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Sample records for 6-year dietary history

  1. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  2. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study......Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were...

  3. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...

  4. Dietary quality and 6-year anthropometric changes in a sample of French middle-aged overweight and obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Assmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of dietary quality in the progression of adiposity in populations already affected by overweight or obesity is crucial for the guidance of secondary prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diet quality, as reflected by the French Nutrition and Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé, PNNS-Guideline Score (GS, with 6-year-changes in weight and waist circumference. DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 1029 male and 450 female participants of the SUplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX cohort (1994-2002 with anthropometric variables at baseline and follow-up and available data for estimating diet quality at baseline. We employed analysis of variance and covariance models to investigate anthropometric changes (% of the initial value by categories of the PNNS-GS, which contains both dietary components and a physical activity component, and of a modified score (mPNNS-GS containing dietary components only. RESULTS: In men, a low (<6 points PNNS-GS was associated with greater 6-year weight gain (adjusted mean: 3.63% [95% confidence interval: 2.87%; 4.39%] as compared to a high (≥9 points PNNS-GS (2.10% [1.39%; 2.81%]; p = 0.01. Results for the mPNNS-GS were very similar. In women, no associations between diet scores and weight change were observed. No significant relation between dietary quality and change in waist circumference was present among either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a beneficial role of high dietary quality--as characterized by good adherence to official French nutritional guidelines--in secondary obesity prevention, among men.

  5. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  6. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and

  7. Dietary protein and urinary nitrogen in relation to 6-year changes in fat mass and fat-free mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Gottliebsen, K; Ängquist, L

    2015-01-01

    protein intake and subsequent changes in fat mass (FM) and FFM in longitudinal, observational data.Design:A health examination, including measures of FM and FFM by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and follow-up six years later, was conducted. Diet history interviews (DHI) were performed, and 24-hour...

  8. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  9. Association between intake of dietary protein and 3-year-change in body growth among normal and overweight 6-year-old boys and girls (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke Jah; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone (GH) affects linear growth and body composition, by increasing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis. The intake of protein (PROT) as well as the specific amino acids arginine (ARG) and lysine (LYS) stimulates GH....../IGF-I secretion. The present paper aimed to investigate associations between PROT intake as well as intake of the specific amino acids ARG and LYS, and subsequent 3-year-change in linear growth and body composition among 6-year-old children. DESIGN: Children's data were collected from Copenhagen (Denmark), during...... 2001-2002, and again 3 years later. Boys and girls were separated into normal weight and overweight, based on BMI quintiles. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. Associations between change (Delta) in height, FMI and FFMI, respectively, and habitual PROT intake as well...

  10. Nutritional status, dietary intake patterns and nutrition knowledge of children aged 5-6 years attending kindergartens in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, B K; Kathryn Tham, B L; Wong, S N; Winnie Chee, S S; Tee, E S

    2012-08-01

    Early childhood is a period during which many factors influence the development of lifelong eating habits. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of young children and to determine factors related to eating habits. A total of 992 children aged 5-6 years attending kindergartens that participated in the Bright Start Nutrition programme in the Klang Valley were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were taken and body mass index (BMI) calculated. A questionnaire to assess the children's nutrition knowledge was administered through interviews, while their mothers self-administered another set of questionnaires regarding knowledge, attitude and practice on nutrition. The mean BMI was 15.7 +/- 2.7 kg/m2 in boys and 15.4 +/- 2.4 kg/m2 in girls. Based on the WHO 2007 growth reference, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 9.1% and 9.3%, respectively; while the prevalence of thinness and stunting were 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively. Most of the children consumed breakfast (86.4%), lunch (94.1%) and dinner (93.4%) daily. The majority liked fruits (95.1%), snacks (93.8%), Western fast food (93.3%) and milk (90.8%), while less than two-thirds (65.1%) liked vegetables. The mean nutrition knowledge scores for the children and mothers were 73.2 +/- 9.8% and 60.2 +/- 18.8%, respectively. Maternal nutrition knowledge was correlated positively with children's vegetable intake (r=0.111, pnutrition knowledge was found to exert a positive influence on children's eating habits, it is important to provide nutrition education to both mothers and children when conducting intervention programmes.

  11. Survey on dietary behavior of simple obese children aged 0-6 years%0~6岁单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫淑平; 高敬文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dietary behavior of obese children aged 0-6 years and analyze the causes of obesity, so as to provide guidance for dietary behavior of simple obese children. Methods In the Fifth Hospital of Xi' an City 105 obese children ( obese group ) and another 105 normal weight children ( control group ) were selected, and questionnaires were used to obtain relevant information. Results There were significant differences in feeding behavior, eating behavior, food selection, eating environment between obese group and control group (x2 value was 62. 89, 34. 56, 53. 19 and 15. 36, respectively, all P <0. 01 ). Ingesting large amount of staple food and eating meat, dairy products, sweet food, fried food, snacks and supper were found in obese children. The proportion of not receiving high education among obese children' s mothers was relatively high. Conclusion Besides genetic factors, childhood obesity is closely related with dietary behavior.%目的 调查0~6岁肥胖儿童的饮食行为,分析其肥胖原因,为单纯性肥胖儿童饮食行为提供指导依据.方法 选取在西安市第五医院儿保门诊肥胖儿童(肥胖组)和体重正常儿童(对照组)各105名,采用问卷调查的方式取得相关资料并加以分析.结果 肥胖组儿童的饮食行为在喂养行为、进食行为、食物选择、进食环境与对照组存在显著性差异,χ2值分别为62.89,34.56,53.19,15.36,均P<0.01.肥胖组儿童摄入主食量大,爱吃肉类食品、奶制品、甜食、油炸类食品,爱吃零食、夜宵.肥胖组儿童母亲未接受高等教育者的比例较大(χ2=23.44,P<0.01).结论 除遗传因素外,儿童肥胖与饮食行为有密切关系.

  12. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial: e0116876

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gisela Nyberg; Elinor Sundblom; Åsa Norman; Benjamin Bohman; Jan Hagberg; Liselotte Schäfer Elinder

    2015-01-01

      Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children...

  13. Validation of dietary history method in a group of elderly women using measurements of total energy expenditure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Deurenberg, P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to validate energy intake data, obtained by dietary history, in twelve elderly women aged 69–82 years. Energy and protein intakes were obtained using the dietary history method with a reference period of 30 d. Reported energy intake was compared with total

  14. Dietary protein influences the life-history characteristics across generations in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Kerith; Rimbach, Rebecca; Pillay, Neville

    2015-02-01

    The level of dietary protein determines the onset of reproduction, affects offspring growth and maturation, and hence influences life-history traits and fitness. However, to date, the long-term life-history consequences of protein deficiency are not well understood. We studied the transgenerational effects of different levels of dietary protein on the life-history and level of maternal behavior of the striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae in captivity. Breeding pairs were assigned to three treatments based on the percentage of dietary protein: baseline (BP; 19%); high protein (HP; 24%); and low protein (LP; 10%). Reproductive output and offspring ontogeny was diminished in the LP treatment compared to the other treatments. Transgenerational effects were studied by breeding F2 females raised on the LP or HP diets on the same (HP-HP, LP-LP) or altered diets (HP-LP, LP-HP). The LP-LP treatment had no reproductive success, while reproductive capacity in the remaining treatments was determined mainly by the diet of mothers at breeding. Pups from protein-restricted females (LP, HP-LP) showed post-weaning compensatory growth. Timing of sexual maturity was age-dependent in female and mass-dependent in male offspring. Females fed low protein diets during breeding (LP, HP-LP) displayed lower levels of maternal behavior than females from the other treatments. This study demonstrates that the level of dietary protein influences the life-history of R. d. chakae in predictable ways. The taxon responds to changes in dietary protein at breeding, largely regardless of its nutrition during rearing. Such phenotypic flexibility in life-history parameters allows Rhabdomys to adaptively respond to unpredictable environmental changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings are an

  16. Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children: the Healthy School Start Study, a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Nyberg

    Full Text Available To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children.A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243 and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7 and control groups (n = 7. The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1 Health information for parents, 2 Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3 Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values.There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA, with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04, as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03. There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003. At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity.It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls' physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the effects long-term. These findings

  17. 鞍山市3所幼儿园4~6岁幼儿饮食行为调查%Study on Dietary Behavior Status Quo Lnvestigation of 4 to 6 Years Old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高保盛; 白燕; 李书倩; 侯冬岩

    2013-01-01

    To understand the difference among kindergarten 4~6 years old from Anshan children’ s eating be-havior,this study uses cluster sampling method to investigate children’ s eating behavior by questionnaire and observationThe object of this investigation is 256 children from 3 kindergartens of Anshan cityKap level is dif-ferent from age significantly,and not different from gender significantlySo,children’ s breakfast situation is une-ven,excessive snacks and picky generally existCounterparts in kindergarten need to carry out effective and tar-geted nutrition education,enhance the cooperation between family and kindergarten,and develop children’ s healthy eating habits together;Parents should have confidence to correct poor eating habits and lay the founda-tion for children’ s physical and mental health development.%为了解鞍山市不同幼儿园4~6岁幼儿饮食行为状况,本研究运用整群抽样的方法选取鞍山市3所不同层次幼儿园的256名幼儿,采用问卷调查和观察法对饮食行为进行调查。调查发现幼儿早餐状况参差不齐,存在过度零食、挑食、偏食现象。幼儿园需要有效开展营养教育,加强家园合作关系,共同培养幼儿健康饮食行为习惯。

  18. Investigation and Analysis on Daily Dietary of 2-6 Year-old Children in Wenzhou%温州2~6岁儿童日膳食营养状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会会; 赵钱雷; 尹玲玲; 张颖; 陈调和; 周永海; 周建静; 吴丽慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diet and nutritional status of children aged from 2 to 6 in Wenzhou city in order to provide nutritional guidelines. Methods A dietary survey was conducted and then compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIS) in China among 511 children whom were randomly selected. Results Children aged from 2 to 3 almost achieved the standard of DRIs in China, but the intakes of energy, calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and vitamin A among children over 3 year - old were at a low level. No statistical significant difference was found between different sexes. The intakes of energy, fat and sodium of children in city were lower than those of children in rural areas. The disproportions of three nutritious elements appear among children aged from 2 to 6 who generally got high level of protein and fat intakes and low level of carbohydrate intakes. Conclusion The study shows that children aged from 4 to 6 fail to intake adequate nutrients and an improper division of energy appears generally among children aged from 2 to 6. Thus the guidance and supervision for children nutrition should be further strengthened.%目的 调查温州2~6岁儿童日膳食营养状况,分析温州2~6岁儿童日膳食存在的问题,以指导儿童日膳食.方法 随机抽取511名2~6岁健康体检儿童进行膳食调查,与中国居民膳食营养素参考摄入量(DRIs)进行比较,并分析各营养素的摄入达标状况.结果 2~3岁儿童日膳食营养素摄入基本达中国居民膳食营养素参考摄入量标准,3岁以后儿童存在能量及钙、钾、钠、锌及维生素A等的摄入不足.不同性别间营养素摄入差异无统计学意义.城市儿童能量、脂肪、钠摄入低于农村儿童.2~6岁儿童三大产能营养素摄入比例失调,蛋白质、脂肪摄入比例普遍偏高,碳水化合物摄入比例普遍偏低.结论 温州4~6岁儿童存在多种膳食营养素摄入不足,2~6岁儿童普遍存在能量摄入分配不

  19. Validity and reproducibility of a Spanish dietary history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Guallar-Castillón

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reproducibility of food and nutrient intake estimated with the electronic diet history of ENRICA (DH-E, which collects information on numerous aspects of the Spanish diet. METHODS: The validity of food and nutrient intake was estimated using Pearson correlation coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls collected every 2 months over the previous year. The reproducibility was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients between two DH-E made one year apart. RESULTS: The correlations coefficients between the DH-E and the mean of seven 24-hour recalls for the main food groups were cereals (r = 0.66, meat (r = 0.66, fish (r = 0.42, vegetables (r = 0.62 and fruits (r = 0.44. The mean correlation coefficient for all 15 food groups considered was 0.53. The correlations for macronutrients were: energy (r = 0.76, proteins (r= 0.58, lipids (r = 0.73, saturated fat (r = 0.73, monounsaturated fat (r = 0.59, polyunsaturated fat (r = 0.57, and carbohydrates (r = 0.66. The mean correlation coefficient for all 41 nutrients studied was 0.55. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two DH-E was greater than 0.40 for most foods and nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: The DH-E shows good validity and reproducibility for estimating usual intake of foods and nutrients.

  20. Computer-assisted versus oral-and-written dietary history taking for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Igor; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem

    2011-12-07

    Diabetes is a chronic illness characterised by insulin resistance or deficiency, resulting in elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Diet and adherence to dietary advice is associated with lower HbA1c levels and control of disease. Dietary history may be an effective clinical tool for diabetes management and has traditionally been taken by oral-and-written methods, although it can also be collected using computer-assisted history taking systems (CAHTS). Although CAHTS were first described in the 1960s, there remains uncertainty about the impact of these methods on dietary history collection, clinical care and patient outcomes such as quality of life.  To assess the effects of computer-assisted versus oral-and-written dietary history taking on patient outcomes for diabetes mellitus. We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 6, 2011), MEDLINE (January 1985 to June 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2011) and CINAHL (January 1981 to June 2011). Reference lists of obtained articles were also pursued further and no limits were imposed on languages and publication status. Randomised controlled trials of computer-assisted versus oral-and-written history taking in patients with diabetes mellitus. Two authors independently scanned the title and abstract of retrieved articles. Potentially relevant articles were investigated as full text. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were abstracted for relevant population and intervention characteristics with any disagreements resolved by discussion, or by a third party. Risk of bias was similarly assessed independently. Of the 2991 studies retrieved, only one study with 38 study participants compared the two methods of history taking over a total of eight weeks. The authors found that as patients became increasingly familiar with using CAHTS, the correlation between patients' food records and computer assessments improved. Reported fat intake decreased in the control group and increased when queried by the computer

  1. Serum hs-CRP varies with dietary cholesterol, but not dietary fatty acid intake in individuals free of any history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, M; Heidari-Bakavoli, A; Khayyatzadeh, S S; Azarpazhooh, M R; Nematy, M; Safarian, M; Esmaeili, H; Parizadeh, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Kengne, A P; Ferns, G A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration varies with dietary fatty acid intake in Iranian adults free of any history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study involved 8105 adults (3142 men) aged 35-65 years. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. The relationship between anthropometric, cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary data and serum hs-CRP was assessed using SPSS software. Median crude dietary saturated fat decreased across hs-CRP quarters (P =0.009 for linear trend), whereas energy-adjusted total fat (P =0.017), trans-fat (P =0.016), monounsaturated fatty acids (P =0.030) and cholesterol (P =0.005) monotonically increased, with some evidence of statistical interactions by gender. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP concentrations were associated with some components of dietary fatty acid intake in our population of individuals without CVD, suggesting that dietary fat intake could be associated with subclinical inflammation.

  2. Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Bill J; Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to review the history, safety, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements in the United States and Canada. PubMed and Web of Science databases (1980-2014) were searched for articles related to the pharmacology, toxicology, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements with an emphasis on Ephedra-containing supplements, Ephedra-free supplements, and energy drinks or shots. Among the first and most successful dietary supplements to be marketed in the United States were those containing Ephedra—combinations of ephedrine alkaloids, caffeine, and other phytochemicals. A decade after their inception, serious tolerability concerns prompted removal of Ephedra supplements from the US and Canadian markets. Ephedra-free products, however, quickly filled this void. Ephedra-free supplements typically contain multiple caffeine sources in conjunction with other botanical extracts whose purposes can often be puzzling and their pharmacologic properties difficult to predict. Ingestion of these products in the form of tablets, capsules, or other solid dosage forms as weight loss aids, exercise performance enhancers, or energy boosters have once again brought their tolerability and efficacy into question. In addition to Ephedra-free solid dosage forms, caffeine-containing energy drinks have gained a foothold in the world market along with concerns about their tolerability. This review addresses some of the pharmacologic and pharmaceutical issues that distinguish caffeine-containing dietary supplement formulations from traditional caffeine-containing beverages. Such distinctions may account for the increasing tolerability concerns affiliated with these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey on anemia and the dietary behavior of the 3 -6 years old children in underdeveloped rural areas in ;Guangdong%广东省经济欠发达地区农村3~6岁儿童贫血及饮食行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小蜂; 秦祖国; 蓝晓芳; 汤捷

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解广东省经济欠发达地区农村3~6岁儿童贫血及饮食行为情况,为开展针对性的健康教育活动提供依据。方法采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法抽取中小学生1314人,采用氰化高铁法测定血红蛋白含量,通过问卷调查儿童监护人获取有关饮食行为情况。结果广东省经济欠发达地区农村3~6岁儿童贫血发生率为10.73%。父母均外出打工儿童贫血发生率(15.5%)和父亲外出打工儿童贫血发生率(10.8%)高于父母均未外出打工儿童(8.8%)。3~6岁儿童贫血发生率随每月吃肝脏、肾脏次数降低而增加,每周吃禽蛋类(尤其是蛋黄)的天数增加而降低,用铁锅炒菜家庭儿童贫血发生率(10.1%)低于不用铁锅炒菜家庭儿童(16.3%),差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论广东省经济欠发达地区农村3~6岁儿童贫血发生率较高,导致贫血的不良饮食习惯普遍存在。应加强3~6岁儿童家长等监护人的健康教育和行为干预,提高他们的健康素养水平,从而改善学龄前儿童贫血状况。%Objective To know the anemia and dietary behavior of the 3 -6 years old children in underdeveloped rural areas in Guangdong,and looking for basis for pertinent health education activities.Methods Using multistage cluster random sampling to choose the respondents.The Hemoglobin content was determined by the Cyanide High-speed Rail method,and questionnaire survey about eating behavior were conducted among 1314 3 -6 years old children.Results The prevalence of anemia was 10.73% in which the 3 -6 years old children who come from the underdeveloped rural areas in Guangdong.The prevalence of anemia whose parents both (15.5%)or only father (10.8%) were outdoor-worker were higher than non-behind children (8.8%).There were statistical differences in the monthly number of eating the liver and kidney,in the weekly number of eating eggs

  4. Effect of dietary components on larval life history characteristics in the medfly (Ceratitis capitata: Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, William J; Chapman, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly's capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality and novelty. We tested responses of larval life history to diets containing protein and carbohydrate components found in and outside the natural host range of this species. A 40% reduction in the quantity of protein caused a significant increase in egg to adult mortality by 26.5%±6% in comparison to the standard baseline diet. Proteins and carbohydrates had differential effects on larval versus pupal development and survival. Addition of a novel protein source, casein (i.e. milk protein), to the diet increased larval mortality by 19.4%±3% and also lengthened the duration of larval development by 1.93±0.5 days in comparison to the standard diet. Alteration of dietary carbohydrate, by replacing the baseline starch with simple sugars, increased mortality specifically within the pupal stage (by 28.2%±8% and 26.2%±9% for glucose and maltose diets, respectively). Development in the presence of the novel carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar) was successful, though on this diet there was a decrease of 29.8±1.6 µg in mean pupal weight in comparison to pupae reared on the baseline diet. The results confirm that laboratory reared Medfly retain the ability to survive development through a wide range of fluctuations in the nutritional environment. We highlight new facets of the responses of different stages of holometabolous life histories to key dietary components. The results are relevant to colonisation scenarios and key to the biology of this highly invasive species.

  5. Effect of dietary components on larval life history characteristics in the medfly (Ceratitis capitata: Diptera, Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Nash

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly's capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality and novelty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested responses of larval life history to diets containing protein and carbohydrate components found in and outside the natural host range of this species. A 40% reduction in the quantity of protein caused a significant increase in egg to adult mortality by 26.5%±6% in comparison to the standard baseline diet. Proteins and carbohydrates had differential effects on larval versus pupal development and survival. Addition of a novel protein source, casein (i.e. milk protein, to the diet increased larval mortality by 19.4%±3% and also lengthened the duration of larval development by 1.93±0.5 days in comparison to the standard diet. Alteration of dietary carbohydrate, by replacing the baseline starch with simple sugars, increased mortality specifically within the pupal stage (by 28.2%±8% and 26.2%±9% for glucose and maltose diets, respectively. Development in the presence of the novel carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar was successful, though on this diet there was a decrease of 29.8±1.6 µg in mean pupal weight in comparison to pupae reared on the baseline diet. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that laboratory reared Medfly retain the ability to survive development through a wide range of fluctuations in the nutritional environment. We highlight new facets of the responses of different stages of holometabolous life histories to key dietary components. The results are relevant to colonisation scenarios and key to the biology of this highly invasive species.

  6. Pica in under- 6 year old kindergarten children in Bushehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Khosravizadegan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least 1 month, without an association with an aversion to food. This behavior should be developmentally inappropriate, and not a culturally sanctioned practice. Pica is more prevalent in underdeveloped and low socioeconomic areas. In this study under 6-year old kindergarten children of Bushehr were evaluated. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 256 under 6-year old kindergarten children were evaluated in Bushehr in 2001. The necessary information regarding pica characteristics was given to the parents and teachers. The questionnaires were completed by the parents and teachers, and the suspects were assessed a second time. A more complete history and psychiatric examination was done to confirm the diagnosis of pica according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV in these children. Results: A total of 256 children including 123 girls (48% and 133 boys (52% were evaluated. Pica was diagnosed in 67 of these children (26.2%. The most prevalent age for pica was 12-18 months (27 persons, 40.2% and 18-24 months (20 persons, 29.8%. Pica was significantly associated with sex (being a girl and positive family history. Conclusion: Pica is prevalent in kindergarten children in Bushehr. Educating parents and teachers seems to be necessary.

  7. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes.

  8. A 6-Year-Old With Leg Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Brian P; Lautz, Andrew J; Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L; Yum, Sabrina W; Waanders, Angela; Fox, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with a history of leg pain and cramping that progressively worsened over a 2- to 3-week period of time. Her examination was notable for normal vital signs, limited range of motion of her left hip, and a limp. Inflammatory markers were slightly elevated, but the serum electrolytes, calcium, and magnesium, complete blood cell count and differential, and creatine kinase level were normal. She was hospitalized for further diagnostic evaluation and was noted to have abnormal muscle movements classified as myokymia (continuous involuntary quivering, rippling, or undulating movement of muscles). Electromyography confirmed the myokymia but did not reveal evidence of a myopathy or neuropathy, prompting additional evaluation for a systemic etiology.

  9. How dietary phosphorus availability during development influences condition and life history traits of the cricket, Acheta domesticas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visanuvimol, Laksanavadee; Bertram, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is extremely limited in the environment, often being 10-20 times lower in plants than what invertebrate herbivores require. This mismatch between resource availability and resource need can profoundly influence herbivore life history traits and fitness. This study investigated how dietary phosphorus availability influenced invertebrate growth, development time, consumption, condition, and lifespan using juvenile European house crickets, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Crickets reared on high phosphorus diets ate more food, gained more weight, were in better condition at maturity, and contained more phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon in their bodies at death than crickets reared on low phosphorus diets. There was also a trend for crickets reared on high phosphorus diets to become larger adults (interaction with weight prior to the start of the experiment). These findings can be added to the small but growing number of studies that reveal the importance of phosphorus to insect life history traits. Future research should explore the importance of dietary phosphorus availability relative to protein, lipid, and carbohydrate availability.

  10. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Lamont

    2009-01-01

    I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008). These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007). T...

  11. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008). These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007). T...

  12. Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Landro, Anna; Cazzaniga, Simone; Parazzini, Fabio; Ingordo, Vito; Cusano, Francesco; Atzori, Laura; Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Musumeci, Maria Letizia; Zinetti, Cornelia; Pezzarossa, Enrico; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Caproni, Marzia; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Bonci, Angela; Bencini, Pierluca; Naldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Genetic and environmental components may contribute to acne causation. We sought to assess the impact of family history, personal habits, dietary factors, and menstrual history on a new diagnosis of moderate to severe acne. We conducted a case-control study in dermatologic outpatient clinics in Italy. Cases (205) were consecutive those receiving a new diagnosis of moderate to severe acne. Control subjects (358) were people with no or mild acne, coming for a dermatologic consultation other than for acne. Moderate to severe acne was strongly associated with a family history of acne in first-degree relatives (odds ratio 3.41, 95% confidence interval 2.31-5.05). The risk was reduced in people with lower body mass index with a more pronounced effect in male compared with female individuals. No association with smoking emerged. The risk increased with increased milk consumption (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.59) in those consuming more than 3 portions per week. The association was more marked for skim than for whole milk. Consumption of fish was associated with a protective effect (odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.99). No association emerged between menstrual variables and acne risk. Some degree of overmatching may arise from choosing dermatologic control subjects and from inclusion of mild acne in the control group. Family history, body mass index, and diet may influence the risk of moderate to severe acne. The influence of environmental and dietetic factors in acne should be further explored. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary history contributes to enterotype-like clustering and functional metagenomic content in the intestinal microbiome of wild mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Künzel, Sven; Fernandes, Ricardo; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Rosenstiel, Philip; Baines, John F

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the origins of gut microbial community structure is critical for the identification and interpretation of potential fitness-related traits for the host. The presence of community clusters characterized by differences in the abundance of signature taxa, referred to as enterotypes, is a debated concept first reported in humans and later extended to other mammalian hosts. In this study, we provide a thorough assessment of their existence in wild house mice using a panel of evaluation criteria. We identify support for two clusters that are compositionally similar to clusters identified in humans, chimpanzees, and laboratory mice, characterized by differences in Bacteroides, Robinsoniella, and unclassified genera belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. To further evaluate these clusters, we (i) monitored community changes associated with moving mice from the natural to a laboratory environment, (ii) performed functional metagenomic sequencing, and (iii) subjected wild-caught samples to stable isotope analysis to reconstruct dietary patterns. This process reveals differences in the proportions of genes involved in carbohydrate versus protein metabolism in the functional metagenome, as well as differences in plant- versus meat-derived food sources between clusters. In conjunction with wild-caught mice quickly changing their enterotype classification upon transfer to a standard laboratory chow diet, these results provide strong evidence that dietary history contributes to the presence of enterotype-like clustering in wild mice.

  14. HISTORY MAY BE THE BEST GUIDE FOR DETERMINING THE ATHLETE'S DIETARY PROTEIN NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Lamont

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I was encouraged to read Dr. Longo and colleagues' Letter to the Editor entitled "The best athletes in ancient Rome were vegetarian!"(Longo et al., 2008. These writers ask that we rethink the issue of what is an optimal dietary protein content for athletes by considering the diets that sustained the ancient gladiators of Rome. Historical evidence shows that humans of ancient times performed at intense levels while consuming 78% of their diets' as plant protein (Kanz and Grosschmidt, 2007. This anthropological fact, and some recent laboratory evidence, argues against the need to increase the protein RDA for athletes from 0.8 g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day to 1.2 to 1.4 g per kilogram per day (ACSM, 2000. Our research group found that amino acids make a small contribution (2 - 3% of total to endurance energy needs (Lamont et al, 1999 and that athlete's have similar oxidation rates if corrections are made for oxygen consumption and fat-free body mass. Others report that a short-term training program of 38-days reduces amino acid use during exercise and down-regulates a critical enzyme in the oxidative pathway in order to spare this nutrient (McKenzie et al., 2000 Yet sport nutritionists and physiologists continue to recommend an increased protein RDA for this group. If one does a Google search using the words exercise and protein you would literally get millions of citations recommending the athlete to increase their protein intake. One reason for this continued recommendation, I believe, is that the laboratory procedure used to justify an increased protein RDA (field-based nitrogen balance measurements has many methodological shortcomings that are not recognized by the sports science community (Lamont, 2008. The problems with this technique are so great that its scientific fidelity has been questioned (Lamont, 2008. And as Longo and colleagues have highlighted (2008 the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence for

  15. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinica

  16. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  17. Healthful Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Zhu, Yeyi; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Ley, Sylvia H; Forman, John P; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James; Bowers, Katherine; Strøm, Marin; Hansen, Susanne; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-06-01

    Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses' Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women's Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors for hypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61-0.94; P for linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58-0.90; P for trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56-0.88; P for trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  18. Body diameters in 3 - 6 years old children from Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineshev Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze the body diameters in 3-6 year old children. The biacromial diameters were taken as well as the two chest diameters, the bicristal and bitrohanterial diameters in 316 children (157 boys and 159 girls 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age attending kindergarten in Plovdiv. The analysis shows that all diameters, with the exception of the bitrohanterial have higher values in boys. The absolute year's increment of the diameters is greater in girls. The growth velocity of the researched features is greatest at the age of 3-4 and 4-5, decreasing at different rates for the different features at the age of 5-6. The only exception is the sagittal chest diameter in both sexes and the bitrohanterial diameters in girls.

  19. Sachse optical urethrotomy, a modified technique: 6 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandozi, S; Ghazali, S

    1988-11-01

    Urethrotomy with the Sachse optical urethrotome has radically modified our management of strictures of the male urethra. A total of 143 patients underwent 210 procedures during 6 years. The strictures resolved in 85 per cent of the patients and they required no further treatment, including 52 patients followed for more than 6 years. A modified surgical technique using a pediatric cystoscope is described to inspect, traverse and cannulate the urethral stricture before optical urethrotomy, thus, enabling successful management of even the most difficult strictures. Our results confirm that the best prospects of cure were short and single urethral strictures, and that optical urethrotomy is the treatment of choice for strictures of the male urethra.

  20. Dietary sodium and potassium intake is not associated with elevated blood pressure in US adults with no prior history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailendra; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel; Kendrick, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is unclear. The authors examined the association between dietary sodium and potassium intake and BP levels in 6985 adults aged 18 years and older with no prior history of hypertension who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2006). After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, there was no association between higher quartiles of sodium or potassium intake with the risk of a BP >140/90 mm Hg or >130/80 mm Hg. There was also no relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with BP when systolic and diastolic BP were measured as continuous outcomes (P=.68 and P=.74, respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between combinations of sodium and potassium intake with elevated BP. In the US adult population without hypertension, increased dietary sodium or low potassium intake was not associated with elevated BP levels.

  1. Edwards syndrome in a 6-year old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.

  2. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  3. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Stochastic dietary restriction using a Markov-chain feeding protocol elicits complex, life history response in medflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zhang, Ying; Harshman, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Summary Lifespan in individually housed medflies (virgins of both sexes) and daily reproduction for females were studied following one of 12 dietary restriction (DR) treatments in which the availability of high-quality food (yeast–sugar mixture) for each fly was based on a Markov chain feeding scheme – a stochastic dietary regime which specifies that the future dietary state depends only on the present dietary state and not on the path by which the present state was achieved. The stochastic treatments consisted of a combination of one of four values of a ‘discovery’ parameter and one of three values of a ‘persistence’ parameter. The results supported the hypotheses that: (i) longevity is extended in most medfly cohorts subject to stochastic DR; and (ii) longevity is more affected by the patch discovery than the patch persistence parameter. One of the main conclusions of the study is that, in combination with the results of earlier dietary restriction studies on the medfly, the results reinforce the concept that the details of the dietary restriction protocols have a profound impact on the sign and magnitude of the longevity extension relative to ad libitum cohorts and that a deeper understanding of the effect of food restriction on longevity is not possible without an understanding of its effect on reproduction. PMID:15659211

  5. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  6. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J F; Penninx, Brenda J W H

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinical characteristics and newly-developed CVD. DSM-IV diagnoses were established in 2510 CVD-free participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Data on subtype, severity, and psychoactive medication were collected. The 6-year incidence of CVD was assessed using Cox regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors. One-hundred-six subjects (4.2%) developed CVD. Having both current depressive and anxiety disorders (HR=2.86, 95%CI 1.49-5.49) or current depression only (HR=2.30; 95%CI 1.10-4.80) was significantly associated with increased CVD incidence, whereas current anxiety only (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.74-2.96) and remitted disorders (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.80-2.75) were not associated. Symptom severity was associated with increased CVD onset (e.g., Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology per SD increase: HR=1.51; 95%CI 1.25-1.83). Benzodiazepine use was associated with additional CVD risk (HR=1.95; 95%CI 1.16-3.31). Current depressive (but not anxiety) disorder independently contributed to CVD in our sample of initially CVD-free participants. CVD incidence over 6years of follow-up was particularly increased in subjects with more symptoms, and in those using benzodiazepines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  8. Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after "The Biggest Loser" competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Erin; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Kerns, Jennifer C; Knuth, Nicolas D; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Hall, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    To measure long-term changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition in participants of "The Biggest Loser" competition. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and RMR was determined by indirect calorimetry at baseline, at the end of the 30-week competition and 6 years later. Metabolic adaptation was defined as the residual RMR after adjusting for changes in body composition and age. Of the 16 "Biggest Loser" competitors originally investigated, 14 participated in this follow-up study. Weight loss at the end of the competition was (mean ± SD) 58.3 ± 24.9 kg (P weight was regained (P = 0.0002), while RMR was 704 ± 427 kcal/day below baseline (P metabolic adaptation was -499 ± 207 kcal/day (P Weight regain was not significantly correlated with metabolic adaptation at the competition's end (r = -0.1, P = 0.75), but those subjects maintaining greater weight loss at 6 years also experienced greater concurrent metabolic slowing (r = 0.59, P = 0.025). Metabolic adaptation persists over time and is likely a proportional, but incomplete, response to contemporaneous efforts to reduce body weight. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  10. Berardinelli-Seip syndrome in a 6-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Priya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old boy presented with abnormal habitus since birth, delayed language development, history of frequent falls since 9 months, and fever since 1 week. He was found to have hyperandrogenic features, generalized paucity of fat, generalized muscular overdevelopment, and brownish pigmentation over the flexural creases. Skin biopsy demonstrated features suggestive of acanthosis nigricans with an absence of subcutaneous tissue. After further investigation, a diagnosis of Berardinelli-Seip syndrome with bilateral pneumonia and generalized tonic clonic seizures was made. Clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of this rare disorder have been discussed.

  11. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain.

  12. Comprehensive Treatment of Hypodontia in 6 Years Old Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Desi Pratamasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis described as a certain developemntal disorder that is a lacking in the number of teeth present intraorally. Hypodontia is an agenesis with the absence of one or several teeth. In most of the population, the prevalence is 3,5 - 6,5% with 0,3-0,4% for a severe hypodontia (an absence of 6 teeth or more clinically. Agenesis affects permanent dentition more often than primary dentition, and the incidence of agenesis is greater in female than male patients. Agenesis might be a result of environmental and genetic factors. It is necessary to have a comprehensive treatment for a case of hypodontia, which involves restorative, orthodontic, a prosthetic treatment based on the children's growth and development. In the present case, a patient of 6 years and 5 months old girl was diagnosed with severe hypodontia. The treatment of choice included a removable orthodontic appliance for the upper jaw and a removable space maintainer for the lower jaw. The removable orthodontic appliance served as an interceptive orthodontic treatment to correct anterior crossbites, and the child will be referred to the orthodontist to treat a Class III skeletal malocclusion. The space maintainer was to be used until the patient's condition become favorable for a permanent fixed bridge or steel removable partial denture.

  13. Urologist Directed Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement: 6 Years Experience

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    Tarik Yonguc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report our results on percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN and classify our complications with the modified Clavien Classification System (CCS in 6 years. Material and Method: Eight hundred fourteen PCN insertions were performed in 722 patients (538 men and 184 women at our institution. PCN insertion was performed under ultrasound for dilated pelvicalyceal system and ultrasound/fluoroscopy for nondilated system. PCN was considered successful if the catheter was drained urine spontaneously. Number of complications was registered. Results: Primary successful PCN insertion was achieved in 770 of the 814 procedures (94.5%. The success rates for nondilated and dilated systems were 71.1% and 97.7%, respectively. Our overall complication rate was 17.3%. According to the modified CCS grades I, II, III, IV, and V were 9%, 1.2%, 6.2%, 0.3%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Age, grade of the hydronephrosis, serum creatinine levels, and mean hemoglobin levels were statistically significant parameters for the occurrence of complications. The nondilated system has statistically significant parameter affecting the complication rates. Discussion: Percutaneous nephrostomy is a well-known procedure in the treatment of temporary or permanent drainage of an obstructed system. It is very important to define the complications related to interventions for interpretation of clinical comparisons more accurately. Modified CCS is a reproducible system to evaluate the complications of PCN.

  14. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  15. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2016-01-01

    composition (body fat percentage). DESIGN: A 6-year follow-up study. Information on dietary intake was collected through diet history interviews, and anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements were obtained by trained technicians at baseline (1987-1988) and at follow-up (1993-1994). Multiple...

  16. Invasive disease by Streptococcus pyogenes: patients hospitalized for 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Constantí, Vanessa; Trenchs-Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Sanz-Marcos, Nuria Elvira; Guitart-Pardellans, Carmina; Gené-Giralt, Amadeu; Luaces-Cubells, Carles

    2017-07-10

    The last years an increase of severe cases of invasive disease (ID) due to Streptococcus pyogenes or streptococcus b-hemolytic group A (SGA) had been detected. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and the clinical features of ID due to SGA in a tertiary Pediatric Hospital. Retrospective study in a Pediatric hospital, of all in-patients with final diagnosis of ID due to SGA during 6 years (2009-2014). To consider ID, SGA had to be isolated in sterile samples; in patients with fascitis necroticans in skin samples or in any sample in patients with the diagnostic of Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS). The SSTS was defined as hypotension and at least 2 of these criteria: renal failure, hepatic failure, acute respiratory distress, tissue necrosis or desquamative erythematous rash. Demographic data, type of infection, risk factors, clinical presentation, analytical data at admission, treatment, need for admission to a pediatric intensive care unit, microbiological data, hospital stay and evolution were collected. Fifty-two (52) cases were included (12/10,000 of all inpatients); 3 years-old was the medium age (p25-75: 1.4-6.9 years); 28 (53.8%) were boys. Fourteen patients (26.9%) had risk factors. Fever was the major symptom (51 patients, 98.1%). The skin lesions were the most frequent clinical manifestations found (21; 40.4%). In 50 (96%) cases, SGA was isolated in at least one sterile sample. Skin and soft tissue infections were diagnosed in 14 patients (26.9%), 14 (26.9%) pneumonias, 12 (23.1%) bones and joints infections, 10 (19.2%) SSTS, 6 (11.5%) occult bacteremia, 4 (7.7%) meningitis and 2 (3.8%) sepsis. Surgery was required in 18 cases (34.6%) and 17 patients (32.7%) needed intensive care. The medium hospital stay was 9.5 days (p25-75: 8-15 days). Three patients presented sequels and one patient died. The ID due to SGA was a rare but serious reason for hospital admission. Skin and soft tissue infections, and pleuroneumonia were the most

  17. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  18. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediana Volz Neitzke Karnopp

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate food intake according to the degree of processing, stratified by family income and age, in a representative sample of children younger than 6 years in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study carried out with 770 children aged 0-72 months of age living in the urban area of Pelotas. The dietary intake of children was assessed by 24-h recall administered to mothers or guardians. The energy intake was estimated and each food item was classified according to the food processing degree. Food consumption was stratified by age (younger than 24 months; 24 months or older and associations between quintiles of family income and relative contribution of each food to total energy were performed by linear regression. The Wald test was applied to test linear trend across groups. Results: The mean energy intake was 1725.7 kcal/day. The mean contribution of processed and ultraprocessed foods was 19.7% among children younger than 24 months and 37% in those aged 24 months or older, while the mean consumption of natural and minimally processed food was 61% and 44%, respectively. Among children aged 24 months or older, a greater consumption of canned foods, cheese and sweets was observed as family income quintiles increased, while breads were more consumed by those children belonging to the lower income quintiles. Conclusion: A high caloric contribution of ultraprocessed foods in detriment to a lower consumption of natural and minimally processed foods was observed in the diet of children younger than 6 years.

