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Sample records for 6-month-old infant due

  1. Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor

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    Volmar KeithE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT. We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient presented at six months of age with a three-month history of growth failure, rapid weight gain, acne, and irritability. Physical examination showed obesity, hypertension, and Cushingoid features. Biochemical evaluation showed very high serum cortisol, mildly elevated testosterone, and suppressed ACTH. Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava. Evaluation for metastases was negative. The tumor was removed surgically en bloc. Pathologic examination demonstrated low mitotic rate, but capsular and vascular invasion. She received no adjuvant therapy. Her linear growth has improved and Cushingoid features resolved. Hormonal markers and quarterly PET scans have been negative for recurrence 24 months postoperatively. In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

  2. Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith E. Volmar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT. We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma. The patient presented at six months of age with a three-month history of growth failure, rapid weight gain, acne, and irritability. Physical examination showed obesity, hypertension, and Cushingoid features. Biochemical evaluation showed very high serum cortisol, mildly elevated testosterone, and suppressed ACTH. Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava. Evaluation for metastases was negative. The tumor was removed surgically en bloc. Pathologic examination demonstrated low mitotic rate, but capsular and vascular invasion. She received no adjuvant therapy. Her linear growth has improved and Cushingoid features resolved. Hormonal markers and quarterly PET scans have been negative for recurrence 24 months postoperatively. In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

  3. Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants.

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    Kopp, Franziska

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200 ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200 ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition.

  4. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

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    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  5. Acute gastroenteritis in infants under 6 months old.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, R; Leen, C L; Dunbar, E M; Ellis, M E; Mandal, B K

    1990-01-01

    Sixty two babies under the age of 6 months who were admitted with gastroenteritis completed a study of gradual refeeding compared with abrupt refeeding after a period of rehydration. There was no difference in the incidence of recurrence of diarrhoea due to lactose intolerance, effect on weight, or duration of hospital stay. Twenty six babies (42%) had recurrence of diarrhoea after refeeding, all of whom settled with the introduction of a lactose free soya based formula. Well nourished babies...

  6. COMPARISON OF GROWTH, INFECTIONS AND FEEDING HABITS AMONG FORMULA-FED INFANTS STARTING COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AT 4 TO 6 MONTHS OLD WITH THOSE STARTING AT 6 MONTHS OLD.

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    Noppornlertwong, Chanon; Tantibhaedhyangkul, Ruangvith

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends starting complementary feeding among infants beginning at 6 months old, as opposed to 4 to 6 months old. We prospectively studied 21 formula-fed infants beginning complementary feeding at 4 to 6 months old and compared them with 20 formula-fed infants starting feeding at 6 months old to determine difference in growth, number of infections and feeding habits. The studied infants were each enrolled at age 4 months. The decision as to which group the infants were classified into was based on the parental decision as to when to start complementary feeding. Initial demographic data were obtained for each subject. Growth, infections, and feeding habit data were recorded. No significant differences in growth were detected between the 2 groups. Respiratory infections at age 10 to 12 months were more common among children who began complementary feeding later. By age 12 months, the percentages of subjects who were bottle feeding and night feeding, and new food acceptance were not different from each other, but those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months were less picky eaters. By 15 months old, those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months had less bottle feeding and better food acceptance. In conclusion, for formula-fed infants, age of onset of complementary feeding was not associated with infant growth or infection rates. However, some feeding habits differed between the two groups. It is unclear if the age of introducing complementary feeding caused these differences or was merely associated with these differences.

  7. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

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    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  8. Rapidly-growing buccal mass in a 6-month-old infant.

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    Kumar, A; Brierley, D; Hunter, K D; Lee, N

    2015-11-01

    Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign tumours of fetal-embryonal adipocytes that usually present in young children, which is why they are not often included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in infants. We describe a case of a 6-month-old infant with an intraoral buccal lipoblastoma.

  9. Neural dynamics of audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eKopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young infants are sensitive to multisensory temporal synchrony relations, but the neural dynamics of temporal interactions between vision and audition in infancy are not well understood. We investigated audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants using event-related potentials (ERP. In a prior behavioral experiment (n = 45, infants were habituated to an audiovisual synchronous stimulus and tested for recovery of interest by presenting an asynchronous test stimulus in which the visual stream was delayed with respect to the auditory stream by 400 ms. Infants who behaviorally discriminated the change in temporal alignment were included in further analyses. In the EEG experiment (final sample: n = 15, synchronous and asynchronous stimuli (visual delay of 400 ms were presented in random order. Results show latency shifts in the auditory ERP components N1 and P2 as well as the infant ERP component Nc. Latencies in the asynchronous condition were significantly longer than in the synchronous condition. After video onset but preceding the auditory onset, amplitude modulations propagating from posterior to anterior sites and related to the Pb component of infants' ERP were observed. Results suggest temporal interactions between the two modalities. Specifically, they point to the significance of anticipatory visual motion for auditory processing, and indicate young infants’ predictive capacities for audiovisual temporal synchrony relations.

  10. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nayyeri; Farima Raji; Edith Haghnazarian; Mamak Shariat; Hosein Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Objective:An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old.Materials and methods:Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study....

