, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes in Eating Disorders patients: A 6 years follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Tedde, Andrea; Piaceri, Irene; Bagnoli, Silvia; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Sorbi, Sandro; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Hudziak, James J; Nacmias, Benedetta; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-09-30

    Childhood overweight and the SNP rs41423247 of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) were reported to represent predisposing factors for Eating Disorders (EDs). The distribution of the polymorphism was evaluated in 202 EDs patients, and in 116 healthy subjects. The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV and self-reported questionnaires were administered at the admission to the clinic and at 3 time points (end of a cognitive behavioral therapy, 3 and 6 years follow up). G-allele was associated with childhood overweight, depressive disorder comorbidity, and diagnostic instability. G-allele carriers reporting childhood overweight showed greater frequency of subjective binge eating and emotional eating.

  14. Investigation and analysis of oral bad habits in childrenaged 3 ~ 6 years in Tongling%铜陵市3~6岁儿童口腔不良习惯调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尚徽; 高红琼; 张娜; 方红英; 陈京栋; 汤银霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence rate of oral bad habits in children of 3 ~ 6 years old. Methods With cluster sampling method,3243 urbanpre school children aged 3 ~ 6 years were randomly chosen asstudy objects,and using self-designed question-naire,their oral bad habits were investigated through a survey of the parents. Results 2147 of 3243 urban childrenaged 3 ~ 6 years had oral bad habits,with incidence rate 66. 2% ;andamong them,121 children had 3 or more oral bad habits,with incidence rate 3. 73%. In each item, the bruxism children added up to 872 cases,accounting for 26. 88% ;secondly,childrenbiting nails,pencil and so on reached 814 cases,ac-counting for 25. 10%. Conclusion Most children of 3 ~ 6 years old in the city of Tongling have oral bad habits,and with the growth of age, the incidence of oral bad habits also increase. It is necessary to strengthen education and intervention of children health care to help children develop good oral habits.%目的:了解铜陵市3~6岁儿童口腔不良习惯的发生情况。方法采用整群抽样法,随机抽取铜陵市城区3243名3~6岁在园儿童,利用自行设计的调查问卷,对儿童家长进行口腔不良习惯的调查。结果3243名3~6岁儿童中,有口腔不良习惯的儿童2147人,发生率66.2%;具有3项或3项以上口腔不良习惯121人,发生率3.73%。在各个分项中,以夜间磨牙的儿童872人最多,占26.88%;其次咬物(指甲、铅笔等)的儿童814人,占25.10%。结论铜陵市3~6岁儿童多数有口腔不良习惯,且随着年龄的增长口腔不良习惯发生率增高。应加强儿童卫生健康教育及干预,帮助孩子养成良好的口腔习惯。

  15. Study on dental caries status in 3~6-year-old kindergarten children of Laoshan,Qingdao%青岛市崂山区3~6岁幼儿龋齿患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐爱萍; 杜继鹏

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨青岛市崂山区3~6岁幼儿龋齿患病情况.[方法]对辖区内所有托幼园所5620名幼儿龋齿资料进行调查分析.[结果]3~6岁幼儿患龋率为27.7%,其中男童患龋率为26.9%,女童为28.2%,患龋率无性别差异;>5~6岁年龄组患龋率最高,为49.56%,各年龄组间患龋率有差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]预防龋齿要从幼儿抓起,预防儿童龋齿要从乳牙抓起,降低幼儿患龋率有待家长及幼师的配合和努力.%[Objective] To study the situation of dental caries in 3 to 6-year-old kindergarten children in Laoshan,Qingdao. [Method] Oral examinations were performed on 5 620 kindergarten children of Laoshan district which aged 3 to 6 years old and the dental caries data were analyzed by x2 test. [Results] The prevalence of dental caries in children aged 3 to 6 years old was 27.7%. As for gender, the prevalence of dental caries was 26.9% for boys and 28. 2% for girls.No significant difference in caries prevalence was found by gender. The caries prevalence of children was increased with age,which reached its highest as 49.56% in > 5~6 years old group. There was a significant difference in caries prevalence between age groups. [Conclusions] In order to prevent children from dental caries, oral hygiene measures and strategies must be carried out from early childhood when they have primary teeth. Reducing the caries prevalence in children needs cooperated efforts from both parents and kindergarten teachers.

  16. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. PMID:23489518

  17. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  18. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  19. Seventeen Moments in Soviet History

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Karan; Edwards, Zak; Layser, Matthew; Moore, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Items included: SovietHistory-Final (1).docx - Editable Word Document of Final Report. SovietHistory-Final (3).pdf - PDF version of final report. SovietHistory.pdf - Final Complete requirements report. SovietHistoryReport.pdf - PDF version of our report for easier viewing. SovietHistoryPresentation.pdf - PDF version of our PowerPoint presentation for our project. SovietHistoryPresentation.pptx - PowerPoint version of our project presentation. This describes results of t...

  20. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Niclis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils, Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains, Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products, and Cheese (cheeses. High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099 and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128 showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.