  19. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  20. The relationship between dietary intake and other cardiovascular risk factors with blood pressure in individuals without a history of a cardiovascular event: Evidence based study with 5670 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Ali Reza; Namadchian, Zahra; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-12-09

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required.We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and other cardiovascular risk factors with blood pressure in individuals without a history of a cardiovascular event in an Iranian cohort. A cross-sectional study of 5670 healthy subjects [approximately 40% (n=2179) males and 60% (n=3491) females] was undertaken in a sample from northeastern Iran. Subjects were recruited from an urban population, using a stratified-cluster method and derived from the Mashhad Stroke Heart Atherosclerosis Disorder (MASHAD) study, Mashhad, Iran. The age of the subjects was between 35 and 64 years. None of the subjects had a past history of major disease. The mean ages for the male and female subgroups were 50.1± 8.1years and 48.2 ±7.8 y respectively. Not unexpectedly, subjects without hypertension (HTN) were younger than those with established HTN. Individuals with HTN were significantly more adipose than those without (p0.05), except for crude and energy adjusted phosphorus intake (phistory of cardiovascular disease, crude or energy adjusted intake of phosphorus and total fatty acid intake were significant determinants of BP, however we found no association between sodium and potassium intake with BP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Differential effects of dietary protein on early life-history and morphological traits in natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita) tadpoles reared in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Filipa M S; Oom, Maria do Mar; Rebelo, Rui; Rosa, Gonçalo M

    2013-01-01

    The production of high quality amphibian larvae through optimal diets is a critical component of amphibian conservation breeding programs. Larval period, survival, body weight and total length are frequently used as metrics of adequate nutrition. However, the effects of nutrition on tadpole and metamorph morphology are rarely tested in detail. In the present study, we analyzed the most common metrics and six other larval and post-metamorphic morphological traits in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita) fed with three different commercial fish diets, varying in protein content (32.0%, 38.3%, and 46.2%). Our results suggest that early life-history (tadpole growth, development, and survival) and morphological traits of E. calamita tadpoles are differentially affected by the percentage of dietary protein. As protein content increased, tadpoles exhibited larger bodies along with shorter tail fins; however, with no significant differences in total length. Larval period was similar across treatments but mortality was lower in high-protein diet. At high-protein diets the metamorphs revealed significantly longer bodies, and wider heads and hind legs, but there was no significant difference in the average weight across all dietary treatments. Based on our results, feed containing 46.2% protein promotes growth, development and survival of E. calamita tadpoles better than either of the other two feeds tested. The use of other body measures beyond weight, tadpole total length, and snout-vent length in studies of amphibian nutrition in captivity may assist the selection of appropriate diets to optimize tadpole survival and metamorph fitness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prenatal Fish Oil Supplementation and Allergy: 6-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Dietary carbohydrates and change in physical performance of elderly Europeans. SENECA 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, I; Schroll, K; Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    scores indicate a better physical performance. Habitual diets were measured using diet history interviews and dietary GI and GL were estimated from table values. Setting Eight towns/centres from the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action (SENECA) in 1993 and 1999. Subjects......Objective To study dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) in association with physical performance in elderly Europeans. Design Cross-sectional and prospective study. Physical performance was measured using the Physical Performance Test (PPT) score on a scale from 0 to 27, where high...... for age, BMI, physical activity, self-perceived health, chronic diseases and town/centre, the strength of the associations was attenuated and became non-significant (GI, P = 0·08; GL, P = 0·92). Dietary GI/GL were not associated with PPT scores 6 years later. Conclusions Among elderly Europeans, a high...

  4. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01. The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  5. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  6. Dietary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGRP's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  7. Observation of 18.6-year modulation tide at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydelek, P. A.; Knopoff, L.; Zürn, W.

    1982-07-01

    We have observed long-period variations in the amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal gravity tides at the South Pole which we attribute to the tidal effects of the 18.6-year regression of the nodes of the lunar orbit. The observations are in agreement with theoretical values of the 18.6-year amplitude modulation of these tides.

  8. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  9. Usual dietary intake among female breast cancer survivors is not significantly different from women with no cancer history: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tooze, Janet A

    2014-06-01

    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit; total vegetables; dark green and orange vegetables; whole grains; red meat; processed meat; alcohol; and calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to noncancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. More than 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2%, respectively, consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer.

  10. Breath-holding spells: Prevalence and risk factors in under 6-year old children at south of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tootoonchi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine breath- holding spells (BHS prevalence and risk factors in under 6- year- old children, we interviewed mothers of 400 children in a cross- sectional study in 5 health centers at south of Tehran in autumn 1999. 33 children (8.25% had history of BHS (Male: 19, Female: 14 25 cases were between 2-4 years old (mean: 40±17 months. Seventy percent of cases (23 had onset of attacks after 6 months of age (mean: 10 monthis and the commonest frequency was one spell per month (78.79%. Painful experience and falling and striking the head wee the common triggering factors (79% and 76% respectively and there was significant association between BHS and history of fallin and severe striking of the head. There was no significant associations between BHS and sex, birth weight, birth order, delivery method, type of labor initiating and duration of labor.

  11. [A 6-year evaluation of dyslipidemia in a health center: Importance of improvement actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-García, F; Correcher-Salvador, E; Rodríguez-Lagos, F A; González-Caminero, S

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially an increased LDL-cholesterol, has been shown to be one of the most important risk factors in the genesis of coronary involvement. The prevalence of dyslipidemias in Spain is high. The objective of this study is to assess the progress of dyslipidemic patients in our health center over a 6-year period, and see if there has been any improvement in its control after the presentation of the evaluation of the first 3 years, as well as an updated dyslipidemia protocol. Assessment Period 1 (2006-2008): 267 patients with dyslipidemia. Assessment Period 2 (2009-2011): 222 patients, excluding exitus and address changes. age, sex, personal history of CVD, vascular risk factors, lipids, drug treatment, risk levels, and percentages of CV control objectives. Mean age was 66.2 years (SD 13.4), 66.3% women. Period 1-Period 2: Total cholesterol: 221.9-196.6 mg/dl (P=.000); LDL-cholesterol: 147.9-115.8 mg/dl (P=.000). In high risk patients, therapeutic targets: 14-50.5% (P=.024); medium risk: 35-68.1% (P=.038); low risk: 44-68.2% (P=NS). Pharmacotherapy 68-77% (P=.000). Changing treatment: 30-43% (P=.001). Adherence: 75-86% (P=.003). Untreated high risk: 15.4-16.3% (P=NS). There was a significant improvement in Period 2, especially in high-risk patients, after presenting the results of the evaluation for Period 1 and with the updated dyslipidemia protocol. There are high risk patients without lipid-lowering treatment to be detected and reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  13. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shakibaei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future.

  14. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...

  15. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  16. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers among local residents measured 6years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Noh, Su Ryeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ha, Mina; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Heon; Park, Myung-Sook; Chu, Yeonhee; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-02-15

    In December 2007, the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred on the west coast of South Korea. Association between crude oil exposure and the levels of urinary oxidative stress biomarkers was reported among the local residents, 1.5years after the accident. The aim of this study was to follow-up possible longer-term effects of the oil spill among the residents near the oil spill. Six years after the accident, urinary oxidative stress biomarkers of the residents were associated with surrogates of oil exposure. The target subjects were divided into two groups based on the distance of their residence to the spill site, i.e., those near the spill site ('Near' group, n=476), and those far from the spill ('Far' group, n=152). A questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers or self-reporting, and demographic information and other parameters of the participants, such as socioeconomic status, smoking and drinking behaviors, disease history, and duration of clean-up activities after the spill, were collected. The participants' levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in 12 h urine samples were measured as indicators of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. A general linear model was used for statistical analysis. Urinary MDA and 8-OHdG levels measured from 'Near' group, i.e., geometric mean of 2.19μmol/g creatinine, and 5.41μg/g creatinine, respectively, were higher than those of 'Far' group. Especially, urinary 8-OHdG levels in the 'Near' group were significantly higher than those of 'Far' after adjusting relevant covariates. In addition, the duration of clean-up activities showed a significant association with both urinary 8-OHdG and MDA levels. Even 6years after the oil spill, positive associations between oxidative stress biomarkers and surrogates of oil exposure were evident. While the present study design lacks biomarkers of exposure, the results of this study suggest that the consequences of oil pollution may last

  17. Kerosene poisoning in childhood: a 6-year prospective study at the Princess Rahmat Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotar, Ali M

    2005-12-01

    Poisoning due to drugs is influenced to a large extent by the population's socioeconomic and cultural status. The purpose of our study was to determine and present the pattern of poisoning with kerosene in Princess Rahmat hospital, Irbid, Jordan, and to assess the effects of variables such as age, season, sex and agent on poisoning frequency in Princess Rahmat hospital, northern Jordan. This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 122 cases of poisoning with kerosene who were hospitalized in Princess Rahmat hospital, northern Jordan, during a six-year period from 1996 to 2001. The data collected include: age, sex, seasonal variation, material ingested, symptomatic or not on admission, time and place of ingestion, history of similar problem among the patient or his siblings, whether vomiting was induced by the parent before seeking medical help or not and the outcome regarding mortality and morbidity. Chi-square and values were considered for the statistical analysis. In a 6-year prospective study of kerosene poisoning in children admitted to the Rahmat Hospital, between January 1996 and December 2001, a total of 122 children (under 11 years of age). Among the children 48 (39.3%) were girls and 74 (60.6%) were boys. Majority (80.1%) were below 2 years. The largest group of patients was admitted during the summer months. The most commonly observed symptoms were cough (67.2%), tachypnea (56.5%), fever (54.1%), and vomiting (27.8%). About one third of the patients showed signs of central nervous system (CNS) impairment, including drowsiness, restlessness, stupor, and convulsions. 1) There is a higher risk of kerosene poisoning during the hot months of the year; 2) the respiratory system is the main target organ affected; 3) pneumonia is in most cases interstitial and bilateral; 4) vomiting after hydrocarbon ingestion is related to the rate of development of pneumonia; 5) symptoms of CNS impairment were correlated with hypoxemia, pneumonia, and fever; and 6

  18. Deinstitutionalization for long-term mental illness: a 6-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Coletta; Newton, Lesley; Tennant, Christopher; Rosen, Alan; Tribe, Kate

    2002-02-01

    Forty-seven patients with long-term mental illness were transferred to the community following the closure of a psychiatric hospital in Sydney. This 6-year evaluation is an extension of a detailed clinical, ethnographic and economic study of the initial 2-years of community transition. Quantitative evaluation was conducted using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Life Skills Profile, Social Behaviour Scale, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Quality Of Life measures. Assessments were completed prior to discharge and at two- and 6-year intervals following community transfer. Repeated measures analysis was utilized to determine changes in outcome variables over time. The residents' perception of 6-years of community living was explored in qualitative semistructured interviews. Details of accommodation, level of care, readmissions, incidents and medication were also documented. During the 6 years following community relocation a total of seven residents returned to hospital for long-term care, three residents died from medical causes and one resident required detention in a corrective services facility. The 36 residents who remained in the community at the 6-year follow-up no longer required intensive 24-h supervision. Living semi-independently, 23 residents resided in two to three person accommodation with either daily or weekly case manager visits. Clinically, community residents remained stable over the 6 years without significant changes in psychiatric symptoms, depression, living skills or social behaviour problems. Clinical stability was achieved with significant reduction in medication levels over the 6 years. Community-based residents continued to experience improved quality of life and reported their marked preference for living in the community. The residents maintained community tenure with significant improvement in quality of life and a reduction in medication, supported by a mental health system with adequate community resources. Issues

  19. Effects of perceptual variables on numerosity comparisonin 5-6-year-olds and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori eTokita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although a critical issue in the debate over the existence of abstract numerical representation, it remains unclear whether and how perceptual variables affect numerosity judgment and how they change across development stages. In this research, we examine the effects of perceptual variables on approximate numerosity comparison in 5-6-year-olds and adults using the identical experimental procedure. In the assessment of the effect of the perceptual variables, we measured precision (i.e., Weber fraction and accuracy (i.e., point of subjective equality; PSE of the numerosity comparison. In Study 1, we tested how the manipulation of the cumulative element area would affect approximate numerosity comparison. The results showed that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large element condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. In study 2, we tested how the manipulation of the array area would affect the precision and accuracy of approximate numerosity comparison. The results demonstrated that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large array condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of perceptual variables on 5-6-year-olds is qualitatively similar to that on adults. In addition, we also tested whether the performance of approximate comparison correlated with the initial numerical skill in 5-6-year-olds to reveal least relationship between them.

  20. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  1. Vaginal foreign body in a 6 year old girl: a game for the child but a challenge for the gynaecologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Chaurasia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6 year old girl visited our gynaecology out-patient department of S.R.N hospital, Allahabad, India with the complaint of relapsing blood stained vaginal discharge for 3 months. Different gynaecologists, including us, tried treating the condition with different courses of antibiotics. To each, the girl responded only for few days and relapsed again. We investigated completely into the background of the childs home and school environment, her playing habits and her behaviour with her kins. Then, we got her various investigations done but with no derangement. With the backup of her history, examination and investigations, we performed another detailed examination of her genitals. The findings were intriguing as to their cause, and it definitely was a lesson to all of us. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 518-520

  2. Magic memories: young children's verbal recall after a 6-year delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the event, including 2 who were under 3 years old when the event occurred. This may be the most convincing evidence to date that such early experiences can be verbally recalled after long delays. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development and childhood amnesia and underscore some of the problems associated with evaluating the veracity of early memories under less controlled conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physical fitness that can be used in the method of primary selection for gymnastics.

  4. Spirometry in an unselected group of 6-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    This study presents reference equations for spirometric parameters in 6-year-old children and evaluates the ability of spirometry to discriminate healthy children from children with asthma. Baseline spirometry and respiratory symptoms were assessed in 404 children participating in a longitudinal...... in Delta FEV1(mean) between healthy children and children with asthma (3.1% vs. 6.1%, P Spirometry including bronchodilator measurements was demonstrated...... to be feasible in 6-year-old children and reference values were determined. Spirometry aids the diagnosis of asthma in young children, but knowledge on sensitivity and specificity of these measurements is a prerequisite....

  5. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Godoy, F.; Frankenberger, R.; Lohbauer, U.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krämer, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural

  6. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  7. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  8. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  9. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  10. Voucher Users and Revitalized Public-Housing Residents 6 Years after Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Fred; Lewinson, Terri; Aszman, Jennifer; Wolk, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A total of 6 years after displacement by a Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) project, this research examines residents who returned to the redeveloped community and residents who decided to keep their vouchers and were living in private sector housing. Respondents were compared on the following variables: application…

  11. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  12. Breastfeeding protects against current asthma up to 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Karen M; Frampton, Chris M; Wickens, Kristin; Pattemore, Philip K; Ingham, Tristram; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian; Town, G Ian; Epton, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effects of breastfeeding on wheezing and current asthma in children 2 to 6 years of age. Infants (n=1105) were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in New Zealand. Detailed information about infant feeding was collected using questionnaires administered at birth and at 3, 6, and 15 months. From this, durations of exclusive and any breastfeeding were calculated. Information about wheezing and current asthma was collected at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Logistic regression was used to model associations between breastfeeding and outcomes with and without adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for confounders, each month of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with significant reductions in current asthma from 2 to 6 years (all, Pasthma at 2, 3, and 4 years was also reduced by each month of any breastfeeding (all, Pbreastfeeding for ≥ 3 months reduced current asthma at ages 4, 5, and 6 by 62%, 55%, and 59%, respectively. Breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding, protects against current asthma up to 6 years. Although exclusive breastfeeding reduced risk of current asthma in all children to age 6, the degree of protection beyond 3 years was more pronounced in atopic children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  14. Somatic chronic diseases and 6-year change in cognitive functioning among older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.; Kriegsman, D.M.W.; Dik, M.G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of seven highly prevalent somatic chronic diseases on changes in cognitive functioning is investigated in older persons in a prospective design covering a 6-year follow-up period. The data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). The associations between

  15. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Garcia-Godoy; R. Frankenberger; U. Lohbauer; A.J. Feilzer; N. Krämer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural str

  16. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  17. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijlmans, M.A.C.; Mack, S.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of

  18. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  19. Cat-scratch disease with severe pleuritis in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Sasagu; Hasegawa, Shunji; Yanagihara, Masashi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD), who developed severe pleuritis without lymphadenitis. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood. This is the first report of CSD diagnosed on real-time PCR using whole blood.

  20. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  1. Social conformity persists at least one day in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-12-21

    Humans have a tendency to forgo their own attitudes or beliefs in order to better align with the interests of a majority, a behavioral process known as conformity. Social conformity has been widely studied among adults and adolescents, whereas experimental studies on the impact of peer influence among young children have been relatively limited. The current study aims to investigate both short-term and sustained conforming behaviors among children in situations of relatively low social pressure. Forty-one children aged 5 to 6 years rated the attractiveness of 90 faces presented serially followed by witnessing a group rating in the absence of peers. Subsequently, second judgement was made after 30 minutes (Experiment 1). Results show that 6-year-old children tended to conform to their peers when group ratings differed from their own ratings, while younger children did not. In Experiment 2, children were required to make the second judgment one day after exposure to group ratings. Similarly, children aged 6 years exhibited a sustained conformity effect even after one day. Our findings suggest that 6-year-old children spontaneously change their private opinions under implicit social influence from peers.

  2. Meal-Skipping Behaviors and Body Fat in 6-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To assess the prospective associations of breakfast, lunch, and dinner skipping at age 4 years with body fat (ie, percent fat mass, body mass index [BMI], and weight status) at age 6 years. Study design Data were analyzed from 5913 children participating in the Generation R Stu

  3. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  4. A Discussion of High-Risk HPV in a 6-Year-Old Female Survivor of Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie D. Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papilloma viruses (HPVs cause a variety of clinical manifestations in children including skin warts, laryngeal papillomas, and condyloma acuminatum. Whereas the mode of transmission is well understood and management of HPV infection is clearly defined by guidelines in adults, less is known about the mode of transmission, natural history of disease, and appropriate management of high-risk anogenital HPV infections in children. Case. The patient is a previously healthy 6-year-old female who presented with multiple vaginal lesions causing pain and discomfort and was diagnosed with HPV 18 positive CIN I. Summary and Conclusion. Children infected with high-risk HPV subtypes remain a vulnerable patient population, and there is minimal literature on the natural history of disease and effects of overtreatment. Based on a literature review, conservative management, HPV vaccination, and consideration of the cervical cancer screening guidelines for adolescent females are an appropriate treatment course until more studies are reported on cervical cancer screening in survivors of child sexual abuse.

  5. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  6. Luni-solar 18.6-year signal in tree-rings from Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cùrrie, Robert G.

    1991-09-01

    Spectrum analysis of 32 tree-ring chronologies from Argentina and Chile yields evidence for two peaks with periods 19.2±1.6 years (30 out of 32 records) and 10.5±0.4 years in 22 instances. Tests by the t-statistic show that the long-period peak is significant at a confidence level of 99%. This signal is identified as the luni-solar 18.6-year M n term reported earlier by Currie (1983) in two treering chronologies from the same region, and later in tree-rings from North America, Tasmania, New Zealand, and South Africa ( Currie, 1991a-c). Amplitude and phase of the M n signal are nonstationary with respect to both time and geography. In particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed.

  7. Shewanella putrefaciens keratitis in the lamellar bed 6 years after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jung S; Tuli, Sonal S; Downer, Donald M; Gohari, A Reza; Shah, Milan

    2007-10-01

    To present a case of infectious keratitis occurring 6 years after LASIK due to the rare human pathogen Shewanella putrefaciens. A 58-year-old man presented with redness and pain in the right eye 6 years following LASIK retreatment. Examination revealed a corneal infiltrate at the flap interface. Corneal scraping of stroma beneath the flap was submitted for histopathologic and microbiologic evaluation. An infiltrate located at the LASIK flap interface originated from an epithelial defect at the flap-corneal junction. Corneal stroma cultures demonstrated Shewanella putrefaciens. The infection resolved with antibiotic treatment. LASIK-related complications, such as infections, can occur many years following the procedure. The potential space created under the LASIK flap may predispose patients to infection by opportunistic organisms.

  8. A 6-year experience with radial artery conduit for myocardial revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghpour-Tabaee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excellent long-term patencies of arterial grafts are considered, superior to those of vein grafts. In this study, we present our 6 years experience in using radial artery as a conduit for myocardial revascularization. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and early and mid term results of using radial artery in coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: The radial artery used as a conduit in 308 cases was evaluated during past 6 years, and the results obtained were processed and analyzed. Results: The operative morbidity comprised re-operation for bleeding in 3.2%, MI in 5%, with paresthesis and stitch abscess of the hand in 10% in and 3.5% respectively. Hospital mortality included 2 patients, one case being directly due to complication of harvesting radial artery.Conclusion: The results of present study were satisfactory with acceptable morbidity and mortality and favored the application of this conduit to CABG patients.

  9. [Psychophysiological factors of readiness children of 6 years to education at school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivolapchuk, I A; Chernova, M B

    2012-01-01

    Research was spent according to principles of biomedical ethics. Healthy children of 6 years have taken part in him (n = 120). In the course of research the psychophysiological factors defining readiness of children of 6 years to education at school are identified: "selectivity of voluntary attention" (the factor I); "the general working capacity" (the factor II); "a physiological maturity" (the factor III); "sensorimotor coordination of voluntary movement" (the factor IV). Factors I, II, IV correspond with activity of three blocks of the brain allocated with A.R. Lurija within the limits of structurally functional model of work of a brain as a substratum of mental activity. The carried out research has revealed interrelation of some indicators of readiness for education at school with parametres of physical working capacity.

  10. Equations for predicting biomass in 2- to 6-year-old Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig D. Whitesell; Susan C. Miyasaka; Robert F. Strand; Thomas H. Schubert; Katharine E. McDuffie

    1988-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna trees grown in short-rotation plantations on the island of Hawaii were measured, harvested, and weighed to provide data for developing regression equations using non-destructive stand measurements. Regression analysis of the data from 190 trees in the 2.0- to 3.5-year range and 96 trees in the 4- to 6-year range related stem-only...

  11. Hypoadiponectinemia in overweight children contributes to a negative metabolic risk profile 6 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Heitmann, Berit L; Bygbjerg, Ib C;

    2009-01-01

    -density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and the reciprocal value of fitness (maximum watts per kilogram). Overweight was defined using international classification of body mass index cutoff points for children. Plasma adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-8, and hepatocyte...... adiponectin at baseline was inversely associated with metabolic risk score 6 years later (P = .04). In childhood, both hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia accompany a negative metabolic risk profile. In addition, circulating plasma adiponectin may be a useful biomarker to identify overweight children...

  12. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  13. Patterns of language and auditory dysfunction in 6-year-old children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Selassie, Gunilla Rejnö-Habte; Olsson, Ingrid; Jennische, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we reported difficulty with expressive language and visuoperceptual ability in preschool children with epilepsy and otherwise normal development. The present study analysed speech and language dysfunction for each individual in relation to epilepsy variables, ear preference, and intelligence in these children and described their auditory function. Twenty 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, 6 males; mean age 6:5 y, range 6 y–6 y 11 mo) and 30 reference children w...

  14. Clivus osteomyelitis secondary to Enterococcus faecium infection in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, R; Bergamaschi, S; Cazzavillan, A; Carnelli, V

    2005-09-01

    A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed to suffer from clivus osteomyelitis secondary to Enterococcus faecium infection. On the basis of the magnetic resonance image, the abscess was drained via the posterior wall of the pharyngeal tract immediately. Subsequent antibiotic therapy allowed rapid improvement and long-term healing of the osteomyelitic process without any side effect. Osteomyelitis or abscess of the clivus is very rare in adult patients and extremely rare in children. Some etiopathogenetic hypotheses are discussed in this case.

  15. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  16. High-latitude oceanic variability associated with the 18.6-year nodal tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Thomas C.

    1993-03-01

    Ocean temperatures in the upper 250 m in the northern North Pacific (60°N, 149°W) increased by more than 1°C from 1972 to 1986 but are now decreasing. Subsurface temperature anomalies are well correlated (˜0.58) with the air temperature anomalies at Sitka, Alaska; hence the coastal air temperatures can be used as a proxy data set to extend the ocean temperature time series back to 1828. Up to 30% of the low-frequency variance can be accounted for with the 18.6-year nodal signal. Additionally, spectral analysis of these air temperature variations indicates a significant low-frequency peak in the range of the 18.6-year signal. Similar low-frequency signals have been reported for Hudson Bay air temperatures since 1700, for sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic from 1876 to 1939, and for sea level in the high-latitude southern hemisphere. The water column temperature variations presented here are the first evidence that the upper ocean is responding to this very long period tidal forcing. An enhanced high-latitude response to the 18.6-year forcing is predicted by equilibrium tide theory, and it should be most evident at latitudes poleward of about 50°. These low-frequency ocean-atmosphere variations must be considered in high-latitude assessments of global climate change, since they are of the same magnitude as many of the predicted global changes.

  17. Possible damping model of the 6 year oscillation signal in length of day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Pengshuo; Liu, Genyou; Hu, Xiaogang; Sun, Yafei; Li, Honglei

    2017-04-01

    A significant 6 year oscillation signal exists in the observed length-of-day (LOD) series. We recently used normal Morlet wavelet transform method to recover this oscillation signal. The result indicates that the amplitude of this oscillation has been decreasing for the over past 50 years. Using the simulation analysis, this study further demonstrates that the above result is reliable. However, the geophysical mechanism responsible for this decrease is less clear. Here, we develop a temporal-decaying function to characterize the secular attenuation of the oscillation signal. Using the least squared method, we obtain the corresponding quality factor Q value (51.6 ± 0.4) and the damping relaxation time τ (99.2 ± 0.8 years). We find the attenuation of the 6 year oscillation signal and its Q value can be explained by previous theoretical prediction, providing constraints on the related physical parameters of the lowermost mantle. The dissipative effect of electromagnetic coupling at the core-mantle boundary is likely to be a primary factor to cause the decaying of the 6 year oscillation signal.

  18. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). Design......: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Population study, Denmark. Subjects: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. Interventions: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food...... record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages...

  19. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  20. Evolutionary Adaptations to Dietary Changes

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, F; Perry, G. H.; Di Rienzo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human...

  1. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  2. Food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish 1-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyttälä, Pipsa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Tapanainen, Heli; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2010-06-01

    To study food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish children aged 1-6 years and to assess the effect of age and sex on food consumption and nutrient intake. Cross-sectional samples of children participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort study in Finland. The study population comprised healthy children recruited in the nutrition study within the DIPP study in 1998-2003. Three-day food records (2535 in total) from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-year-old children were kept between the years 2003 and 2005. The energy-adjusted consumption of fruits and berries, cereal products, infant formulas and meat dishes was higher and the consumption of vegetables, salads, breads, dairy products, fat spreads, drinks, sweets and sugar was lower among 1-year-old children than older age groups (P for all <0.05). The mean daily energy intake increased with age and was higher among boys than girls in all age groups, except among the 2-year-olds (P for all <0.05). The diet of the 2-6-year-old children contained too much saturated fat and sucrose, and too little PUFA compared with the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The intakes of most vitamins and minerals met the recommendations. However, the intakes of vitamin D, E and iron fell below the recommended levels. The nutrient density of the diet decreased after the age of 1 year at the time that the children adapted to the regular family diet. In order to improve the diet of young children, it is essential to evaluate the diet of the whole family.

  3. The evaluation of mood condition among depressed adolescent students in Isfahan after 6 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266

  4. A 6-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN FEDERAL ALMAZOV NORTH-WEST MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shlyakhto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the results of 6-year experience of heart transplantation (HT in Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Centre. Methods. From 2010 to 2015 we have performed 65 HT. Mean age was 44.3 ± 14 years old (from 10 to 64 years old. We used biventricular assist device (BIVAD, Berlin Heart Excor support in 7 heart transplant candidates before HT. 19 patients (29% received thymoglobulin, whereas 46 patients (71% had basiliximab to induce immunosuppression.Results. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines were implanted in 5 patients (7.7% after HT due to acute right ventricular failure. Suture annuloplasty (the Batista procedure for tricuspid valve repair was carried out in 3 cases (4.6%. Venovenous hemodiafi ltration was used in 11 patients (16.9%. A total of 598 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB were performed after HT. Evidence of cellular rejection (R1 and R2 was presented in 286 biopsies (48%. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The 6-month survival rate after HT was 92%, 1-year – 91% and overall survival for the 6-year period of observation – 89.2%. Maximum observation period was 71 months.Conclusions. The 6-year experience of HT in our Center has shown a high level of survival. BIVAD Excor support can be effectively used as a «bridge» to HT. Prevention of graft loss due to acute rejection in heart transplant recipients can be achieved only through regular EMB monitoring. The rate of viral infection increased in 2 months after HT.

  5. Breastfeeding and asthma outcomes at the age of 6 years: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Reiss, Irwin K; de Jongste, Johan C; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of asthma symptoms in early childhood, but its effect at older ages remains unclear. We examined the associations of duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding with asthma outcomes in children aged 6 years, and whether these associations were explained by atopic or infectious mechanisms. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5675 children. Information about breastfeeding was collected by questionnaires. At age 6 years, we measured interrupter resistance (Rint) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Information about wheezing patterns (early (≤3 years only), late (>3 years only), persistent (≤3 and >3 years)), and current asthma at 6 years was derived from repeated questionnaires. Compared to children who were ever breastfed, those who were never breastfed had lower FeNO levels (sympercent (95% CI): -16.0 (-24.5, -7.5)) and increased risks of late and persistent wheezing (OR(95% CI): 1.69 (1.06, 2.69) and 1.44 (1.00, 2.07), respectively). Shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with early wheezing and current asthma (1.40 (1.14, 1.73) and 2.19 (1.29, 3.71), respectively). Less exclusive breastfeeding was associated with early wheezing (1.28 (1.08, 1.53)). Breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness were not associated with FeNO or Rint. The associations were not explained by inhalant allergies, partly by lower respiratory tract infections in early life, and to a lesser extent by lower respiratory tract infections in later life. Breastfeeding patterns may influence wheezing and asthma in childhood, which seems to be partly explained by infectious mechanisms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of knee extensor muscle strength on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis after 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasumoto; Takemura, Marie; Harada, Atsushi; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The association of knee extensor muscle strength with bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in cross-sectional epidemiological studies, but it remains unclear whether or not this is the case with longitudinal change. Thus, we investigated whether or not the knee extension strength can predict the incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis after 6 years, then compared the difference between sexes. Subjects were 1255 community-dwelling Japanese men and menopaused women, aged 40-81 years. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry twice at 6-year intervals. Subjects were divided into three groups, normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, depending on their young adult mean BMD % value. In the cross-sectional analysis the correlations between the knee extension strength and BMD of the two regions were examined, using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Longitudinal analyses were then conducted to determine the odds ratio, controlled for age and BMI, given that those who were normal in the initial stage developed osteopenia or osteoporosis after 6 years, for every 1 SD decrease in knee extension strength, as well as those who first had normal or osteopenia and then developed osteoporosis. Cross-sectional analysis showed a statistically significant relation between knee extensor muscle strength and BMD at both the lumbar spine (p = 0.02) and the femoral neck (p muscle strength on the loss of femoral neck BMD from normal to osteopenia or osteoporosis both in men (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.36-2.48, p strength to maintain the bone health of the proximal femur and spine in aging particularly in men.

  7. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents

  8. Interventions by Mothers of 1-6 Year Old Children after Home Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Karatas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to determine the interventions after home accidents by women with a child between 1-6 years old.INSTRUMENT AND METHODS: The research was conducted as a descriptive study in the neighborhoods served by Çukurova Health Clinic affiliated with Mersin province center municipality. Using a simple random sampling method 100 women were taken into the sample by numbering the 1-6 year old child monitoring records. Data were collected on a questionnaire. Percentage distribution and Chi square test were used in the analysis of data obtained in the research.FINDINGS: The children of 66.0% of the women had had at least one home accident and the most frequent of the accidents was falling (66.7% followed by burns (43.9%. The majority of women, following their child's fall (61.4% applied a wound ointment and took the child to a health care facility and following a burn to their child 44.8% of the women used a cold application and took the child to a health care facility. The overwhelming majority of the women learned about first aid for childhood accidents from the people close to them, such as a relative or neighbor. There was no statistically significant difference between the women's sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of home accidents and the kind of first aid used for home accidents (P>0.05. RESULTS: The frequency of accidents in the homes of children between 1-6 years was high, and the majority of the first aid treatments administered by women following an accident was correct. Although the percentage was small some of the women did use inappropriate procedures.Keywords: Accident, injury, home accidents, childhood accidents 

  9. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaas, T. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht, P0 Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Kamphuis, D.J. [Section of Child Neurology, Wilhelmina Children`s Hospital, University Hospital for Children and Youth, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  10. Retrocaval ureter presenting at 6 years of age in a girl child – An extreme rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kajal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Retrocaval ureter is one of the very rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of retrocaval ureter in a 6-year-old girl who presented with right flank pain and hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was made on intravenous urography which showed typical “J” shape deformity in the proximal dilated ureter with moderate hydronephrosis. CT scan delineated the course of ureter. The patient was operated and findings were confirmed. The ureter was transected near the pelvis and a pyeloureteric anastomosis with pre-caval transposition of the ureter was performed and the patient was discharged in fair health.

  11. Planning and organizing an event: Sushibar+Wine 6 -year birthday party

    OpenAIRE

    Laulajainen, Kaisa; Pitkänen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a written report of an overview on how to plan, produce and manage a me-dium scale special event. The thesis was commissioned by Sushibar Restaurants Finland Oy. The commissioner and the contact person for this thesis is Matti Sarkkinen. The au-thors of this thesis are students of Hotelli- ja Ravintola-alan liikkeenjohto and Experience and Wellness management. The aim of this thesis was to plan, organize and manage a 6-year old birthday party for Sushibar + Wine restaurants...

  12. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA......The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...

  13. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  14. Nitrogen saturation in humid tropical forests after 6 years of nitrogen and phosphorus addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) saturation hypothesis suggests that when an ecosystem reaches N-saturation, continued N input will cause increased N leaching, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, and N mineralization and nitrification rates. It also suggests that a different element will become the main limiting......O emission rate and nitrate (NO3-) leaching rate were measured in an N-saturated old-growth tropical forest in southern China, after 6 years of N and P addition. We hypothesized that N addition would stimulate further N saturation, but P addition might alleviate N saturation. As expected, our...

  15. Treatment of Odontogenic Myxoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach—6-Year Follow-Up Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Oliveira de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive diseases that affect the oral environment are considered tumors of the jaw. The surgical treatment is preferably done by surgical resection of the lesion, resulting in a great loss of tissue and esthetics. Multidisciplinary planning is required for the rehabilitation of these cases. Autogenous grafting techniques or vascularized flaps allow ridge reconstruction for implant placement, restoring function, and esthetics. This paper reports a 6-year follow-up case of an odontogenic myxoma treated with wide resection and mandibular bone reconstruction for posterior rehabilitation with dental implants.

  16. Opportunistic prostate-specific antigen screening in Italy: 6 years of monitoring from the Italian general practice database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Gaetano Giorgio; Campo, Salvatore; Cancian, Maurizio; Pecchioli, Serena; Mazzaglia, Giampiero

    2010-11-01

    The practice of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has been increasing in Italy despite uncertain scientific evidence and contrary recommendations from most scientific societies. In 2002, a survey of PSA screening diffusion among general practices was performed, looking for screening frequency and age pattern of screened individuals. The objective of this study was to assess whether the features of PSA screening did change after 6 years in the same considered setting. Using the data obtained from 500 Italian general practitioners providing information to the Health Search/CSD Patient database, we selected, for the study purpose 351,091 male individuals. We assumed PSA prescriptions performed during 2005-2008 in individuals without prostate cancer, or benign prostate disease, or urological symptoms history to have a screening purpose. Screening frequency was analyzed in the overall series, by year and by patient's age. Exposure to PSA screening (at least on PSA test in the considered period) of males aged over 50 years raised from 31.4% (confidence interval 95% 31.08-31.70%) during 2002 to 46.4% (confidence interval 95% 46.19-46.68%) during 2008. The highest yearly exposure to PSA screening (55%) and the highest frequency of repeat testing was observed in the 70-79 age range. PSA screening practice has continued to increase in Italy and is often performed in elderly people without any scientific rationale.

  17. Outcome of 17 pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the knee at 6 years mean follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H; Rana, B; Mahendra, A; Jane, M J; Reid, R

    2007-10-01

    Between January 1950 and December 2000, 16 patients were identified from Scottish Bone Tumour Registry with 17 histologically proven pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the knee. The mean follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-14 years). A knee swelling of chronic duration with dull ache was the common presenting symptom. The mean duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 25 months (1-108 months), however it was much less (mean, 7 months) in four patients with a history of trauma. The mean age was 33 years (range, 16-58 years) with a slight male predominance. The lesion was predominantly anterior in nine patients, posterior in four, anterolateral in two, and medial and lateral in one each. Three patients (four knees) had localised disease and 13 diffuse. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the knee revealed normal findings in 11 patients, features of gonarthrosis in four and a large suprapatellar loose body in one patient (both knees). Open (incisional-eight, excisional-eight) biopsy was carried out in all and all were histologically confirmed as PVNS. Removal of a localised synovial mass or loose body with surrounding partial synovectomy (four) was carried out for the localised variety, whilst open partial (three) or total (radical) synovectomy (10) was performed in all cases of diffuse PVNS. Three of seventeen knees had a recurrence, noted at 4, 6 and 8 years postoperatively (0% - localised, 23% - diffuse variety). A total (radical) synovectomy should be considered in diffuse PVNS in order to obtain optimal outcome.

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with a unilateral giant ovarian fibroma in a Japanese 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Takahiro; Masumoto, Kouji; Urita, Yasuhisa; Takayasu, Hajime; Shinkai, Toko; Uesugi, Toru; Gotoh, Chikashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sasaki, Takato; Oto, Tatsuyuki; Fukushima, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Nakano, Yoshiro

    2014-05-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is characterized by basal cell carcinoma, skeletal abnormalities, benign tumors including ovarian fibroma, and various other phenotypic expressions. Ovarian fibromas in NBCCS before puberty are very rare. We report a 6-year-old prepubescent girl with NBCCS showing skeletal abnormalities, medulloblastoma, and ovarian fibromas. The patient was referred to our hospital owing to abdominal distension. On admission, a huge elastic hard tumor was palpable and computed tomography showed a huge tumor of the left ovary. We performed a left salpingo-oophorectomy and diagnosed the tumor as a benign fibroma. Further examination of the computed tomography images showed skeletal abnormalities. In addition, the patient had a history of medulloblastoma at the age of 4 years. Therefore, we diagnosed NBCCS. A genetic examination indicated a novel 1 bp deletion in exon 18 (c.3055delG). Sequence analysis of exon 18 using DNA from the ovarian tumor revealed a mutant allele (c.3055delG) dominant to the wild-type allele, thus suggesting loss of heterozygosity in the PTCH1 gene, which is known to be associated with NBCCS. Conclusion On the basis of our experience, physicians treating pediatric ovarian tumors should be aware that such huge benign ovarian tumors may be a phenotype of NBCCS, as shown in our patient. In addition, genetic examination focusing on the PTCH1 gene might be important for diagnosis of NBCCS in pediatric patients.

  19. Retinitis Pigmentosa and Bilateral Idiopathic Demyelinating Optic Neuritis in a 6-Year-Old Boy with OFD1 Gene Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the cause of a sudden binocular vision decrease in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis is difficult, but early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with a progressive binocular vision decrease in 38 days. The patient had a history of night blindness, a mottled retina without pigmentation, extinguished electroretinographic response, tritanopia, and an absent ellipsoid zone outside the macula fovea by optical coherence tomography in both eyes. His condition was diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa (RP with idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis (IDON. After corticosteroid therapy, visual acuity recovered to OD: 0.5 and OS: 0.4. Genetic analysis revealed a G985S variant in the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene. Ophthalmologists should pay attention to the existence of other complications in patients with RP who suffer a sudden decrease in vision. A gene survey can help clarify this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with RP and ON, as well as genetic testing results. Nevertheless, the pathogenicity of the variant needs further confirmation.