  11. Large right ventricular fibroma in a 6-month-old infant.

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    Horovitz, Alice; van Geldorp, Irene E; Roubertie, François; Thambo, Jean-Benoit

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the case of a 6-month-old girl with a large cardiac fibroma in the right ventricle. Ventricular tachycardia associated with the fibroma was successfully treated with amiodarone. At the age of 3 years, surgical resection was indicated because of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by progression of the tumor. The fibroma was successfully resected, and further follow-up evaluation was uneventful.

  12. Visual Speech Contributes to Phonetic Learning in 6-Month-Old Infants

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    Teinonen, Tuomas; Aslin, Richard N.; Alku, Paavo; Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that infants match vowel sounds to facial displays of vowel articulation [Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. "Science, 218", 1138-1141; Patterson, M. L., & Werker, J. F. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust in 4.5-month-old infants. "Infant…

  13. Verbal encouragements can influence manual preference in 6 month-old-infants

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    Françoise eMorange-Majoux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of social encouragement on manual motricity, in particular on manual preference. Thirty-six infants were observed at 5.5 months. In a first step, their spontaneous manual preference was recorded with an object placed on the midline position; then, the second step consisted in leading infants to use their non-preferred hand by putting the object near that hand and congratulating them. The third step was similar to the first one (object placed on the midline position except that the infant continued to be congratulated when (she used the non-preferred hand for reaching the object. Results showed that half of the infants exhibited a spontaneous manual preference. A majority of these infants could use their non-preferred hand if they were verbally encouraged. Moreover, spontaneously left-handed infants modified their hand-use more easily than right-handed infants. Although our findings only show a momentary influence of the social context in a short term, results are discussed in a more socio-cognitive perspective, where social encouragements can model manual preference, in particular its strength and its stability.

  14. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

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    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  15. Reactive and anticipatory looking in 6-month-old infants during a visual expectation paradigm.

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    Quan, Jeffry; Bureau, Jean-François; Abdul Malik, Adam B; Wong, Johnny; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2017-10-01

    This article presents data from 278 six-month-old infants who completed a visual expectation paradigm in which audiovisual stimuli were first presented randomly (random phase), and then in a spatial pattern (pattern phase). Infants' eye gaze behaviour was tracked with a 60 Hz Tobii eye-tracker in order to measure two types of looking behaviour: reactive looking (i.e., latency to shift eye gaze in reaction to the appearance of stimuli) and anticipatory looking (i.e., percentage of time spent looking at the location where the next stimulus is about to appear during the inter-stimulus interval). Data pertaining to missing data and task order effects are presented. Further analyses show that infants' reactive looking was faster in the pattern phase, compared to the random phase, and their anticipatory looking increased from random to pattern phases. Within the pattern phase, infants' reactive looking showed a quadratic trend, with reactive looking time latencies peaking in the middle portion of the phase. Similarly, within the pattern phase, infants' anticipatory looking also showed a quadratic trend, with anticipatory looking peaking during the middle portion of the phase.

  16. Origins of a Stereotype: Categorization of Facial Attractiveness by 6-Month-Old Infants

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    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Langlois, Judith H.; Hoss, Rebecca A.; Rubenstein, Adam J.; Griffin, Angela M.

    2004-01-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois,…

  17. Prefrontal Function Engaging in External-Focused Attention in 5- to 6-Month-Old Infants: A Suggestion for Default Mode Network.

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    Xu, Mingdi; Hoshino, Eiichi; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Mina; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2016-01-01

    The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5- to 6-month-old infants' hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5- to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. The PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants' hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times when Peek-a-Boo was performed by an AC than by a human. No significant difference between Peek-a-Boo and non-Peek-a-Boo conditions was observed in either measure. These findings indicate that infants at this age may prefer stimuli with more salient features, which may be more effective in attracting their attentions. In conjunction with our previous findings on responses to self-name calling in infants of similar age, we hypothesize that the dynamic function of the MPFC and its vicinity (as part of default mode network (DMN): enhanced by self-focused stimuli, attenuated by externally focused stimuli), which is consistently observed in adults, may have already emerged in 5- to 6-month-old infants.

  18. Prefrontal Function Engaging in External-Focused Attention in 5- to 6-Month-Old Infants: A Suggestion for Default Mode Network

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    Xu, Mingdi; Hoshino, Eiichi; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroki; Maki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Mina; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2017-01-01

    The present study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure 5- to 6-month-old infants’ hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to visual stimuli differing in saliency and social value. Nineteen Japanese 5- to 6-month-old infants watched video clips of Peek-a-Boo (social signal) performed by an anime character (AC) or a human, and hand movements without social signal performed by an AC. The PFC activity of infants was measured by 22-channel fNIRS, while behaviors including looking time were recorded simultaneously. NIRS data showed that infants’ hemodynamic responses in the PFC generally decreased due to these stimuli, and the decrease was most prominent in the frontopolar (FP), covering medial PFC (MPFC), when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC. Moreover, the decrease was more pronounced in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) when infants were viewing Peek-a-Boo performed by an AC than by a human. Accordingly, behavioral data revealed significantly longer looking times when Peek-a-Boo was performed by an AC than by a human. No significant difference between Peek-a-Boo and non-Peek-a-Boo conditions was observed in either measure. These findings indicate that infants at this age may prefer stimuli with more salient features, which may be more effective in attracting their attentions. In conjunction with our previous findings on responses to self-name calling in infants of similar age, we hypothesize that the dynamic function of the MPFC and its vicinity (as part of default mode network (DMN): enhanced by self-focused stimuli, attenuated by externally focused stimuli), which is consistently observed in adults, may have already emerged in 5- to 6-month-old infants. PMID:28119586

  19. Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.