  20. Retinitis Pigmentosa and Bilateral Idiopathic Demyelinating Optic Neuritis in a 6-Year-Old Boy with OFD1 Gene Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Zheng, Cong; Liu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    To identify the cause of a sudden binocular vision decrease in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and bilateral idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis is difficult, but early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with a progressive binocular vision decrease in 38 days. The patient had a history of night blindness, a mottled retina without pigmentation, extinguished electroretinographic response, tritanopia, and an absent ellipsoid zone outside the macula fovea by optical coherence tomography in both eyes. His condition was diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with idiopathic demyelinating optic neuritis (IDON). After corticosteroid therapy, visual acuity recovered to OD: 0.5 and OS: 0.4. Genetic analysis revealed a G985S variant in the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 gene. Ophthalmologists should pay attention to the existence of other complications in patients with RP who suffer a sudden decrease in vision. A gene survey can help clarify this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with RP and ON, as well as genetic testing results. Nevertheless, the pathogenicity of the variant needs further confirmation. PMID:28191358

  1. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old Boy with Advanced Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid MALAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Malak M, Barzgar M. Baclofen Induced Encephalopathy in a 6-Year-Old boy with Advanced Renal Failure. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(2:61-63. AbstractBaclofen is a drug for many diseases for all ages, but it is hazardous in patients with renal failure. This article talks about a case of baclofen overdose in a child with renal failure.A 6-year-old boy admitted to the emergency department with a loss of consciousness, hypotonia, and areflexia following administration of 20 mg baclofen (1mg/kg/daily in total dose for his voiding dysfunction. His laboratory tests showed advanced renal failure. After withholding the medication andsupportive therapy, he recovered completely after two days. After arousal, he complained of insomnia, strange sensations on the skin, intentional tremors, and ataxia. He left the hospital in good condition in three days.Renal function control before baclofen administration is mandatory especially in high-risk groups. A total dose of 1mg/kg lead to encephalopathy in children with advanced renal failure, with subtle persistent complaints persist are often overlooked for a while.

  2. Geodetic Constraints on Mantle Q at Periods from a Fortnight to 18.6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D.; Wahr, J.; Desai, S.

    2002-12-01

    Seismic observations have provided numerous constraints on the earth's spherically-averaged mantle anelasticity at periods of tens of minutes and shorter. Meanwhile, post-glacial rebound and other geodynamic studies provide information at periods of a few thousand years and longer. However, constraints at intermediate periods are scarce. Such constraints could be useful in trying to connect the seismic anelastic models with the longer-period visco-elastic behavior. Here we will describe constraints on anelasticity in this intermediate range of periods as obtained from earth tide and earth rotation observations. We discuss results from: (1) VLBI observations of the monthly and fortnightly tidal variations in rotation rate; (2) satellite laser ranging observations of the 18.6-year tidal variations in the earth's gravitational field; and (3) astrometric and geodetic observations of the 14-month Chandler Wobble period and damping. We find that these observations are consistent with a nearly frequency-independent mantle Q stretching from seismic periods all the way out to the 14-month Chandler Wobble period; but that Q appears to decrease significantly between 14-months and 18.6-years.

  3. Significant contribution of the 18.6 year tidal cycle to regional coastal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratiot, N.; Anthony, E. J.; Gardel, A.; Gaucherel, C.; Proisy, C.; Wells, J. T.

    2008-03-01

    Although rising global sea levels will affect the shape of coastlines over the coming decades, the most severe and catastrophic shoreline changes occur as a consequence of local and regional-scale processes. Changes in sediment supply and deltaic subsidence, both natural or anthropogenic, and the occurrences of tropical cyclones and tsunamis have been shown to be the leading controls on coastal erosion. Here, we use satellite images of South American mangrove-colonized mud banks collected over the past twenty years to reconstruct changes in the extent of the shoreline between the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. The observed timing of the redistribution of sediment and migration of the mud banks along the 1,500km muddy coast suggests the dominant control of ocean forcing by the 18.6 year nodal tidal cycle. Other factors affecting sea level such as global warming or El Niño and La Niña events show only secondary influences on the recorded changes. In the coming decade, the 18.6 year cycle will result in an increase of mean high water levels of 6cm along the coast of French Guiana, which will lead to a 90m shoreline retreat.

  4. Sampling Survey of Disability in 0-6 Year-old Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI ZHANG; XIN NA; SHAO-HUA GUO; ZHENG-LAI WU; SHAO-HUA BO; XI-TAN ZHANG; MIN LIU; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG; XIAO-LING YANG; SHU-RONG JI; HUA YAN; XIU-LI SUI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of disabled children and prevalence of disabilities in children aged 0-6 years and their risk factors, and to provide scientific evidence for making relevant policies for disabled children. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study, multi-phase, stratified, unequal proportional and cluster sampling was adopted to survey 60 124 children aged 0-6 years. All the investigated children were screened for disabilities, and those with positive screening tests were further diagnosed by various specialties. Results A total of 819 children were diagnosed as disabled with an overall prevalence of 1.362%, 0.155% for hearing disability, 0.160% for visual disability, 0.931% for intelligent disability, 0.424% for limb disability, and 0.101% for mental disability. Prevalence of disability in children was higher in rural areas, and in families with two or more children, low educational level or in divorced families. Conclusion The prevalence of disability can be reduced by economic development, improvement of health care and quality of population, as well as harmonious familial relationship, early prevention of disability, and preschool education for disabled children.

  5. Management of pregnancy in a University Hospital: a 6-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupp Tânia Regina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the obstetric care in the Obstetric Clinic of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of University of São Paulo, the authors present a survey of the management of pregnancy during the 6-year period from 1993 to 1998. The number of deliveries increased during the study by 45% over the 6 years. During this same period the number of fetal deaths was 526 (4.48%, but there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the incidence of fetal death. However, there was no concomitant increase in the proportion of pregnant women with prenatal care that could explain this improvement. Incidence of premature labor also decreased considerably. The authors believe that the increment in the number of deliveries was due mainly to the increasing number of pregnant women referred to our service. The efforts made by the service towards decreasing the time of hospitalization of both newborns in the nursery and the mothers in the hospital made this possible. Despite the increasing number of deliveries, there was a significant improvement in the management of pregnancy during the period of study. This improvement may be a consequence of the standardization of a protocol of management of pregnancy based on the recent progress in scientific and technological knowledge.

  6. Huge focal nodular hyperplasia presenting in a 6-year-old child: A case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Lin; Ni, Chuangye; Din, Wenbing; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Yi; Sun, Yawei; Xi, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign lesion of the liver which is usually found in healthy adults, however, FNH is rare in children, and comprises only 2% of all pediatric liver tumors. Herein, we report the case of a 6-year-old child (male) with a huge FNH which size is more than 10cm. This could be the biggest FNH among all children's FNH cases ever reported. A 6-year-old boy was found a hepatic space-occupying lesion two years ago. As the time went by, the lesion became bigger gradually. The last CT examination showed the size of the tumor to be 10.5×9.9cm in the right hepatic lobe. This child underwent surgical resection of the tumor which was confirmed as FNH (11×8×7cm) by pathology. FNH is a benign lesion of the liver, and it is characterized by hepatocyte hyperplasia and a central stellate scar. It is uncommon for FNH to be diagnosed in children. Such huge FNH (about 11cm) is extremely rare. Surgical operation may be the effective method to cure huge FNH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

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    Kurmaeva E.V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  8. Addressing the academic gap between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-10-15

    To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions of preceptorship. We surveyed a convenience sample of 200 community pharmacists who graduated from a 4-year program who were participating in a continuing education program for clinical pharmacy as organized by the Daejeon branch of the Korea Pharmaceutical Association in 2011. Twenty-one questions were asked about the academic gap, needs for an education program, preceptorship, and medication therapy management services. International precedents were examined through a literature review to glean ideas of how to bridge the academic gap between the 4- and 6-year programs. In total, 132 pharmacists answered the survey (return rate=66.0%). The survey findings included problems caused by the academic gap, high need for an adequate education program, low acceptability of preceptorship, and the possibility of medication therapy management services. US-based, non-traditional PharmD programs and new curriculum-support training in Japan provided examples of how the academic gap has been successfully bridged. Nationwide efforts and government support are urgently required to close the academic gap, and experiential education should be included in transitional programs for 4-year pharmacy program pharmacists.

  9. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oliveira BERTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDI in 5- to 6-year-old Brazilian children and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors. A total of 684 children aged 5 to 6 years old, from 11 public schools in the city of Barueri (Brazil were evaluated. Clinical examinations were carried out in the schools, by two trained and calibrated examiners. Gauze and a mouth mirror were used for the examinations. The reported TDIs were classified according to the Andreasen (2007 criteria for primary teeth. The results showed that 52.3% of the children had TDI. Enamel fracture (63.4% was the most frequently observed sign of TDI, and the most affected teeth were the primary maxillary central incisors (26.9% maxillary right central incisor and 24% maxillary left central incisor. There was no association between the presence of TDI and biological or socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of TDI was high and had no statistically significant association with biological and socioeconomic factors.

  10. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  11. Survival until 6 years after cholecystectomy: female population of Denmark, 1977-1983

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T F; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    admissions had a relative risk (RR) of about 1.5. Cholecystectomy patients had a significantly increased mortality when compared to hysterectomy patients, RR = 1.3 (1.1-1.6), and to the population sample. Heart diseases and cancer occurred significantly more often as causes of death among cholecystectomy......It has been a prevailing assumption that cholecystectomy patients by and large follow a pattern of survival similar to that of the normal population. This paper presents a population-based study of the long-term survival after cholecystectomy in order to reassess this assumption. Based on data...... to both hysterectomy patients and a sample of the female population. Adjusting for age and other covariates, patients with psychiatric hospital admissions prior to surgery experienced a threefold risk of dying within 6 years after surgery. Patients with prior somatic admissions and patient with acute...

  12. Gamma-ray upper limits on magnetars with 6 years of Fermi-LAT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F; de Ona-Wilhelmi, Emma

    2016-01-01

    We report on the search for gamma-ray emission from 20 magnetars using 6 years of Fermi, Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently-known magnetars is found. We derived the most stringent upper limits to date on the 0.1--10 GeV emission of Galactic magnetars, which are estimated between $\\sim10^{-12}-10^{-11}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. Gamma-ray pulsations were searched for the four magnetars having reliable ephemerides over the observing period, but none were detected. On the other hand, we also studied the gamma-ray morphology and spectra of seven Supernova Remnants associated or adjacent to the magnetars.

  13. Two breast metastases from thyroid carcinoma presented 6 years later after total thyroidectomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gene Hyuk; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Na Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Thyroid carcinoma is usually indolent with good prognosis, as compared to other malignancy. Distant metastases from thyroid cancer are rare and usually manifest as multiple lesions especially in lungs, bones and lymph nodes, in advanced stages of the disease. Metastasis to the breast from thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare, with about 16 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we reported a case of metastatic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which presented as 2 breast masses in a 72-year-old woman, 6 years after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (USG) image findings are nonspecific oval mass with circumscribed or partially indistinct margin, metastases from thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is suspected. Also, fusion images of CT and USG are helpful to the radiologists in localizing the targeted lesion and conducting accurate USG-guided biopsy.

  14. Correlates of objectively measured physical activity in 5-6 year old preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L G; Kristensen, P L; Korsholm, L;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gender specific physical activity correlates in Danish preschool children. METHODS: Cross--sectional study in Odense, Denmark. The gender specific models were based on data from 174 boys and 177 girls, 5--6 years of age and enrolled in 40 randomly selected...... preschools. Percentage of total daily time spent in moderate and vigorously physical activity (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers over 5 preschool days and 2 days off. Thirty--nine potential correlates of child MVPA across 5 domains were tested for associations with gender specific MVPA....... RESULTS: The gender specific models consistently identified motor coordination and the parents´ perceptions of their child´s activity preferences during free play were positively associated with MVPA. Days with rain or no preschool attendance were negatively associated with MVPA. For boys, rural area...

  15. MEMORY AND LANGUAGE IN TESTIMONIES OF 3- TO 6- YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva A. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The testimony of pre-school children is, in many cases, the main and only evidence in criminal proceedings. Memory and language are two main components in the statement of the child and they require special analysis, not only because of the important role they play, but also because of the relationship between the two capacities. The vulnerability of memory and its ability to be altered by suggestions, as well as the variability of language development in the 3- to 6-year-old child, are two factors that influence the collection of testimony. These factors, together with the interviewer’s skill in adapting the interview to the child, may obtain reliable information that is free of subjectivity and that will facilitate the investigation of the allegations. This article presents an overview of both capabilities, language and memory, from the perspective of child witness testimony as evidence in criminal proceedings.

  16. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Gordillo-Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires induce a series of soil changes affecting their physical and chemical properties and the hydrological and erosive response. Two of the properties that are commonly affected by burning are soil water repellency and structural stability. This paper carries out the study and monitoring of water repellency and soil structural stability during a period of 6 years after fire in calcareous soils of southern Spain in different aggregate size fractions (<2, 1-2, 0.5-1 and 0.25-0.5 mm. During this time, it was observed that both properties showed different tendencies in different aggregate size fractions. It was observed that water repellency increased after fire especially in the finer fractions (0.25-0.5 mm. Structural stability increased significantly after the fire and was progressively reduced during the experimental period.

  17. Cushing syndrome secondary to CRH-producing Wilms tumor in a 6 year old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Hee; Cho, Uiju; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Jung, Min Ho; Chung, Nak Gyun; Cho, Bin; Choi, Yeong Jin; Lee, Myung Duk; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to elevated serum cortisol. It is uncommon in children, and etiology includes pituitary adenoma, adrenal tumor, and exogenous glucocorticoid administration. Rarely, it is paraneoplastic in origin. We present a case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilms tumor that secreted corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). A 6-year-old male presented with polyphagia and weight gain. He showed Cushingoid appearance, hypertension, and palpable left flank mass. Serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were elevated. Computed tomography showed a neoplasm originating from the left kidney. Pathologic diagnosis of Wilms tumor was made upon nephroureterectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CRH and negative for ACTH. All features of Cushing syndrome disappeared after surgery. This represents a rare case of Cushing syndrome secondary to Wilms tumor in which CRH production has been demonstrated.

  18. Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma of mandible in a 6-year-old child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B. S.; Purohit, Sharad; Kiran, Sheetal; Mahita, V. Naga

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion of the jaw occurs at the early age of onset frequently under 15 years with a propensity to recur. It appears as a unilobulated/multilobulated lesion at an early stage followed by radiopaque appearance surrounded by radiolucent rimming at advanced stages. The psammomatous type of JOF (PsJOF) principally involves the bones of the orbit and paranasal sinuses. However in some cases, maxilla or rarely the mandible may be pretentious. Here, we report a challenging case of PsJOF in a 6-year-old child with a complaint of swelling imitating a cystic lesion in left back region of the lower jaw for 2 months. The authors propose that a careful examination and correlations of clinical, radiological, and histopathological features are essential to arrive at correct diagnosis and play a vital role in management of such patients. PMID:27134454

  19. The Mount Sinai cesarean section reduction program: an update after 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S A; Gleicher, N

    1993-11-01

    A six year follow-up evaluation of our original cesarean section reduction program is presented. While establishing obstetric practice guidelines was accomplished, two prerequisites remain critical: lowering cesarean utilization was to be accomplished without harm to mother or fetus, and a target rate was prospectively determined. The results after 6 years indicate that total cesarean rates of 10-12% can consistently be achieved without adverse outcome. Additionally, operative vaginal procedures were employed less that 3% of cases. Separate analysis of 580 breech deliveries failed to show an effect of route of delivery on mortality. This effort indicates that long-term reductions and cesarean utilization are possible with a comprehensive departmental program designed to accomplish achieving a target rate of 11%.

  20. Mandibular ameloblastic fibroma in 6-years-old girl: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesi, A; Albanese, M; Gerosa, R; Corrocher, G; Gambarini, G; Nocini, P F

    2008-10-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is defined in WHO classification as a ''neoplasm composed of proliferating odontogenic epithelium embedded in a cellular ectomesenchymal tissue that resembles dental papilla, and with varying degrees of inductive change and dental hard tissue formation''. AF is a rather uncommon tumor, accounting for only 2.5% of all odontogenic tumors. AF is a true mixed tumor, in which the epithelial and ectomesenchymal elements are neoplastic. AF raises at any age, ranging from 6 months to 42 years (mean 14.6 to 15.5 years); it does not show sex predilection. The lesion occurs in nearly 70% of cases in posterior areas of the mandible. Patients exhibit swelling of the jaw; pain is not usually described. Authors present a clinical and surgical management of an early onset of a large mandibular ameloblastic fibroma in a 6-year-old girsl.

  1. How do cognitive and axial motor signs correlate in Parkinson's disease? A 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Miguel Fernandes; Garrett, M C; Fonseca, M R; Rosas, M J; Simões, M F; Vieira, S; Botelho, F

    2009-10-01

    Impairment of Parkinson's disease (PD) axial motor signs (AMS) has been described as a risk factor for dementia. Executive dysfunction is an important feature in recently proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for PD dementia. To clarify the relationship between AMS progression and executive cognitive performance, we conducted a 6-year prospective study in PD patients without AMS impairment at baseline. A hospital-based cohort of PD patients (n = 24) without dementia, in the initial motor stage (Hoehn-Yahr Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (r = -0.735, p < 0.001). PD patients with higher speech impairment progression showed more rapid declines in some neuropsychological tests. Further studies are needed to clarify the different roles of speech, gait and postural instability on the initial phases of cognitive dysfunction.

  2. [Extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6 year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lama Caro-Patón, G; García-Salido, A; Iglesias-Bouzas, M I; Guillén, M; Cañedo-Villaroya, E; Martínez-Romera, I; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-11-01

    Thrombocytosis is usually a casual finding in children. Reactive or secondary thrombocytosis is the more common form, being the infections diseases the most prevalent cause of it. Regarding the number of platelets there are four degrees of thrombocytosis; in its extreme degree the number of platelets exceeds 1,000,000/mm(3). We describe a case of extreme reactive thrombocytosis in a healthy 6-year-old child. He required critical care admission for diagnosis and treatment (maximum number of platelets 7,283,000/mm(3)). We review the different causes of thrombocytosis in childhood, the differential diagnosis, and the available treatments in case of extreme thrombocytosis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The health level in children under 6 years Commune 20 Santiago de Cali (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of projects aimed to reducing morbidity and mortality rates on children below 6 years old, in Commune 20 of Cali, Colombia. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study based on a random sample of 114 children less than six years old, were examined before Primary Health Care interventions were applied. Results: 65% of the children ages were between 3 and 4 years old, 81.65 are mestizos and 51% live in nuclear families. The prevalence of initial carious lesions and cavitated as ICDAS criteria was 67.54% (95%CI 58.8-76, 27%, the proportion of healthy children was 32.45%, and 33% of the children were overweight. Conclusions: The baseline health conditions in this population are consistent with health situation analysis for the paediatric population of Cali. 

  4. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P&lt;0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  5. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  6. Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maslamani, I.; Walton, M. E. M.; Kennedy, H. A.; Al-Mohannadi, M.; Le Vay, L.

    2013-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents one of the more northerly extremes of mangrove distribution in the Indo-Pacific, and is populated only by Avicennia marina, due to its tolerance of high salinity and wide temperature extremes. Recent studies suggest that in the arid coastal environment of the western Arabian Gulf, export of carbon and nitrogen from mangroves to adjacent habitats may be limited, though it is not clear if this is due to low productivity or physical factors such as the lack of freshwater flow and the tidal regime. Although seagrass and macroalgal habitats are relatively much more dominant by area, with only small pockets of mangrove around the edges of embayments, it is not evident if inwelling from these habitats support mangrove fauna. Year-round sampling in mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar, indicates that Palaemon khori, an endemic shrimp species, is strongly associated with mangroves throughout its post-settlement life cycle, from recruitment as small 9-10 mm juveniles through to mating and egg production. Rapid post-recruitment growth (k = 1.8, L∞ = 42 mm for females, k = 1.5, L∞ = 35 mm for male) means that most individuals reached adult size in the first few months after settlement, with reproduction occurring in the following spring. As might be expected from year-round residence in the mangrove, dual 13C and 15N isotope analysis indicated a strong contribution of mangroves to shrimp tissue growth (Mean and 95% confidence range, 37% and 27-48%), but with a weaker significant contribution from particulate organic matter (20% and 1-37%), mangrove epiphytes (16% and 2-33%) and seagrasses (9% and 0.2-18%). Other primary producers contribute the remaining 18% to shrimp nutrition but the 95% confidence ranges include zero, suggesting possibly non-significant roles in supporting the shrimp population. This dietary information supports the view that fauna resident within arid mangrove systems are mainly dependent on localised retention and cycling of

  7. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were asses

  8. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  9. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  10. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  11. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  12. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were

  13. Predicted intake of trace elements and minerals via household drinking water by 6-year-old children from Krakow, Poland. Part 5: Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, H

    2010-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) exposure in pre-school children via household drinking water collected by a double sampling method (morning, evening) was evaluated in a sample of the Polish population. Zn concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Rural and suburban Krakow sites were non-distinguishable in respect of Zn concentrations. However, significantly lower Zn was found in urban as compared with non-urban sites [geometric mean (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.01-1.95) mg l(-1) versus 0.52 (0.03-10.2) mg l(-1), p water standing overnight in pipelines were higher in all sites by 0.36 mg l(-1) on average, but observed really contaminations were higher. The Zn limit based on the taste and colour of drinking water (3 mg l(-1)) was exceeded in 1% and 10% of households from urban and non-urban sites, respectively. The Zn intake predictions for evening water samples for 6-year-old children averaged between 2% and 9% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA, 10 mg day(-1)) for urban and non-urban sites, respectively. Mean Zn intake prediction for the exceedance fraction was 64% of RDA. In conclusion, overnight contamination of drinking water from in-house pipelines was significant and common to all sites investigated. Secondly, drinking water can be considered a significant contributor to dietary Zn intake by children in non-urban sites and may shift the population borderline of deficiency.

  14. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  15. Dietary fiber and retrograde starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, R

    1998-01-01

    The history of the recognition of the importance of dietary fiber, their current classification into water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber, and lignin, a single non-carbohydrate fiber, and the physiologic role of dietary fiber, with particular reference to retrograde starch resistance to small intestine digestion, are briefly presented. Dietary fiber are highly hygroscopic, thus they greatly contribute to stool voluminosity by binding water, decrease the glycemic index, and exert a protective action, via an as yet unknown mechanism, against the occurrence of colon cancer. It should be added that some dietary fiber decrease the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, i.e. in the human body. The importance of the methodology used for NSP determination is underlined, since some methods determine only some of the polysaccharides, other also measure some other substances, whereas Englyst's method determines NSP only.

  16. Diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jill L; Loveman, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Mead, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2016-03-10

    Child overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years. We performed a systematic literature search in the databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and LILACS, as well as in the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We also checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument, and extracted data following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 7 RCTs with a total of 923 participants: 529 randomised to an intervention and 394 to a comparator. The number of participants per trial ranged from 18 to 475. Six trials were parallel RCTs, and one was a cluster RCT. Two trials were three-arm trials, each comparing two interventions with a control group. The interventions and comparators in the trials varied. We categorised the comparisons into two groups: multicomponent interventions and dietary interventions. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low, and six trials had a high risk of bias on individual 'Risk of bias' criteria. The children in the included trials were followed up for between six months and three years.In trials comparing a multicomponent intervention with usual care, enhanced usual care, or information control, we found a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI

  17. Insomnia, daytime sleepiness and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in the elderly: a 6-year prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jaussent

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine 1 the associations between history of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CVD and insomnia complaints and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, and 2 the relationships between sleep complaints and future CVD in persons over 65. METHODS: CVD was assessed at baseline and during two, four, and six-year follow-up in 5494 non-demented subjects. Self-reported insomnia complaints (poor sleep quality, difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintening sleep, and early morning awakening, EDS and sleep medication use were evaluated at baseline. Logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models, with delayed entry and age of participants as the time scale, were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. RESULTS: At baseline, 748 participants had a past-history of CVD. A past-history of CVD was associated with EDS (OR = 1.28 95%CI = [1.05-1.57] and the number of insomnia complaints (OR = 1.26 95%CI = [1.03-1.55] for 1-2 insomnia complaints; OR = 1.32 95%CI = [1.03-1.71] for ≥3 complaints. In longitudinal analyses, neither the four components of insomnia nor the number of insomnia complaints were significantly associated with first or recurrent CVD events (n = 391 events. EDS was independently associated with future CVD events even after adjusting for prescribed sleep medication and past-history of CVD (HR = 1.35 95%CI = [1.06-1.71]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the relationships between sleep complaints and CVD could be complex. Insomnia complaints are more likely a consequence of CVD, whereas EDS appears to be a determinant of CVD independently of past-history of CVD. EDS screening may thus constitute a means of detecting persons at high risk of CVD.

  18. An overview of new insights from 6 years of salinity data from SMOS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of salt held in surface seawater are becoming ever-more important for oceanographers and climatologists to gain a deeper understanding of ocean circulation and Earth's water cycle. ESA's SMOS mission is proving essential for this aim. Launched in 2009, SMOS has provided the longest continuous record (now ~6 years) of sea-surface salinity measurements from space. The salinity of surface seawater is controlled largely by the balance between evaporation and precipitation, but freshwater from rivers and the freezing and melting of ice also cause changes in concentrations. Along with temperature, salinity drives ocean circulation - the thermohaline circulation - which, in turn, plays a key role in the global climate. With a wealth of salinity data from SMOS now in hand complemented by measurements from the NASA-CONAE Aquarius satellite, which uses a different measuring technique. In this talk we shall provide an overview of how the SMOS mission - now celebrating 6 years in orbit - is providing detailed global measurements of SSS. An ensemble of key ocean processes for climate and biochemistry can now be determined and monitored for the first time from space : the detailed salinity structure of tropical instability waves along the equator and the salt exchanged across major oceanic current fronts, the occurrences of large-scale salinity anomalies in the Pacific and Indian oceans related to important climate indexes are also well-evidenced in the six year-long data. In addition, the dispersal of freshwater into the ocean from the major large tropical rivers (Amazon, Orinoco and Congo), their impact on tropical cyclone (TC) intensification and the oceanic imprints of the intense rainfall in the ITCZ and under TC can now be regularly monitored to better understand the variability of the oceanic part of the global water cycle. We will present how SMOS data, along with concurrent in situ Argo ocean-profile data, other satellite observations of sea

  19. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... and the role of expert cultures for the elaboration and communication of messages about health and sustainability. Finally, the article briefly points to some answers to the complexity of issues surrounding the creation of dietary guidelines...

  20. Periodic 18.6-year and cyclic 11-year induced drought and flood in northeastern China and some global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert Guinn; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    The general patterns of climatic evolution in China during the Holocene are reviewed, and following the postglacial eustatic rise of sea-level and the institution of the East Asian Monsoon, the systems and principal fluctuations are found to be concordant with those operating elsewhere in the globe. China's unique wealth of written history provides an abundance of proxy data on the climatic record and that record now furnishes a basis for analysing both long-term and short-term fluctuations, as well as sunspot behavior, that together provide an insight into extraterrestrial forcing. Recent Chinese work suggests a solar forcing, but our own studies suggest rather that a lunar tidal component, reinforced at times by the solar element may prove more important. Analysis of a drought-flood index for Peking (Beijing) in northeastern China since A.D. 1470 supports evidence (Hameed et al., 1983) for both periodic lunar nodal 18.6-year and solar cyclic 11-year induced drought-flood in the region. The nodal term exhibits bistable phasing with respect to epochs of tidal maxima (for our century epochs occurred at 1917.5, 1936.1, 1954.7 and 1973.3), a phenomenon previously found in drought-flood proxy data for South America (Currie, 1983), India (Currie, 1984a), North America (Currie, 1984d), and Africa (Hameed and Currie, 1985; Currie and Hameed, 1985). Solar cycle epochs of drought-flood are tabulated for the past two centuries, and compared with those from North America and Africa.

  1. The relation between spatial perspective taking and inhibitory control in 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Baumeler, Denise

    2016-07-01

    Developmental research on spatial perspective taking has shown that young children are able to solve perspective-taking problems under favorable circumstances, but they have difficulties succeeding in classic tasks involving a conflict between one's own perspective and that of another observer. To date, little is known about the reasons for young children's difficulties in dealing with incongruent perspectives. Based on the assumption that one's own perspective has to be ignored to imagine someone else's perspective, it was investigated whether perspective taking is related to inhibitory control in 6-year-olds (N = 140). An adapted version of the 'Fruit Stroop task', appropriate for preschool children, was used to assess inhibitory control. Perspective taking was assessed using the 'Perspective-Taking Test for Children'. Other spatial and nonspatial abilities were assessed to investigate the specificity of the relation. Results showed a significant correlation between perspective taking and inhibitory control, even when controlled for age, verbal-IQ, and socio-economic status. However, no significant correlations between inhibition and other spatial abilities were found, indicating a specific relation between inhibition and perspective taking. A linear regression analysis showed that, even after accounting for effects of control variables as well as other mental transformation abilities, inhibition accounted for a significant part of the variance in perspective-taking performance. The present findings provide valuable information on what contributes to individual differences in perspective taking, which is an important aspect of everyday cognition and bears relevance for reasoning in technical domains.

  2. Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms: a 6-year longitudinal community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the direction of effects (i.e., parent effects, child effects, or reciprocal effects) between maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, including adolescents' perceptions of criticism as a potential mediator. Consistent with recent empirical findings on associations between parenting and adolescent internalizing symptoms, we hypothesized stronger child effects than parent effects. A community sample of 497 adolescents (M age = 13.03 at T1, 57 % boys) reported annually on their depressive and GAD symptoms as well as their perceptions of parental criticism. Their mothers (M age = 44.41 at T1) also reported annually on their own critical behavior toward their adolescent. As expected, cross-lagged panel models demonstrated stronger child effects (i.e., adolescent psychopathology predicting maternal criticism) than parent effects (i.e., maternal criticism predicting adolescent psychopathology) for both adolescent depressive and GAD symptoms, including adolescent perceived criticism as a significant mediator. Our results emphasize the importance of considering (1) potential bidirectional influences over time, contrary to a focus on parent effects on adolescent mental health, as well as (2) adolescent perceptions of parenting as an important potential mediator in associations between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internalizing psychopathological symptoms.

  3. [Ulcerative colitis in a 6-year-old boy with severe coeliac disease - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka; Krawiec, Paulina; Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta; Mroczkowska-Juchkiewcz, Agnieszka; Kominek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine elicited by the gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible people. In coeliac patients there is higher incidence of other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The coexistence of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is rare. The spectrum of presentation of coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease may be similar. However, those disorders require various therapeutic approaches. Thus, early recognition of the overlap between coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease is crucial to apply appropriate treatment and to prevent possible complications. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with a delay in physical and psychomotor development, rickets, severe anaemia and bloody diarrhoea. He was diagnosed with coeliac disease and ulcerative disease. The coexistence of both disorders is extremely rare in childhood. However, ulcerative colitis should be considered in coeliac children on restrictive gluten-free diet with persistent diarrhoea or bleeding from lower gastrointestinal tract. Screening for coeliac disease should be considered in children with ulcerative colitis with impaired physical development and lack of remission despite of proper treatment. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  4. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Factitious Oral Ulcers in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscilla Santana Pinto; Mendez, Daniela Alejandra Cusicanqui; Damante, José Humberto; Rios, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Factitious ulcers are characterized by self-inflicted lesions with multifactorial origin. These lesions are frequently found in head, neck, and hands. This report shows a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with factitious oral ulcers that occurred after the self-biting of buccal vestibule and nail-scratching of gingival tissue. Clinically, a significant swelling was observed, hard on palpation, located at the right lower third of the face, next to the posterior area of the mandible. In the intraoral examination, ulcers at different healing stages were noted on the swelling area. During the anamnesis, the father reported a change in his familial structure that triggers psychological stress, providing the clues to the presumptive diagnosis of factitious oral ulcers. We prescribed the topical use of Gingilone® three times a day to control the local pain and inflammation. At 7-day follow-up, we noticed the reduction of extraoral swelling and the initial healing of the ulcers. The presumptive diagnosis was confirmed at 30-day follow-up, with the lasting remission of oral lesions. The treatments of factitious oral ulcers should be individually tailored for each patient, focused on a multidisciplinary approach, including psychotherapy and periodic clinical control. To the best of our knowledge, gaps of evidence lead to the lack of standardized clinical protocols on this issue. PMID:28293440

  5. A 6 year Geohelminth infection profile of children at high altitude in Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Binu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infections are a major problem of children from the developing countries. Children with these infections suffer from developmental impairments and other serious illnesses. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of geohelminth infection, infection intensity as well as the change in the intensity in children from Western Nepal over years. Methods This 6-year hospital based prospective study at the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara included children ( Results The overall prevalence in hospital - attending children was 9.2% with 7.6% in preschool (0 – 5 y and 11.0% in school-age (6 – 15 y children, and in community 17.7% with 14.8% in pre-school and 20.5% in school-age children. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma deodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis were the common geohelminths with a gradual decrease in worm load over the years. School-age children were found to be significantly more prone to geohelminth infection as compared to preschool children, but no statistical difference was detected by gender, district as well as season. Conclusion This heavy infection of geohelminths in children should be corrected by appropriate medication and maintaining strict personal hygiene. Health education, clean water, good sewage management and a congenial environment should be ensured to minimise infection.

  6. MAXILLARY GROWTH PATTERNS IN ROMANIAN CHILDREN WITH CLEFT PALATE DURING THE FIRST 6 YEARS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Gabriela Halitchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize, evaluate and measure the maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate and to identify the reactive morphological pattern that could be identified from the dimensional changes produced along the first six years of life, maxillary impressions were made in two groups of study, by means of standard trays and silicone impression materials. The maxillary casts resulted had been 3D scanned at Multinr, in Sf. Gheorghe. The study was carried on a number of 34 patients with cleft palate, 16 boys and 18 girls, with ages between 2 months and 6 years, operated by the same surgical team in “St. Mary” University Children Hospital of Iaşi, as well as on 60 normal children. Bivariate Student’s t test established statistically significant negative differences between the mean values of the anterior and posterior width of the maxillary alveolar arch, positive non significant differences for the length and positive differences for the depth of the dehiscent palate in the experimental group, comparatively with normal children. Cleft palate patients have narrowed and shorter maxillary alveolar arch and flattened palate. At least therapeutically, the cleft palate group, operated at different ages, from 2 to 4 years, could not react like other groups of study from important European Cleft Centers and benefit from a good residual growth.

  7. The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and surface temperature variability in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, Stewart M.; Crawford, William R.

    2007-02-01

    The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle (LNC) is a significant feature of winter (January) air and sea temperatures along the North American west coast over a 400-year period. Yet much of the recent temperature variation can also be explained by wind patterns associated with the PNA teleconnection. At Sitka, Alaska, (57°N) and nearby stations in northern British Columbia, the January PNA index accounts for over 70% of average January air temperatures in lengthy meteorological records. It appears that the LNC signal in January air temperatures in this region is not independent of the PNA, but is a component of it. The Sitka air temperature record, along with SSTs along the British Columbia coast and the PNA index have significant cross-correlations with the LNC that appear at a 2-year lag, LNC leading. The influence of the PNA pattern declines in winter with decreasing latitude but the LNC component does not. It appears as a significant feature of long-term SST variation at Scripps Pier and the California Current System. The LNC also appears over centennial-scales in proxy temperatures along western North America. The linkage of LNC-moderated surface temperatures to processes involving basin-scale teleconnections expands the possibility that the proximate mechanism may be located remotely from its expression in the northeast Pacific. Some of the largest potential sources of a diurnal tidal signal in the atmosphere are located in the western Pacific; the Sea of Okhotsk and the Indonesian archipelago.

  8. Prevalence of Hearing disorders in 3-6 year old Children of Kindergartens in Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hearing– impaired patient is defined as one with abnormal or reduced function in hearing resulting from an auditory disorder. The goal of any preschool and schools screening program should be to accurately indentify those children whose hearing has been impaired due to conductive and / or sensory– neural pathology. Methods: This cross– sectional descriptive study was done on 577 children (299 girls and 278 boys aged between 3–6 years at kindergartens of Yazd city from September 2005 to January 2006. The otoscopy examination, pure-tone screening and impedance study was conducted after completion of awareness form of the hearing loss existence by the parents. Results: In this study, there were 12.6% abnormal conditions of external ear canal, 34.2% abnormal tympanic membrane, 35.9% abnormal tympanograms and 13.4% hearing loss including 11.5% conductive hearing loss, 1.5% sensory-neural hearing loss and 0.5% mixed hearing loss. Conclusion: With respect to the high prevalence and negative effects of middle ear disorders in learning of preschool children, and also due to the importance of early identification and intervention of hearing loss in aural rehabilitation programs, increasing the awareness and education of people, especially parents about the effects of hearing disorders and its prevention and identification is very important

  9. Epidemiology and cost implications of candidemia, a 6-year analysis from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu Kilic, Aysegul; Alp, Emine; Cevahir, Fatma; Ture, Zeynep; Yozgat, Nuran

    2017-03-01

    Surveillance of candidemia is essential to monitor trends in species distribution and change in the incidence and antifungal resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal utilization and costs. A 6-year retrospective analysis of the data belonging to patients with candidemia hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 was performed. The annual usage of fluconazole and caspofungin and the usage of these antifungals in different units were described in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days. In total, 351 patients of candidemia were included. Median age of the patients was 45 (0-88) and 55.1% of them were male. Overall, 48.1% of the candidemia episodes (169/351) were due to C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis (25.1%), C. glabrata (11.7%). Length of hospital stay was longer with a median of 20 days among patients with non-albicans candidemia. Presence of a central venous catheter was found to be an associated risk for candidemia caused by non-albicans strains. Annual incidence of candidemia increased from 0.10 to 0.30 cases/1000 patient days. Antifungal use was increased over years correlated with the cost paid for it. The policy against candidemia should be specified by each institution with respect to candidemia prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal use and costs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) in rhinoplasty. A 6-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, M S; Waldman, S R; Johnson, C M

    1995-10-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex soft-tissue patch, W. L. Gore & Assoc Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz) as an implant in rhinoplasty. A retrospective study of 137 patients who underwent rhinoplasty including augmentation with Gore-Tex over a 6-year period. A review of the medical literature concerning the use of Gore-Tex as an implant in the head and neck was also conducted. Two major academic medical centers and two private office surgical centers. One hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients who received Gore-Tex implants in the course of rhinoplasty. Sixty-nine patients presented for primary rhinoplasty; the remaining 68 presented for revision surgery. All received Gore-Tex nasal implants to augment the nasal dorsum and/or base. The grafts ranged from 1 to 6 mm in thickness. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 80 months, with an average of 25 months. Clinically noted complications and patient satisfaction. Three (2.2%) of 137 grafts became infected and were removed. One graft was removed 5 months post-operatively because of excessive augmentation. None of the patients who underwent implant removal required subsequent augmentation. All 137 patients are pleased with their results. Gore-Tex is a safe and effective implant material to use in primary and revision rhinoplasty when augmentation is needed and autogenous material is not available or desirable.

  11. Regional changes in glucose metabolism during brain development from the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, P; Wikler, D; Damhaut, P; Szliwowski, H B; Goldman, S

    1998-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of 42 subjects ages 6 to 38 years were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping to identify age-related changes in regional distribution of glucose metabolism adjusted for global activity. Whereas adults were normal volunteers, children had idiopathic epilepsy. We studied polynomial expansions of age to identify nonlinear effects and found that adjusted glucose metabolism varied very significantly in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex and to a lesser degree in the basal ganglia, the mesencephalon, and the insular, posterior cingulate, frontal, and postcentral cortices. Regression plots slowed that the best fit was not linear: adjusted glucose metabolism increased mainly before the age of 25 years and then remained relatively stable. Effects persisted when anti-epileptic drug intake and sleep during the FDG uptake were considered as confounding covariates. To determine if the metabolic changes observed were not due to the epileptic condition of the children, PET data obtained in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy were compared with those in our group of normal adult subjects, resulting in the absence of mapping in the age-related regions. This study suggests that brain maturation from the age of 6 years gives rise to a relative increase of synaptic activities in the thalamus, possibly as a consequence of improved corticothalamic connections. Increased metabolic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is probably related to these thalamic changes and suggests that the limbic system is involved in the processes of brain maturation.

  12. The Dancing Sky: 6 years of night sky observations at Cerro Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F

    2008-01-01

    The present work provides the results of the first six years of operation of the systematic night-sky monitoring at ESO-Paranal (Chile). The UBVRI night-sky brightness was estimated on about 10,000 VLT-FORS1 archival images, obtained on more than 650 separate nights, distributed over 6 years and covering the descent from maximum to minimum of sunspot cycle n.23. Additionally, a set of about 1,000 low resolution, optical night-sky spectra have been extracted and analyzed. The unprecedented database discussed in this paper has led to the detection of a clear seasonal variation of the broad band night sky brightness in the VRI passbands, similar to the well known semi-annual oscillation of the NaI D doublet. The spectroscopic data demonstrate that this seasonality is common to all spectral features, with the remarkable exception of the OH rotational-vibrational bands. A clear dependency on the solar activity is detected in all passbands and it is particularly pronounced in the U band, where the sky brightness de...