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    Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

    1980-02-01

    Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight.

  20. Association between theta power in 6-month old infants at rest and maternal PTSD severity: A pilot study.

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    Sanjuan, Pilar M; Poremba, Carly; Flynn, Lucinda R; Savich, Renate; Annett, Robert D; Stephen, Julia

    2016-09-06

    Compared to infants born to mothers without PTSD, infants born to mothers with active PTSD develop poorer behavioral reactivity and emotional regulation. However, the association between perinatal maternal PTSD and infant neural activation remains largely unknown. This pilot study (N=14) examined the association between perinatal PTSD severity and infant frontal neural activity, as measured by MEG theta power during rest. Results indicated that resting left anterior temporal/frontal theta power was correlated with perinatal PTSD severity (p=0.004). These findings suggest delayed cortical maturation in infants whose mothers had higher perinatal PTSD severity and generate questions regarding perinatal PTSD severity and infant neurophysiological consequences.

  1. Disposable diaper use promotes consolidated nighttime sleep and positive mother-infant interactions in Chinese 6-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Liu, Xicheng; Peirano, Patricio; Odio, Mauricio; Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant sleep that may impact the discrete parent-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. In the present study, infants were randomly assigned to wear high-absorbency disposable diapers or to continue using traditional low-absorbency cloth diapers that necessitate frequent changes and associated disruptions of nighttime sleep. Parents reported on infant sleep before and during the 6-week experimental manipulation; a subset of infants also wore actigraphs. Parents and infants also participated in a parent-infant interaction task both before and near the end of the experimental manipulation. Infants who wore cloth diapers experienced more frequent sleep disruptions overall as well as a greater number of disruptions that did and did not wake the infant from sleep. Infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as experiencing more engagement and positive affect near the end of the intervention relative to infants who wore cloth diapers; mothers of infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as more engaged and sensitive near the end of the intervention relative to mothers of infants who wore cloth diapers. These findings suggest that the disposable diaper manipulation was causally related to characteristics of mother-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships.

  2. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

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    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions.

  3. Auditory Evoked Potentials and Hand Preference in 6-Month-Old Infants: Possible Gender-Related Differences in Cerebral Organization.

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    Shucard, Janet L.; Shucard, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal and musical stimuli were presented to infants in a study of the relations of evoked potential left-right amplitude asymmetries to gender and hand preference. There was a relation between asymmetry and hand preference, and for girls, between asymmetry and stimulus condition. Results suggest a gender difference in cerebral hemisphere…

  4. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

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    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Cortical Responses to Speech Sounds in 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants Fed Breast Milk, Milk Formula, or Soy Formula

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    The influence of the three most common infant diets (breast milk, milk-based and soy-based formulas) on growth, behavioral development, and cortical responses (ERPs) to the consonant-vowel syllable /pa/, was examined in 130 healthy infants from an ongoing longitudinal study of 600 from birth through...

  6. Visual Attention to Global and Local Stimulus Properties in 6-Month-Old Infants: Individual Differences and Event-Related Potentials

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    Guy, Maggie W.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were utilized in an investigation of 21 six-month-olds' attention to and processing of global and local properties of hierarchical patterns. Overall, infants demonstrated an advantage for processing the overall configuration (i.e., global properties) of local features of hierarchical patterns; however,…

  7. Effects of early education on the temperamental development for infants aged 6 months old%早期教育对6月龄婴儿气质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟召学; 李荣萍; 陈林英

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨早期教育对6月龄婴儿气质的影响,为更好地开展婴幼儿早期教育提供理论依据,促进婴幼儿心理及智力发育. [方法]采用Carey的儿童气质问卷对100例早教组6月龄婴儿及100例对照组6月龄婴儿进行气质测评. [结果]两组婴儿在气质类型和气质维度上差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).母亲学历低和家庭收入低对婴儿气质有消极影响,早期教育可以使难养型气质婴儿减少. [结论]早期教育可以促进婴幼儿气质良好发展,确保儿童早期身心健康发展.%[Objective] To explore the effects of early education on the temperamental development for infants aged 6 months old and to provide theoretical basis of early education on promoting the psychological and intellectual development of infants. [Methods] 200 normal 6-month-old infants were assigned to early education group (100 subjects) and the control group (100 subjects). All children of the two groups were assessed by Careys Children Temperamental Questionnaires. [Results] There was significant difference of the temperamental types between the two groups (all P<0. 05). The factor of mothers with low degree and low family income had negative effect on the temperament of infants. The early education could decrease the number of infants of difficult-to-raise type. [Conclusion] Early education has positive effect on the children's temperament,and promotes the development of infants.