  13. Blood Pressure in 6-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Mohlkert, Lilly-Ann; Hallberg, Jenny; Liuba, Petru; Fellman, Vineta; Domellöf, Magnus; Norman, Mikael

    2017-08-01

    Advances in perinatal medicine have increased infant survival after very preterm birth. Although this progress is welcome, there is increasing concern that preterm birth is an emerging risk factor for hypertension at young age, with implications for the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. We measured casual blood pressures (BPs) in a population-based cohort of 6-year-old survivors of extremely preterm birth (preterm than in controls. Among children born extremely preterm, shorter gestation, higher body mass index, and higher heart rate at follow-up were all independently associated with higher BP at 6 years of age, whereas preeclampsia, smoking in pregnancy, neonatal morbidity, and perinatal corticosteroid therapy were not. In multivariate regression analyses, systolic BP decreased by 0.10 SD (P=0.08) and diastolic BP by 0.09 SD (P=0.02) for each week-longer gestation. Six-year-old children born extremely preterm have normal but slightly higher BP than their peers born at term. Although this finding is reassuring for children born preterm and their families, follow-up at older age is warranted. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. [Vaccination coverage in 6-year-old preschool children, France, 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteneau, L; Urcun, J-M; Guthmann, J-P; Collet, M; Neulat, N; Bristol-Gauzy, P; Guignon, N; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Herbet, J-B

    2013-03-01

    School-based triennial surveys have been implemented in France since 1999 in order to follow up indicators estimating children's health status, including vaccination coverage. The survey was conducted in 2005-2006 in preschools, using a two-stage cross-sectional sampling design (first sampling schools, with pupils then randomly chosen). Among all the children targeted by the survey, 21,346 of them were selected to show their health booklet (carnet de santé) in which the vaccination part was completed. Vaccination coverage was high for vaccines against tuberculosis (BCG 96.8 %), diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis (four doses: 95.6 %), pertussis (four doses: 95.0 %), Haemophilus influenzae type b (four doses: 89.9 %) and for the first dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR 93.7 %, 91.4 %, 91.4 %). It was low for the second dose of MMR (45.1 %, 43.2 %, and 43.3 %) and for hepatitis B (37.9 %). The region where the child attended school, the size of the urban unit, the school sector, the father's profession, and the child's birth rank were associated with MMR (second dose) and hepatitis B coverage. In 2005-2006, vaccination coverage for BCG, DTPolio, pertussis, and Hib was stable and satisfactory in 6-year-old children. MMR (first dose) and hepatitis B coverage were insufficient. MMR coverage (second dose) had increased since 2002 but still needs to be improved. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALOCCLUSIONS OF 5 AND 6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN FROM NORTHEASTERN REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The aim of this presentation is to show the percentage of the children with malocclusions and comparison between children with mild and severe malocclusions from rural and urban regions Materials and methods: 1200 children between 5 and 6 years old from North-eastern Bulgaria (600 urban and 600 rural were examined. WHO standards were applied and the data was collected in WHO statistic forms, which were modified accordingly. The children were divided in 3 groups-healthy, with mild and with severe malocclusions according to Angles classification. Results: More than a half of the urban children are healthy – 51,5% and the biggest percentage of the malocclusions are mild – 31,3%, only 17,2% have severe malocclusions. The rural children are without malocclusions – 23,8% and – 39,2% of them are with severe orthodontic deformations. Relative shares of children with malocclusions from the urban – 48,5% and rural regions – 76,2% The relative share of the healthy children from both urban and rural regions is 37,7%. The relative share of the children with malocclusions from urban and rural regions is 62,3%. Conclusion: A little percent of the rural children are without malocclusions and more of them are with severe ones. We suggest that specialist have to work on better prevention in these regions.

  17. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  18. Cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy secondary to hyperthyroidism in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Lamia; Charfi, Manel; Maalej, Bayen; Majdoub, Imen; Safi, Faiza; Fourati, Hela; Hentati, Yosr; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zeineb; Abid, Mohamed; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic dysfunctions are not infrequent in patients with hyperthyroidism. These disorders may be related to the effects of the excess thyroid hormone secretion, to the uses of antithyroid drugs, or to the presence of concomitant hepatic diseases. Our aim is to describe the clinical and biochemical features of liver dysfunction related to thyrotoxicosis. We report here a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted for jaundice and pruritus as a result of the development of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On physical examination at admission, she was found to have jaundice and hepatomegaly. Laboratory data show cholestasis and protein-losing enteropathy. Investigations exclude other causes of hepatic disorder. One month after the initiation of antithyroid drug, the patient became euthyroid with improvement in jaundice and pruritus and normalization of hepatic tests and alpha antitrypsine clearance. In conclusion, the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism may be delayed in patients in whom the primary manifestations were pruritus and jaundice. The physician should suspect thyrotoxicosis prior to hepatitis or skin manifestations.

  19. The sentinel node procedure in cutaneous melanoma: an overview of 6 years` experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statius Muller, M.G.; Leeuwen, P.A.M. van; Borgstein, P.J.; Meijer, S. [Academic Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgical Oncology; Pijpers, R. [Academic Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to survey the worldwide history and experience with the SN procedure since Morton et al.`s report 1992. The technique is decribed, and its validity and the variables that influence is success are considred. The staging function of the procedure and its potential role in respect of the use of adjuvant thearpy are also addressed. With 1 tab., 52 refs.

  20. Fever of Unknown Origin in Children: A 6 year- Experience in a Tertiary Pediatric Egyptian Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Rasha H; Fouda, Ashraf E; Kandil, Shaimaa M

    2014-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is among the most conditions which poses challenge in diagnosis. The presence of information on regional patterns of FUO will shorten the time for diagnosis and reduces health services costs. There are almost no previous studies describing the etiology of FUO in children of Egypt or nearby countries. To determine different causes of FUO and the possible diagnostic procedures. Data of patients with FUO, presented to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Mansoura University Children Hospital, were retrospectively collected in a 6 year-period from May 2006 to May 2011. The study included children with a fever of 38.3° C or more documented by a health care provider and for which the cause could not be identified after 3 weeks of evaluation as an outpatient or after a week of evaluation in hospital. Patients were then categorized into 5 groups. 127 patients met the diagnostic criteria. Infectious diseases were the commonest causes of FUO in 46 cases (36.22%) followed by the miscellaneous causes in 38 cases (29.9%). Meanwhile, collagen vascular diseases and malignancy were diagnosed in 13 cases (10.2%) and 10 cases (7.87%) respectively. While, 20 cases (15.75%) remained undiagnosed. Infectious diseases are the commonest cause of FUO. The delay in diagnosis was due to atypical presentations or inappropriate use of antibiotic prior to the referral. Non infectious causes, malignancy and collagen or vascular disorders were diagnosed in rest of the patients. However, about 15% of our patients remained undiagnosed. The diagnosis was established by non-invasive means in more than two-third of the cases.

  1. Tuberculosis drug-resistance in Lisbon, Portugal: a 6-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Macedo, R; Silva, C; Pinto, C; Furtado, C; Brum, L; Portugal, I

    2011-09-01

    Multidrug-resistance and extensive drug-resistance pose a serious threat to tuberculosis management in Portugal. The country has high TB incidence rates in comparison with other European Union countries, with the Lisbon Health Region being one of the most affected. In the present study we have analysed a convenience sample of 3025 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, recovered over a 6-year period (2001-2006) in the Lisbon Health Region, regarding drug-resistance both to first-line and second-line drugs. Moreover, 100 of these isolates were also genotyped by 12-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit - Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. We have compared each year and observed the existence of 22 different resistance profiles, with MDR-TB rates ranging between 9.9% and 15.2% and XDR-TB rates, relative to the number of MDR-TB isolates, between 44.3% and 66.1% (excluding 1 year here considered as an outlier). A steady increase in the fraction of MDR-TB isolates resistant to all first-line drugs was also noticed. The genotyping analysis of MDR-TB isolates revealed six clusters, of which three (Lisboa3, Lisboa4 and Q1) were related to XDR-TB. Our results show that active transmission of MDR- and XDR-TB is taking place and that the high prevalence of observed XDR-TB is due to the continued transmission of particular genetic clusters. Enforcement of the implementation of genotyping in diagnostic routines would lead to early detection of resistant cases.

  2. Periorbital burns – a 6 year review of management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; Frew, Q; Din, A; Pleat, J; Ashraff, S; Ghazi-Nouri, S; El-Muttardi, N; Philp, B; Dziewulski, P

    2015-05-01

    Periorbital burns are an infrequent but potentially devastating injury. This study aimed to elucidate the spectrum of such injuries presenting to a UK burns centre and the outcome achieved in the cases requiring periorbital reconstruction for the restoration of function and form. Patients admitted to a UK regional burns centre between January 2005 and January 2011 with periorbital burns were identified from the Patient Administration System (PAS), theatre logs and the International Burns Injury database (IBID). Multiple parameters were assessed using patient notes, ITU and hospital image databases. Over 6 years, 167 patients with facial burns requiring surgery were treated, including 103 patients with eyelid burns. The mean burn size was 33% total body surface area. The eyelid burn depth varied; 67% superficial partial thickness, 17% deep dermal and 16% full thickness. Two patients lost complete vision in one eye, one patient underwent amniotic membrane grafting. In total 16 patients required periorbital reconstruction to maintain eye closure, with 1.8 operations on average per patient. Acute surgery was required in 11 patients, whilst late intervention (>3 months) was needed in 5, 2 patients had both acute and delayed surgery. Of the 5 late intervention patients 4 were treated with full thickness skin grafts and 1 with a Z plasty. Average time for final reconstruction with delayed surgery was 4.5 months. The goal in management of periorbital burns is preservation of vision, prevention of future complications and restoration of an acceptable aesthetic outcome. Total visual loss is thankfully rare, but early ophthalmology intervention is vital given the evidence of corneal damage as a brief therapeutic window exists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. The pattern of psoriatic arthritis in Kashmir: A 6-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Rather

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence, clinical presentation, and patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA vary in different parts of the world. The scenario of PsA in west is different from that of Asia. Moreover, the oligoarticular type which was considered most prevalent earlier has been replaced by polyarticular type. Aim: The study was to the clinical profile of psoriasis patients associated with PsA in Kashmir valley of India. Materials and Methods: This was a noninterventional, observational, prospective, hospital-based study involving 150 successive patients of PsA over a span of 6 years. Severity of the skin and nail involvement was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI, respectively. PsA was diagnosed by classification criteria for PsA. The number and pattern of swollen and tender joints was counted and classified by Moll and Wright′s classification criteria. Results: Plaque-type psoriasis was the most common clinical type, observed in 122 (81.33% patients followed by erythrodermic psoriasis in 10 (6.66% patients and pustular psoriasis in eight (5.33% patients. PsA occurred between 30 and 40 years of age in 105 (70% patients. The cutaneous involvement occurred before joint involvement in 113 (75.33%, while they occurred simultaneously in 30 (20% cases and the PsA preceded the skin involvement in seven (4.66% cases. Symmetrical polyarthritis was the commonest clinical presentation and was seen in 90 (60% patients. Nail involvement due to psoriasis was present in 120 (80% patients. Commonest nail change found was pitting and seen in 60 (40% patients. Conclusion: The clinical pattern of PsA varies in different parts of the world. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of PsA in a given area is necessary for the successful management of this disease.

  4. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the increasing use of varicella-vaccines in the general population and rapid initiation of VZV-immunoglobulins and acyclovir in case of exposure has been beneficial for some patients, immunocompromised individuals are still at risk for unfavourable courses. Methods In this single center, 6-year analysis we review incidence, hospitalization and complication rates of VZV-infections in our center and compare them to published data. Furthermore, we report three instructive cases. Results Hospitalization rate of referred children with VZV-infections was 45%, among these 17% with malignancies and 9% under immunosuppressive therapy. Rate of complications was not elevated in these two high-risk cohorts, but one ALL-patient died due to VZV-related complications. We report one 4-year old boy with initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who showed a rapidly fatal outcome of his simultaneous varicella-infection, one 1.8-year old boy with an identical situation but a mild course of his disease, and an 8.5-year old boy with a steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. This boy developed severe hepatic involvement during his varicella-infection but responded to immediate withdrawl of steroids and administration of acyclovir plus single-dose cidofovir after nonresponse to acyclovir after 48 h. Conclusion Our data show that patients with malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy should be hospitalized and treated immediately with antiviral agents. Despite these measures the course of VZV-infections can be highly variable in these patients. We discuss aids to individual decision-making for these difficult situations.

  5. Australian parents' views on their 5-6-year-old children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David A; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2007-03-01

    The home food environment is central to the development of healthy eating behaviours, but associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are not yet fully understood. The aims of this study were to explore parents' views regarding factors that influence children's food choices and parents' decision-making regarding the food they provide to their children. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview schedule. Key concepts and themes were coded independently by two investigators. Participants include seventeen parents (16 mothers and 1 father) of children in their first year of formal schooling (aged 5-6 years). Five main themes emerged from the interviews: food marketing, food availability/food exposure, feeding strategies, modelling of eating and opportunities for food involvement. Parents believed that food marketing influenced their child's food preferences but differed in the ways they managed these influences. The food made available to children was also seen to influence what a child ate. Yet, although some parents believed it was the parents' role to determine what foods were made available to their child, others offered food on the basis of the child's tastes or preferences. The use of food as a reward was a feeding strategy employed by many parents. Family mealtimes were seen as an important opportunity for modelling of eating behaviour by parents. Peers were also seen to influence children's food preferences and eating behaviour. Finally, many parents believed that involving children in the preparation of food had a positive impact on children's food choices. Associations between the home food environment and children's food choices are complex and involve multiple mediators. Parents' views on the promoters and reinforcers of their decision-making regarding food and their child's food choices provide useful insights into these mediating factors. Increased understanding of these relationships

  6. Prevalence of Malnutrition in Children under 6 Years in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Karajibani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted in rural area of Sistan and Baluchestan province, south-east of Iran with aim of determine the prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight and obesity among children. Materials and Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy Children were selected from all children less than 6 years covered by healthy and treatment centers of rural area in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Body weight and height were measured using standard methods. Determination of malnutrition performed based on WHO, National Center for Health Statistics and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NCHS and CDC standard. The indices nutritional status was assessed by Z- Score. Results: The result showed that, based on NCHS and WHO standard: 21.1% and 19.4%, 28.2% and 32.1%, 7.5% and 9.4% of children were underweight, stunted and wasted respectively. The peak of malnutrition based on stunting was more than underweight and wasting. According to CDC standard, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 27.8%, 4.2% and 4.1% respectively. The most rate of overweight and obesity was 7.1% and 5% in children aged 3 years using CDC cut-off and also lowest rate of overweight and obesity were 1.5% and 0% in children aged 5 years. Conclusion: This study revealed, underweight, stunting and wasting represents different processes of malnutrition which have different risk factors. However, it might be replaced by overweight as children grow to adolescence. Nevertheless, overweight and obesity are not major problem in the children.

  7. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 cases occurred one or more of the risk factors that lead to EPH, divided equally across the two groups above. The main two types of surgery are a more frequent subtotal hysterectomy, which is the preferred type of EPH as it takes less time and is associated with fewer complications, and a total hysterectomy. The majority of procedures were performed at patients over 35 years old (9 of 12, with a median age of 31,16 (ranging from 21 to 44 years old. The most important risk factor present across the lot was multiparity (11 from 12, with cicatricial uterus being the second one (4 of 12. ICU median time was 4,5 days (ranging from 3 to 15 days, with a median blood transfusion necessity of around 2,4 I.U per patient. There were no mother or newborn reported deaths, neither PTSD following EPH.EPH is a procedure performed as last-resort, life-saving surgery, leaving no time for mental preparation of the patients. This may predispose to negative psychological outcomes, especially because they are not part of decision-making process due to the emergency character of hysterectomy.

  8. Effectiveness of rotary or manual techniques for removing a 6-year-old filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Cimadon, Vanessa Buffon; Zucatto, Cristiane; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira; Kuga, Milton Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of manual and rotary instrumentation techniques for removing root fillings after different storage times. Twenty-four canals from palatal roots of human maxillary molars were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and zinc-oxide eugenol-based sealer (Endofill) , and were stored in saline for 6 years. Non-aged control specimens were treated in the same manner and stored for 1 week. All canals were retreated using hand files or ProTaper Universal NiTi rotary system. Radiographs were taken to determine the amount of remaining material in the canals. The roots were vertically split, the halves were examined with a clinical microscope and the obtained images were digitized. The images were evaluated with AutoCAD software and the percentage of residual material was calculated. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the manual and rotary techniques for filling material removal regardless the ageing effect on endodontic sealers. When only the age of the filling material was analyzed microscopically, non-aged fillings that remained on the middle third of the canals presented a higher percentage of material remaining (p<0.05) compared to the aged sealers and to the other thirds of the roots. The apical third showed a higher percentage of residual filling material in both radiographic and microscopic analysis when compared to the other root thirds. In conclusion, all canals presented residual filling material after endodontic retreatment procedures. Microscopic analysis was more effective than radiographs for detection of residual filling material.

  9. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerth, C; Zijlmans, M A C; Mack, S; Beijers, R

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of 20 min. The Children's Reactions to Evaluation Stress Test is composed of three short tasks that children have to perform in front of a judge. The tasks are rigged so as to provoke (partial) failure in the child's performance. Participants were 42 children (M = 68.0 months, SD = 4.3). Six saliva samples were taken during the testing session to obtain cortisol measurements of baseline concentrations, stress reactivity, and recovery. Our findings showed that this paradigm was effective in provoking a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentration in the group as a whole, with no effects of possible confounders (child's sex, age or school, parental educational level, time of testing, sex of experimenter, and sex of judge). The mean cortisol concentration increase for the group was 127.5% (SD = 190.9); 61% of the children could be classified as reactors (mean increase of 214%, SD = 201.5), and 39% as non-reactors (mean decrease of 7.8%, SD = 16.8). To our knowledge, this is the first study in this age group that shows a significant cortisol response for the group as a whole to a standardized laboratory paradigm. As such, this paradigm is a promising tool to be used in future research on early life interactions between physiology and psychology.

  10. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2016-02-04

    High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.

  11. Ewing Sarcoma of the Bone in Children under 6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Prete, Arcangelo; Cozza, Raffaele; Podda, Marta; Manzitti, Carla; Pession, Andrea; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Contoli, Benedetta; Balter, Rita; Fagioli, Franca; Bisogno, Gianni; Amoroso, Loredana

    2013-01-01

    Background Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT) are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. Methods The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23%) patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58–83%) and 72% (95% CI 57–83%) for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17–60%) and 21% (95% CI 5–45%) for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01), while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P  = 0.002). In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000–2008 were 89% (95% CI 71–96%) and 86% (95% CI 66–94%), respectively. Conclusion The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome. PMID:23382839

  12. Ewing sarcoma of the bone in children under 6 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta De Ioris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. METHODS: The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23% patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58-83% and 72% (95% CI 57-83% for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17-60% and 21% (95% CI 5-45% for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01, while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P = 0.002. In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000-2008 were 89% (95% CI 71-96% and 86% (95% CI 66-94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

  13. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms--6 years of experience with Ella stent-graft system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Utikal, Petr; Koutna, Jirina; Bachleda, Petr; Buriankova, Eva; Herman, Miroslav; Bucil, Jiri; Benysek, Vladimir; Cerna, Marie; Kojecky, Zdenek

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 6-year results of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treatment by Ella stent-grafts with regard to safety and effectivity in relation to morphology of the aneurysm. Methods: From a group of 172 patients with AAA, in whom elective endovascular treatment was considered, 120 of them (69.8%) were found to be suitable for this type of therapy. The bifurcated type of stent-graft was implanted in 97 patients, uniiliacal type in 19 patients and only four patients were found to be suitable for tubular type of stent-graft. Additional necessary procedures (internal iliac artery occlusion or contralateral common iliac artery occlusion in a group of patients with uniiliacal type of stent-graft) were performed surgically during the stent-graft implantation. CT and US controls were performed at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation, later every 12 months. Results: Primary technical success was achieved in 109 of the 120 patients (91%). Primary endoleak was recorded in 11 patients (primary endoleak type Ia in seven patients, type Ib in three patients and type IIIa in one patient). Assisted technical success after reintervention or spontaneous seal was 98.3%. Surgical conversion was indicated in two patients (1.7%). Perioperative mortality rate was 3.3%. Total average follow-up period was 20.7 months (range from 2 to 60 months). In nine patients (7.5%) secondary endoleak type II was found at control CT or US, in three patients partial thrombosis of the stent-graft was found. There was no aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Conclusion: Treatment of AAA with Ella stent-graft system is effective and safe. Bifurcated stent-graft is the most frequently used type. Uniiliacal type of stent-graft is used by us only in cases of complicated morphology.

  14. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  15. Environmental correlates of undernutrition among children of 3–6 years of age, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalak Rameshbhai Matariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are lots of studies focusing on the role of reproductive and child health factors and dietary factors on the nutrition status of the child. The present study is an attempt to highlight the role of macro- and micro-environmental factors in predicting the occurrence of undernutrition in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in field practice area of Community Medicine Department, PDU Medical College, Rajkot. The nutrition status of children was assessed using the weight for age WHO reference standards, 2006. Children below two standard deviation of the reference median (weight for age were considered as malnourished. Data were collected for sociodemographic factors, sanitation, hygiene, and attitude of mother toward her child, etc., Data were entered in MS excel, and logistic regression was used. Results: Analysis of 495 selected children showed 24% prevalence of undernutrition. Employment status of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.65, drinking water quality (AOR 1.53, and cleanliness of mother's hands and clothes (AOR 1.91 significantly affected the nutrition status of the child. Children classified in fair or poor category for Briscoe's sanitation scale had 1.34 and1.92 times higher odds of being undernourished (P > 0.05, respectively. Children classified in fair or poor category for Elizabeth's microenvironment scale had 2.05 and 2.41 times higher odds of being undernourished (P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Water, sanitation, and hygiene-related factors, as well as microenvironmental factors, significantly affected the nutrition status of the children.

  16. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

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    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  17. Imported dengue fever in East London: a 6-year retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Anna; Babiker, Zahir Osman Eltahir

    2017-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a frequently imported arthropod-borne infection in the United Kingdom but its broad range of clinical presentations makes it potentially unrecognized by clinicians. We conducted a 6-year retrospective case note review of laboratory confirmed DF patients in East London in the period from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2015. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of imported DF were described. Risk factors associated with viraemic DF presentations were assessed. Forty-four patients (4 from primary care clinics and 40 from three acute hospitals) were confirmed to have DF through RNA and/or IgM detection. In total, 86.4% (38/44) had primary infection compared to 13.6% (6/44) with secondary infection. Viraemic DF presentations accounted for 59.1% (26/44) of cases. The median age was 34 years (IQR 25-43). Most patients were males (68.2%, 30/44) and of non-white ethnicity (81.8%, 36/44). South Asia was the most frequent travel destination (52.3%, 23/44) followed by Southeast Asia (20.5%, 9/44). July-September was the peak season of presentation (43.2%, 19/44). The median interval between arrival in the UK and laboratory testing was 7 days (IQR 4-13). Arriving from abroad ≤ 7 days before molecular testing (age-adjusted odds ratios [OR] 16.98, 95% CI 2.43-118.75, P  =   0.004) and travel to South or Southeast Asia regions (age-adjusted OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.07-18.21, P  =   0.040) were associated with detectable viraemia at presentation. Only one DF patient met the WHO severity criteria. HIV serostatus was determined in 61.4% (27/44) of cases. Clinicians need to improve DF recognition as well as rates of HIV testing in tropical travellers. Region of travel and time since arrival from DF endemic settings may help clinicians optimize requests for molecular testing. Further research on the clinical and public health aspects of imported DF is needed.

  18. [Investigation on events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Liu, Y; Cen, Y; Wu, P; Zhou, H L; Han, C M

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. Results: Totally 287 events of bus on fire were retrieved, among which 49 events happened in 2009, 36 events happened in 2010, 35 events happened in 2011, 37 events happened in 2012, and respectively 65 events happened in 2013 and 2014. The events of bus on fire most frequently happened in June and July, respectively 49 and 39 events. Among the distribution of occurrence regions of events of bus on fire, there were 78 events (27.18%) in east China, 52 events (18.12%) in northeast China, 41 events (14.29%) both in north China and south China. Among the causes of events of bus on fire, spontaneous combustion of bus ranked in the first (267 events, accounting for 93.03%), followed by arson (13 events, accounting for 4.53%). Among the 13 events of bus on fire caused by arson, 7 events happened between 16: 00 and 20: 00, and 3 events happened between 8: 00 and 10: 00. Totally 27 events of bus on fire (9.41%) were with casualties, among which 13 events (48.15%) were caused by spontaneous combustion of bus, 10 events (37.04%) were caused by arson, and 4 events (14.81%) were caused by traffic accidents. Arson caused the most severe casualties (at least 88 deaths and 287 injuries), followed by spontaneous combustion of bus (at least 35 deaths and 140 injuries) and traffic accidents (at least 9 deaths and 20 injuries). Conclusions

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...

  20. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan Krishnan Syam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs in the electroencephalogram (EEG of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE. Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP, aged 6-8 years, were invited (n = 532. Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20% children (19 males, 18 females had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43% children and in the awake record only of 6 (16% children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4% had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2 and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children′s maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ] or the children′s characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures.

  1. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel H P Hof

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI. During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5-6 years were investigated. METHODS: Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822. All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0-4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. RESULTS: After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (p<0.001 with all body composition measures at the age of 5-6 years. The BMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5-6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5-6 years were found. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5-6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak.

  2. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  3. Subsequent afebrile seizure in children who have a first seizure with fever after 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Young; Kim, Yeun-Hee

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the risk and the risk factors associated with subsequent afebrile seizures in 31 children who experienced their first seizure with fever after 6 years of age. The children were classified into two groups. Group I comprised children with their first seizure with fever after 6 years of age (n = 15). Group II comprised children who had febrile seizures before 5 years of age and who had recurrent seizures with fever after 6 years of age (n = 16). Of these 31 children, 7 (22.5%) had subsequent afebrile seizure. The cumulative probability of subsequent afebrile seizure was 13.3% at 6 months and 36 months in group I; in group II, the cumulative probability was 12.5% at 6 months, 18.8% at 18 months, 25% at 24 months, and 31.3% at 36 months. There was no significant difference in the risk for subsequent afebrile seizures between the two groups. There were no risk factors associated with an increased risk of subsequent afebrile seizures. If the first seizure with fever occurred after 6 years of age, this was a significant risk for subsequent afebrile seizure; the risk of seizure recurrence in this group appears to be similar to children who have persistent febrile seizures after 6 years of age, but far below that of children with first epileptic seizure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aortic Dissection and Severe Renal Failure 6 Years After Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Dujardin, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We report the case of a patient with long-term history of hypertension, presenting with transient neurological disorders and severe graft failure several years after kidney transplantation. Cause of end-stage renal disease was hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Chronic hemodialysis lasted for 1 year. After transplantation and throughout follow-up, serum creatinine ranged from 200 to 230 μmol/L and maintenance immunosuppression included sirolimus and low-dose steroids. Six years after transplantation, the patient presented with right hip pain radiating to the lower back, transient aphasia, confusion, and hemiparesis. Surprisingly, progressive anuria was established requiring dialysis. After numerous nonconclusive investigations including renal histology, a contrast computed tomography scan discovered a Stanford B aortic dissection from the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery to bilateral internal and external iliac arteries, including the right femoral artery. No surgical treatment was opted and hemodialysis, tight control of blood pressure and oral anticoagulation were established. Immunosuppression was lightened to low-dose steroids alone. After 8 months, chronic dialysis was stopped, and today, 22 months after the diagnosis of aortic dissection, the patient is doing well with a still functioning graft (creatinine, 377 μmol/L; modification of diet in renal disease-glomerular filtration rate, 15 mL/min, and without any other immunosuppression than low-dose steroids.

  5. A 6-year-old boy with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Coats disease: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Andrew W; Sparagna, Cristina; Borri, Melissa; Rizzo, Stanislao; Hadjistilianou, Theodora

    2015-10-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) can result in multiple congenital abnormalities and numerous ocular findings. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with history of CdLS who presented with Coats disease. The findings in this case are compared to those found in the two previously reported cases of concomitant CdLS and Coats disease. The low incidence of these two disorders makes it highly unlikely that the connection is random in these 3 cases. The number of patients with both Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Coats disease is likely underestimated due to the difficulty in examining the peripheral retina in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on parasympathetic functioning from 3 to 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

    2014-05-01

    We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load.

  7. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    -surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal...... lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed...

  8. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    OpenAIRE

    Deleflie, F.; Exertier, P.; Metris, G.; Berio, P.; Laurain, O.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Biancale, R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2), supposed to be constant (secular), and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular...

  9. Increase in waist circumference over 6 years predicts subsequent cardiovascular disease and total mortality in nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingberg, Sofia; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lanfer, Anne

    2015-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women but that gain or loss in HC was unrelated to these outcomes. This study examines whether a 6-year change in waist circumference (WC) predicts mortality and CVD in the same study sample. METHODS: Baseline WC and 6-year change in WC as predictors of mortality and CVD......OBJECTIVE: Despite solid evidence of an association between centralized body fatness and subsequent disease risk, little is known about the consequences of changes in body fat distribution. Recently it was shown that large hip circumference (HC), measured once, was protective against total...

  10. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  11. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  12. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  13. Long-term degradation of enamel and dentin bonds: 6-year results in vitro vs. in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Godoy, F.; Krämer, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Frankenberger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate marginal integrity of direct resin composite restorations before and after thermo-mechanical loading in vitro, and before and after 6 years of clinical service in a prospective clinical trial. Methods For the in vitro part, MO cavities with the proximal box beneath the cemento

  14. Cerebellar Liponeurocytoma: A Novel Report from Nigeria in a 6-Year-Old Girl, and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Ohegbulam, Samuel; Ndubuisi, Chika; Okwunodulu, Okwuoma; Okorie, Emeka; Nkwerem, Sunday; Okonkwo, Onyiye; Aniume, Onyeka; Nnamani, Sunday; Nwokoro, Onyekachi; Eni, Anthony; Nwideyi, Isaiah; Nzegwu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature. PMID:27746877

  15. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma: a novel report from Nigeria in a 6-year-old girl, and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Nzegwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liponeurocytoma is a newly defined clinical entity predominantly seen in the cerebellum as a slow-growing tumor. In this report, we present the case of a 6-year-old Nigerian girl with a liponeurocytoma, and review of literature.

  16. Acquisition of the Concept of Teaching and Its Relationship with Theory of Mind in French 3- to 6-Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila; Olivier, Marie; Stefaniak, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how and when preschoolers master the concept of teaching, particularly in relation to the acquisition of theory of mind (ToM). We investigated the relationship between the two in children aged 3-6 years old. One hundred and seventeen French preschool pupils answered questions about different teaching situations illustrated in…

  17. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Beatrice; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frederic; Gonthier, Regis

    2011-01-01

    Methods: nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Sel

  18. A Study on the Relationship between the Rhythm and Mathematics Skills of 5-6 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertoglu, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This is a relational scan study aiming to question the relationship between rhythm skills which are the most fundamental element in musical development and mathematics ability. Also within the general aims of the study is to examine whether this relationship varies with respect to the personal characteristics of 5-6 year olds. It has been…

  19. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  20. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Deleflie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2, supposed to be constant (secular, and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.Key words. secular variation of J2, 18.6 year tide, mean orbital motione

  1. Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Incidence of Nephrolithiasis in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Follow-up (SUN) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2017-08-22

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis. Limited data are available to investigate the association between a Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk for nephrolithiasis. Prospective cohort study. 16,094 men and women without a history of nephrolithiasis who participated in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Follow-up (SUN) Project. A validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish, and legumes, but moderate in alcohol and low in meats, saturated fats, and sugars. A Mediterranean dietary pattern score was calculated and categorized into 3 groups (0-3, 4-6, and 7-9 points). Additional factors included in statistical models were sex, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, time spent watching television, following a medical nutritional therapy, water and energy intake, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and history of hypertension or diabetes. Incidence of nephrolithiasis. Participants were classified as having incident nephrolithiasis if they reported a physician-made diagnosis of nephrolithiasis during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 9.6 years, 735 new cases of nephrolithiasis were identified. The multivariable HRs of nephrolithiasis for the 2 highest categories of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern, using the lowest category as the reference, were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79-1.09) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.87); P for trend=0.01. The risk for nephrolithiasis was lower with greater consumption of dairy products and vegetables and greater with higher monounsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio. No information for kidney stone composition. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk for incident nephrolithiasis. Additional longitudinal studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-11-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  3. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  4. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in the Fundong Health District, Cameroon after 6 years of continuous community-directed treatment with ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available <0.001. The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5% followed by students (0.7% and businessmen (0.25%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity.

  5. Mycetoma of the scalp due to Microsporum canis: hystopathologic, mycologic, and immunogenetic features in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, Laura S; Dib, Moisés D; Nuncira, Carmen T; Nardelli, Luciana; Vullo, Carlos; Collino, César; Abiega, Claudio; Cortes, Paulo R; Spesso, María F; Masih, Diana T

    2011-05-01

    Dermatophytic mycetoma is an extremely rare subcutaneous mycosis. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl with clinical, histologic, and mycologic findings consistent with a mycetoma of the scalp caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the immunologic and immunogenetic features of a patient with a recalcitrant dermatophytic mycetoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A diagnosis neglected for 6 years: report of a misdiagnosed case of pulmonary mucormycosis and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-fang; HE Chao; LIU Xue-feng; WANG Sheng-yun; QU Jin-long; LIN Zhao-fen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary mucormycosis is an uncommon and often fatal opportunistic fungal infection caused by fungi in the class zygomycetes of the order mucorales. As a rare clinical entity characterized by acute onset, rapid progression and high mortality rate, pulmonary mucormycosis often results in fatal consequences within two years after the onset, and can be easily misdiagnosed.1,2 Here we report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis for which a definite diagnosis had not been established until 6 years after the initial onset.

  7. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, F.; Exertier, P.; Metris, G.; Berio, P.; Laurain, O.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Biancale, R.

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2), supposed to be constant (secular), and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular variation. We use our theory of mean orbital motion, dedicated to studies of the long period effects on the orbital motion. We build one single arc of LAGEOS-1 from 1980 to 2002, which provides a continuous description of the orbital parameters. This is the great originality of our approach. We focus our attention on the ascending node of LAGEOS-1, and we show that the change observed in j2 cannot be attributed to a statistical error due to a correlation, in short arcs results, between the secular variation of J2 and the 18.6 year tide. The proof is based on the adjustment of amplitudes and phases of the long period tides, and on the shape of the residuals.

  8. Inequality in School Readiness and Autism among 6-Year-Old Children across Iranian Provinces: National Health Assessment Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Masoud; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Dashti, Marziyeh; Aminaee, Tahereh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the national inequality of school readiness and autism among 6-year-old Iranian children before school entry using a national health assessment survey. Methods In a cross-sectional nationwide survey, all Iranian children entering public and private elementary schools were asked to participate in a mandatory national screening program in Iran in 2009 in two levels of screening and diagnostic levels. Findings The study population consisted of 955388 children (48.5% girls and 76.1% urban residents). Of the whole children, 3.1% of the 6-year-old children had impaired vision. In addition, 1.2, 1.8, 1.4, 7.6, 0.08, 10, 10.9, 56.7, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.6 percent had color blindness, hearing impaired, speech disorder, school readiness, autism, height to age retardation, body mass index extremes, decayed teeth, disease with special needs, spinal disorders, and hypertension, respectively. The distribution of these disorders was unequally distributed across provinces. Conclusion Our results confirmed that there is an inequality in distribution of school readiness and autism in 6-year-old children across Iranian provinces. The observed burden of these distributions among young children needs a comprehensive national policy with evidence-based province programs to identify the reason for different inequality among provinces. PMID:23550225

  9. Changes in Cortical Thickness in 6-Year-Old Children Open Their Mind to a Global Vision of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if objectively presented with similar visual stimuli, children younger than 6 years of age exhibit a strong attraction to local visual information (e.g., the trees, whereas children older than 6 years of age, similar to adults, exhibit a visual bias toward global information (e.g., the forest. Here, we studied the cortical thickness changes that underlie this bias shift from local to global visual information. Two groups, matched for age, gender, and handedness, were formed from a total of 30 children who were 6 years old, and both groups performed a traditional global/local visual task. The first group presented a local visual bias, and the other group presented a global visual bias. The results indicated that, compared with the local visual bias group, children with a global visual bias exhibited (1 decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral occipital regions and (2 increased cortical thickness in the left frontoparietal regions. These findings constitute the first structural study that supports the view that both synaptic pruning (i.e., decreased cortical thickness and expansion mechanisms (i.e., increased cortical thickness cooccur to allow healthy children to develop a global perception of the visual world.

  10. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Profile of Lanthanum Carbonate: Results for up to 6 Years of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Alastair J.; Barnett, M. Edwina; Krause, Rolfdieter; Kwan, Jonathan T.C.; Siami, Ghodrat A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Lanthanum carbonate (LC, FOSRENOL®) is an effective phosphate binder for which tolerability and a safety profile have been reported in haemodialysis patients. Patients from previous studies entered a 2-year extension, enabling assessment of efficacy and safety for up to 6 years of LC monotherapy. Methods Patients from four previous trials entered this study. Results Ninety-three patients started the extension, with 22 entering a sixth year of LC treatment. Two-thirds of all patients received LC doses of 2,250 or 3,000 mg/day. Reductions in serum phosphate and calcium × phosphate product were maintained for up to 6 years. There were no new or unexpected adverse events (AEs), and no increase in the incidence of events with increasing treatment exposure. Over the complete duration of therapy, treatment-related AEs occurred in 25.8% of patients and were primarily gastrointestinal in nature. No clinically relevant changes in liver function tests were observed and there was no evidence of adverse effects on the liver, bone or the central nervous system. Conclusions LC monotherapy was effective and well tolerated for up to 6 years with no evidence of safety concerns or increased frequency of AEs. PMID:18667837

  11. Age- and sex-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex in European children aged 3-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Poppa, Pasquale; Barkus, Arunas; Khalaj-Hedayati, Kerstin; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial growth changes in young children are not yet completely understood. Up-to-date references for craniofacial measurements are crucial for clinical assessment of orthodontic anomalies, craniofacial abnormalities and subsequent planning of interventions. To provide normal reference data and to identify growth patterns for craniofacial dimensions of European boys and girls aged 3-6 years. Using standard anthropometric methodology, body weight, body height and 23 craniofacial measurements were acquired for a cross-sectional sample of 681 healthy children (362 boys and 319 girls) aged 3-6 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, percentage annual changes and percentage growth rates were used to analyse the dataset. Between the ages of 3-6 years, craniofacial measurements showed age- and sex-related patterns independent from patterns observed for body weight and body height. Sex-related differences were observed in the majority of craniofacial measurements. In both sexes, face heights and face depths showed the strongest correlation with age. Growth patterns differed by craniofacial measurement and can be summarised into eight distinct age- and sex-related patterns. This study provided reference data and identified sex- and age-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex of young European children, which may be used for detailed assessment of normal growth in paediatrics, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery and possibly for forensic age assessment.

  12. Examining a conceptual model of parental nurturance, parenting practices and physical activity among 5–6 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364

  13. The role of parents' educational background in healthy lifestyle practices and attitudes of their 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhammar, Christina; Sarkadi, Anna; Edlund, Birgitta

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine parents' reported and desired frequencies (practices vs. attitudes) of their 6-year-old children's meals, nutritional intake and lifestyle components, as well as possible obstacles and desired support with respect to higher or lower educational backgrounds. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Five elementary schools in Uppsala, Sweden. Parents of 176 6-year-old pupils attending the first grade. The total response rate was 89.7%. Parents with a college degree reported that their 6-year-olds had a higher frequency of milk, fruit and vegetable intake, more physical activity and fewer hours watching television compared with parents with a secondary school degree. Congruent to these differences in reported practices, more parents with a college degree desired a higher frequency of milk, fruit and vegetable intake, more physical exercise and less television viewing for their children. Regarding parents' desired meal frequencies during the week, no differences between the groups with higher and lower levels of education were found. Despite similar attitudes, however, parents with a college degree reported that their children ate mostly all meals significantly more often during the week. Both parent groups stated lack of time as the most common obstacle in providing their children with desired lifestyle practices, although parents with a secondary school education added lack of money as a contributing factor. As attitudes are not always reflected in reported practices, it seems a fruitful approach to assess both, as well as obstacles perceived by parents, before planning interventions to enhance healthy lifestyle habits in children.

  14. Evidence for 18.6-year lunar nodal drought in Western North America during the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert G.

    1984-02-01

    Analysis of 38 tree ring chronologies yields evidence for enhanced drought conditions every 18.6 years in the North American interior for the past millenium. Cross spectra between a drought area index and 26 temperature records confirm the analysis of Currie (1979, 1981d) as regards a lunar nodal MN term in these data. Discussion of the MN tidal constituent, which appreciably modulate amplitude and phase of four main constituents (M2, K1, O1, Mf), is presented, and implications for agriculture are surveyed.

  15. Primary vaginal calculus secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with imperforate hymen in a 6-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ince, Emine; Ezer, Semire Serin; Temiz, Abdülkerim; Demir, Senay; Hicsonmez, Akgun

    2009-07-01

    Primary vaginal stones are extremely rare in children and may be mistaken for bladder calculi on plain radiography. We present a case of a large vaginal calculus in a 6-year-old girl who had an imperforate hymen and urethrovaginal fistula. Hymenotomy and urethrovaginal fistula repair were performed, and the vaginal stone was extracted. It was postulated that the vaginal calculus originated from stasis of urine through the urethrovaginal fistula in the obstructed vagina. This is a unique case of a vaginal calculus with a congenital urethrovaginal fistula associated with an imperforate hymen.

  16. Fluoride Varnish Effect on Preventing Dental Caries in a Sample of 3-6 Years Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Hajizamani, Hamid Reza; Abolghasemi, Batol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of children that affect their life and their family in different aspects. Using different types of fluoride is one of the most effective ways for preventing the disease. Fluoride varnish is a topical fluoride product which could use in the community even by non-professional. This study aimed to assess the effect of fluoride varnish on dental caries in a group of children aged 3-6 years old in Kerman kindergarten ...

  17. Surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 with mineral trioxide aggregate: a 6-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rafael; Rincón, Juan G

    2011-11-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a type of external resorption rarely seen as an adverse effect after a guided tissue regeneration procedure for a periodontal condition. This case report summarizes the surgical endodontic management of an invasive cervical resorption class 4 (Heithersay) with mineral trioxide aggregate, in a mandibular incisor of a 67-year-old man. A 6-year clinical follow-up with radiovisiography and cone-beam computerized tomography revealed complete healing. A surgical endodontic management could promote healing and survival of a tooth with advanced root resorption due to a periodontal condition.

  18. Changes in levels of haemoglobin A1c during the first 6 years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, V.; Hansen, Lars Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the variability in levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during the first six years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes in relation to possible predictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample from general practice of 581 newly diagnosed...... the first 6 years after the diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes, changes in levels of HbA(1c) show considerable inter-individual variability with age as the only long-term predictor. The results indicate that it is important to monitor changes in HbA(1c) more closely and intensify treatment of those often...

  19. Dietary strategies for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, D G; Foerster, S B

    1993-08-01

    Two-thirds of cancer cases are associated with two lifestyle practices: 35% with the typical American diet, and 30% with tobacco use. In contrast to the field of tobacco control, research and resources dedicated to the field of nutrition have been limited, in part because dietary change has been considered controversial and requires a more complex set of interventions. This series of papers reviews the science base underlying diet as a cancer control strategy, including research about diet-cancer relationships, current nutrition policy recommendations, American dietary trends, models of dietary behavior change, and diet in health care delivery. The history of technology transfer of new knowledge into widespread application will be compared and contrasted with other cancer control measures. There is scientific and policy agreement about three priority dietary goals for the year 2000: increase fruit and vegetable consumption to 5 or more servings every day, increase breads, cereals, and legumes to 6 or more servings daily, and decrease fat to no more than 30% of total calories. Current data do not indicate that these goals will be reached. As yet there is no organized effort, with clearly identified steps, to translate research into practice. The parallel with delays in implementing other cancer control measures, including Papanicolaou testing, mammography, and tobacco intervention, is striking. Without resources dedicated to dietary modification in the general population, it is not likely that the potential savings of more than 300,000 new cases, 160,000 deaths, and the $25 billion in associated costs will be realized in the foreseeable future.

  20. Waist circumference compared with other obesity parameters as determinants of coronary artery disease in essential hypertension: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Tsioufis, Costas; Mazaraki, Anastasia; Liatakis, Ioannis; Koutra, Evaggelia; Kordalis, Athanasios; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Flessas, Dimitrios; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive role of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) for the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a cohort of essential hypertensive patients. We followed up 2266 essential hypertensive individuals (mean age, 57.8 years; males, 1083; office blood pressure (BP), 143/89 mm Hg) who were free of cardiovascular disease for a mean period of 6 years. All subjects had at least one annual visit and, at baseline, underwent blood sampling and a complete echocardiographic study to determine the left ventricular (LV) mass index. CAD was defined as a history of myocardial infarction or significant coronary artery stenosis that was revealed by angiography or a coronary revascularization procedure. The incidence of CAD throughout the follow-up period was 2.33%. Hypertensive individuals who developed CAD (n=53) had a greater baseline WC (101.1±11.7 vs. 96.4±12 cm, P=0.005), WHR (0.94±0.07 vs. 0.89±0.08 cm, Pobesity.

  1. Gender assignment for newborns with 46XY cloacal exstrophy: a 6-year followup survey of pediatric urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, David A; Burns, Jeffrey P; Huang, Lin; Rosoklija, Ilina; Retik, Alan B

    2011-10-01

    Gender assignment for newborns with ambiguous genitalia remains a challenge. An initial survey of colleagues on this subject was performed in 2004. Our objective was to understand the basis for the attitudes and practices of pediatric urologists in regard to gender assignment for 46XY cloacal exstrophy in a 6-year followup survey. A survey on a case of 46XY cloacal exstrophy was completed by 191 of the 263 fellows (73%) in the Urology Section, American Academy of Pediatrics. Questions referred to gender assignment, surgery timing, clinical outcomes and respondent demographics. Of the fellows 79% favored male gender assignment. The most important factor in male assignment remained androgen brain imprinting (97%) while in female assignment it was surgical success in creating functional genitalia (96%). Respondent characteristics associated with assigning female gender were longer practice duration (greater than 15 years) (p assigned (p assignment earlier in the career to male assignment currently (p assignment for 46XY cloacal exstrophy, which is a significant increase in 6 years. This change represents an evolution from female to male gender assignment and virtual unanimity among fellowship directors to gender assign male. Longer practicing clinicians perceived better outcomes for female gender assignment. If this reflects true clinical outcomes, the trend toward the eventual disappearance of female gender assignment for 46XY cloacal exstrophy is concerning. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old children in Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-10-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4-6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children.

  3. Remote impacts of the 18.6 year period modulation of localized tidal mixing in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the 18.6 year period modulation of the localized strong tidal mixing on the annual mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the open North Pacific Ocean is analyzed in a numerical experiment using an ocean general circulation model. Oscillatory SST anomalies induced in this model move eastward along the boundary between the subarctic and the subtropical gyres from the western boundary to the central Pacific in about 10 years, with a speed slower than that of the surface currents. Anomalous currents in the upper 300 m play an important role in inducing SST anomalies. These anomalous currents are coupled to subsurface density anomalies and could be related to eastward moving, low-mode (second or higher), baroclinic long Rossby waves. These results suggest that the 18.6 year modulation of localized strong tidal mixing can influence large-scale SST and/or heat flux, and thus climate, as a result of remote impacts associated with changes in the mid-depth density structure, induced locally where mixing is strong, that move horizontally into the open ocean.

  4. [Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, José R; Azurmendi Imaz, Aitziber; Fano Ardanaz, Eduardo; Braza Lloret, Francisco; Muñoz Sánchez, José M; Carreras de Alba, María R

    2009-02-01

    Androgen levels, parenting styles and aggressive behavior in 5-6-year-old boys and girls. This study explores the relationship between androgen levels, parenting styles, and physical, verbal, and indirect aggression measures in 5-6-year-old children. 129 children (60 boys and 69 girls) were assessed in relation to their aggression levels using a peer-rating technique. Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, from which the different parenting styles were obtained. Testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured using an enzymoimmunoassay technique in saliva samples. A regression analysis indicated that the directive mother-androstenedione interaction at the age of 5 was predictive of physical aggression at the age of 6. In specific terms, the results showed that, in boys with high androstenedione levels, directive maternal behavior is associated with physical aggression. The results are subsequently discussed in light of postulates related to parenting characteristic of developmental psychology and we suggest a potential link of our results with the hypothesis of maternal dominance.

  5. Sedentary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and body fat in 6-year-old children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Jansen, Wilma; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Raat, Hein

    2014-08-15

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Knowledge on modifiable risk factors is needed to design effective intervention programs. This study aimed to assess associations of children's sedentary behaviors (television viewing and computer game use) and physical activity behaviors (sports participation, outdoor play, and active transport to/from school) with three indicators of body fat, i.e., percent fat mass, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores, and weight status (normal weight, overweight). Cross-sectional data from 5913 6-year-old ethnically diverse children were analyzed. Children's weight and height were objectively measured and converted to BMI. Weight status was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force. BMI standard deviation scores were created, based on Dutch reference growth curves. Fat mass was measured my dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Sedentary and physical activity behaviors were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires. Series of logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographic factors, family lifestyle factors, and other sedentary behaviors and physical activity behaviors). Sports participation was inversely associated with fat mass (p physical activity behaviors. No other independent associations were observed. The results of this study indicate that sports participation is inversely associated with percent body fat among ethnically diverse 6-year-old children. More research in varied populations including objective measurements and longitudinal designs are needed to confirm these current results.

  6. Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years. Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P M; Schwartz, M P; Richards, J W; Goldstein, A O; Rojas, T H

    1991-12-11

    Little is known about the influence of advertising on very young children. We, therefore, measured product logo recognition by subjects aged 3 to 6 years. Children were instructed to match logos with one of 12 products pictured on a game board. Twenty-two logos were tested, including those representing children's products, adult products, and those for two popular cigarette brands (Camel and Marlboro). Preschools in Augusta and Atlanta, Ga. A convenience sample of 229 children attending preschool. The children demonstrated high rates of logo recognition. When analyzed by product category, the level of recognition of cigarette logos was intermediate between children's and adult products. The recognition rates of The Disney Channel logo and Old Joe (the cartoon character promoting Camel cigarettes) were highest in their respective product categories. Recognition rates increased with age. Approximately 30% of 3-year-old children correctly matched Old Joe with a picture of a cigarette compared with 91.3% of 6-year-old children. Very young children see, understand, and remember advertising. Given the serious health consequences of smoking, the exposure of children to environmental tobacco advertising may represent an important health risk and should be studied further.

  7. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  8. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  9. Trade-offs between anti-aging dietary supplementation and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2013-10-01

    In otherwise healthy adults, moderate aerobic exercise extends life span and likely health span by 2-6 years. Exercise improves blood sugar regulation, and resistance exercise increases or maintains muscle mass and is associated with improved cognitive function. On the other hand, evidence for anti-oxidant supplements increasing longevity in humans is lacking. On the contrary, transient hormetic increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), for example, associated with exercise, are actually associated with increased mammalian health span and life span. Recent studies in humans suggest that anti-oxidants such as vitamins C, E, resveratrol, and acetyl-N-cysteine blunt the beneficial effects of exercise on glucose sensitivity and blood sugar regulation, likely through direct inhibition of ROS signaling. Alternately, other studies suggest that vitamin C has beneficial effects on exercise-associated dysfunction, inhibiting exercise-induced bronchioconstriction. These data suggest that there are tradeoffs between potential benefits and harm from anti-oxidant dietary supplementation. Specific biomolecular interactions for each antioxidant also will be important. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fattty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory activity that is not mediated through direct ROS inhibition. Although data are limited in humans, n-3 PUFAs do not seem to blunt blood sugar regulatory benefits of aerobic exercise and actually increase anabolic activity in skeletal muscle. However, another kind of tradeoff may exist with PUFAs, at least for men. A recent large clinical trial demonstrates an association of omega-3 fatty acids blood levels with increased incidence of prostate cancer, especially aggressive prostate cancer. Together these results suggest that there are significant tradeoffs in the use of dietary supplementation for prevention and treatment of diseases associated with aging. Such tradeoffs may result from underlying intertwined homeostatic mechanisms. For most

  10. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites in child and adult populations in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtiaga, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Alonso, Ana; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2013-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additive in food. The aim of this study was to assess dietary sulphite intake in adults aged 35-65 years and in children aged 4-18 years living in the Basque Country, northern Spain. We determined sulphite concentrations in 909 samples covering 16 food types. The maximum permitted levels were exceeded in 17% of samples. Making recommended assumptions for non-quantifiable results, estimates of mean lower and upper bounds were calculated for sulphite concentrations in each food type. These sulphite data were combined with consumption data derived from 8417 adults from the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Gipuzkoa, recruited in 1992-1995 using a diet history method, and 1055 children from the Basque Country Nutrition Children Survey, conducted in 2004-2005 using two 24-h recall questionnaires to assess diet. The results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The mean dietary exposure to sulphites was 0.08 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, only 11% of the ADI in the overall group of children (4-18 years old), but the acceptable intake was exceeded by 4% of 4-6 year olds. For the adults (35-65 years old), the mean dietary exposure was 0.31 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, 45% of the ADI, but the acceptable intake was exceeded in 14.6% of cases. The major contributing foods were minced meat and other meat products for children and wine for adults.

  11. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  12. Whole Blood Levels of the n-6 Essential Fatty Acid Linoleic Acid Are Inversely Associated with Stunting in 2-to-6 Year Old Tanzanian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Jumbe

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, 35% of all children below five years of age are stunted. Dietary fatty acids (FA are critical for growth and development. However, whole blood FA levels in Tanzanian children are poorly described.The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to assess 1 whole blood levels of essential fatty acids and 2 the association between whole blood FA levels and growth parameters in Tanzanian children 2-6 years of age.A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by linear regression.Of the 334 children that participated, 30.3% were stunted. The average whole blood level of Mead acid was 0.15%. The anthropometric z-score height-for-age (HAZ was inversely associated with Mead acid, the Mead acid to arachidonic acid (T/T ratio, and total n-9 FA. Additionally, HAZ was positively associated with linoleic acid and total n-6 FA. BMI-for-age was positively associated with oleic acid, total n-9 FA and T/T ratio but inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FA. Weight-for-height was inversely associated with arachidonic acid and total n-6 FAs and positively associated with oleic acid and total n-9 FA. Weight-for-age was not associated with any FA tested. Total n-3 FAs were not associated with any growth parameters measured.The EFA linoleic acid and the markers of FA deficiency were associated with HAZ, an indicator for stunting in 2-6 year old Tanzanian children. Total n-6, total n-9, and a number of individual FAs were associated with growth. Increasing dietary intake of EFA and n-6 FAs may be a strategy to combat stunting in this population.

  13. Lung injury caused by greenstick fracture of the scapular body in a 6-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Jin; Wang, Sung Il; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2016-04-01

    Complications caused by a scapular body fracture are rare, and usually occur due to concomitant injuries or nonunion. Intrathoracic displacement of a fractured scapula has only been described in two reports involving adolescents. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old boy with a parenchymal lung injury caused by a greenstick fracture fragment of the scapular body after being struck by a dump truck. Three-dimensional CT (3D CT) scan showed an incomplete fractured fragment impaling the left lung parenchyma resulting in pneumothorax, parenchymal contusion, and pneumatocele in the left upper lobe. The patient underwent emergency open reduction of the scapular fracture and chest tube insertion. A rare subtype of scapular fracture with resultant fragment rotation and intrathoracic penetration can injure the lung parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, lung injury caused by incomplete fracture of the scapula in patients younger than 10 years has not been reported previously.

  14. The development of joke and irony understanding: a study with 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeleri, Romina; Airenti, Gabriella

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that comprehending ironic utterances is a relatively late-developing skill, emerging around 5-6 years of age. This study investigated whether younger children might show an earlier understanding when ironic utterances are performed in familiar communicative situations, and investigated the relationships among irony comprehension, language, and theory of mind (ToM) abilities. A group of 100 children aged 3.0-6.5 years was presented with 4 types of puppet scenarios depicting different communicative interactions: control, joke, contingent irony and background irony stories. Results suggested that (a) even younger children easily understand jokes, and may sometimes understand ironies; (b) children's comprehension of irony continues to develop across early childhood; and (c) receptive vocabulary scores had simultaneous effects on irony comprehension and ToM performance.

  15. Diode laser versus scalpel in the treatment of hereditary gingival fibromatosis in a 6-year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Aboujaoude

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF is a rare disease characterized by a benign enlargement of the gingiva involving both the mandible and the maxilla. This case is about a 6-year-old child with non syndromic HGF showing a severe gingival enlargement covering almost all surfaces of the teeth, in both arches, hence causing major aesthetic, phonetic and masticatory problems. The aim of the present article is to compare the outcomes of two therapeutical approaches: i classical surgical removal with scalpel; and ii diode laser resection. Compared to the surgical approach, the clinical results show that the main advantages of the diode laser technique are a better visibility during the intervention, minimal postoperative discomfort combined to a better gingival recontouring. However, the time consumption and the high cost of the laser equipment remain the main disadvantages of the systematic use of this technique.

  16. Diode Laser Versus Scalpel in the Treatment of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis in a 6-Year Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Samia; Cassia, Antoine; Moukarzel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare disease characterized by a benign enlargement of the gingiva involving both the mandible and the maxilla. This case is about a 6-year-old child with non syndromic HGF showing a severe gingival enlargement covering almost all surfaces of the teeth, in both arches, hence causing major aesthetic, phonetic and masticatory problems. The aim of the present article is to compare the outcomes of two therapeutical approaches: i) classical surgical removal with scalpel; and ii) diode laser resection. Compared to the surgical approach, the clinical results show that the main advantages of the diode laser technique are a better visibility during the intervention, minimal postoperative discomfort combined to a better gingival recontouring. However, the time consumption and the high cost of the laser equipment remain the main disadvantages of the systematic use of this technique. PMID:27994842

  17. [Assessment of intelligence of 6-year-old children--practical comparability of HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daseking, Monika; Petermann, Franz; Waldmann, Hans-Christian

    2010-03-01

    The present study focuses on the practical comparability of HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV test results. HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV were administered in counterbalanced order to N=45 6-year-old children. The study presents means, standard deviations, and uncorrected and corrected correlations, as well as standard differences. Regression analysis was used to predict IQ values. There is a significant positive correlation between indices of HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV (VT/SV: r=.81; HT/WLD: r=.86; VG/VG: r=.77) and between the two Full Scale IQs (r=.91). Predicted WISC-IV values based on WPPSI-III indices are reported. The results of this study indicate that there is a close relation between HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV. Therefore, HAWIK-IV-results can be compared with diagnostic findings assessed by HAWIVA-III.

  18. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohort. Clinical data on development of allergic sensitization, allergic rhinitis, nasal eosinophilia, blood eosinophilia, eczema, troublesome lung symptoms (significant cough or wheeze or dyspnoea) and asthma were collected prospectively...... was significantly associated with development of allergic sensitization (Odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-1.89), nasal eosinophilia (Odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.8), and eczema (Hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0), but not with allergic rhinitis, asthma or blood eosinophilia. Neither leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 nor 11ß......-prostaglandin-F2a was associated with any of the atopic phenotypes. Conclusion Eosinophil protein-X in urine from asymptomatic neonates is a biomarker significantly associated with later development of allergic sensitization, nasal eosinophilia and eczema during the first 6 years of life. These findings suggest...

  19. Immediate Nonfunctional Loading of Two Single-Maxillary Postextractive Implants: 6-Year Postloading Results of Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ariano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare crestal bone loss of single-maxillary immediate postextractive implants and immediate nonfunctional loading (INFL during 72 months of follow-up. Material and Methods. Two single titanium implants (Certain Prevail, Biomet 3I, USA were placed in two patients using INFL technique. Implant stability and crestal bone level were measured on periapical radiographs at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. All osseointegrated implants were clinically successful after 6 years of functional loading. Conclusion. Within the limit of the present case report, the paper supports the concept that INFL of single dental implant can be a successful treatment procedure.

  20. Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes as predictors of 5-6-year-old children's healthy food knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiecki, Dorota; Sinn, Natalie; Petkov, John; Dollman, James

    2012-07-01

    Young children's knowledge about healthy food may influence the formation of their eating behaviours, and parents have a major influence on the development of children's knowledge in the early years. We investigated the extent to which parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes around food predicted young children's knowledge of healthy foods, controlling for other influences such as socio-economic status (SES) and parent education levels in a cross-sectional research design. Children were given a healthy food knowledge activity and parents completed questionnaires. Twenty primary schools in Adelaide, Australia, stratified by SES. We recruited 192 children aged 5-6 years and their parents. Structural equation modelling showed that parent nutrition knowledge predicted children's nutrition knowledge (r = 0·30, P parents, targeted at low-SES areas at higher risk for obesity, may contribute to the development of healthy food knowledge in young children.

  1. Primary Cerebellar Neuroendocrine Tumors: Chimeras or Real Entities? A Case Report with a 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vernieri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 38-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a cerebellar well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WDNET in 2009. At first glance, we believed that it was a metastasis from an unrecognized WDNET arising outside the cerebellum. However, despite a prolonged follow-up of 6 years, an extracranial WDNET has never been found. During this time, the tumor recurred locally twice, and the patient was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. At the moment, he enjoys good general conditions and his tumor is under control. Due to the histopathological characteristics and clinical behavior of the tumor, we believe that this is the first report to date of a primary cerebellar WDNET.

  2. Primary Cerebellar Neuroendocrine Tumors: Chimeras or Real Entities? A Case Report with a 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieri, Claudio; Femia, Daniela; Pusceddu, Sara; Capella, Carlo; Rosai, Juan; Calareso, Giuseppina; Concas, Laura; Prinzi, Natalie; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; de Braud, Filippo; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a cerebellar well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WDNET) in 2009. At first glance, we believed that it was a metastasis from an unrecognized WDNET arising outside the cerebellum. However, despite a prolonged follow-up of 6 years, an extracranial WDNET has never been found. During this time, the tumor recurred locally twice, and the patient was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. At the moment, he enjoys good general conditions and his tumor is under control. Due to the histopathological characteristics and clinical behavior of the tumor, we believe that this is the first report to date of a primary cerebellar WDNET.

  3. Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old Child with Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Anshad Mohamed; Surej Kumar, L. K.; Sheejith Hari Peeceeyen, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature.

  4. Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old Child with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshad Mohamed Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature.

  5. Incidental Radiographic Discovery of a Screw in a Primary Molar: An Unusual Case Report in a 6 Year Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists often find foreign bodies in the primary dentition of children who habitually place objects in their mouths. The objects are frequently embedded in exposures that result from carious or traumatic lesions or from endodontic procedures that have been left open for drainage. Such bodies are often detected on routine radiographs and, less frequently, during clinical examination. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who had inadvertently embedded a screw in his mandibular right first primary molar and had forgotten about it until it became symptomatic. The screw was impacted in the exposed pulp chamber due to a large carious lesion in the affected molar. This case report considers the possible medical and dental consequences of placing foreign bodies in the mouth.

  6. Pre- and postnatal determinants of deciduous molar hypomineralisation in 6-year-old children. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies E C Elfrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH and Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH are common developmental disturbances in pediatric dentistry. Their occurrence is related. The same determinants as suggested for MIH are expected for DMH, though somewhat earlier in life. Perinatal medical problems may influence the prevalence of DMH but this has not been studied sufficiently. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify possible determinants of DMH in a prospective cohort study among 6-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The the data were used to identify the determinants of DMH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6690 children (mean age 6.2 years; 49.9% girls. Data on possible determinants that had occurred during pregnancy and/or the child's first year of life were on the basis of manual standardized measurements (like length and weight and questionnaires. Multivariate analyse with backward and forward selection was performed. RESULTS: A number of factors in the pre-, peri- and postnatal phase were found to be associated with DMH. After multivariate logistic regression analyses, Dutch ethnic background, low birth weight, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and fever episodes in the first year of the child's life were found to play a role in the development of DMH in 6-year-old children. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Dutch ethnicity, low birth weight, alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy and any fever in the first year of the child's life are associated with DMH. Not only childhood factors but also prenatal lifestyle factors need to be taken into account when studying determinants for DMH.

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in Shiraz, Iran: a 6-Year- Study of 768 Patients (2004-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabion HR.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Information about etiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma is important for prevention and appropriate treatments of such injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to conduct an analysis of maxillofacial injuries transferred and/or referred to the department of maxillofacial Surgery at Chamran emergency hospital, Shiraz, over a 6-year-period with special reference to age, gender, occupation, date, type, site, etiology and clinical management. Materials and Method: The data for this study were collected and reviewed retrospec-tively from the records and radiographs of 768 patients who were treated for maxillofacial trauma in the department of maxillofacial surgery at the Shiraz Chamran Emergency Hospital, Iran, between 2004 and 2010. Results: A total of 730 of the subjects were the patients with fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was 26.6± 12.6 years, ranging from 2 to 81 years. Traffic accident was the most frequent etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures irrespective of gender (69.9% for men and 54.2% for women, whereas the second most frequent cause of injuries was falling down (9.8% for men and 21.5% for women .The other etiologies were assault (5.2%, sport related injuries (1.3% and firearm injuries (1%. Regarding the head injuries in patients with maxillofacial fractures, brain contusion was seen in 227(29.6% patients and 13.5% of patients had lacerations in the facial soft tissue. The monthly distribution peaked in October, with 81 cases (10.5%, which seems to have been due to schools opening. The next highest incidence was in December, with 80 cases (10.4%, probably because of the changing weather's effect on road traffic. Conclusion: Isolated mandibular fracture due to the road traffic accident was the most common type of maxillofacial injuries in the city of Shiraz.

  8. Work Incapacity and Treatment Costs After Severe Accidents: Standard Versus Intensive Case Management in a 6-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan M; Andermatt, Peter; Tobler, Benno L; Spinnler, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Case management is widely accepted as an effective method to support medical rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims with musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigates whether more intensive case management improves outcomes such as work incapacity and treatment costs for severely injured patients. Methods 8,050 patients were randomly allocated either to standard case management (SCM, administered by claims specialists) or intensive case management (ICM, administered by case managers). These study groups differ mainly by caseload, which was approximately 100 cases in SCM and 35 in ICM. The setting is equivalent to a prospective randomized controlled trial. A 6-year follow-up period was chosen in order to encompass both short-term insurance benefits and permanent disability costs. All data were extracted from administrative insurance databases. Results Average work incapacity over the 6-year follow-up, including contributions from daily allowances and permanent losses from disability, was slightly but insignificantly higher under ICM than under SCM (21.6 vs. 21.3 % of pre-accident work capacity). Remaining work incapacity after 6 years of follow-up showed no difference between ICM and SCM (8.9 vs. 8.8 % of pre-accident work incapacity). Treatment costs were 43,500 Swiss Francs (CHF) in ICM compared to 39,800 in SCM (+9.4 %, p = 0.01). The number of care providers involved in ICM was 10.5 compared to 10.0 in ICM (+5.0 %, p SCM, but did increase healthcare consumption and treatment costs. It is concluded that the intensity of case management alone is not sufficient to improve rehabilitation and vocational reintegration of accident victims.

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Glycol Ethers and Neurocognitive Abilities in 6-Year-Old Children: The PELAGIE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, Rémi; Garlantézec, Ronan; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Trowbridge, Jessica; Warembourg, Charline; Monfort, Christine; Le Gléau, Florent; Jourdin, Marylène; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Glycol ethers (GE) are widely used organic solvents. Despite the potential neurotoxicity of several families of organic solvents, little is known about the impact of GE on the neurodevelopment of infants and children. We investigated the relation between urinary concentrations of GE metabolites in pregnant women and neurocognitive abilities in their 6-year-old children in the PELAGIE mother-child cohort. Five GE metabolites were measured in first morning void urine samples of 204 French pregnant women in early pregnancy (IV (WISC) and the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY). We analyzed the results with linear (WISC) and Poisson regression models (NEPSY), adjusted for potential confounders, including child's stimulation at home. GE metabolites were detected in 90-100% of maternal urine samples. The WISC Verbal Comprehension score was significantly lower for children with the highest tertile of urinary phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) [β (third vs. first tertile) = -6.53; 95% CI: -11.44, -1.62]. Similarly, the NEPSY Design Copying subtest score was lower in those with the highest tertile of urinary ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) [β (third vs. first tertile) = -0.11; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.00]. The other GE metabolites we studied were not significantly associated with WISC or NEPSY scores. Prenatal urine concentrations of two GE metabolites were associated with lower WISC Verbal Comprehension Index scores and NEPSY Design Copying subscale scores, respectively, at age 6 years. PhAA is the primary metabolite of 2-phenoxyethanol (EGPhE), which is commonly found in cosmetics, and precursors of EAA are frequently used in cleaning agents. Additional research is needed to confirm our findings and further explore potential effects of prenatal GE exposures on neurocognitive performance in children.

  10. Refractive errors in 3-6 year-old Chinese children: a very low prevalence of myopia?

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    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 3-6 years in China. METHODS: Children were recruited for a trial of a home-based amblyopia screening kit in Guangzhou preschools, during which cycloplegic refractions were measured in both eyes of 2480 children. Cycloplegic refraction (from 3 to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate to ensure abolition of the light reflex was measured by both autorefraction and retinoscopy. Refractive errors were defined as followed: myopia (at least -0.50 D in the worse eye, hyperopia (at least +2.00 D in the worse eye and astigmatism (at least 1.50 D in the worse eye. Different definitions, as specified in the text, were also used to facilitate comparison with other studies. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was at least +1.22 D for all ages and both genders. The prevalence of myopia for any definition at any age was at most 2.5%, and lower in most cases. In contrast, the prevalence of hyperopia was generally over 20%, and declined slightly with age. The prevalence of astigmatism was between 6% and 11%. There was very little change in refractive error with age over this age range. CONCLUSIONS: Previous reports of less hyperopic mean spherical equivalent refractive error, and more myopia and less hyperopia in children of this age may be due to problems with achieving adequate cycloplegia in children with dark irises. Using up to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate may be necessary to accurately measure refractive error in paediatric studies of such children. Our results suggest that children from all ethnic groups may follow a similar pattern of early refractive development, with little myopia and a hyperopic mean spherical equivalent over +1.00 D up to the age of 5-6 years in most conditions.

  11. Disparities in subjective well-being, participation, and health after spinal cord injury: a 6-year longitudinal study.

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    Krause, James S; Saladin, Lisa K; Adkins, Rodney H

    2009-01-01

    To identify disparities and changes in subjective well-being, participation, and health over a 6-year period as a function of race-ethnicity and gender in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Stratified sampling was used to maximize inclusion of women and racial-ethnic minorities. Three model SCI systems participated, representing the Southeastern, Western, and Mountain regions of the United States. 250 participants completed measures on two occasions. Similar portions of Caucasians (n = 62), African-Americans (n = 61), American-Indians (n = 56), and Hispanics (n = 71) participated. Women made up approximately 43.1% of the sample. Three sets of outcome measures assessed: (a) subjective well-being and depressive symptoms, (b) participation, and (c) health. MANOVA indicated significant effects for race-ethnicity (between subjects effect) and time (within subjects effect) but not for gender or the interaction effects. A Bonferroni correction was used to compare outcomes as a function of race-ethnicity and time. Five outcomes were significantly related to race-ethnicity, whereas no items were significantly related to the time effect after the Bonferroni correction. Caucasians reported best subjective well-being scores in several domains followed by African-Americans. Caucasians also reported more hours out of bed than either African-Americans or Hispanics. Over a 6-year period, race-ethnicity continued to be related to differences in subjective well-being and participation but not health. Disparities in outcomes did not systematically increase or diminish over time, suggesting that once developed, such disparities are unlikely to change in the absence of intervention.

  12. Sustained Reduction of Blood Pressure With Baroreceptor Activation Therapy: Results of the 6-Year Open Follow-Up.

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    de Leeuw, Peter W; Bisognano, John D; Bakris, George L; Nadim, Mitra K; Haller, Hermann; Kroon, Abraham A

    2017-05-01

    Baroreflex activation therapy is a novel technique for treating patients with resistant hypertension. Although short-term studies have demonstrated that it lowers blood pressure, long-term results have not yet been reported. The aim of the present study is to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of baroreflex activation therapy. Long-term follow-up data were analyzed from all patients who had been included in 1 of the 3 trials that focused on treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Altogether, 383 patients were available for analysis: 143 of these had completed 5 years of follow-up and 48 patients had completed 6 years of follow-up. In the entire cohort, office systolic blood pressure fell from 179±24 mm Hg to 144±28 mm Hg (PHeart rate fell from 74±15 beats per minute to 71±13 beats per minute (Peffect of baroreflex activation therapy is greater than average in patients with signs of heart failure and less than average in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. In ≈25% of patients, it was possible to reduce the number of medications from a median of 6 to a median of 3. Temporary side effects, related to either the surgical procedure or the cardiovascular instability, do occur, but they do not require specific measures and resolve over time.After a follow-up of 6 years, baroreflex activation therapy maintains its efficacy for persistent reduction of office blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension without major safety issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys.

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    Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-03-15

    Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  14. Urinary albumin excretion rate and its determinants after 6 years in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirta, O R; Pasternack, A I; Mustonen, J T; Koivula, T A; Harmoinen, A

    1996-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the progression of urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDD) patients 6 years after diagnosis, and to elucidate the risk factors of nephropathy. This is a population-based controlled (baseline) cohort study. The prospective evaluation utilized the diabetic patients as internal controls. The setting was an urban primary health care centre. Main outcome measures were the UAER-24 h and fractional urinary albumin excretion rate (FAC) and their relation to mean blood pressure, haemoglobin Alc, fasting serum insulin and cholesterol and renal size. UAER (mg/24 h) was increased (geometric mean, quartile 1 and 3) in the diabetic patients at baseline, compared to the non-diabetic control subjects; 21 (10 and 33) versus 12 (8 and 15), P = 0.0001 (Wilcoxon's rank test). The UAER-24 h was not increased in diabetic subjects at follow-up; 24 (7 and 49) P = 0.3791 versus diabetic subjects at baseline. Eighteen per cent of normoalbuminuric (UAER 300 mg/24 h). Of the microalbuminuric subjects 19% progressed to clinical nephropathy, 46% remained microalbuminuric and 35% remitted to normoalbuminuria. Serum insulin concentration, after assessment of confounding factors, measured at the baseline predicted the UAER for all diabetic subjects at follow-up in multiple linear regression analysis in an independent and significant way (P = 0.01). Serum insulin concentration (P = 0.034) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.050) at baseline independently predicted the outcome of the categorical variable progressor/nonprogressor (n = 22/86) based on the UAER-24 h at baseline and at follow-up. Progression of the UAER during the first 6 years is found among approximately every fifth NIDD subject who develops either microalbuminuria (from normoalbuminuria) or clinical nephropathy (from microalbuminuria). The role of serum insulin (insulin resistance) or some factor associated with it, is suggestive in the genesis of kidney

  15. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

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    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  16. A Retrospective Study of Epidemiological and Clinical Patterns of ACDRs in Goa Medical College over a 6 Year Period

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    Rakhi Ghodge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions (ACDRs account for 3% of all hospitalizations. The spectrum of drug reactions can be varied from mild to life threatening forms. Since the diagnosis of ACDR is purely clinical, early and prompt identification and withdrawal of drug (s is life saving for the patient. Aim and Objectives: To study the epidemiological and common clinical patterns and drugs causing ACDRs in tertiary care hospital of Goa Medical College, Goa over a 6 year period. Material and Methods:This was a retrospective study conducted over a period of 6 years. The medical records were analyzed for demographic profiles, morphology of drug eruptions, common groups of drugs involved, presence of co-morbid factors, systemic and mucosal involvement, common haematological abnormalities encountered, time interval between drug intake and onset of rash and mortality. Results: Our study population had 256 patients and the age group of 21-40 years was commonly affected. Maculopapular rash followed by angioedema were the commonest morphology of drug rash patterns encountered in our study. The time interval between consumption of drugs and onset of ACDR varied with interval of 1-7 days being the commonest group in having 158 (61.7% patients. Antibiotics followed by anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals were the commonest groups of drugs causing ACDR. We found that significant proportion of our patients had haematological, renal and hepatic system involvement. Conclusion: Early identification and withdrawal of the culprit drug remains the cornerstone in prevention of mortalities in ACDRs. A prior knowledge about the reaction patterns and common offending drugs in the population by the treating physician cannot be overemphasized.

  17. Fluoride varnish effect on preventing dental caries in a sample of 3-6 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Hajizamani, Hamid Reza; Abolghasemi, Batol

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of children that affect their life and their family in different aspects. Using different types of fluoride is one of the most effective ways for preventing the disease. Fluoride varnish is a topical fluoride product which could use in the community even by non-professional. This study aimed to assess the effect of fluoride varnish on dental caries in a group of children aged 3-6 years old in Kerman kindergarten during 6 month's period. This community interventional study recruited a sample of volunteer children from 12 kindergartens through a cluster sampling. Kindergarten randomly allocated to test and control group after matching. Dental examination was performed in three phases of the study by a trained dentist using criteria of Intentional Caries Detection and Assessment System. Fluoride varnish was applied for test group in the first phase after dental examination and also 3 and 6 months after this phase. Control group has received varnish product just after 3 and 6 months after the first dental exam. Mean decayed, missed and filled teeth (dmft) were compared between and within groups using T-test. From 476 children who participated in the study 55% were boys and the 6 years group was the most frequent group with 35% (166). Mean dmft difference was significant between Phase 1 and 2 (P = 0.05) in the test group but there was no significant difference between Phase 2 and 3 (P = 0.07). The difference was not significant between Phase 1 and 2 (P = 0.09) but it was significant between Phase 1 and 3 (P = 0.03) in the control group. The study results showed a decrease in mean dmft after applying the fluoride varnish which confirms previous studies.

  18. Examination of the Relationship between the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes towards Mathematics and the Mathematical Development in 6-Year-Old Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Meryem

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the preschool teachers' attitudes towards mathematics and mathematical development in 6-year-old preschool children. The sampling of the study was consisted of 30 teachers working with 6 years old children and their 120 students in public kindergartens and independent…

  19. An Intervention Using Graduated Extinction to Decrease Bed-Sharing in 2- to 6-Year-Old Children

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    Roberds-Roach, David L.; Short, Mary B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-case-design experiment examined an intervention to decrease bed-sharing in children, ages 2 through 6. Three sessions were conducted with each parent. At the first session, parents described bed-sharing history and began collecting baseline data. At the second session, parents were instructed to employ the intervention. At the third…

  20. An Intervention Using Graduated Extinction to Decrease Bed-Sharing in 2- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberds-Roach, David L.; Short, Mary B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-case-design experiment examined an intervention to decrease bed-sharing in children, ages 2 through 6. Three sessions were conducted with each parent. At the first session, parents described bed-sharing history and began collecting baseline data. At the second session, parents were instructed to employ the intervention. At the third…

  1. Evidence review of technology and dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, JoAnn D; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Martin, Hope; Rogers, Toby J; Boswell, Carol; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R

    2010-12-01

    Diets high in fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with a decrease in chronic diseases. Dietary factors are linked to 4 of the 10 leading noncommunicable causes of death: cardiovascular disease, some cancers, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Accurately measuring dietary patterns has many challenges. Dietary intake measurement has traditionally relied on self-report instruments such as 24-hour recall, food record, and food frequency questionnaires to record consumption history. These methods have inherent limitations in detecting small but important changes in fruit and vegetable consumption patterns. Promising advances in technology have made more sophisticated techniques for recording dietary intake possible. Computers and Web-based programs, handheld personal digital assistants with cameras and telephone cards, smart phones, cameras, and video recorders options may reduce the burden of recording what has been consumed. Furthermore, technology-based methods of dietary assessment may provide a higher degree of reliability and validity in visually determining fruit and vegetable consumption, and additional study is warranted. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based methods for dietary assessment, which included fruit and vegetable consumption. One hundred and eighty-seven articles published between 1998 and 2008 were initially identified. Fifteen met the study inclusion criteria and were evaluated by an interdisciplinary team using the Stetler Strength of Evidence Scale. Six technology-based methods for dietary assessment were identified. Findings from validity and reliability testing of technology-based methods are encouraging and need replication. Clinically important features offered through technology may reduce reporting burden and offer behavioral feedback to users. Methodologically sound, empirical research into using technology-based application for dietary assessment in a variety of

  2. [Usefulness of group work as a teaching strategy for long-term practical training in the 6-year pharmaceutical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kazuko; Okazaki, Hiromi; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Nishihara, Shigeki; Nawa, Hideki; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Kawasaki, Yoichi; Nakura, Hironori; Matsunaga, Hisashi; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    At the initiation of long-term practical training in the 6-year pharmaceutical education, there are many issues to be solved. For example, it is necessary for teaching pharmacists, who are in charge of both staffing and teaching pharmacy students, to manage their workload with other staff pharmacists. To overcome this situation and to improve the motivation of teaching pharmacists towards student practical training, we twice held group work (GW) sessions for teaching pharmacists, and then evaluated whether such training was effective for their understanding of the Model Core Curriculum for Practical Training and for promoting a higher level of motivation. During the two-day GW discussions, teaching pharmacists, who work daily in the dispensing area, were separated into two groups to discuss teaching skills. A questionnaire survey was completed by participants before and after each GW session. According to the survey, more than 90% of the pharmacists had a higher motivation level for practical training after the sessions. Particularly in the second GW training, the response rate of "being actively involved" improved from 40% to 70%. Furthermore, "The Educational Evaluation Testing" was conducted, which confirmed the increased participant comprehension. The median scores of the comprehensive exams significantly (pteaching pharmacists involved in the practical training of students. We hope that this exercise will lead to higher student motivation and satisfaction during their practical training.