  8. 6月龄超重和肥胖婴儿神经心理发育分析%Analysis of neuropsychological development of overweight and obese 6-month-old infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑英; 孙晓勉; 钟赛如

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of neuropsychology of 6-month-old infants, and to provide theoretical basis for prevention and intervention of infant obesity .Methods Neuropsychological development of 98 overweight and obese infants aged 6 months ( overweight and obese group ) and that of 100 normal weight infants ( normal group ) were assessed with Developmental Screening Test (DST), an intellectual developmental screening test developed by Pediatric Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai , and the differences in developmental quotient abnormality , exercise capacity , social adaptation and intelligence were compared between two groups .Results The proportion of infants with suspicious values of DQ in the overweight and obese group was obviously higher than that in the normal group (χ2 =4.521,P<0.05).The value of the exercise capacity in the overweight and obese group was lower than that of the normal group (χ2 =3.207, P <0.05 ).Conclusion Overweight and obesity have bad influence on neuropsychological development of 6-month-old infants, so they should be prevented .%目的:探讨超重和肥胖对6月龄婴儿神经心理发育的影响,为婴儿肥胖的预防和干预提供理论依据。方法采用上海复旦大学儿科医院0~6岁发育筛查测验( DST),对98例6月龄超重和肥胖婴儿和100例正常体质量婴儿进行对照研究,比较两组发育商( DQ)的异常率和在运动、社会适应、智力能区的差异。结果超重和肥胖组中DQ值可疑的婴儿比例明显高于正常体质量组(χ2=4.521,P<0.05)。在运动能区得分中,超重和肥胖组低于正常体质量组(χ2=3.207,P<0.05)。结论超重和肥胖对6月龄婴儿神经心理发育有不良影响,应预防婴儿超重和肥胖的发生。

  9. Relationship between intelligence development and birth season in 6 month old infants%出生季节与6月龄婴儿智能发育的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金岚; 李培培; 杨珍珍; 高明娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between intelligence development and their birth seasons in 6 month old infants, and to provide the basis for early childhood development. Methods A total of 214 children at the age of 6 month, no high risk, healthy were chosen from children's mental health clinic of Maternal and Child Health Institution in the city of Hefei, as the subjects of study with the method of tests and interviews. Results Infants at the age of 6 month had significant differences in gross motor, fine motor, adaptability, sociability and average DQ (P<0.01), according to their different birth seasons. The DQ of infants born in summer was less than that of infants born in spring and winter (P<0.01), and fine motor, adaptability and average DQ were less than those of infants born in autumn (P <0.05 for fine motor P<0.01 for adaptability and average DQ). Infants born in spring and winter had the higher score. Conclusion Seasonal differences exist in the intelligence development of 6 month old infants.%目的 研究6月龄婴儿出生季节与智能发育的关系,为儿童早期发展指导提供依据.方法 合肥市妇幼保健所儿童心理保健科测试的无高危因素且0~6月龄无重大疾病的6 月龄婴儿共214 例作为研究对象,运用0~6 岁儿童智能发育测验与访谈法进行研究.结果 不同出生季节的婴儿在6月龄时各能区发育商比较,大运动、精细动作、适应能力、社交、平均发育商差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).夏季出生的6月龄婴儿发育商分别低于春、冬季出生的婴儿,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),精细动作、适应能力和平均发育商分别低于秋季出生的婴儿(精细动作P <0.05,适应能力和平均发育商P <0.01),冬春季出生的6 月龄婴儿各能区发育商分值高于夏秋季.结论 6月龄婴儿智能发育存在季节差异性.

  10. 喂养方式与0~6月龄婴儿肥胖关系的研究%Correlation between Different Feeding Types and Obesity in 0-6 Month Old Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 叶小青; 彭雪娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究不同的喂养方式与0~6月龄婴儿的超重和肥胖之间是否有关系,从而为制定预防儿童超重和肥胖干预措施提供依据.方法 回顾调查512名婴儿,定期儿童保健系统管理,比较出生以后0~6月内不同喂养方式对婴儿的超重和肥胖的影响,探讨不同的喂养方式与超重和肥胖率之间的关系.结果 42d、3月、4月、5月、6月龄婴儿的母乳喂养组与配方奶喂养组以及混合喂养组三者之间的超重率和肥胖率的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 不同喂养方式与婴儿期的超重和肥胖无相应关系,未显示母乳喂养对0~6月龄婴儿的肥胖发生有保护作用.婴儿的性别、出生体重、分娩方式、母亲年龄、文化水平、职业、家庭经济状况以及辅食添加时间对6月龄儿童肥胖发生率影响不明显.%Objective To explore the relationship between different feeding patterns and overweight and obesity in 0 to 6-month-old infants,so as to develop the prevention measures of childhood overweight and provide the basis for obesity interventions. Methods Child care system management was carried out and the data of 512 infants were surveyed to analyze the effects of feeding patterns on the overweight and obesity in 0 to 6-monlh-old infants. Results Among the breastfeeding group .formula feeding group and the mixed feeding group,the difference in the incidence of overweight and obesity in 42 day,3-month,4-month, 5-month and 6-month-old infants was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion There is no corresponding relationship between the feeding patterns and ihe incidence of overweight and obesity in infants, the result does not reveal a protective effect of breastfeeding.The baby's sex and birth weight,mode of delivery,maternal age,educational level,occupation,family economic conditions and the time for adding complementary foods have not an obvious effect on the incidence of obesity in children aged 6

  11. Analysis of factors on development of 6-month-old infants%影响6月龄婴儿发育水平的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔莉芳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To analyse the factors which influence the infants' early development and provide the theoretical basis for promoting child early development. [Methods] Compared the effects on developmental quotients by 15 factors including feeding method,early education method,nutrition condition,periodical check,main caregivers and so on,based on 518 6-month-old infants' developmental quotients in Gesell development scale. {Results] In single-factor analysis, there were 12 factors which executively affect on early developmental quotients of babies including mother education level, feeding method,early education method,nutrition condition. And through Multiple regression analysis, there were 6 factors which were correlated positively with 6-month-old infants' developmental quotients including mother education level, feeding method,early education method, pregnant woman's health, nutrition status and the main caregivers. I Conclusions] There are 6 factors which greatly affect on 6-month infants' developmental quotients including mother education level, feeding method,early education method, pregnant woman's health, nutrition status and the main caregivers. So great importance should be focused to these factors to promote early child development.%[目的]研究影响婴儿早期发育状况的相关因素,为婴儿发育的早期促进提供参考依据. [方法]收集2008-2010年在浏阳市妇幼保健院心理行为发育门诊进行盖泽尔发育测试的6月龄婴儿共518例,从喂养方式,母亲文化程度、家庭经济收入、早教方式、营养状况、定期检查、主要抚养人等15个方面进行多因素分析,分别比较对婴儿发育水平的影响. [结果]相关因素的分析显示母亲文化、喂养方式、早教方式、孕母营养等12种因素影响婴儿的早期发育水平.经多元回归分析,母亲文化、喂养方式、早教方式、孕母营养、营养状况、主要抚养人6项因素与6月龄

  12. Early diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis of hip in infants under 6 month old%6月龄以下婴儿化脓性髋关节炎诊疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金斌; 孙军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨6月龄以内婴儿化脓性髋关节炎的诊断和治疗时机,以减少后遗症的发生。方法回顾性分析本院自2003年1月至2010年12月收治的年龄在6个月以内的化脓性髋关节炎患儿临床资料,共32例33髋,归纳分析其早期诊断、治疗方法与效果。结果32例术后平均随访2.1年,其中21例于起病1周内就诊并获确诊,急诊给予髋关节切开置管冲洗引流术,并静脉二联应用抗生素至体温正常后1周,再口服抗生素2周,予 Pavlik 吊带将患髋外展位固定4周,痊愈率达100%,随访无后遗症。11例12髋起病超过1周后就诊,确诊后按上述方法治疗,6例痊愈无后遗症,5例6髋遗留股骨头骺破坏,关节僵硬,其中1例双侧股骨头骺破坏吸收,造成病理性髋关节脱位。结论早期发现、早期诊断、早期手术及抗炎治疗是减少或避免婴儿化脓性髋关节炎发生严重后遗症的关键因素。早期诊治的时间节点是起病1周内。%Objetive To explore the best diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis of hip in infants un-der 6 month old,in order to reduce the incidence of complications.Methods Retrospective analyze the cases under 6 month old of septic arthritis of the hip in our hospital from January 2003 to December 201 0,which have 32 patients (33 hips),and summarize the methods of early diagnosis and treatment. Results There were 21 cases visited our hospital and had been diagnosed septic arthritis of the hip.We gave them emergent operation of hip incision drainage and catheter flushing,then two-antibiotic anti-infective therapy for 2 weeks,and two weeks of oral antibiotics,fixed the hip abduction with Pavlik harness for 4 weeks,we got the cure rate of 1 00%,without any sequelae after more than 1 year follow-up.1 1 patients with 1 2 hips were transferred to our hospital more than a week after the onset,underwent the same treatment after diagnosis.6 cases recovered

  13. 山西省城市0~6个月龄婴儿母乳喂养现状调查%0-6 month-old infants breastfed Investigation in urban areas in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽丽; 朱玲; 杨建平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of breastfeeding among infants of 0 to 6 months in urban areas in Shanxi,to increase the rate of breastfeeding.Methods A total of urban infants aged 0 -6 months were selected and their mothers were investigated by the questionnaire on site.Results A total of 4 868 urban infants aged 0 -6 months and their mothers were investigated.The rate of breastfeeding was 64.60%,the rate of mixed feeding was 27.90%,the rate of artificial feeding was 7.40%.The infants′mother′s age,culture level, the way of delivery(natural labor,dystocia,cesarean delivery),the situation of the nipple(normal,flat,concave), nutritional status during pregnancy,mother's self awareness of the amount of breasts supply(enough,not enough)were associated with breastfeeding(χ2 =62.367,25.021,67.419,60.941,16.675,8.241,3.081,all P <0.05 or P <0.01).Conclusion The corresponding measures should be taken according to the factors affecting breastfeeding in order to improve the rate of breastfeeding.%目的:了解目前山西省城市0~6个月龄婴儿母乳喂养现状及影响母乳喂养因素,提高母乳喂养率。方法采用现场问卷对城市0~6个月龄婴儿母乳喂养状况进行调查,对调查结果进行统计学分析。结果共调查0~6月龄婴儿及母亲4868例,母乳喂养率为64.60%,混合喂养率27.90%,人工喂养率7.40%。母乳喂养与婴儿母亲年龄、文化程度、分娩方式(顺产、难产、剖宫产)、乳头情况(正常、扁平、凹陷)、孕期营养状况、母亲自觉奶量(充足、不足)有关,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=62.367、25.021、67.419、60.941、16.675、8.241、3.081,均 P <0.05或 P <0.01)。结论应针对影响母乳喂养的因素采取相应措施,提高母乳喂养率。