  3. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  4. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

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    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

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    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  6. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical pattern and causative agents--a 6 year series from Chandigarh, India.

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    Sharma V

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the different clinical spectrum of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR and to determine the causative drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective, hospital based study was carried out over a period of 6 years recording various cutaneous ADR. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients with cutaneous ADR were enrolled in the study. The most common types of cutaneous ADR patterns were maculopapular rash (34.6%, fixed drug eruption (FDE (30% and urticaria (14%. The drugs most often incriminated for the various cutaneous ADR were antimicrobials (42.6%, anticonvulsants (22.2% and NSAIDs (18%. Anticonvulsants were implicated in 41.6% of maculopapular rashes. Sulfonamides accounted for 43.3% and NSAIDs for 30.7% of FDE. Urticaria was caused mainly by NSAIDs(24.3% and penicillins(20%. Anticonvulsants were responsible for 43.8% of life-threatening toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens Johnson syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pattern and drugs causing cutaneous ADR are similar to those observed in other countries except for minor variations. Cutaneous ADR patterns and the drugs causing various reactions are changing every year, which may be due to the emergence of newer molecules and changing trends in the use of drugs.

  7. Bidecadal variability in the Bering Sea and the relation with 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2010-02-01

    Bidecadal variations are investigated in the Bering Sea, especially in the southeastern basin adjacent to the Aleutian passes, where vertical mixing may be strong because of the diurnal tide. Those variations found in this region are synchronized with the 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle, and the temporal patterns are similar to ones around the northwestern subarctic Pacific near the Kuril Straits reported by a previous study. Salinity and density in the upper layer are high in the periods when the diurnal tide is strong. In the intermediate layer, layer thickness is large, and isopycnal potential temperature and apparent oxygen utilization are low in the same periods. It is shown that these variations are consistent with the patterns expected from the nodal modulation of vertical mixing, and a simple two-dimensional model, assuming a balance between anomalous vertical mixing and advection of anomaly by the mean current, succeeds to some extent in explaining the variations of the upper layer salinity and isopycnal temperature and apparent oxygen utilization in the intermediate layer.

  8. The impact of tobacco smoke exposure on wheezing and overweight in 4-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Kevalas, Rimantas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure, education level, and preschool children's wheezing and overweight. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort--1,489 4-6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04-4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76-7.21, accordingly). The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  9. The Effect of Distraction Technique on the Pain of Dressing Change among 3-6 Year-old Children

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    Sima Kaheni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Burn dressings, debridement, surgical incisions, skin grafting and physical therapy are some of painful treatments of burn. According to the studies, distraction techniques have a significant effect on patients’ pain. The present study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of distraction on pain of dressing change in second degree burn in 3-6 year-old children. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled trial study, was conducted on 80 hospitalized children with second degree burn in 2015. Playing a video computer game for children during the dressing change procedure was the intervention for the interventional group. Also the intensity of pain was measured by behavioral pain scale for children (FLCC scale during dressing. This scale was completed for patients without no intervention in the control group during dressing. Results Pain intensity mean in the interventional group (2.575 ± 1.807 had significant changes in comparison with the control group (8.025 ± 1.187 (P

  10. Increased unilateral tendon stiffness and its effect on gait 2-6 years after Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, A N; Duda, G N; Gehlen, T J; Arampatzis, A; Taylor, W R; Manegold, S

    2015-12-01

    Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) alters tissue composition, which may affect long-term tendon mechanics and ankle function during movement. However, a relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) properties and ankle joint function during gait remains unclear. The primary hypotheses were that (a) post-ATR tendon stiffness and length differ from the noninjured contralateral side and that (b) intra-patient asymmetries in AT properties correlate to ankle function asymmetries during gait, determined by ankle angles and moments. Ultrasonography and dynamometry were used to assess AT tendon stiffness, strain, elongation, and rest length in both limbs of 20 ATR patients 2-6 years after repair. Three-dimensional ankle angles and moments were determined using gait analysis. Injured tendons exhibited increased stiffness, rest length, and altered kinematics, with higher dorsiflexion and eversion, and lower plantarflexion and inversion. Intra-patient tendon stiffness and tendon length ratios were negatively correlated to intra-patient ratios of the maximum plantarflexion moment and maximum dorsiflexion angle, respectively. These results suggest that after surgical ATR repair, higher AT stiffness, but not a longer AT, may contribute to deficits in plantarflexion moment generation. These data further support the claim that post-ATR tendon regeneration results in the production of a tissue that is functionally different than noninjured tendon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  12. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

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    Bianca eJovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children’s judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by 40%. Neither the adults’ nor the children’s discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children’s visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children’s and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant.

  13. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Moura, A C V; Bonini, G A V C; Suga, S S; Navarro, R S; Wanderley, M T

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries among 3–6-year-old Anganwadi children in Mudhol town, Karnataka, India

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    Meena V Kashetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease among childhood. Dental caries in primary dentition is often neglected since they exfoliate, and its treatment is considered as economic burden among lower socioeconomic families. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in the primary teeth of 3–6–year-old preschool Anganwadi children in Mudhol town of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 758 children, aged 3–6 years studying in 15 Anganwadis of Mudhol. Type III WHO method of examination was followed, and decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft index was recorded according to the WHO criteria. The data were analyzed by Z-test and Chi-square test using SPSS version 17 software. Results: Among the study population, 62.14% were found to be affected by dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries increased with increase in age. No significant difference was found with respect to gender. The mean dmft was 2.34. The filled component was nonexistent among these children. Second primary molars were the teeth most affected by caries followed by first molars and central incisors. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence of 62.14% and mean dmft of 2.34 among Anganwadi children of Mudhol town is a cause for concern. The nonexisting filled component among these children indicates high unmet restorative treatment needs. Dental health services should be made available in the peripheral areas to meet the needs of young children.

  15. Transfer of Problem Solving Skills from Touchscreen to 3D Model by 3- to 6-Year-Olds

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    Joanne Tarasuik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although much published research purports that young children struggle to solve problems from screen-based media and to transfer learning from a virtual to a physical modality, Huber et al. (2016’s recent study on children solving the Tower of Hanoi (ToH problem on a touchscreen app offers a clear counter example. Huber et al. (2016 reported that children transferred learning from media to the physical world. As this finding arguably differs from that of prior research in this area, the current study tests whether the Huber et al. (2016 results could be replicated. Additionally, we extended the scope of the Huber et al. (2016 work by testing a broader age range, including children as young as 3 years, and using a culturally distinct participant pool. The results of the current study verified Huber et al.’s (2016 conclusion that 4- to 6-year-old children are capable of transferring the ToH learning from touchscreen devices to the physical version of the puzzle. Children under 4 years of age, in contrast, showed little ability to improve at the ToH problem regardless of the practice modality—suggesting that a different problem-solving task is required to probe very young children’s ability to learn from touchscreen apps.

  16. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

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    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  17. Wrist fracture in a 6-year-old girl after an accidental electric shock at low voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, P A; Cathala, P; Vannucci, C; Baccino, E

    2015-03-01

    Bone injuries related to electric shocks are usually seen with high-voltage current exposure or with additional traumas, such as falls. Few cases of fractures after electric shocks at low-voltages (with no direct blunt trauma) are reported in the literature. They result from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contractions. Most of them involve the proximal appendicular skeleton, while distal fractures of limbs are uncommon. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who suffered local superficial burns of the hand and a distal radius buckle-type fracture after sustaining a 230-V electric shock. The accident occurred while the girl was touching with the right hand the metallic stand of a non-insulated street lamp. She felt a sudden jolt and managed to pull her hand free quickly, without falling or losing consciousness. The superficial burns of the hand were consistent with Jellinek's electric marks, while the buckle fracture of the radius was consistent with a forceful contraction of the flexor muscles of the hand. Only four cases of radius fractures resulting from accidental electric shocks at low voltages have been previously reported in the literature. All of them involved pediatric patients, suggesting that a child's vulnerability to this kind of fracture may exist. The present case is the youngest one ever described.

  18. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

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    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  19. Low Spigelian hernia in a 6-year-old boy presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianakis Efstratios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lower Spigelian hernia is a very rare entity. The clinical findings are similar to those of inguinal hernias and in many cases may be misdiagnosed. In the literature, only a few references to this entity have been reported in children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a lower Spigelian hernia in a child who presented with an acute painful scrotum. Case presentation We discuss the case of a 6-year-old Greek boy who presented to our emergency department complaining of severe pain in the left inguinal area and scrotum. The acute painful swelling started suddenly, without any obvious cause. The initial diagnosis was incarcerated inguinal hernia which was reduced with difficulty. Five days later, the patient still experienced mild pain during palpation and he was operated on. During the operation, a large lower Spigelian hernia was revealed and reconstructed. Conclusion Although Spigelian hernias are rare in children and difficult to diagnose, physicians should be aware of them and include them in the differential diagnosis.

  20. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  1. Multidisciplinary approach on rehabilitation of primary teeth traumatism repercussion on the permanent successor: 6-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello-Moura ACV

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic lesions in primary teeth are frequent in pediatric patients and can cause problems both to the deciduous tooth and permanent successor. The impact strength on deciduous tooth can reach the growing permanent tooth, affecting its morphology, structure and position, or even hampering its proper development. This report describes an aesthetic-functional rehabilitation process in an 8 year 10 month old boy during a multidisciplinary treatment held at the Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth of the Pediatric Dentistry of Dental College of University of São Paulo, Brazil. The patient presented bilateral posterior cross bite and the permanent left upper central incisor with ectopic eruption and enamel hypoplasy, preceded by avulsion of element 61, occurred when the patient was 1.6 years old. After diagnosis and treatment planning, a quick expansion of jaws was recommended with Hass-type rapid expander and orthodontic leveling with fixed braces. Due to the ectopic eruption, the gingival contour had been altered and hypertrophia was found, compromising aesthetics and avoiding local hygienic procedures. Gingivoplasty was carried out with high-intensity Diode Laser, followed by aesthetic restoration with compound resin. It was concluded that after deciduous teeth traumatism it is important that the patient undergoes clinic and radiographic assistance until the permanent teeth erupt so that an adequate multidisciplinary treatment can be offered to the patient.

  2. Three-dimensional evaluation of facial morphology in children aged 5-6 years with a Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Bojana; Primožič, Jasmina; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate facial morphology in 25 Class III and 46 non-Class III children aged 5-6 years using three-dimensional (3D) laser imaging; 3D facial images were obtained, two average facial templates were constructed for the non-Class III male and female groups, each individual face was superimposed on the corresponding average template and group comparisons were evaluated (facial height, facial convexity, mandibular position and facial surface morphology). Differences between parameters were evaluated by using an analysis of variance and colour deviation maps. The results showed that Class III children had less mid-face prominence and a concave facial profile when compared to non-Class III children (P = 0.002 and P = 0.018). The position of the pg point in the z-axis just failed to reach statistical significance when comparing the two groups (P = 0.051). A vertical analysis showed no statistical significance between the groups, when evaluating middle (n-sn) and lower (sn-pg) facial height. Coincidence of the Class III faces to normal templates with a tolerance set as 0.5 mm was low (less than 30%). The soft tissue characteristics of a Class III face differ significantly from the non-Class III face in the mid-face region and in the facial profile. A 3D laser imaging method evaluated and identified morphological characteristics of Class III children in deciduous dentition, which could in the future become an important diagnostic tool in small children. The most important clinical advantage of this study is the non-invasiveness of the method.

  3. Predictors of parental concerns about child weight in parents of healthy-weight and overweight 2-6 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana Isabel; Barros, Luisa; Pereira, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Parental awareness and concerns about a child's weight can promote healthy food parenting behaviors. Understanding the factors that influence parent's concerns about childhood (over)weight may help professionals define more effective strategies when working with families. This study aimed to assess parental concerns about their young child's weight and to identify contributors of parental concerns about weight in parents of healthy-weight and overweight children, considered separately. Data collection was performed using a cross-sectional design. Parents of 339 children aged from 2 to 6 years completed a Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire and rated their perceptions of and concerns about their child's weight and diet quality. Children's body mass index was assessed and two samples were defined according to the child's nutritional status: healthy-weight (N = 230) and overweight (N = 109) children. Binomial logistic regression was used to predict parental concerns about the child's weight in each sample. Parental concerns about the child's weight were moderate in both groups. For healthy-weight children, parental concerns about the child's weight were significantly predicted by the parents' perception of the child's weight, concerns about the child's diet and the child's healthy food intake. In the overweight children group, parents' perception of the child's weight, concerns about the child's diet and perception of the child's diet quality predicted parental concerns, with the child's gender and recall of physician's warnings about the child's overweight condition as marginal predictors. Our results show that concerns about the child's weight in these two groups of parents share some common determinants but also differ regarding other factors, thus suggesting the need to consider these differences when working with parents of young children with different weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual exposure and categorization performance positively influence 3- to 6-year-old children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Camille; Lafraire, Jérémie; Picard, Delphine

    2017-08-28

    The present research focuses on the effectiveness of visual exposure to vegetables in reducing food neophobia and pickiness among young children. We tested the hypotheses that (1) simple visual exposure to vegetables leads to an increase in the consumption of this food category, (2) diverse visual exposure to vegetables (i.e., vegetables varying in color are shown to children) leads to a greater increase in the consumption of this food category than classical exposure paradigms (i.e. the same mode of presentation of a given food across exposure sessions) and (3) visual exposure to vegetables leads to an increase in the consumption of this food category through a mediating effect of an increase in ease of categorization. We recruited 70 children aged 3-6 years who performed a 4-week study consisting of three phases: a 2-week visual exposure phase where place mats with pictures of vegetables were set on tables in school cafeterias, and pre and post intervention phases where willingness to try vegetables as well as cognitive performances were assessed for each child. Results indicated that visual exposure led to an increased consumption of exposed and non-exposed vegetables after the intervention period. Nevertheless, the exposure intervention where vegetables varying in color were shown to children was no more effective. Finally, results showed that an ease of categorization led to a larger impact after the exposure manipulation. The findings suggest that vegetable pictures might help parents to deal with some of the difficulties associated with the introduction of novel vegetables and furthermore that focusing on conceptual development could be an efficient way to tackle food neophobia and pickiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body mass index based evaluation of 6-year outcomes after transobturator tension-free vaginal tape for female urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarcı, Ahmet; Gurbuz, Recai

    2017-02-03

    The long-term results will be presented according to the body mass index (BMI) rates for transobturator tension-free vaginal. Three hundred nineteen female patients were evaluated (2008-2014). Their incontinence was classified according to the Stamey classification. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short form was filled in before and after surgery. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse quantification system was utilized. The Female Sexual Function Index and the International Index of Erectile Functions were asked to be filled in. Their satisfaction level was assessed in the sixth year with the modified Clavien classification system. BMI cut-off points for public health action for the Asian population were adopted in the present study as follows: 18.5-23.0 kg/m2 (normal), 23.1-27.4 kg/m2 (high) and at least 27.5 kg/m2 (obese), respectively. The median success rate on the 12th month was calculated as 81.25% in the follow-ups after TOT; it was observed that the median success rate after 72 months decreased to 79.15%. Significant improvements were observed in the Female Sexual Function Index and the Index of Erectile Dysfunction. The objective cure rates detected according to normal, high and obese BMI rates, respectively, were 93.1%, 75.9% and 81.4%, while the patient satisfaction rates were 83.3%, 81.3% and 83.1%, respectively. It was observed that the objective and subjective patient satisfaction rates were very good in the long term in all BMI groups. No statistically significant differences were observed in perioperative complication rate, 6-year success rates and patient satisfaction among the three different BMI groups in the long term.

  6. [Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Breastfeeding, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Colostrum and Child Intelligence Quotient at Age 5-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; Armand, Martine; Peyre, Hugo; Garcia, Cyrielle; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in breast milk with children's IQ. In the French Etude des Déterminants pré- et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant (EDEN) mother-child cohort, colostrum samples were collected at the maternity unit. Colostrum omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were analyzed by gas chromatography. At age 5-6 years, the IQs of 1080 children were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. The relationships of breastfeeding duration and PUFA levels with children's IQs were examined by linear regression. Full scale IQ of ever breastfed children was 4.5 (95% CI: 2.7, 6.2) higher than never breastfed children in the unadjusted model, but this was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (1.3 points higher [-0.4, 3.0]). Any breastfeeding duration was associated with full scale (0.20 [0.00, 0.41] points/month) and verbal (0.31 [0.09, 0.52]) IQ. Colostrum linoleic acid (LA) levels were negatively associated with Verbal IQ (-0.6 [-1.1, 0.0] points per 1% level increase). Children exposed to colostrum high in LA and low in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had lower IQs than those exposed to colostrum high in DHA (3.0 [0.5, 5.5] points) and those exposed to colostrum low in LA and DHA (4.4 [1.6, 7.3] points). Finally, the association between breastfeeding duration and child IQ was stronger when LA levels were high. Duration of breastfeeding and colostrum PUFA levels were associated with children's IQs in the EDEN cohort. These data support breastfeeding and add evidence for the role of early PUFA exposure on childhood cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Infliximab therapy for moderately severe Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis: a retrospective comparison over 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alzafiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Raed Alzafiri1, Christina A Holcroft2, Paula Malolepszy1, Albert Cohen1, Andrew Szilagyi11Jewish General Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 2Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, McGill University School of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Infliximab has shown benefit in Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC.Objective: Evaluation of long-term outcome of therapy for both diseases.Methods: We analyzed retrospectively patients treated at infusion centers from one institution. Demographic, laboratory parameters leading up to biologic therapy and the subsequent pattern of outcomes in either disease were established as a database. Initial failure, subsequent need to change therapy, or need to adjust therapy were evaluated. Kruskal–Wallis (nonparametric tests to compare two groups and Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis were used to compare outcomes.Results: Over approximately 6 years, 71 CD and 26 UC patients received 999 and 215 infusions, respectively, for a median of 62 months. Of these, 17% for CD and 19% for UC patients were primary failures. Following the start of infliximab, 18% of CD and 11% of UC patients required stoppage and switching to another type of therapy. In either CD or UC patients, 54% or 62%, respectively, continued therapy without the need to change to other treatments. Few serious side effects were noted. No important statistically significant differences in treatment patterns or outcome were observed between the groups.Discussion: Long-term treatment of both inflammatory bowel diseases reflects outcomes of clinical trials.Conclusions: This study emphasizes similarities between CD and UC and reports therapeutic success for an extended time.Keywords: infliximab, inflammatory bowel diseases

  9. The relationship between measures of executive function, motor performance and externalising behaviour in 5- and 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, David; Keen, Jennifer; Rouse, Jane; White, Fiona

    2006-02-01

    In his cognitive-energetic model of information processing Sergeant [Sergeant, J. (2000). The cognitive-energetic model: An empirical approach to ADHD. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 7-12] links executive function (EF) to motor behaviour. This link has been supported by evidence from a number of sources including studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Little is known developmentally about this association. Given the rapid change in both motor proficiency and EF that takes place in the pre-school years, this appears an important time to look for the emergence of the link between these factors. In this study we tested 5- and 6-year-old children on motor tasks from the movement assessment battery for children and on measures of response inhibition (Stroop and stop-signal task) and examined the relationship between scores on these measures. Additionally, in order to relate this behaviour to everyday function, the Rowe behavioural rating inventory (RBRI), a teachers' behavioural rating of externalising behaviour, was also gathered and this related to EF and motor performance. It was found that motor performance correlated significantly with RBRI scores (better motor performance with lower externalising behaviour) and with Stroop performance. The relationship between motor performance and stop-signal task performance was in the expected direction but failed to reach significance and there was no clear association between performance on the stop-signal task and either Stroop or RBRI scores. The results are discussed in relation to different aspects of response inhibition (inhibition of a pre-potent response, interference control) and how these might relate to motor control.

  10. Ozone variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere from the first 6 years of IASI observations (2008-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespes, Catherine; Hurtmans, Daniel; Emmons, Louisa K.; Safieddine, Sarah; Clerbaux, Cathy; Edwards, David P.; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we assess how daily ozone (O3) measurements from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp-A platform can contribute to the analyses of the processes driving O3 variability in the troposphere and the stratosphere and, in the future, to the monitoring of long-term trends. The temporal evolution of O3 during the first 6 years of IASI (2008-2013) operation is investigated with multivariate regressions separately in four different layers (ground-300, 300-150, 150-25, 25-3 hPa), by adjusting to the daily time series averaged in 20° zonal bands, seasonal and linear trend terms along with important geophysical drivers of O3 variation (e.g. solar flux, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)). The regression model is shown to perform generally very well with a strong dominance of the annual harmonic terms and significant contributions from O3 drivers, in particular in the equatorial region where the QBO and the solar flux contribution dominate. More particularly, despite the short period of the IASI data set available up to now, two noticeable statistically significant apparent trends are inferred from the daily IASI measurements: a positive trend in the upper stratosphere (e.g. 1.74 ± 0.77 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° S), which is consistent with other studies suggesting a turnaround for stratospheric O3 recovery, and a negative trend in the troposphere at the mid-latitudes and high northern latitudes (e.g. -0.26 ± 0.11 DU year-1 between 30 and 50° N), especially during summer and probably linked to the impact of decreasing ozone precursor emissions. The impact of the high temporal sampling of IASI on the uncertainty in the determination of O3 trend has been further explored by performing multivariate regressions on IASI monthly averages and on ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements.

  11. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which

  12. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  13. Community History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  14. Investigation of the Effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the Social Skill Development of 5-6 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the social skill development of 5-6 year-old children. In the study, the pre-test/post-test and retention test experimental design with a control group was used. 5-6 year-old 60 (30 experimental, 30 control) preschool children participated in the…

  15. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  16. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  17. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  18. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  19. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  20. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Hennesser, Yvonne; Kaufmann, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  1. Validity and Reliability Determination of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in 0-6 Year-Olds in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahshahani, Soheila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Azari, Nadia; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan

    2010-09-01

    This research was designed to identify the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) in Iranian children, in order to provide an appropriate developmental screening tool for Iranian child health workers. At first a precise translation of test was done by three specialists in English literature and then it was revised by three pediatricians familiar with developmental domains. Then, DDST-II was performed on 221 children ranging from 0 to 6 years, in four Child Health Clinics, in north, south, east and west regions of Tehran city. In order to determine the agreement coefficient, these children were also evaluated by ASQ test. Because ASQ is designed to use for 4-60 month- old children, children who were out of this rang were evaluated by developmental pediatricians. Available sampling was used. Obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software. Developmental disorders were observed in 34% of children who were examined by DDST-II, and in 12% of children who were examined by ASQ test. The estimated consistency coefficient between DDST-II and ASQ was 0.21, which is weak, and between DDST-II and the physicians' examination was 0.44. The content validity of DDST-II was verified by reviewing books and journals, and by specialists' opinions. All of the questions in DDST-II had appropriate content validity, and there was no need to change them. Test-retest and Inter-rater methods were used in order to determine reliability of the test, by Cronbach's α and Kauder-Richardson coefficients. Kauder-Richardson coefficient for different developmental domains was between 61% and 74%, which is good. Cronbach's α coefficient and Kappa measure of agreement for test-retest were 92% and 87% and for Inter-rater 90% and 76%, respectively. This research showed that Persian version of DDST-II has a good validity and reliability, and can be used as a screening tool for developmental screening of children in Tehran city.

  2. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2016-10-15

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  3. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis – Results from a population-based 6-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wagner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9% and (iii classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115 or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825 at baseline.Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < .001, avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < .05, an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < .05, bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < .01 as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < .05 and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < .05 problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = .164 or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = .168 in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from

  4. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  5. Validation of novel wheeze phenotypes using longitudinal airway function and atopic sensitization data in the first 6 years of life: evidence from the Southampton Women's survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel A; Pike, Katharine C; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Roberts, Graham; Holloway, John W; Lucas, Jane S A

    2013-07-01

    In 1995 the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (TCRS) identified clinically distinct phenotypes amongst early wheezers; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) has recently re-examined these. To validate statistically derived ALSPAC phenotypes in the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) using infant and 6-year lung function, and allergic sensitization at 1, 3, and 6 years, comparing these with TCRS phenotypes. Complete 6-year follow-up data were available for 926 children, selected from 1,973 infants born to 12,579 women characterized pre-conception. Ninety-five children had V'maxFRC and FEV0.4 measured age 5-14 weeks using rapid compression/raised volume techniques. At 6 years we performed spirometry (n = 791), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, n = 589) and methacholine challenge (n = 234). Skin prick testing was performed at 12m, 3 and 6 years (n = 1,494, 1,255, 699, respectively). Using wheeze status questionnaire data at 6m, 12m, 2, 3 and 6 years we classified children into TCRS (never, transient early, persistent, late-onset) and ALSPAC based groups (never, early, transient, intermediate-onset, late-onset, persistent). Amongst ALSPAC groups, persistent and late-onset wheeze were associated with atopy at 3 and 6 years, whilst intermediate-onset wheeze showed earlier atopic association at 1 year; all three were associated with FeNO at 6 years. Persistent wheezers had lower infant (V'maxFRC P function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF(25-75), P function deficits. Transient wheezers were non-atopic but showed persistent lung function deficits (V'maxFRC in infancy, FEV1 and FEF(25-75) at 6 years, all P function deficits. No associations were seen with 6 years bronchial hyper-responsiveness or infancy FEV0.4. SWS cohort data validates the statistically derived ALSPAC six-class model. In particular, lung function and atopy successfully differentiate persistent, late-onset and intermediate-onset wheeze, whilst the Tucson "transient early" wheeze

  6. On defining dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W

    2003-02-01

    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  7. Entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  8. Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern:Findings from NHANES Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suthat; Liangpunsakul

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine the association between macronutrient dietary patterns and alcohol consumption using the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey METHODS:A total of 9877 subjects(5144 males) constituted the study cohort.Dietary interviews were conducted with all examinees by a trained dietary interviewer in a mobile examination center(MEC).Subjects reported all foods and beverages consumed except plain drinking water for the previous 24-h time period.Physical examination and history of alcoho...

  9. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements to be proven safe to FDA's satisfaction before they are marketed. For most claims made ... the manufacturer or seller to prove to FDA's satisfaction that the claim is accurate or truthful before ...

  10. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. Dietary advanced glycation endproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe

    complications. A potential pathophysiological role of dietary AGEs in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been discussed, as the contribution of dietary AGEs has been estimated to be larger than the amount of endogenously formed AGEs. Furthermore, the increased mortality associated with type 2...... diabetes and cardiovascular disease underlines the importance of identifying possible risk factors in the Western lifestyle. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if intake of dietary AGEs increases risk markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In an acute meal study, effects...... sensitivity, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress of dietary AGEs with different molecular size were investigated over 2 weeks. It was concluded that the diet with low molecular weight AGEs was most efficient in up-regulating expression of AGE receptors in whole blood, but no effects on insulin...

  13. The Examination of the Metalinguistic Skills of 5 and 6 - Year - Old Children Who Attend Preschool Education Institutions and Who Don’t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet ŞEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the metalinguistic skills of 5 and 6year-old children who attend preschool education and who do not in terms of age, sex andwhether they go to preschool or not. The research was conducted on 64 children belonging to5-6 year-old group attending preschool education and those not going to preschool. In theresearch, metalinguistic skill procedures were used. The data obtained were analyzed by ttest.According to the research, it has been observed that 6-year-old children are moresuccessful than 5-year-olds on CSA and SHA tasks. It is seen that girls’ skills on SHA tasksare more developed than boys’. At the end of SWS, SWP, FWB and FWE tasks, a result was gained in favour of children who attend preschool education.

  14. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  15. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  16. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  17. Quantum Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1998-01-01

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same. The selection criteria proposed to date are reasonably natural, and certainly raise new questions. For example, the validity of ordering inferences which we normally take for granted --- such as that a particle in one region is necessarily in a larger region containing it --- depends on whether or not our history respects the criterion of ordered consistency, or merely consistency. However, the known selection criteria, including consistency and medium decoherence, are very weak. It is not possibl...

  18. 上海市0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖的现状及流行变化趋势%The status and variation tendency of prevalence of simple obesity among the children aged 0~6 years old in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 魏梅; 姚国英; 方秉华

    2011-01-01

    目的:对上海市儿童单纯性肥胖症流行病学调查资料进行分析,以掌握0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖症发展的变化规律,并探讨儿童单纯性肥胖症的影响因素.方法:采用分阶段、不等比例、随机整群抽样的方法,3岁以下以居委会为单位,3~6岁以幼儿园为单位整群抽样,原则上与1995年调查点一致.对402名单纯性肥胖儿童和394名配对健康儿童的体格测量值、个人史、喂养和饮食习惯、生活习惯、家庭情况和家长认知等方面信息进行分析,并与1996年、1986年,以及2006年全国九市调查结果相比较.结果:上海儿童单纯性肥胖检小率为3.26%,20年间增长6.76倍,增长主要发生在前10年.儿童单纯性肥胖的检出率随年龄增长而呈上升趋势,4岁后开始明显增高,6岁组为发病高峰,其发病率为7.84%.0~6岁儿童单纯性肥胖发生率男童高于女童,以轻度为主,占肥胖儿童总数的61.68%.随着儿童年龄的增长,肥胖度加重.儿童肥胖与主要照看人、进食速度、摄食蔬菜等因素相关.结论:随着社会经济的发展,儿童肥胖的发生率呈上升趋势.应加强对儿童期肥胖的研究和干预工作.%Objective: To analyze the epidemiological survey data of simple obesity among the children in Shanghai, in order to grasp the change regularity of simple obesity among the children aged 0 ~ 6 years old, and explore the effect factors of simple obesity among children.Methods: A disproportionate stratified randomized cluster sampling method was used in the study; for the children under 3 years,a neighborhood committee was a survey unit, for the children aged 3 ~6 years old, a kindergarten was a unit, which were consistent with the survey points in 1995.The data including measured values of physical examination, individual histories, feeding and dietary habits, living habits, family situations and cognitive levels of parents were analyzed among 402 children with simple

  19. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  20. Is Imaging Time Between two Tc 99m DMSA Scans Sufficient for Reporting as Renal Parenchymal Scarring? Healed Parenchymal Renal Defect After 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sürücü

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to report a healed renal parenchymal defect after 6 years in a 9-year-old girl who was being followed for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI. The first UTI was at the age of two. She was being followed with ultrasonography, urine analysis and urine culture since the first UTI. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scintigraphy was repeated four times up to the present day. She had a renal parenchymal defect reported as parenchymal scarring, which healed 6 years after the first DMSA scintigraphy.

  1. Why the 18.6 year tide cannot explain the change of sign observed in j2

    OpenAIRE

    Deleflie, F.; Exertier, P.; Metris, G.; Berio, P.; Laurain, O.; J.-M. Lemoine; Biancale, R.

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Recent studies show a change, starting in 1998, in the behavior of the variation of the dynamical flattening of the Earth (J2), supposed to be constant (secular), and mainly due to the post glacial rebound effect. In this paper, we study to what extent this behavior can be correlated or not with the 18.6 year tide: with more than twenty years of tracking data on LAGEOS-1, that is to say more than a period of 18.6 years, this effect can now be separated from the secular...

  2. IL28B SNP rs12979860 is the Critical Predictor for Sustained Viral Response in Chinese Children Aged 1 to 6 Years with Chronic Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Shi, Yan-Min; Li, Yong-Li; Chu, Fang; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Da-Wei; Gan, Yu; Wang, Fu-Chuan; Gu, Mei-Lei; Dong, Yi; Zhu, Shi-Shu; Shi, Ce; Fan, Hua-Hao; Zhang, Xiu-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data on children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) remain extremely limited. This study investigated sustained virologic response (SVR) to alfa-interferon 2b plus RBV treatment in children aged 1-6 years with unsafe injection-acquired CHC. 154 children with CHC aged 1 to 6 years were enrolled, 101 of them were male (65.6%) and 53 were female (34.4%), and they were treated with alfa-interferon at a dose of 1-5 MIU/m2 3 times weekly plus oral RBV (15 mg/kg/day) for 48 weeks. 57(39.3 %) of...

  3. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  4. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  5. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  6. Nine years' trend of dental caries and severe early childhood caries among 3-6-year-old children in Babol, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi; Hataminia, Zohreh; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud; Khodadadi, Effat

    2017-06-01

    Malnutrition, pain, and insomnia are common adverse effects of early dental caries among 3-6-year-old children. To increase our understanding of the dental caries status which will help in the control and prevention of it, this study aimed to assess the trend of dental caries, Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and its related factors among 3-6-year-old children during a 9-year period in Babol, Northern Iran. This was a cross-sectional study among 2,080 children aged 3-6 years old in Babol, Northern Iran. The studied samples were examined from May 2007 to June 2015. Oral examinations were performed with visual-touch technique. S-ECC was measured as number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth surface (dmfs). Data were evaluated by SPSS software for Windows version 23 and were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA, chi-square test and independent-samples t-test. Level of significance was set at ≤ 0.05. The trend of dental caries and S-ECC rose among 3-6-year-old children over a 9-year period. Of the children, 26.3% were caries free. The mean dmft was increased significantly among boys (ptrend over the study period in Babol preschool children, therefore effective preventive strategies are required to decrease the prevalence of dental caries in children.

  7. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  8. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, J.P.; Rodríguez-Trigo, G.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E.; Souto-Alonso, A.; Espinosa, A.; Pozo-Rodríguez, F.; Gómez, F.P.; Fuster, C.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Antó, J.M.; Barberà, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6years after clean-up

  9. Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Effective Discipline as Mediators of the 6-Year Effects of the New Beginnings Program for Children from Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Dawson-McClure, Spring R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether program effects on mother-child relationship quality and effective discipline mediated the 6-year longitudinal effects of the New Beginnings Program (NBP) to improve mental health and competence outcomes in 218 adolescents from divorced families in a randomized experimental trial. The NBP is a theory-based and…

  10. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-01-01

    Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  11. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  12. Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations. A 6-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. 139 Class II restorations were placed in 67 patients with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els). In the second cavity a 1-step HEMA-free self-etch adhesive was used (AdheSe One F). The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 6 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. Three molar teeth showed mild post-operative sensitivity during 3 weeks for temperature changes and occlusal forces. After 6 years, 134 Class II restorations were evaluated. Twenty-one restorations, 8 cmf-els (11.4%) and 13 ASE-els (20%) failed during the 6 years (presin composite restorations performed with the new TEGDMA/HEMA-free low shrinkage resin composite system showed good durability over six years. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  14. Residual β-Cell Function 3 to 6 Years After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Sand; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    boys) 4.8-18.9 years of age with type 1 diabetes for 3-6 years were included. RBF was assessed by testing meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations. Information regarding severe hypoglycemia within the past year, current HbA(1c), and daily insulin requirements was retrieved from the medical records...

  15. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  16. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner-Idrissi G, Lacroix A, Rouget F, Monfort C, Limon G, Durand G, Saint-Amour D, Cordier S, Chevrier C. 2016. Organophosphate insecticide metabolites in prenatal and childhood urine samples and intelligence scores at 6 years of age: results from the mother–child PELAGIE cohort (France). Environ Health Perspect 124:674–680; http

  17. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother-Child PELAGIE Cohort (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2016-05-01

    Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. In 2002-2006, the PELAGIE mother-child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks' gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (-3.6; 95% CI: -7.8, -0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner-Idrissi G, Lacroix A, Rouget F, Monfort C, Limon G, Durand G, Saint-Amour D, Cordier S, Chevrier C. 2016. Organophosphate insecticide metabolites in prenatal and childhood urine samples and intelligence scores at 6 years of age: results from the mother-child PELAGIE cohort (France). Environ Health Perspect 124:674-680; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409472.

  18. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on academic outcomes, educational expectations and job aspirations 6 years later: the mediating role of parenting and youth mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-02-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed.

  19. Periapical Bone Healing after Apicectomy with and without Retrograde Root Filling with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A 6-year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Casper; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Christiansen, René; Wenzel, Ann; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte

    2016-04-01

    In cases of post-treatment periapical disease, retreatment may be necessary. To choose the most appropriate retreatment method, knowledge of the long-term prognosis is important. Surgical endodontic retreatment (SER) is a relevant treatment method. This study assessed changes in outcome from 1 to 6 years after surgery. SER was performed on teeth randomly allocated to have a MTA root-end filling (MTA group) or smoothing of the orthograde gutta-percha filling after apicectomy (GP group). Patients participating in the 1-year follow-up were reinvited for a 6-year clinical and radiographic examination. Three observers assessed treatment outcome both clinically and radiographically from the 1-year and 6-year follow-up examination. At the 6-year follow-up, 39 of 52 teeth were available and examined (75% participation rate). In the MTA group, 16 of 19 teeth (86%) and in the GP group 11 of 20 teeth (55%) were assessed as successful (P = .04). In the MTA group and the GP group, 80% and 90%, respectively, of teeth assessed as successful at the 1-year follow-up remained successful. All unsuccessful teeth in the MTA group (3 teeth) were lost because of vertical root fracture. The proportion of healed cases was larger in the MTA group than in the GP group at both the 1-year and 6-year follow-up. Findings indicate that a 1-year follow-up may not be sufficient in assessing the long-term outcome of surgical endodontic retreatment. With a longer follow-up, other factors not directly related to the endodontic treatment may be relevant for a successful outcome. This needs further investigation in larger patient samples. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  1. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  2. Promoting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S

    1995-01-01

    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  3. Diet Redux: Outcomes from Reattempting Dietary Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Doerrer, Sarah C; Winesett, Steven P; Turner, Zahava; Henry, Bobbie J; Bessone, Stacey; Stanfield, Anthony; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2016-07-01

    The outcome for patients attempting dietary therapy for epilepsy a second time is unknown. Twenty-six subjects treated with the ketogenic diet as children who then began either the ketogenic diet or a Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) at least 6 months later were evaluated. The mean age at the first diet trial was 5.6 years and at the second diet trial was 11.5 years. Most restarted dietary therapy because of persistent seizures (65%) or recurrence after seizure freedom (19%). Overall, 77% had a ≥50% seizure reduction with the first diet, and 50% with the second diet, P = .04. Individual subject responses were largely similar, with 14 (54%) having identical seizure reduction both times, 9 worse (35%) with the second attempt, and 3 (16%) improved. The second diet trial was more likely to lead to >50% seizure reduction if the first trial was started at a later age (7.4 vs 3.9 years, P = .04).

  4. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  5. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  6. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  7. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  8. The formation of bases of culture of movement at children of 3–6 years old by means of rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Riabchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to open the versatility of a concept of culture as a phenomena and as a process which course provides the preservation of the most significant viable social relations conformably to a concept of culture of movements of children of 3-6 years old. Material and Methods: the analysis of special scientific literature in which theoretical and practical aspects of the creation of physical culture are stated. Results: questions of the creation of physical training of children of 3–6 years old taking into account their individual physical developments are considered. The most important provisions are noted in the structure of physical culture which doesn’t allow solving this problem with a full scientific validity now. Conclusions: the basic provisions are allocated which decision is a paramount task for the creation of the evidence-based system of physical training of children of the advanced preschool age.

  9. Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Felix, Janine F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-09-17

    Consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) in adults has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Although the effect of SCB on body weight in children is well established, little is known about the cardiometabolic effects in young children. We studied the associations of SCB intake at the age of 1 year with cardiometabolic health at age 6 years. This study was performed among 2,045 Dutch children from a population based prospective birth cohort. SCB intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at the age of 13 months and sex-specific tertiles were created. Children visited the research center at the age of 6 years. We created a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score including: body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Age-and sex-specific standard deviation (SD) scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables of mother and child. In the total population, we observed an association between higher SCB intake at 13 months of age and a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at the age of 6 years (0.13SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.25), highest vs. lowest tertile) After stratification by sex, we found that boys in the highest tertile of SCB intake had a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score (0.18 SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.34)), as compared to boys in the lowest tertile of SCB intake. There was no significant association in girls. We did not find associations of SCB intake with the individual cardiometabolic risk factors in the total population, or in the stratified analyses. Higher SCB intake at 1 year of age was associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at age 6 years in boys, but not in girls. Further research on sex-specific effects of SCBs is needed.

  10. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no p...

  11. Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm due to acute pancreatitis in a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with L-aspariginase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Cæcilie Crawley; Laursen, Christian B; Dalby, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare phenomenon in children but its incidence seems to be increasing. In children, it is generally caused due to systemic illness, biliary disease, trauma, idiopathy and side effects of medicines like L-aspariginase. Acute pancreatitis is difficult to diagnose in children...... pseudoaneurysm due to acute pancreatitis in a 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with L-aspariginase. He presented with fever, irritability and pain in his left groin region....

  12. The impact of salivary mutans streptococci and sugar consumption on caries experience in 6-year olds and 12-year olds in Riga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkina, Jekaterina; Brinkmane, Anda

    2010-01-01

    To assess possible relationship between caries experience, salivary cariogenic microflora and free sugar consumption in 6 year and 12 year old children in Riga, to evaluate these variables in risk assessment. 79 children aged 6 and 96 children aged 12 were examined clinically and by bitewing X-ray for caries diagnosis. Also all children or their parents were questioned about number of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup and frequency of cups used daily. Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) (CRT-bacteria; Ivoclar; Vivadent; Liechtenstein) were determined only for children with dmft/DMFT>4: 27.8% at the age of 6, 40.6% at the age of 12. All data were statistically analyzed using frequency tables and analysis of variance. Statistical significance of differences in proportions was tested using chi-square test, Analysis included evaluation of how changes in variables such as free sugar consumption affects caries in particular age group. Mean number of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup was 1.47 in 6 year olds and 1.86 in 12 year olds, but daily amount of tea spoons containing sugar was 2.71 and 4.36 in each age group accordingly. Tea spoons of sugar per cup were associated with caries experience only in 6 year olds (p=0.098). A significant association was observed between caries experience, salivary MS and an amount of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup in both age groups (for 6 y.o. p= 0.037, for 12 y.o. p=0.037). Also caries experience was strongly associated with salivary MS and daily amount of tea spoons containing sugar, but only in 12 year olds (p=0.041). The information of free sugar consumption per cup or daily gives the possibility to control free sugar use in order to reduce caries development in 6 year old and 12 year old children in Riga.

  13. Relationship Between Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries Among Japanese Preschool Children with Relatively Low Sugar Intake (Japan Nursery School SHOKUIKU Study): A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saido, Miyuki; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    The WHO has recently proposed to halve the recommendation for free sugar intake from 10 to 5 % of energy intake to reduce the incidence of diseases such as obesity and dental caries. The Japanese population is suitable to confirm the appropriateness of this proposal, because dietary sugar intake in Japan is exceptionally low among developed countries. We sought to establish a method to estimate dietary sugar intake in Japan and to examine the relationship between sugar and the number of dental caries using data obtained from the Japan Nursery School SHOKUIKU study. Dietary intake during the preceding month and the number of caries was examined in children aged 5-6 years using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children completed by their guardians and another questionnaire on lifestyle. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used for the analysis. When subjects were ranked into quintiles by the proportion of energy from free sugar, those in higher quintiles had more caries than those in the lowest quintile. On close analysis, the number of caries among children with a relatively small proportion of energy intake from free sugar (3.18-3.77 %) was not significantly different from that in the lowest group (0.95-3.17 %). The recent proposition of WHO might be valid, because the adverse effect of relatively small proportion (approximately less than 5 %) of energy intake from free sugar on caries was not detected among the subjects in this study. However, more study will be necessary to reach a conclusion.

  14. Both deterioration and improvement in activities of daily living are related to falls: a 6-year follow-up of the general elderly population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenhagen M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Stenhagen, Henrik Ekström, Eva Nordell, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Objectives: To determine the relationship between long-term change in activities of daily living (ADL and falls in the elderly and to identify characteristics of groups at risk for falls.Methods: This was a 6-year, prospective cohort study using data from the Good Aging in Skåne study in southern Sweden, involving 1,540 elderly subjects, including the oldest-old (age, 60–93 years. The subjects were recruited from the general population. ADL was measured at a baseline and follow-up assessment, using Sonn and Åsberg’s revised scale and the ADL staircase. Falls were recorded in a period of 6 months before the follow-up assessment. The association between falls and change in ADL was calculated using adjusted, multiple logistic regression analysis and presented in odds ratios (ORs.Results: Thirteen percent of the study population reported one or several falls in the measured period. Over the course of 6 years, one in four participants changed their ADL status, and parts of this category had an increased risk for falls compared with those who stayed independent in ADL or who had no change in the ADL staircase. Groups with different characteristics had a prominent risk for falls: those with a reduction of two to eight steps in the ADL staircase (OR, 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–10.11 and those becoming independent from dependency in instrumental ADL (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.89–9.00. The former group had advanced age with a greater burden of cognitive impairment, gait disability, arrhythmia, and fall risk medications. The latter group had a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease and low walking speed. Conclusion: Both deterioration and improvement in ADL over the course of 6 years increased the risk for falls in a general elderly population

  15. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

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    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  16. Do developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months predict IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck

    2017-03-01

    The present study aims: (i) to determine how well developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months may predict IQ at 5-6 years old, (ii) to identify cognitive domains during the first two years that best predict later IQ and (iii) to determine whether children with IQ in the normal range at 5-6 years old may differ from disabled (IQ  130) with regard to their early cognitive development. The main developmental milestones were collected through self-administered questionnaires rated by parents at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months and through parental questionnaires administered by a trained interviewer and questionnaires completed following a medical examination at 12 months. These questionnaires were derived from the Brunet-Lézine Psychomotor Development Scale and they addressed several cognitive domains (gross and fine motor skills, language and socialization). (i) Developmental milestones predict a substantial part of the later IQ variance from 24 months (R(2) ∼ 20%). (ii) Early language skills more strongly predict later IQ than the other cognitive domains. (iii) Several cognitive domains, but particularly language skills, predict disabled children at 5-6 years old (from the age of 8 months) and gifted children (from the age of 12 months). The present study provides valuable information for early developmental assessment and could contribute to a better understanding of intellectual development. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of the oceanic bridge in linking the 18.6 year modulation of tidal mixing and long-term SST change in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Masuda, S.; Sugiura, N.

    2014-10-01

    The impact of the 18.6 year modulation of tidal mixing on sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Pacific is investigated in a comparative study using an ocean data synthesis system. We show that remote impact through a slow ocean response can make a significant contribution to the observed bidecadal variation in wintertime SST near the center of action of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the eastern Pacific. A comparative data synthesis experiment showed that the modified SST variation is amplified by bidecadal variation in the westerly wind. This relationship between SST and wind variations is consistent with an observed air-sea coupled mode in the extratropics, which suggests that a midlatitude air-sea interaction plays an important role in enhancing the climate signal of the 18.6 year modulation. This result supports the hypothesis that the 18.6 year tidal cycle influences long-term variability in climate; thus, knowledge of this cycle could contribute toward improving decadal predictions of climate.

  18. Prevalence study of clinical disorders in 6-year-old children across Iranian provinces: Findings of Iranian national health assessment survey

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    Masoud Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the national prevalence of clinical disorders in 6-year-old Iranian children before school entry using a national health assessment survey. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional nationwide survey, all Iranian children entering public and private elementary schools were asked to participate in a mandatory national screening program in Iran in 2009 in two levels of screening and diagnostic levels. Results: The study population consisted of 955388 children (48.5% girls and 76.1% urban. Of the whole children, 3.1% of the 6-year-old children had impaired vision. In addition, 1.2, 1.8, 1.4, 10, 10.9, 56.7, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.6% had color blindness, hearing impaired, speech disorder, height to age retardation, body mass index extremes, decayed teeth, having disease with special needs, spinal disorders, and hypertension, respectively. The distribution of these disorders was unequally distributed across provinces. Conclusions: Our results confirmed that the prevalence of clinical disorders among 6-year-old children across Iranian provinces was not similar. The observed burden of these distributions among young children needs a comprehensive national policy with evidence-based province programs to identify the reason for different distribution among provinces.

  19. Age-related changes in the temporal dynamics of executive control: A study in 5- and 6-year-old children

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    Joanna eLucenet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Mechanisms of Control theory (Braver, Gray & Burgess, 2007, this study conducted in 5- and 6-year-olds, tested for a possible shift between two modes of control, proactive vs. reactive, which differ in the way goal information is retrieved and maintained in working memory. To this end, we developed a children-adapted version of the AX-Continuous-Performance Task (AX-CPT. Twenty-nine 5-year-olds and twenty-eight 6-year-olds performed the task in both low and high working-memory load conditions (corresponding respectively to a short and a long cue-probe delay. Analyses suggested that a qualitative change in the mode of control occurs within the 5-year-old group. However, quantitative, more graded changes were also observed both within the 5-year-olds, and between 5 and 6 years of age. These graded changes demonstrated an increasing efficiency in proactive control with age. The increase in working memory load did not impact the type of dynamics of control, but had a detrimental effect on sensitivity to cue information. These findings highlight that the development of the temporal dynamics of control can be characterized by a shift from reactive to proactive control together with a more protracted and gradual improvement in the efficiency of proactive control. Moreover, the question of whether the observed shift in the mode of control is task dependant is debated.

  20. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture.

  1. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: optimal lung function tests for monitoring cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and recurrent wheezing in children less than 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Allen, Julian; Arets, Bert H G M; Aurora, Paul; Beydon, Nicole; Calogero, Claudia; Castile, Robert G; Davis, Stephanie D; Fuchs, Susanne; Gappa, Monika; Gustaffson, Per M; Hall, Graham L; Jones, Marcus H; Kirkby, Jane C; Kraemer, Richard; Lombardi, Enrico; Lum, Sooky; Mayer, Oscar H; Merkus, Peter; Nielsen, Kim G; Oliver, Cara; Oostveen, Ellie; Ranganathan, Sarath; Ren, Clement L; Robinson, Paul D; Seddon, Paul C; Sly, Peter D; Sockrider, Marianna M; Sonnappa, Samatha; Stocks, Janet; Subbarao, Padmaja; Tepper, Robert S; Vilozni, Daphna

    2013-04-01

    Although pulmonary function testing plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of chronic pulmonary conditions in children under 6 years of age, objective physiologic assessment is limited in the clinical care of infants and children less than 6 years old, due to the challenges of measuring lung function in this age range. Ongoing research in lung function testing in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers has resulted in techniques that show promise as safe, feasible, and potentially clinically useful tests. Official American Thoracic Society workshops were convened in 2009 and 2010 to review six lung function tests based on a comprehensive review of the literature (infant raised-volume rapid thoracic compression and plethysmography, preschool spirometry, specific airway resistance, forced oscillation, the interrupter technique, and multiple-breath washout). In these proceedings, the current state of the art for each of these tests is reviewed as it applies to the clinical management of infants and children under 6 years of age with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and recurrent wheeze, using a standardized format that allows easy comparison between the measures. Although insufficient evidence exists to recommend incorporation of these tests into the routine diagnostic evaluation and clinical monitoring of infants and young children with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or recurrent wheeze, they may be valuable tools with which to address specific concerns, such as ongoing symptoms or monitoring response to treatment, and as outcome measures in clinical research studies.

  2. The effect of Filmed modeling on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental treatment: A randomized clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryab, Mehrsa; Arab, Zeinab

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Filmed modeling in comparison with commonly used Tell-Show-Do technique (T.S.D) on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental practice. Forty six children aged 4-6 years were enrolled in this study and randomly allocated into two groups. Group I: At the first visit, the procedure of Tell-Show-Do, and at the second visit, the treatment procedures were performed by the dentist for the children. Group II: At the first visit, children watched a film consisting of the procedure of Tell-Show-Do performed on a child model. At the second visit, treatment procedures were performed. In both groups, during the treatment procedure, index of heart rate was measured and behaviors of children were recorded. The children's anxious and cooperative behaviors on the recordings were quantified according to Venham and Frankl rating scales, respectively. The data were compared between two groups using T-test method. All statistical references were made at 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in heart rate measures, clinical anxiety and cooperative behavior scores of children between the two groups (P = 0.6). Filmed modeling can be an efficient alternative method to Tell-Show-Do technique in pre-appointment preparation of the 4-6 years old children during dental treatment.

  3. Blood pressure at 6 years of age after prenatal exposure to betamethasone: follow-up results of a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Stuart R; Liang, Allen; Parag, Varsha; Rodgers, Anthony; Harding, Jane E

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to betamethasone for the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) alters blood pressure in childhood. Prospective follow-up study of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. National Women's Hospital (Auckland, New Zealand). Two hundred twenty-three 6-year-old children of mothers who presented with unplanned premature labor and took part in a randomized, controlled trial of prenatal betamethasone therapy for the prevention of neonatal RDS. Mothers received 2 doses of betamethasone (12 mg) or placebo, administered through intramuscular injection, 24 hours apart. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 6 years of age. Children exposed prenatally to betamethasone (n = 121) did not differ in systolic or diastolic blood pressure from children exposed to placebo (n = 102) (mean difference: systolic: -1.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval: -4.1 to 0.8 mm Hg; diastolic: -0.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to 1.8 mm Hg). Prenatal exposure to betamethasone for prevention of neonatal RDS does not alter blood pressure at 6 years of age.

  4. The development and evaluation of Persian rhyme awareness tasks for normal 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rhyme awareness is an important criterion for speech, language and writing processing. In Iran, there is no auditory tasks of rhyme awareness available for assessment of 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children. The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate Persian rhyme awareness tasks in 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: A hundred normal 5-6 year-old Persian-speaking children (50 girls and 50 boys were randomly selected. The two rhyme awareness tasks of this study were rhyme detection and rhyme production. The validity and reliability of these tasks were studied by content validity index, intraclass correlation coefficient, and standard error of measurement. The correlation between tasks was studied by Pearson correlation and the mean scores of two sections were compared by easiness level method. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys were evaluated by independent t-test.Results: The results showed that the proposed tasks had appropriate validity and reliability. The ability of children in production section was significantly more than in detection section. The correlation of each of two sections with total tasks was significant (p0.05.Conclusions: The proposed tasks are appropriate for assessment of rhyme awareness skills with appropriate validity and reliability in both genders. Two Sections of the tasks had significant correlations and influence on together. The abilities of girls and boys were the same.

  5. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  6. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  7. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  8. Dietary supplements in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  9. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  10. Bulletproof History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  11. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  12. Potted history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  13. Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Kadriye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties. Methods The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS. Results The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and

  14. Associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Kristina Y; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Norby, Bo; Steiner, Jörg M

    2008-11-01

    To estimate associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs. Design-Retrospective case-control study. 198 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis and 187 control dogs with a diagnosis of renal failure without clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Information on signalment, weight, body condition, dietary intake, medical history, diagnostic tests performed, concurrent diseases, treatments, duration of hospitalization, and discharge status was extracted from medical records. Information on dietary intake, signalment, weight, and medical, surgical, and environmental history was collected through a telephone questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of information extracted from the medical record, ingesting unusual food items (OR, 4.3) increased the odds of pancreatitis. On the basis of information gathered through the telephone questionnaire, ingesting unusual food items (OR, 6.1), ingesting table scraps the week before diagnosis (OR, 2.2) or throughout life (OR, 2.2), and getting into the trash (OR, 13.2) increased the odds of pancreatitis. Multivariable modeling indicated that reporting exposure to > or = 1 dietary factor during the telephone questionnaire (OR, 2.6), being overweight (OR, 1.3) or neutered (OR, 3.6), previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 21.1), and the interaction between neuter status and previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 0.1) were associated with the odds of pancreatitis. Results suggested that dietary factors, being neutered, and previous surgery other than neutering increased the odds of pancreatitis in dogs.

  15. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

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    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  16. Dietary and non-dietary correlates of gastrointestinal distress during the cycle and run of a triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether pre-race dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress during the cycle and run of a 70.3-mile triathlon. Fifty three participants recorded dietary details the day before and morning of the triathlon and retrospectively reported GI symptoms from the cycle and run. Occurrence and severity of nausea, regurgitation and fullness were combined into an upper GI (UGI) category, while lower abdominal cramps, flatulence and urge to defecate were combined into a lower GI (LGI) category. Spearman's rho coefficients were used to examine whether UGI and LGI were associated with: (1) pre-race diet (kilocalories, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, protein, caffeine); and (2) non-dietary factors (age, body mass index, experience, weight change, GI distress history, finishing time). Of non-dietary factors, only a history of GI distress showed significant associations with GI symptoms during the triathlon (ρ = .32-.36; P triathlons should carefully weigh the benefits of higher race-morning energy, carbohydrate and caffeine intakes against their potential to increase GI distress.

  17. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  18. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  19. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    favourite ways for com- mon people to spend their holidays, and with the introduction of holiday pay in the 1930s almost everybody could take a couple of weeks off work in the sum- mer. With the introduction of charter tourism many people went off to Southern Europe to spend their holidays on the same...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  20. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  1. Adolescent Deliveries in a Secondary-Level Care Hospital of Cameroon: A Retrospective Analysis of the Prevalence, 6-Year Trend, and Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Atashili, Julius; Mbu, Robinson

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents are generally ill-equipped to deal with the burden of a pregnancy. A high prevalence of adolescent pregnancies is among the indicators of limitations toward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in most developing countries. We sought to determine the prevalence, 6-year trend, and adverse outcomes of adolescent deliveries. We also tested whether being married decreased the risk of adverse fetal outcomes in these adolescents. A 6-year retrospective register analysis. Buea Regional Hospital. Birth records from 2007 to 2012. None. Prevalence and 6-year trend in the rate of adolescent deliveries; adverse fetal outcomes. The overall prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 9.9% (491 of 4941). There was no significant change in the annual prevalence of adolescent deliveries over 6 years (P trend = .8). Adolescent pregnancies were at higher risk of preterm deliveries (deliveries at gestational age <37 completed weeks; odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.2; P < .01), low birth weight (defined as birth weight <2600 g; OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.3; P < .01), and neonatal asphyxia (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7; P < .01). There was no significant difference in the frequency of adverse outcomes between married and single adolescents. One of every 10 babies is born from adolescent mothers in the Buea Regional Hospital. Whether these mothers are married or not, their neonates are exposed to higher morbidity. This emphasizes the need for more adolescent-friendly public health policies geared toward reducing the prevalence of this condition to improve the chances of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Cameroon. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  3. Significant Axial Elongation with Minimal Change in Refraction in 3- to 6-Year-Old Chinese Preschoolers: The Shenzhen Kindergarten Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxing; Fu, Min; Ding, Xiaohu; Morgan, Ian G; Zeng, Yangfa; He, Mingguang

    2017-07-13

    To document the distribution of ocular biometry and to evaluate its associations with refraction in a group of Chinese preschoolers. Population-based cross-sectional study. A total of 1133 preschoolers 3 to 6 years of age from 8 representative kindergartens. Biometric measurements including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius of curvature (CR) were obtained from partial-coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) before cycloplegia. Lens power (LP) and AL-to-CR ratio were calculated. Cycloplegic refraction (3 drops of 1% cyclopentolate) was measured using an autorefractor (KR8800; Topcon Corp., Tokyo, Japan), and spherical equivalent refraction (SER) was calculated. Biometric and refractive parameters were assessed as a function of age and gender. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associations between refraction and ocular biometry. Ocular biometric distributions and their relationships to refraction. Among the 1127 children (99.5%) with successful cycloplegic refraction, mean SER was 1.37±0.63 diopters (D). Prevalence of myopia increased from 0% at 3 years of age to 3.7% (95% confidence interval, 1.0%-6.5%) at 6 years of age. Biometric parameters followed Gaussian distributions with means of 22.39±0.68 mm for AL, 7.79±0.25 mm for CR, and 24.61±1.42 D for calculated LP; and non-Gaussian distributions with means of 3.34±0.24 mm for ACD and 2.88±0.06 for AL-to-CR ratio. Axial length, ACD, and AL-to-CR ratio increased from 3 to 6 years of age, CR remained stable, whereas LP declined. Overall, SER declined slightly. For the SER variance, AL explained 18.6% and AL-to-CR ratio explained 39.8%, whereas AL, CR, and LP accounted for 80.0% after adjusting for age and gender. Young Chinese children are predominantly mildly hyperopic, with a low prevalence of myopia by the age of 6 years. An increase of 1 mm in AL was associated with only 0.45 D of myopic change. Decreases in

  4. Chronic Intussusception Caused by Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a 6-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Abdominal Pain and Constipation for 2 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Hee; Han, Sang-Ah; Won, Kyu Yeoun

    2016-02-01

    The classical triad of abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody stool is absent in chronic intussusception for more than 2 weeks. Here, we report a 6-year-old female with recurrent abdominal pain for 2 months. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed an ileocolic-type intussusception. The lesion accompanying the tight fibrous adhesion was treated by resection and ileocolic anastomosis. It was diagnosed as intussusception with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A high index of suspicion for abdominal pain in children should result in the correct diagnosis and appropriate management.

  5. A Case of Urethral Duplication Arising from the Posterior Urethra to the Scrotum with Urinary Stone in a 6-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Mori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a 6-year-old male with type IIA2 (Y-type using Effmann’s classification. The accessory urethra, in which a urinary stone existed, arose from the posterior urethra to the scrotum. Because of recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary discharge from the accessory urethra, surgical removal of the accessory urethra through a scrotal incision was performed. At 7-month postoperative follow-up the patient was completely free from urinary incontinence and urinary tract infection.

  6. Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations. A 6-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els). In the second cavity a 1-step HEMA......-free self-etch adhesive was used (AdheSe One F). The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 6 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. Results: Three molar teeth showed mild post-operative sensitivity...

  7. Snoring and risk of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a 70 year old population. A 6-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Davidsen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    heart disease (IHD) and stroke while controlling for the potential influence of major cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors. METHODS. In all, 804 70 year old males and females were classified according to snoring habits. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, blood pressure, body mass index, social group......, plasma lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein), fasting blood glucose, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine were determined at baseline. RESULTS. Over a 6-year period (1984-1990) 88 suffered an IHD episode, 60 had a stroke and 180 died. A slightly higher stroke incidence was found...

  8. Stripping Voltammetric Determination Of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead And Copper In Blood Samples Of Children Aged Between 3 Months And 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Mahajan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of 160 children, ranging age between 3 months and 6 years were selected from five different parts of Amritsar district of Punjab (India and were analyzed for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu using anodic stripping voltammetry. Large variations in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that the areas, more prone to environmental stress, had shown more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison to those which were taken from safer sites. Similarly the younger children lesser exposed to environmental pollution had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison to older objects.

  9. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    -based registers from Statistics Denmark. SETTING: Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. SUBJECTS: The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: High use of antibiotics identified by number...... and the association between high antibiotic use and low educational level. This would provide valuable information in the planning of strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics among children. KEY POINTS The Capital Region of Denmark has the highest rate of antibiotic prescribing in Denmark. Preschool children...

  10. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  11. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  12. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  13. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  14. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  15. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  16. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...... Andersen fairy tale....

  17. Chronic Nephropathy from Dietary Hyperoxaluria: Sustained Improvement of Renal Function after Dietary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijuan; Horowitz, Bruce L; Servilla, Karen S; Fair, Joanna R; Vigil, Darlene; Ganta, Kavitha; Massie, Larry; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2017-03-20

    A 56-year-old man with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) for two years following a single episode of calcium oxalate urolithiasis developed progressive elevation of his serum creatinine concentration. Urinalysis revealed pyuria and white cell casts, a few red blood cells, minimal proteinuria, and no crystals. Urine culture was sterile. Gallium scintigraphy was consistent with interstitial nephritis. Proton pump inhibitor intake was discontinued, and a short course of oral corticosteroids was initiated. Percutaneous kidney biopsy, performed because of the continued deterioration of renal function to a minimum estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value of 15 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent pyuria, revealed deposition of oxalate crystals in the tubules and interstitium, pronounced tubular changes, and interstitial nephritis and fibrosis. Urinary oxalate excretion was very high, in the range usually associated with primary hyperoxaluria. However, investigations for primary or enteric hyperoxaluria were negative. He reported a diet based on various nuts high in oxalate content. Estimated oxalate content in the diet was, for years, approximately four times higher than that in the average American diet. The institution of a diet low in oxalates resulted in the rapid normalization of urinary oxalate excretion and urinary sediment and in the slow, continuous improvement of renal function to near normal levels (eGFR 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) before his death from a brain malignancy 3.5 years later. The manifestations of nephropathy secondary to dietary hyperoxaluria, including the urine findings, can be indistinguishable from other types of interstitial nephritis. The diagnosis of dietary hyperoxaluria requires careful dietary history and a kidney biopsy. Identifying dietary hyperoxaluria as the cause of CKD is important because the decrease in dietary oxalate intake without any other measures can lead to sustained improvement in renal function.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of an intranasal Sendai virus-based human parainfluenza virus type 1 vaccine in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderson, Elisabeth; Branum, Kristen; Sealy, Robert E; Jones, Bart G; Surman, Sherri L; Penkert, Rhiannon; Freiden, Pamela; Slobod, Karen S; Gaur, Aditya H; Hayden, Randall T; Allison, Kim; Howlett, Nanna; Utech, Jill; Allay, Jim; Knight, James; Sleep, Susan; Meagher, Michael M; Russell, Charles J; Portner, Allen; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2015-03-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV-1) is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), resulting in tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year in the United States alone. No licensed vaccine is yet available. We have developed murine PIV-1 (Sendai virus [SeV]) as a live Jennerian vaccine for hPIV-1. Here, we describe vaccine testing in healthy 3- to 6-year-old hPIV-1-seropositive children in a dose escalation study. One dose of the vaccine (5 × 10(5), 5 × 10(6), or 5 × 10(7) 50% egg infectious doses) was delivered by the intranasal route to each study participant. The vaccine was well tolerated by all the study participants. There was no sign of vaccine virus replication in the airway in any participant. Most children exhibited an increase in antibody binding and neutralizing responses toward hPIV-1 within 4 weeks from the time of vaccination. In several children, antibody responses remained above incoming levels for at least 6 months after vaccination. Data suggest that SeV may provide a benefit to 3- to 6-year-old children, even when vaccine recipients have preexisting cross-reactive antibodies due to previous exposures to hPIV-1. Results encourage the testing of SeV administration in young seronegative children to protect against the serious respiratory tract diseases caused by hPIV-1 infections.

  19. Radiological imaging of congenital hand anomalies - a 6-year single-centre experience and what the hand surgeons want to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerety, E.L.; Hopper, M.A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grant, I. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Plastic Surgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-19

    Congenital hand anomalies present a rare but important physical and emotional challenge for children and parents. Radiological imaging is important for accurate diagnosis, to aid decision making and to monitor changes in the growing hand. The goal of any treatment is to help the child achieve his/her maximum potential, to provide a useful hand with attention to cosmesis. We investigated the range of congenital hand anomalies imaged in a tertiary referral centre. We examined the timing of imaging and the key clinical questions. The radiology imaging system was searched retrospectively for radiographs of congenital hand anomalies over a 6-year period. The images were reviewed and patient demographics, diagnosis and other imaging recorded. Over 6 years, 85 patients had imaging. Twenty-three patients had bilateral problems and 11 had recognised syndromes. The most common abnormalities imaged were duplicated thumbs (28 %), followed by syndactyly (18 %). Children were first imaged as early as 1 day old, with the median age of initial imaging 12 months. Thumb duplication and syndactyly are the most common conditions for which radiographs are requested at our hospital, although overall syndactyly is considered the most common congenital hand anomaly. For a variety of reasons, children are often imaged very early, before review by the Specialist in Children's Hand Surgery (despite surgery being unlikely before 1 year of age.) We discuss the classification systems and specific issues that hand surgeons want to know from the radiologists. (orig.)

  20. Long-term Geophysical Monitoring of Simulated Clandestine Graves using Electrical and Ground Penetrating Radar Methods: 4-6 Years After Burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R; Roberts, Daniel; Dick, Henry C; Wisniewski, Kristopher D; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cassella, John P

    2016-03-01

    This ongoing monitoring study provides forensic search teams with systematic geophysical data over simulated clandestine graves for comparison to active cases. Simulated "wrapped," "naked," and "control" burials were created. Multiple geophysical surveys were collected over 6 years, here showing data from 4 to 6 years after burial. Electrical resistivity (twin electrode and ERI), multifrequency GPR, grave and background soil water were collected. Resistivity surveys revealed that the naked burial had low-resistivity anomalies up to year four but then difficult to image, whereas the wrapped burial had consistent large high-resistivity anomalies. GPR 110- to 900-MHz frequency surveys showed that the wrapped burial could be detected throughout, but the naked burial was either not detectable or poorly resolved. 225-MHz frequency GPR data were optimal. Soil water analyses showed decreasing (years 4 to 5) to background (year 6) conductivity values. Results suggest both resistivity and GPR surveying if burial style unknown, with winter to spring surveys optimal and increasingly important as time increases.

  1. Bidecadal variability in the intermediate waters of the northwestern subarctic Pacific and the Okhotsk Sea in relation to 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2006-05-01

    On the basis of historical oceanographic data, we investigated the long-term variations of the intermediate waters in the four regions in the northwestern subarctic Pacific: Oyashio, Okhotsk Sea Mode Water, Upstream Oyashio and East Kamchatka Current. We found bidecadal oscillations in these water properties that are synchronized with the 18.6-year period nodal cycle. In periods when the diurnal tide is strong, the following characteristics are found: Apparent oxygen utilization and phosphate are low in Oyashio and Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. The thickness of the intermediate layers is large, and thus potential vorticity is correspondingly low, in Oyashio, Okhotsk Sea Mode Water, and Upstream Oyashio. Around the mesothermal (temperature maximum) water, isopycnal potential temperature are low in the areas on the Pacific side, and high in the intermediate layer of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. The mixing ratio of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water in the Upstream Oyashio water is high. These bidecadal oscillations can be explained by changes in the vertical mixing around the Kuril Straits induced by the diurnal tide whose amplitude is modulated with the 18.6-year nodal cycle. Higher sea surface salinity water around the Kuril Straits caused by stronger tidal mixing is possibly transported northward along the cyclonic Okhotsk Sea Gyre, and possibly enhances the formation of the dense shelf water. This makes apparent oxygen utilization, phosphate, and potential vorticity lower in Okhotsk Sea Mode Water and Oyashio.

  2. Possible explanation linking 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle with bi-decadal variations of ocean and climate in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Osafune, Satoshi; Tatebe, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    Bi-decadal climate variation is dominant over the North Pacific on inter-decadal timescale; however the mechanism has not been fully understood. We here find that the bi-decadal variations in the North Pacific climate and intermediate waters possibly relate to the 18.6-year period modulation of diurnal tide. In the period of strong diurnal tide, tide-induced diapycnal mixing makes surface salinity and density higher and the upper-layer shallower along the Kuril Islands and the east coast of Japan. Simple model results suggest that the coastal depth adjustment by baroclinic Kelvin waves enhances the thermohaline circulation, the upper-layer poleward western boundary current and associated heat transport by about 0.05PW. This could also explain the warmer SST in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension regions, where positive feedback with Aleutian Low might amplify the bidecadal variations. The 18.6-year tidal cycle hence could play a role as a basic forcing for the bi-decadal ocean and climate variations.

  3. Numerical study on the impact of the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle on water masses in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2012-05-01

    A series of numerical experiments is performed to test the hypothesis that temporal variations in localized strong tidal mixing related to the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle induce water mass variations. It is suggested that enhanced mixing around the Bering Sea, as that around the Okhotsk Sea, have an impact on water masses broadly in the North Pacific including the Bering Sea and the Okhotsk Sea. Oscillatory tidal mixing with a 18.6-year period reproduces water mass variations in salinity and isopycnal potential temperature around the subarctic North Pacific that are qualitatively consistent with observed variations. When the amplitude of oscillatory vertical diffusivity is 15% of the long-term mean (and even when the amplitude is as small as 3 cm2/s, as obtained for a long-term mean of 20 cm2/s), the amplitude of the salinity variation near regions of strong mixing is smaller than but on the same order of magnitude as that observed. The induced salinity anomaly spreads broadly, over a distance of several hundreds of kilometers, by mean currents with a short lag time of less than 3 years, and is suggested to influence the model winter mixed layer over broad regions. These results support the hypothesis stated above and suggest that it is necessary to clarify spatial and temporal variations in tidal mixing to reproduce both the mean states of and temporal variations in water masses of the subarctic North Pacific.

  4. Growing up before growing out: secular trends in height, weight and obesity in 5--6-year-old children born between 1970 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah M; Craig, Leone C A; Raja, Amalraj E; McNeill, Geraldine; Turner, Stephen W

    2013-04-01

    This was a whole-population study of height, weight and obesity prevalence in 5-6-year-old children born between 1970 and 2006 in the Grampian region, north east Scotland. Heights and weights collected as part of routine primary school medical entry were obtained from different sources. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)≥98th centile. Anthropometric measurements were made in 194391 children, mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.8). The mean height z scores rose for those born between 1970-2000 respectively and were static thereafter. Obesity prevalence was non-linear over time and initially fell for birth years 1970-1977, rising between 1977 and 1998 before falling for those born between 1998 and 2006. For the whole population, the prevalence of obesity rose from 1.3% for those born in 1976 to 6.9% for those born in 1998 and fell back to 5.7% for children born in 2006. Obesity was initially highest in girls and most affluent communities but became most prevalent among boys and least affluent communities. The secular increase in height at school entry in children born in 1970 and afterwards was followed by an increase in weight leading to an initial reduction in obesity prevalence. Whole-population obesity prevalence for children born in the 2000s is now falling but prevalence remains considerably higher compared with those born in the 1970s. Obesity prevalence continues to rise among less affluent communities.

  5. Lack of progressive reduction in P3 amplitude after the first-episode of schizophrenia: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim-Üçok, Müge; Keskin-Ergen, Yasemin; Üçok, Alp

    2016-09-30

    P3 event-related potential may track the course of neurophysiological pathology in schizophrenia. Reduction in the amplitude of the auditory P3 is a widely replicated finding, already present at the first psychotic episode, in schizophrenia. Whether a progressive deficit is present in auditory P3 in schizophrenia over the course of illness is yet to be clarified. Previous longitudinal studies did not report any change in P3 over time in schizophrenia. However, these studies have been inconclusive, because of their relatively short follow-up periods, lack of follow-up data on controls, and assessment of patients already at the chronic stages of schizophrenia. Auditory P3 potentials, elicited by an oddball paradigm, were assessed in 14 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls at baseline and at the 6-year follow-up. P3 amplitudes were smaller in patients with first-episode schizophrenia than in controls. Importantly, over the 6-year interval, the P3 amplitudes were reduced in controls, but they did not change in patients. The lack of P3 reduction over time in patients with schizophrenia might be explained by the maximal reduction in P3 already at baseline or by the alleviation of P3 reduction over time.

  6. The ability of 3- to 6-years-old Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words

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    Nahid Jalilevand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: During speech development in normal children, cluster reduction is one of the natural phonological processes. Children begin to produce some consonant clusters from the age of 2 years but ability to produce all consonant clusters continues up to 9. The main objective of this investigation was assessing the ability of Persian-speaking children in production of consonant clusters in mono-syllable CVCC words.Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative study, production of 19 clusters with stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, and glide consonants in 38 words were tested in 200 Persian-speaking children at the age of 3 to 6 years in kindergartens of Tehran, Iran. Content validity indexes of 38 words were above 0.80 and Cronbach’s alpha of split half was 0.91.Results: More than 75% of 3-years-old children were able to produce /xl/, /bz/, /rs/, and /xm/ clusters. Age was positively correlated with correct production scores of words (p=0.001 and was negatively correlated with cluster reduction scores (p=0.001. Conclusion: Three-years-old normal Persian-speaking children may use cluster reduction in words with consonant clusters but this phonological process decreased by increasing of age; so, most of the 6-years-old children could produce consonant clusters correctly. Place of articulation more than manner of articulation affect on correct production of consonant clusters.

  7. The Effect of Food Guide Pyramid Education on the Knowledge of 5 to 6 Year Old Pre-School Children in one of the Districts of Shiraz, Iran

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    A Ahmadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of food guide pyramid education on the knowledge of 5 to 6 year-old children in kindergarten in Shiraz, Iran, using play and show methods. Materials & Methods: 62 children, 5 to 6 years old, were selected from one of the districts of Shiraz pre-schools by random cluster sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups. One group was educated by show and the other group by play and drawings. However, in both groups, they were educated using the same subjects about the food guide pyramid. The results were recorded by some tests before and after the intervention and were analyzed by the SPSS software using two sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: In both groups, after being taught about food guide pyramids, their knowledge about the number of food groups and recognizing them were improved (P<0.001. In both groups, their knowledge about the priority of any good and bad snack improved after the intervention, but this increase was significant only in the drawing and playing group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In a happy environment, children can gain good capacities for nutrition education and also playing and drawing can provide good interactions. Therefore, this method can be a useful choice for informing the children.

  8. Age of Complementary Foods Introduction and Risk of Anemia in Children Aged 4–6 years: A Prospective Birth Cohort in China

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    Wang, Fenglei; Liu, Huijuan; Wan, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Jusheng; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2017-01-01

    Age of complementary foods introduction is associated with childhood anemia, but the ideal age for the introduction of complementary foods to infants is a continuing topic of debate. We examined the longitudinal association between complementary foods introduction age and risk of anemia in 18,446 children from the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, who had detailed complementary feeding records at 3 and 6 months of age and had hemoglobin concentrations measured at 4–6 years. Early introduction of complementary foods at 3–6 months of age was significantly associated with a higher risk of anemia (odds ratio = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.28) and a lower hemoglobin concentration of −0.84 g/L (95% confidence interval: −1.33 to −0.35) in children aged 4–6 years, compared with those fed complementary foods starting at 6 months of age. When it comes to the specific type of complementary foods, early introduction of all plant-based foods was associated with increased anemia risks and lower hemoglobin concentrations, while early introduction of most animal-based foods was not. These findings may be informative regarding the appropriate time to introduce complementary foods in infants. PMID:28333130

  9. Subjective Cognitive Impairment Is a Predominantly Benign Condition in Memory Clinic Patients Followed for 6 Years: The Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study

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    Erik Hessen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the quest for prevention or treatment, there is a need to find early markers for preclinical dementia. This study observed memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI and normal cognitive function at baseline. The primary aim was to address SCI as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. The secondary aim was to address a potential relation between (1 baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and (2 a decline in memory performance over the first 2 years of follow-up, with a possible cognitive decline after 6 years. Methods: Eighty-one patients (mean age 61 years were recruited from university memory clinics and followed up for 6 years. Results: Eighty-six percent of the cohort remained cognitively stable or improved, 9% developed mild cognitive impairment, and only 5% (n = 4 developed dementia. Regression analysis revealed that low levels of Aβ42 at baseline and memory decline during the first 2 years predicted dementia. When combined, these variables were associated with a 50% risk of developing dementia. Conclusions: Cognitive stability for 86% of the cohort suggests that SCI is predominantly a benign condition with regard to neuropathology. The low number of individuals who developed dementia limits the generalizability of the results and discussion of progression factors.