  14. [Myocardiosis in a 6-month-old Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, P; Wohlsein, P; Junginger, J; Dziallas, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K

    2013-01-01

    In a 6-month-old, chronically inappetent Lawsons's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii) with stunted growth a hyperdense cardiac region was found using radiology and computed tomography. At necropsy a profound necrosis of the myocardium with dystrophic calcification was diagnosed. In contrast to the frequently seen metastatic mineralisation of soft tissues, mainly due to poor husbandry, primary tissue destruction is the cause for dystrophic calcification. In reptiles, this is a rarely described form of calcification. Possible causes are infectious processes, nutritional or metabolic insufficiencies, intoxications or genetic components. In the presented case the aetiology could not be determined. In conclusion, dystrophic calcifications should be considered as a differential diagnosis in reptiles with soft tissue mineralisation.

  15. Multifocal hepatoblastoma in a 6-month-old girl with trisomy 18: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitanovski Lidija

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Edward's syndrome (trisomy 18 is a rare entity with a reported incidence of 1/3000 to 1/7000 births. Less than 10% of patients survive beyond the first year of life, which may influence the fact that malignant tumors are rarely reported in association with this syndrome. Case presentation The authors report a rare case of a 6-month-old girl with trisomy 18 and multifocal hepatoblastoma. The course of the disease, autopsy results and review of the literature are presented. Conclusion Our case represents the seventh published case of hepatoblastoma in a patient with trisomy 18. All of the seven published cases were women, possibly due to the high preponderance of females among the children with Edward's syndrome and longer survival of females with trisomy 18 compared to males. Since both trisomy 18 and hepatoblastoma are rare conditions, the probability that a child with trisomy 18 will independently develop a hepatoblastoma is very low. Therefore, we believe that the existence of these cases in children with trisomy 18 indicates a significant association. It can be assumed that trisomy 18 potentiates the development of hepatoblastoma. Careful clinical and post-mortem studies are needed to recognize the real frequency of hepatoblastoma in children with trisomy 18, who might die from different causes with unrecognizable hepatoblastoma.

  16. The Edge Factor in Early Word Segmentation: Utterance-Level Prosody Enables Word Form Extraction by 6-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Seidl, Amanda; Tyler, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that English learners begin segmenting words from speech by 7.5 months of age. However, more recent research has begun to show that, in some situations, infants may exhibit rudimentary segmentation capabilities at an earlier age. Here, we report on four perceptual experiments and a corpus analysis further investigating the initial emergence of segmentation capabilities. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing target words located either utterance medially or at utterance edges. Only those infants familiarized with passages containing target words aligned with utterance edges exhibited evidence of segmentation. In Experiments 3 and 4, 6-month-olds recognized familiarized words when they were presented in a new acoustically distinct voice (male rather than female), but not when they were presented in a phonologically altered manner (missing the initial segment). Finally, we report corpus analyses examining how often different word types occur at utterance boundaries in different registers. Our findings suggest that edge-aligned words likely play a key role in infants’ early segmentation attempts, and also converge with recent reports suggesting that 6-month-olds’ have already started building a rudimentary lexicon. PMID:24421892

  17. Adipsia and hypernatraemia in a 6-month-old Staffordshire bull terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa McClure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 6-month-old female Staffordshire bull terrier cross presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital with lethargy, weakness, decreased appetite, abnormal vocalisation, twitching of the facial muscles and ears, circling, alopecia, pruritus, seborrhoea sicca and erythema. Serum biochemistry revealed severe hypernatraemia (200.4 mmol/L; Reference Interval 140 mmol/L – 155 mmol/L. Treatment required careful administration of intravenous fluids. The electrolytes were monitored to ensure slow and controlled sodium normalisation (the target reduction of Na concentration was by 0.5 mmol/L/h –1 mmol/L/h or 12 mmol/L/24 h – 24 mmol/L/24 h. Despite the careful fluid calculations and close monitoring, the serum sodium levels dropped more than the recommended 0.5 mmol/L/h – 1 mmol/L/h in the first 4 h and the fluids had to be adjusted. The patient’s habitus improved and the central nervous system signs started to resolve after 1 day of fluid treatment. The puppy started eating food mixed with water, but made no attempt to drink water. The pruritus and erythema resolved once the sodium levels normalised and the seborrhoea sicca began to resolve. At a follow up visit 20 days post discharge the skin was normal. A diagnosis of hypernatraemia as a result of pure water loss due to hypodipsia or adipsia was made, as the puppy made no attempt to drink water when her serum sodium levels increased (a strong thirst stimulus. Hypernatraemia recurred if she was not forced to take in adequate amounts of water mixed with her food. Dermatological changes such as seborrhoea, hyperkeratosis and alopecia have been reported in a few other cases of hypernatraemia in dogs and sodium levels should be investigated in dermatological patients when no other cause can be established. This study, supported by another retrospective study done in 2008, suggests that the Staffordshire bull terrier may be a breed that is predisposed to hypernatraemia.