  10. Assessing consequences of untreated carious lesions using pufa index among 5-6 years old school children in an urban Indian population

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    Abhishek Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a major chronic noncommunicable disease affecting whole of mankind. Nontreatment of caries can have severe consequences such as pain, abscess formation, space infection, etc., which leads to loss of function, working hours or absence from school in children. These consequences are equally important, while planning dental care program for a community. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and severity of consequences of untreated carious lesions using pufa index that is, pulpal involvement, and ulcer due to root fragments, fistula, and abscess index among 5-6 year old school children in an urban Indian population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 603 school going children of 5-6 year age group in mainly an urban Indian population. Children from 12 randomly selected schools were examined for pufa and decayed extracted filled indices. Results and Conclusions: Overall mean pufa value was 0.9 ± 1.93 and prevalence was 38.6% with major contribution from P component of index. Untreated caries ratio was 35%, suggesting that more than one-third of the developed carious lesions cause adverse events in a population. This study emphasis the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage to avoid severe consequences. The pufa index can be used as tool to highlight these adverse consequences to dental professionals and health authorities.

  11. 5-6岁儿童的网球教学实例分析%Analysis on Tennis Teaching of 5-6 Years Old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向然; 鄢生虎

    2014-01-01

    5-6岁儿童的网球教学,不同于成人或年长孩子的网球教学,在讲解示范、奖励惩罚以及游戏的运用等方面区别较大。5-6岁儿童的网球教学是一种启蒙式的教学,应该以增加孩子对网球的热爱为目的,以“和网球一起游戏”为主要手段,让孩子在玩中提高身体素质,增强球感,潜移默化的提高基本技术。%The tennis teaching of 5-6 years old childrenis different from adult or older child , it has different in the use of demonstration , reward and punishment and the game .The tennis teaching of 5-6 years is a kind of en-lightenment teaching , and shouldincrease their love of tennis , let the children improve the physical quality , en-hance the ball and the basic technology in the game .

  12. Whole-blood fatty acids are associated with executive function in Tanzanian children aged 4-6 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbe, Theresia; Comstock, Sarah S; Harris, William S; Kinabo, Joyce; Pontifex, Matthew B; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2016-11-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression. Among the 130 4-6-year-old children who attempted the DCCS tasks, whole-blood levels of linoleic acid were positively associated with executive function, whereas whole-blood levels of α-linolenic acid and nervonic acid were inversely associated with executive function. A full model including all twenty-five FA explained 38 % of the variation in executive function, whereas a reduced model including only the EFA (α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid), DHA and EPA explained 25 % of the variation in executive function. Children who had sufficient whole-blood levels of EFA were 3·8 times more likely to successfully complete all DCCS tasks compared with children with insufficient EFA. These results suggest that whole-blood FA levels are associated with cognitive abilities. Intervention trials that include assessment of whole-blood FA levels are required to determine the relationships between intake, blood levels and executive function in Tanzanian children.

  13. The hopes of West African refugees during resettlement in northern Sweden: a 6-year prospective qualitative study of pathways and agency thoughts

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    Anjum Tanvir M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how positive phenomena can support resettlement of refugees in a new country. The aim of this study was to examine the hopeful thinking in a group of West African quota refugees at arrival and after 6 years in Sweden and compare these thoughts to the views of resettlement support professionals. Method The primary study population comprised 56 adult refugees and 13 resettlement professionals. Qualitative data were collected from the refugees by questionnaires on arrival and 6 years later. Data were collected from the resettlement professionals by interview about 3 years after arrival of the refugees. Snyder's cognitive model of hope was used to inform the comparative data analyses. Results Hopes regarding education were in focus for the refugees shortly after arrival, but thoughts on family reunion were central later in the resettlement process. During the later stages of the resettlement process, the unresponsiveness of the support organization to the family reunion problem became as issue for the refugees. The professionals reported a complex mix of "silent agency thoughts" underlying the local resettlement process as a contributing reason for this unresponsiveness. Conclusion Hopes regarding education and family reunion were central in the resettlement of West African refugees in Sweden. These thoughts were not systematically followed up by the support organization; possibly the resources for refugees were not fully released. More studies are needed to further investigate the motivational factors underpinning host community support of refugees' hopes and plans.

  14. Family-related factors associated with caries prevalence in the primary dentition of 5–6-year-old children in urban and rural areas of Jabalpur City

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    Amrita Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition of 5–6-year-old children in urban and rural areas of Jabalpur city. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural and urban areas of Jabalpur city, India. A power analysis was carried out to select a representative sample of 5–6-year-old children (n = 408, 204 from government schools and 204 from private schools. Parents were interviewed using a self-structured questionnaire to collect data with regard to variables under evaluation. Statistical Analysis: Collected data were subjected to descriptive analysis using the SPSS 12.0 version. Risk factor association with dental caries was investigated using a stepwise logistic regression analysis with P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: This shows significantly higher decayed missing filled teeth among rural children than urban children. It was seen that 46.5% of children whose mothers were illiterate were affected with dental caries. In urban area, 91.5% of children whereas 77% of children in rural area have parental control on sugar consumption. Conclusion: It is important to focus on parents' education level when planning preventive programs for young children. Assessing family-related risk factors is essential when instituting preventive/treatment programs for young children.

  15. Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study

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    Almind Gitte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diabetic patients fear visual loss as the worst consequence of diabetes. In most studies the main eye pathology is assigned as the cause of visual impairment. This study analysed a broad range of possible ocular and non-ocular predictors of visual impairment prospectively in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were from a population-based cohort of 1,241 persons newly diagnosed with clinical, often symptomatic type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 40 years. After 6 years, 807 patients were followed up. Standard eye examinations were done by practising ophthalmologists. Results At diabetes diagnosis median age was 65.5 years. Over 6 years, the prevalence of blindness (visual acuity of best seeing eye ≤ 0.1 rose from 0.9% (11/1,241 to 2.4% (19/807 and the prevalence of moderate visual impairment (> 0.1; Conclusions In a comprehensive assessment of predictors of visual impairment, even in a health care system allowing self-referral to free eye examinations, treatable eye pathologies such as DR and cataract emerge together with age as the most notable predictors of continued visual loss after diabetes diagnosis. Our results underline the importance of eliminating barriers to efficient eye care by increasing patients' and primary care practitioners' awareness of the necessity of regular eye examinations and timely surgical treatment.

  16. 大地震的18.6年周期%The 18.6-year periodicity of great earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜品仁; 赵俊猛; 高祥林

    2011-01-01

    Dividing the world into 15 study areas and using the earthquake catalogue of Mw≥7. 0 during 1900~2009, we make a statistical analysis of the relationship between seismicity of each area and the period of lunar nodal motion. The result shows that among the 15 areas, 10 areas exhibit an 18. 6-year cycle of great earthquakes in statistical sense, which consists of a 12. 4-year active section and a 6. 2-year quiet section. In the eastern, northern, southern and western areas of the Circum-Pacific seismic belt, such a periodicity is present and their active sections have certain regularity. In terms of seismic events during the sixth cycle (1991~2009), this study has tested the stability and applicability of the 18. 6-year periodicity derived from earlier five cycles (1900- 1990). It is found that most of periodicities are stable in the regions with such characters. The possible mechanisms of the 18. 6-year periodicity are as follows: (1) Earthquakes are modulated by the 18. 6-year tide via day and half-day tides. (2) Effect of fluid tide in upper mantle (tide within the Earth). And (3) earthquakes are dictated by 18. 6-year tide through variation of Earth rotation.%将全球分为15个研究区,用1900~2009年Mw≥7.0地震目录,统计分析了各区大地震与月球交点运动周期的关系,得出15个研究区中有10个区,大地震存在统计意义上的18.6a周期:活跃段为12.4a,平静段为6.2a;环太平洋地震带北、南、西、东4大区的大地震,不仅有这样的周期,而且其地震活跃段的时间存在一定规律.用第6个18.6 a(1991~2009年)期间的大地震,检验据前5个18.6 a(1900~1990年)地震目录所得18.6 a周期的稳定性和实用性,发现有这种周期的地区多数的周期性是稳定的.大地震18.6 a周期的可能成因有:(1)18.6 a潮波通过调制日潮和半日潮调制大地震;(2)上地幔内流体的潮汐(地内潮)作用;(3)18.6 a潮波通过影响地球自转变化调制大地震.

  17. Awareness of Dietary and Alcohol Guidelines Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nikki A; Berkowitz, Zahava; Rodriguez, Juan L

    2015-12-01

    Although dietary habits can affect colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors' health, it is unclear how familiar survivors are with dietary guidelines, what they believe about healthy eating and alcohol consumption, and what hinders healthy dietary habits after cancer. This study assessed CRC survivors' familiarity with dietary guidelines, their eating and drinking habits, and perceived facilitators and barriers to healthy eating after cancer, including social support and self-efficacy for maintaining a healthy diet and limiting alcohol. A total of 593 individuals (50% female; mean age, 74 years) diagnosed with CRC approximately 6 years prior to study entry in early 2010 were identified through California Cancer Registry records and participated in a cross-sectional mailed survey assessing health behavior after cancer (46% adjusted response rate). Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. Survivors were most familiar with-and most likely to follow-recommendations to choose low-fat foods; 15% had never heard of recommendations to limit alcohol. Survivors were more aware of recommendations involving messages to limit/avoid versus approach/choose certain foods. The most common barrier to a healthy diet involved the effort required (26%). Survivors received more family/friend support and provider recommendations for healthy eating than limiting alcohol. Results provide an overview of awareness of and adherence to dietary recommendations among CRC survivors, highlighting the need for increasing awareness of recommendations that are especially relevant for survivors. Suggestions are made for modifying diet-related messages to facilitate comprehension and recall among CRC survivors, and increasing awareness among groups with the lowest awareness levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Health effects of dietary fiber

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    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  20. Association between Dietary Energy Density and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie D; Wertheim, Betsy C; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Howard, Barbara V; Johnson, Karen; Liu, Simin; Phillips, Lawrence S; Qi, Lihong; Sarto, Gloria; Turner, Tami; Waring, Molly E; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy density, or energy available in relation to gram intake, can inform disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between baseline dietary energy density and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. Dietary energy density, weight status, and type 2 diabetes incidence were prospectively characterized in a large cohort of postmenopausal women participating in one or more clinical trials or an observational study. The study involved 161,808 postmenopausal women recruited to the Women's Health Initiative observational study or clinical trials at 40 centers across the United States between 1993 and 1998. The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes. The association between dietary energy density quintiles and incident diabetes was tested using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 143,204 participants without self-reported diabetes at enrollment completed baseline dietary assessment and were followed for 12.7±4.6 years. Risk of diabetes developing was 24% greater for women in the highest dietary energy density quintile compared with the lowest after adjusting for confounders (95% CI 1.17 to 1.32). Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumference mediated the relationship between dietary energy density and diabetes. In waist circumference-stratified analysis, women in dietary energy density quintiles 2 to 5 with waist circumferences >88 cm were at 9% to 12% greater risk of diabetes developing compared with women with waist circumference ≤88 cm. In this prospective study, a higher baseline dietary energy density was associated with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women, both overall, and in women with elevated waist circumference. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary fiber intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: The Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takako; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Ito, Rie; Kimura, Yasumi; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Kawakami, Norito; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    Dietary fiber may play a favorable role in mood through gut microbiota, but epidemiologic evidence linking mood to dietary fiber intake is scarce in free-living populations. We investigated cross-sectionally the associations of dietary intakes of total, soluble, insoluble, and sources of fiber with depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. Participants were 1977 employees ages 19-69 y. Dietary intake was assessed via a validated, brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms adjusted for a range of dietary and non-dietary potential confounders. Dietary fiber intake from vegetables and fruits was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest through the highest tertile of vegetable and fruit fiber were 1.00 (reference), 0.80 (0.60-1.05), and 0.65 (0.45-0.95), respectively (P for trend = 0.03). Dietary intake of total, soluble, insoluble, and cereal fiber was not associated with depressive symptoms. Higher dietary fiber intake from vegetables and fruits may be associated with lower likelihood of having depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in social inequality with respect to health-related living conditions of 6-year-old children in East Germany after re-unification

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    Ranft Ulrich

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Germany re-unified in 1990, substantial social and economic changes have happened in East Germany, the former socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these socio-economic changes in East Germany on the association between social status, measured by parental educational level, and health-related living conditions of children during the ten-year period after re-unification. Methods In total, 25,864 6-year-old school beginner children (51.2% male and 48.8% female participated in cross-sectional studies which have been repeated every year from 1991 to 2000 in East Germany. Parental educational level as a social indicator was the independent variable. Dependent variables included not employed parents, small living space and health-related living conditions (e. g. damp housing, single oven heating and living at busy road. The relationships were described by odds ratios using logistic regression. Results A large overall effect of parental educational level on health-related living conditions was observed. The time trends showed that the situation regarding small living space, damp housing conditions and single oven heating improved from 1991 to 2000, while regarding not employed parents (1996–2000 and living at busy road (1991–2000 did not, but even deteriorated. 6-year old children with low parental educational level, who lived at the time of re-unification, were often under damp housing conditions and with single oven heating at homes. Nevertheless, this social inequality has almost vanished ten years later. In contrast, we found an increasing gap between low and high parental educational level with respect to the proportion of parents who were not employed (22%: 4% gain, or lived under cramped housing conditions (22%: 37% reduction, or close to a busy road (7% gain: 2% reduction. Conclusion The social inequalities which already existed under the socialist

  3. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  4. Parental dietary patterns and social determinants of children's dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana SALLES-COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify dietary patterns in children up to thirty months of age and verify whether they are associated with parental dietary patterns, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a population-based study composed of 1,085 households from a representative sample of a metropolitan region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The children's food intake was evaluated by two 24-hour recalls, and the dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis stratified into two groups according to the children's age: 6 to 17 months; and 18 to 30 months. The explanatory variables collected by a structured questionnaire were socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, age at introduction of complementary foods, and parental dietary pattern. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to assess parental dietary pattern, which was determined by principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression estimated the effect of each explanatory variable on the children's dietary patterns. Results Three dietary patterns were identified in children aged 6-17 months (basic-mixed; mixed-plus; and milk-flours and two dietary patterns were identified in children aged 18-30 months: basic-mixed and mixed-plus. Multivariate linear regression showed that complementary feeding (b=0.108; p=0.004 was positively associated with the basic-mixed dietary pattern, and family income (b=0.002; p£0.01, with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. A negative association was found between the traditional parental dietary pattern and children's mixed-plus pattern in children aged 6-17 months (b=0.152; p=0.006 and in children aged 18-30 months (b=0.152; p=0.016. In children aged up to 18 months, parental education level (b=0.368; p£0.01 was positively associated with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. Conclusion Family income, parental education level, and parental dietary patterns are

  5. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  6. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes. Dietary supplements are marketed in forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, powders, and liquids. What are the ...

  7. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  8. Young woman with breast cancer and cardiotoxicity with severe heart failure treated with a HeartMate IITM for nearly 6 years before heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbom, Per; Hedayati, Elham; Peterzén, Bengt; Granfeldt, Hans; Ahn, Henrik; Hubbert, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a multifactorial problem, which has emerged with the improvement of cancer therapies and survival. Heart transplantation is relatively contraindicated in patients with breast cancer, until at least 5 years after complete remission. We present a case where a young woman who in 2001, at the age of 31, was diagnosed with breast cancer. She was considered cured, but 4 years later she suffered a relapse. During her second treatment, in 2006, she suffered from severe heart failure. She received a HeartMate II, as a long-term bridge to transplantation and 6 years later she was successfully transplanted. In this case report we discuss the use of mechanical circulatory support in cancer patients with drug-induced heart failure.

  9. Observations of the 18.6-year cycle of air pressure and a theoretical model to explain certain aspects of this signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D. P.; Currie, R. G.

    1993-07-01

    Evidence from barometric data in Japan, USSR, southern Europe, southern Africa, and South America shows that air pressure variations with period near 18.6-years can attain amplitudes as high as 0.9 mb, and are identified as induced by the luni-solar constituent tide M n (M for moon and n for nodal). Luni-solar waveforms commonly exhibit modulation effects due to the superposition of a longer period component with 180° changes in phase. Thus, the waveform amplitudes can be highly nonstationary. Pressure gradients at this period over subcontinental distances show that the amplitudes imply nonequilibrium conditions. A theoretical coupling mechanism between E-W and N-S wind systems and the Coriolis force is envoked to explain the sub-continental extent and the, sometimes abrupt, amplitude changes of the pressure systems over small distances.

  10. The 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle in Pacific Decadal Oscillation reconstructed from tree-rings in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    Time-series of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) reconstructed from tree-rings in Western North America is found to have a statistically significant periodicity of 18.6-year period lunar nodal tidal cycle; negative (positive) PDO tends to occur in the period of strong (weak) diurnal tide. In the 3rd and 5th (10th, 11th and 13rd) year after the maximum diurnal tide, mean-PDO takes significant negative (positive) value, suggesting that the Aleutian Low is weak (strong), western-central North Pacific in 30-50°N is warm (cool) and equator-eastern rim of the Pacific is cool (warm). This contributes to climate predictability with a time-table from the astronomical tidal cycle.

  11. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  12. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  13. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  14. The complexity of seat belt injuries including spinal injury in the pediatric population: a case report of a 6-year-old boy and the literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Athanasios; Stanton, Jeremy; Sinha, Prateek; Forder, Justin; Skyrme, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    We present, along with a literature review, the case report of a 6-year-old boy, involved in a high-speed motor vehicle accident, who sustained a seat belt injury of the lumbar spine. We discuss the clinical presentation of thoracolumbar fractures in children, the sensitivity of clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and the associated abdominal injuries that are commonly present with seat belt spinal injuries. Computerized tomography is limited in the detection of soft tissue spinal fractures because these fractures occur in the plain of the section. Plain lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine and computerized tomographic three-dimensional reconstruction images can be helpful but they cannot evaluate the extent of the soft tissue injury. The magnetic resonance imaging scan is the best diagnostic tool to provide the diagnosis.

  15. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shafie Bafti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age and dmft was determined using Poisson’s regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight.

  16. General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: An exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Víctor B; Ponce, Fernando P; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Arias, Benito; Núñez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We tested first-order factor and bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to adequately summarize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms observed in a Spanish sample of preschoolers and kindergarteners. Six ESEM and CFA models were estimated based on teacher evaluations of the behavior of 638 children 4 to 6 years of age. An ESEM bifactor model with a central dimension plus 3 specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) showed the best fit and interpretability. Strict invariance between the sexes was observed. The bifactor model provided a solution to previously encountered inconsistencies in the factorial models of ADHD in young children. However, the low reliability of the specific factors casts doubt on the utility of the subscales for ADHD measurement. More research is necessary to clarify the nature of G and S factors of ADHD.

  17. Mid-upper arm circumference for age and undernutrition among 2 to 6 year old Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC is one of the simplest and easiest measures for large-scale screening programme for assessing undernutrition, especially among children. MUAC-based nutritional survey is easy to implement at the community level by the health workers or volunteers after minimum training. Methods: The present cross sectional study was done among Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. A total of 1013 children (Bauri = 499 and Santal = 514 aged 2-6 years were measured for MUAC. The normalized MUAC for age by z-scores were calculated using LMS method. Results: The age, sex and community specific sample distributions were prepared. Mean MUAC increased with age (except among Santal boys at the age of 6 years. The girls had higher median MUAC than boys at all ages except at 2 years. Prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition (following WHO was highest at the age of 3 years for boys (61.7 % and girls (36.5 %. Similarly, prevalence of undernutrition was highest (48.6 % and 47.4 % among Santal boys and girls at the age of 6 and 3 years, respectively. Significant sex difference (age combined in prevalence of undernutrition was observed among Bauris (χ2= 20.54, df= 8, p< 0.001 and Santals (χ2= 6.71, p< 0.05. Conclusion: High rate of undernutrition was observed among these children.. Our study clearly revealed that the median MUAC of children were lower than two standard references at all ages.

  18. THE CORRELATIONS AMONG THE COMPLEX OF SPINE-PELVIS TRAITS AND THE FEET TRAITS IN BOYS AGED 4 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrozkowiak Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early diagnosis is one of meaningful elements of prevention and treatment of postural defects. The objective of the study was an attempt to determine the correlations among the spine - pelvis traits and the feet traits in the population of boys aged 4 to 6 years living in rural areas and cities. Material and method: The study group covered 1506 boys aged 4 to 6 years. The measurement of 104 traits of the spine-pelvis and feet complex was conducted by means of the projection Moiré method for computer-based examination of body posture. Results: there is not much publications on the influence and correlations between the complex of the pelvis-spine traits and the feet traits. There is a correlation between the forming foot type and formation of the spine. The proposed Steinmetz suggestion assuming that if the spine can be corrected with the foot then the foot can be corrected by means of the spine, raises a number of doubts. The author emphasizes the meaning of wearing corrective footwear since proper foot positioning provided by special shoes cannot be the cause of spinal deformities. Conclusions: The spine-pelvis trait in the population of boys most frequently revealing significant influence on the feet traits is the height and depth of thoracic kyphosis. The foot trait among the population of boys living in cities most frequently revealing significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was the value of the right foot length. In the rural population significant influence on the spine-pelvis traits was revealed by: the length and height of the fifth longitudinal arch of the left foot.

  19. Evaluation of the persistence of functional and biological respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Emma; Souto-Alonso, Ana; Espinosa, Ana; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gómez, Federico P; Fuster, Carme; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Antó, Josep Maria; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-01-01

    Fishermen who had participated in clean-up activities of the Prestige oil spill showed increased bronchial responsiveness and higher levels of respiratory biomarkers 2 years later. We aimed to evaluate the persistence of these functional and biological respiratory health effects 6 years after clean-up work. In 2008/2009 a follow-up study was done in 230 never-smoking fishermen who had been exposed to clean-up work in 2002/2003 and 87 non-exposed fishermen. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness testing and the determination of respiratory biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate were done identically as in the baseline survey in 2004/2005. Associations between participation in clean-up work and respiratory health parameters were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex and age. Information from 158 exposed (69%) and 57 non-exposed (66%) fishermen was obtained. Loss to follow-up in the non-exposed was characterised by less respiratory symptoms at baseline. During the 4-year follow-up period lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the levels of respiratory biomarkers of oxidative stress and growth factors had deteriorated notably more among non-exposed than among exposed. At follow-up, respiratory health indices were similar or better in clean-up workers than in non-exposed. No clear differences between highly exposed and moderately exposed clean-up workers were found. In conclusion, we could not detect long-term respiratory health effects in clean-up workers 6 years after the Prestige oil spill. Methodological issues that need to be considered in this type of studies include the choice of a non-exposed control group and limitation of follow-up to subgroups such as never smokers.

  20. Dust radiative forcing in snow of the Upper Colorado River Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, and dust concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Skiles, S. Mckenzie; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Bryant, Ann C.; Landry, Christopher C.

    2012-07-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of snow albedo and its further indirect reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow grains. Since the westward expansion of the United States that began in the mid-19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading, largely from the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin. Radiative forcing of snowmelt by dust is not captured by conventional micrometeorological measurements, and must be monitored by a more comprehensive suite of radiation instruments. Here we present a 6 year record of energy balance and detailed radiation measurements in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Data include broadband irradiance, filtered irradiance, broadband reflected flux, filtered reflected flux, broadband and visible albedo, longwave irradiance, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperatures. The gradient of the snow surface is monitored weekly and used to correct albedo measurements for geometric effects. The snow is sampled weekly for dust concentrations in plots immediately adjacent to each tower over the melt season. Broadband albedo in the last weeks of snow cover ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 across the 6 years and two sites. Total end of year dust concentration in the top 3 cm of the snow column ranged from 0.23 mg g-1 to 4.16 mg g-1. These measurements enable monitoring and modeling of dust and climate-driven snowmelt forcings in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  1. Parents' socioeconomic factors related to high antibiotic prescribing in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Bjerrum, Lars; Boel, Jonas; Jarløv, Jens Otto; Arpi, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the distribution of antibiotic prescriptions in primary health care among children aged 0-6 years and its association with socioeconomic factors. A cross-sectional study describing antibiotic prescriptions and socioeconomic factors, using different population-based registers from Statistics Denmark. Antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 from primary health care in the Capital Region of Denmark. The population of children aged 0-6 years (n = 139,398) in the Capital Region of Denmark. High use of antibiotics identified by number of antibiotic prescriptions (≥ 3 prescriptions per year) and defined daily doses (DDD). A multinomial logistic regression analysis estimating the association between high antibiotic use and parents' education, employment status, income, child's sex, and ethnic background. Ten percent of children accounted for 25% of the total use DDD. There was a clear tendency that the risk for high antibiotic use increased as parental educational level decreased. The risk for high use was the highest among children of mothers and fathers with basic schooling ≤10 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.98, and OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.91, respectively). Low income and unemployment were not associated with high antibiotic use. Socioeconomic factors can only partially explain differences in antibiotic use. Further research is needed to clarify the unequal distribution of antibiotic prescribing and the association between high antibiotic use and low educational level. This would provide valuable information in the planning of strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics among children. KEY POINTS The Capital Region of Denmark has the highest rate of antibiotic prescribing in Denmark. Preschool children are among the age groups with the highest use. Ten percent of the children accounted for 25% of the total antibiotic use. Low parental educational level was associated with increased antibiotic use. Parents' income or employment status was not found

  2. Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam/Hydroxyzine versus Chloral Hydrate/Hydroxyzine on 2-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Dental Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different drugs are used for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry either single or in combination. This study assessed the comparative effect of midazolam/hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine on 2-6 year-old uncooperative children needing dental treatment.A double blind cross-over randomized clinical trial was designed and 16 children aged 2-6 years with ASA1 status who were judged with negative to definitely negative behavior (according to Frankl were chosen. Cases were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received midazolam/hydroxyzine (MH at the first visit while the second group received chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine (CHH as the first medication. Both groups received the other regimen at the second visit. Midazolam 0.5mg/kg and chloral hydrate 50mg/kg with 1mg/kg hydroxyzine were administered. Cases were subsequently assessed for sedation and then dental treatment was performed. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (PR were measured before and after drug administration, as well as during and after dental treatment. The Houpt scale was also used for the level of sedation before, during and after treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcox-on signed rank test and the paired t-test.Sedative success rate was 64.3% in cases of MH and 33.3% in CHH. The difference between groups was significant (P=0.046. The success rate was significantly different between groups at different measurement stages as well (P<0.05. No difference was found on the child's behavior scale based on the type of drugs used first; this indicates no carry-over effect. Comparing the PR and SpO2 values at different readings showed no significant differences.Midazolam/hydroxyzine showed a significantly higher sedative effect than chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine in this study.

  3. Prevalence and progression of visual impairment in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes: a 6-year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fine Olivarius, Niels; Siersma, Volkert; Almind, Gitte Juul; Nielsen, Niels Vesti

    2011-02-04

    Many diabetic patients fear visual loss as the worst consequence of diabetes. In most studies the main eye pathology is assigned as the cause of visual impairment. This study analysed a broad range of possible ocular and non-ocular predictors of visual impairment prospectively in patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes. Data were from a population-based cohort of 1,241 persons newly diagnosed with clinical, often symptomatic type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 40 years. After 6 years, 807 patients were followed up. Standard eye examinations were done by practising ophthalmologists. At diabetes diagnosis median age was 65.5 years. Over 6 years, the prevalence of blindness (visual acuity of best seeing eye ≤ 0.1) rose from 0.9% (11/1,241) to 2.4% (19/807) and the prevalence of moderate visual impairment (> 0.1; < 0.5) rose from 5.4% (67/1,241) to 6.7% (54/807). The incidence (95% confidence interval) of blindness was 40.2 (25.3-63.8) per 10,000 patient-years. Baseline predictors of level of visual acuity (age, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, living alone, low self-rated health, and sedentary life-style) and speed of continued visual loss (age, AMD, diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract, living alone, and high fasting triglycerides) were identified. In a comprehensive assessment of predictors of visual impairment, even in a health care system allowing self-referral to free eye examinations, treatable eye pathologies such as DR and cataract emerge together with age as the most notable predictors of continued visual loss after diabetes diagnosis. Our results underline the importance of eliminating barriers to efficient eye care by increasing patients' and primary care practitioners' awareness of the necessity of regular eye examinations and timely surgical treatment.

  4. The Lasting Influences of Early Food-Related Variety Experience: A Longitudinal Study of Vegetable Acceptance from 5 Months to 6 Years in Two Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maier-Nöth

    Full Text Available Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote better acceptance of vegetables. Recently, experimental studies have reported promising interventions that increase acceptance of vegetables. The first, offering infants a high variety of vegetables at weaning, increased acceptance of new foods, including vegetables. The second, offering an initially disliked vegetable at 8 subsequent meals markedly increased acceptance for that vegetable. So far, these effects have been shown to persist for at least several weeks. We now present follow-up data at 15 months, 3 and 6 years obtained through questionnaire (15 mo, 3y and experimental (6y approaches. At 15 months, participants who had been breast-fed were reported as eating and liking more vegetables than those who had been formula-fed. The initially disliked vegetable that became accepted after repeated exposure was still liked and eaten by 79% of the children. At 3 years, the initially disliked vegetable was still liked and eaten by 73% of the children. At 6 years, observations in an experimental setting showed that children who had been breast-fed and children who had experienced high vegetable variety at the start of weaning ate more of new vegetables and liked them more. They were also more willing to taste vegetables than formula-fed children or the no or low variety groups. The initially disliked vegetable was still liked by 57% of children. This follow-up study suggests that experience with chemosensory variety in the context of breastfeeding or at the onset of complementary feeding can influence chemosensory preferences for vegetables into childhood.

  5. [Prevalence and factors associated with non-nutritive sucking behavior. Cross sectional study among 5- to 6-year-old Senegalese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Diagne, Falou; Samba Diouf, Joseph; Ndiaye, Allé; Hennequin, Martine

    2008-06-01

    Sucking behaviours have been described in the literature under two facets i.e. nutritive and non nutritive. Nutritive sucking refers to breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both. Non nutritive sucking habits are mentioned when children suck their thumb or another finger(s), a pacifier or any other object. Non nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) are suspected to potentially induce dentoalveolar anomalies and thus may constitute a public dental health problem. Anthropological and historical data suggest that non nutritive sucking habits are associated with modern pattern of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with NNSH in Senegalese children 5/6 years old. Data of this study were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by the investigators to mothers or caregivers of 443 children (231 boys and 212 girls) aged 5/6 years. Three types of data were collected: data on the social background of the children including place of residence (urban, suburban and rural) and the mother's occupation (workers, employee, executive, housewife), data regarding former and present sucking habits and information on the feeding pattern of the children when they were infants (breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both). The results indicated a prevalence rate of 16.50% and 17.20% respectively for digit and pacifier sucking in this population. Also, a significant association was found between children's non nutritive sucking habits in one hand and the mothers' occupation and feeding pattern on the other hand. Breast fed children are less prone to develop a non nutritive sucking habit than bottle fed children. Longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the nature of these associations. The identification of factors associated with non nutritive sucking habits would permit to develop and target recommendations for the prevention of such habits.

  6. Body fat predicts an increase and limb muscle strength predicts a decrease in leptin in older adults over 2·6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Stannus, Oliver; Blizzard, Leigh; Ding, Changhai

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinaemia, which is associated with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine if body fat and muscle measures predict the natural increase in leptin over 2·6 years in older adults. A total of 190 subjects (50% females) aged between 50 and 79 years were selected to perform the serum measurements for leptin. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Fat and lean mass of the whole body and the trunk were acquired through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Leg muscle strength and handgrip strength were measured using dynamometry. In multivariable analyses, leg muscle strength was negatively associated with both baseline leptin (β: -0·05 μg/l per kg, 95% CI: -0·08, -0·02) and follow-up leptin (β: -0·04 μg/l per kg, 95% CI: -0·07, -0·01). BMI, and percentage total fat and trunk fat and their respective change per annum (cpa) were significantly and positively associated with leptin. Lean mass was negatively associated with baseline leptin. Gender-specific analyses produced similar associations between leg muscle strength, fat measures and follow-up leptin in males and females. Besides positive associations between body fat, trunk fat and leptin, we found that leg muscle strength was negatively associated with leptin after 2·6 years in a sample of older population. This suggests that interventions to maintain or increase muscle strength may have a protective effect on hyperleptinaemia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  8. Improved dietary guidelines for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Ritz, Christian; Kiely, Mairead

    2017-01-01

    )D concentrations >25, 30, and 50 nmol/L across the population are 10, 13, and 26 µg/day, respectively. In contrast, standard meta-regression analyses with aggregate data (as used by several agencies in recent years) from the same RCTs estimated that a vitamin D intake requirement of 14 µg/day would maintain 97......Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin D have a key role in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. However, despite adopting similar risk assessment protocols, estimates from authoritative agencies over the last 6 years have been diverse. This may have arisen from diverse approaches to data......-regression, which is increasingly recognized as best practice, from seven winter-based RCTs (with 882 participants ranging in age from 4 to 90 years) of the vitamin D intake-serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) dose-response. Our IPD-derived estimates of vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of 25(OH...

  9. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  10. Dietary patterns associated with body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle in Mexican adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Pliego, Laura Elisa; Camarillo-Romero, Eneida del Socorro; Montenegro-Morales, Laura Patricia; Garduño-García, José de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Background The objetive in this study is to determine the relationship between dietary patterns, BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus family history (T2DMFH) and some lifestyle variables such as smoking and skipping breakfast in a Mexican adolescent population. Methods Cross-sectional, observational, analytical study.Subjetcts: 14-16 years old male and female adolescents (n 373). A previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used and dietary patterns were derived using principal comp...

  11. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    Today, dietary recommendations are based on recommended daily intake for the general population, and only a few subgroups are considered for additional dietary advice. Nutrigenetics aim to optimize health and prevent disease. Particularly for lifestyle disease, such as obesity, which has increase...

  12. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  13. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  14. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    . The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations...... were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total...

  15. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  16. Deep history impacts present-day ecology and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Laurie J; Pianka, Eric R

    2005-05-31

    Lizards and snakes putatively arose between the early Jurassic and late Triassic; they diversified worldwide and now occupy many different ecological niches, making them ideal for testing theories on the origin of ecological traits. We propose and test the "deep history hypothesis," which claims that differences in ecological traits among species arose early in evolutionary history of major clades, and that present-day assemblages are structured largely because of ancient, preexisting differences. We combine phylogenetic data with ecological data collected over nearly 40 years to reconstruct the evolution of dietary shifts in squamate reptiles. Data on diets of 184 lizard species in 12 families from 4 continents reveal significant dietary shifts at 6 major divergence points, reducing variation by 79.8%. The most striking dietary divergence (27.6%) occurred in the late Triassic, when Iguania and Scleroglossa split. These two clades occupy different regions of dietary niche space. Acquisition of chemical prey discrimination, jaw prehension, and wide foraging provided scleroglossans access to sedentary and hidden prey that are unavailable to iguanians. This cladogenic event may have profoundly influenced subsequent evolutionary history and diversification. We suggest the hypothesis that ancient events in squamate cladogenesis, rather than present-day competition, caused dietary shifts in major clades such that some lizard clades gained access to new resources, which in turn led to much of the biodiversity observed today.

  17. 3~6岁双生子体型遗传分析%Genetic somatotype of twins aged 3-6 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉娜; 李玉玲; 季成叶; 陆舜华; 刘燕; 高广嵩; 傅媛; 栾天抒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the heritabilities of somatotype components and to examine the genetic and environmental influences on the somatotype among twins aged 3 to 6 years. Methods The components of somatotype were calculated by using Heath-Carter method in 72 twin pairs,including 42 monozygotic(MZ)and 30 like-sex dizygotic(DZ) twin pairs aged 3 to 6 years. Heritabilities of somatotype components were estimated by Holzinger formula. Results The results of somatotype dispersion distance (SDD) and somatotype attitudinal distance (SAD) showed that the somatotype of MZ was more similar than that of DZ. The interpair variance of somatotype components showed no significant difference between MZ and DZ. The intrapair variance of mesomorphic and ectomorphic components was greater in DZ than in MZ, but the correlation coefficient was greater in MZ than in DZ. The estimated heritabilities of endomorphic, mesomorphic , and ectomorphic components were 0. 38,0. 67, and 0. 73, respectively. Conclusion There might be genetic and environmental influence effects on somatotype of children aged 3 to 6 years. The endomorphic component is mainly determined by environmental factors,but mesomorphic and ectomorphic components are mainly affected by genetic ones.%目的 分析3~6岁幼儿体型各因子的遗传度,探讨遗传与环境因素对其体型发育的影响.方法 采用Heath-Carter体型法对72对3~6岁同性别双生子[同卵双生子(MZ)42对,异卵双生子(DZ)30对]的体型进行分析,用Holzinger公式估算体型各因子遗传度.结果 二维空间的体型离散距离(SDD)和三维空间体型位置距离(SAD)显示,MZ的体型较DZ更为接近;体型各因子对间方差在2类双生子间均无明显差异,中因子和外因子的对内方差DZ均明显大于MZ、组内相关系数MZ均明显大于DZ;内、中、外3个因子的遗传度分别为0.38、0.67、0.73.结论 遗传与环境因素对3~6岁幼儿体型发育均有一定影响,内因子主要受环

  18. Undernutrition among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme Children aged 2-6 years of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: A serious public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Mandal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the rates of stunting, underweight and wasting among 2-6 year old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity.

    Methods: In this study, 20 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centres of Bali gram panchayet, Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, were selected. A total of 1012 (boys = 498; girls = 514 2-6 year old children were studied. Height-for-age (HAZ, weight-for-age (WAZ and weight-for-height (WHZ < -2 z-scores were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively, following the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS Guidelines. Classification of severity of malnutrition was done based on the World Health Organization recommendations.

    Results: Boys were significantly heavier than girls at ages 2-4 years; they were significantly taller at ages 2 and 4. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in both sexes. Mean HAZ, WAZ and WHZ were less than those of NCHS for both sexes at all ages. The overall (age and sex combined rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 26.6 %, 63.3 % and 50.0 %, respectively. The prevalence of stunting (boys = 24.9 %; girls = 28.2 %, and underweight (b = 62.2 %; g = 64.4 % was higher among girls whereas that of wasting was higher among boys (b = 52.4 %; g = 47.4 %. Based on World Health Organization classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of stunting was medium (20 . 29 %, whereas those of underweight (. 30 % and wasting (. 15 % were very high, in both sexes.

    Conclusions: The nutritional status of the subjects was unsatisfactory indicating a major public health problem. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  19. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Design Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Settings Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. Participants A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Main outcome measure Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. Results 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. Conclusions NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to risk of ICU admission and complications and thereby improves traditional clinical-risk scores in the management of patients with CAP in the ED setting. Trial registration number

  20. Safety of a second dose of varicella vaccine administered at 4 to 6 years of age in healthy children in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Diego; Monti, Andrea; Bonnet, Marie-Claude; Armoni, Judith; Stamboulian, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Varicela Biken [Live varicella Biken vaccine (strain Oka)] is an effective and safe vaccine for the prevention of varicella infection. Although the recommended schedule in all age groups (children, adolescents and adults) is a single dose, physicians in some countries follow the 2007 recommendation of the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) which recommends "implementation of a routine 2-dose varicella vaccination program for children, with the first dose administered at age 12--15 months and the second dose at age 4--6 years." ( 1) Therefore, cases can arise when two doses of Varicela Biken are given even though the ACIP guidelines are a response to the US epidemiological situation and for US licensed products based on the Oka/Merck and the Oka-RIT strains (Varicela Biken is not registered in US). The aim of this study is to ascertain the safety of a second dose of Varicela Biken in children who have been previously vaccinated with the same vaccine. In this study, children, 4-6 years of age who had been previously vaccinated with Varicela Biken, received a single 0.5 mL dose of live attenuated varicella virus vaccine containing at least 1000 Plaque Forming Units (PFU) attenuated live Varicella-zoster virus (Oka strain). Participants were monitored for 30 minutes after vaccination. Predefined injection site and systemic reactions were solicited during the subsequent seven days. Unsolicited injection site reactions and unsolicited systemic events were collected throughout the study. Any serious adverse events occurring throughout the study were reported to the sponsor's pharmacovigilance department. One hundred and twenty two children were recruited and all provided safety data. There were no immediate adverse events or injection site reactions. Forty three percent of participants reported injection site reactions and 22.1% reported systemic reactions on solicitation during the seven days after vaccination. During the 30 day monitoring period, 43