  18. An unusual form of localized papulonodular cutaneous histiocytosis in a 6-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haselen, C W; Toonstra, J; den Hengst, C W; van Vloten, W A

    1995-09-01

    We report a 6-month-old boy with an unusual form of cutaneous histiocytosis. The lesions were noticed shortly after birth, and there was no evidence of systemic disease. This histiocytic disorder could not be classified according to the Histiocyte Society classification, and was therefore designated an 'unclassified' group II histiocytic disorder. The clinical picture was characterized by dark-red papulonodules with a tendency to coalesce into plaques. Histologically, the infiltrate was characterized by non-epidermotropic histiocytes showing varying degrees of differentiation, eosinophils and lymphocytes, and by the absence of foamy cells and Touton giant cells. As a most conspicuous feature, electron microscopic examination revealed laminated dense bodies, whereas Birbeck granules and comma-shaped bodies were absent. This further distinguished this uncommon variant from the well-known class II histiocytoses. During a 6-month follow-up period all the lesions showed marked regression.

  19. December 2000: 6 month old boy with 2 week history of progressive lethargy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Larson, T C; Jennings, M T; Tulipan, N B; Toms, S A; Johnson, M D

    2001-04-01

    This 6-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a 10-day history of lethargy, obtundation, inability to hold his head up and mild torticollis. MRI and CT scans showed a large solid and cystic mass involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, pineal, superior pons, mesencephalon and posterior right thalamus. He underwent craniotomy initially for a partial tumor resection with an intraoperative diagnosis of desmoplastic astrocytoma. With immunohistochemistry and special stains the diagnosis of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) was made. A near total resection was performed a week after initial resection.The patient then was treated with chemotherapy. Two months later an MRI showed tumor growth. Following additional aggressive chemotherapy, an MRI at 5 months post-resection indicated further tumor progression. This case illustrates that some DIGs may behave more aggressively than typical WHO grade I lesions.

  20. Predicting Sights from Sounds: 6-Month-Olds' Intermodal Numerical Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Although the psychophysics of infants' nonsymbolic number representations have been well studied, less is known about other characteristics of the approximate number system (ANS) in young children. Here three experiments explored the extent to which the ANS yields abstract representations by testing infants' ability to transfer approximate number…

  1. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  2. [Nicolau syndrome induced by intramuscular injection of a hexavalent vaccine in a 6-month-old girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Paola C; Garello, Mónica; Nolte, María F; Lamy, Patricia; Giglio, Norberto; Castellano, Vanesa; Gentile, Ángela

    2017-02-01

    Nicolau syndrome, also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or livedo-like dermatitis, is a sudden tissue necrosis, a rare complication of intramuscular injection of some drugs. We report a case of a 6-month-old girl who received intramuscularly the third dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP- HVB-IPV/HIb), and immediately presented a livedoid lesion around the injection site, progressing to necrosis. We reinforce the importance of early diagnosis to perform a suitable treatment and clinical follow-up to avoid ischemic secondary complications.

  3. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Wahlen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN. Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%, with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure.

  4. Postural adjustments and reaching in 4-and 6-month-old infants : an EMG and kinematical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Peters, Victorine B.; Bakker, Hanneke; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    Adequate postural control is a prerequisite for daily activities such as reaching for an object. However, knowledge on the relationship between postural adjustments and the quality of reaching movements during human ontogeny is scarce. Therefore we evaluated the development of the relationship betwe

  5. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    in 6-month-old Danish pigs, the strains used for inoculation were classified as being of low (Bergen), low to moderate (Eystrup) and moderate to high (Lithuania) virulence. The cytokines interferon-alpha (INF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed increased levels after...

  6. Unusual pediatric co-morbility: autoimmune thyroiditis and cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a 6-month-old Italian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Flavia; Acquafredda, Angelo; Aceto, Gabriella; Penza, Rosa; Cavallo, Luciano

    2012-10-23

    We report on a case of autoimmune thyroiditis in a 6-month-old patient with cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Normal serum levels of thyroid hormons and thyroid-stimulating hormone were detected with high titers of circulant antithyroid antibodies and a dysomogeneous ultrasound appearance of the gland, typical of autoimmune thyroiditis. The research of maternal thyroid antibodies was negative. This is the first case of autoimmune thyroiditis found in such a young patient with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome ever described in literature. This association is random because nephrotic syndrome does not have an autoimmune pathogenesis and the genes involved in autoimmune thyroiditis are not related to those of nephrotic syndrome.

  7. Unusual pediatric co-morbility: autoimmune thyroiditis and cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a 6-month-old Italian patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Flavia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a case of autoimmune thyroiditis in a 6-month-old patient with cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Normal serum levels of thyroid hormons and thyroid-stimulating hormone were detected with high titers of circulant antithyroid antibodies and a dysomogeneous ultrasound appearance of the gland, typical of autoimmune thyroiditis. The research of maternal thyroid antibodies was negative. This is the first case of autoimmune thyroiditis found in such a young patient with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome ever described in literature. This association is random because nephrotic syndrome does not have an autoimmune pathogenesis and the genes involved in autoimmune thyroiditis are not related to those of nephrotic syndrome.

  8. [Intraoperative fluid therapy in infants with congestive heart failure due to intracranial pial arteriovenous fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Fernández, F J; Calderón-Seoane, E; Rodríguez-Peña, F; Torres-Morera, L M

    2016-05-01

    Pial arteriovenous fistula is a rare intracranial congenital malformation (0.1-1: 100,000). It has a high blood flow between one or more pial arteries and drains into the venous circulation. It is usually diagnosed during the childhood by triggering an intracranial hypertension and/or congestive heart failure due to left-right systemic shunt. It is a rare malformation with a complex pathophysiology. The perioperative anaesthetic management is not well established. We present a 6-month-old infant diagnosed with pial arteriovenous fistula with hypertension and congestive heart failure due to left-right shunt. He required a craniotomy and clipping of vascular malformation. Anaesthetic considerations in patients with this condition are a great challenge. It must be performed by multidisciplinary teams with experience in paediatrics. The maintenance of blood volume during the intraoperative course is very important. Excessive fluid therapy can precipitate a congestive heart failure or intracranial hypertension, and a lower fluid therapy may cause a tissue hypoxia due to the bleeding. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful treatment of Dandy-Walker syndrome by endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 6-month-old girl with progressive hydrocephalus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Fen; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shyi-Jou

    2011-02-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Successful Treatment of Dandy–Walker Syndrome by Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in a 6-Month-Old Girl With Progressive Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fen Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dandy–Walker syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year.

  11. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, T; Lohse, L; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture in 6-month-old Danish pigs, the strains used for inoculation were classified as being of low (Bergen), low to moderate (Eystrup) and moderate to high (Lithuania) virulence. The cytokines interferon-alpha (INF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed increased levels after CSFV infection with more or less comparable course in the 3 groups. However, the cytokine level peaked with a 2-3 days delay in pigs infected with the low virulent strain compared to those infected with a moderately or highly virulent strain. These findings may indicate that INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α are involved in the immune response during CSFV infection with strains of different virulence.

  12. The Influence of Stimulus Material on Attention and Performance in the Visual Expectation Paradigm: A Longitudinal Study with 3- And 6-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Manuel; Lohaus, Arnold; Fassbender, Ina; Vierhaus, Marc; Spangler, Sibylle; Borchert, Sonja; Freitag, Claudia; Goertz, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Gudi, Helene; Kolling, Thorsten; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of stimulus material on attention and expectation learning in the visual expectation paradigm. Female faces were used as attention-attracting stimuli, and non-meaningful visual stimuli of comparable complexity (Greebles) were used as low attention-attracting stimuli. Expectation learning performance…

  13. Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces: A Cognitive Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Adam J.; Kalakanis, Lisa; Langlois, Judith H.

    1999-01-01

    Four studies assessed a cognitive explanation for development of infants' preference for attractive faces: cognitive averaging and preferences for mathematically averaged faces, or prototypes. Findings indicated that adults and 6-month olds prefer prototypical, mathematically averaged faces and that 6-month olds can abstract the central tendency…

  14. Transition from Rocking to Crawling: Postural Constraints on Infant Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated postural constraints on movement of 15 6-month-old infants. Results suggested that each of the developing capabilities of orienting, reaching, and kicking assumed a specific function for locomotion at the stage of crawling. (RJC)

  15. 2014与2009年昆山市6月龄儿童健康体检状况分析%Comparative analysis on physical examination of 6-month old children in Kunshan City in 2014 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐素香; 陈磊; 杨国强

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare health status of 6-month old children in 2014 to that in 2009 in Kunshan City of Jiangsu Province . Methods Maternal and child health network of Kunshan City was used to collect physical examination data of 6-month old children , including height, weight, hemoglobin and feeding pattern to compare the health status of them in 2014 and 2009.Results The mean height (67.97 ±2.48cm) (t=-2.520), mean weight (8.51 ±1.03kg) (t=-6.388), breastfeeding rate (17.78%) (χ2 =550.385) and prevalence of anemia (22.22%) (χ2 =150.615) in 6-month old children in 2014 were higher than those in 2009 in Kunshan City, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05).The height of children with breastfeeding (67.75 ±2.53cm) was less than that of children with mixed feeding (67.91 ±2.43cm) and artificial feeding children (68.06 ±2.58cm), but the weight (8.49 ±1.06kg) was higher than that of mixed feeding children (8.47 ±1.04kg) and artificial feeding children (8.43 ±1.05kg), and the differences were statistically significant (F value was 12.901 and -6.388, respectively, both P<0.05).Conclusion Prevention of children's anemia should be an important work in child health care work in Kunshan City .Propaganda on breastfeeding should be further enhanced to promote breastfeeding rate .%目的:比较2014年与2009年江苏省昆山市6月龄儿童健康状况。方法利用昆山市妇幼保健网络收集儿童体检资料,获得6月龄儿童的身高、体重、血红蛋白和喂养方式等信息,对2014年与2009年的6月龄儿童的健康状况进行比较,并进行分析。结果2014年昆山市6月龄儿童身高(67.97±2.48cm),t=-2.520;体重(8.51±1.03kg),t=-6.388;母乳喂养率(17.78%),χ2=550.385;贫血患病率(22.22%),χ2=150.615;以上数据均高于2009年,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。纯母乳喂养儿童的身高(67.75±2.53cm

  16. 1-6月龄婴儿重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭的临床分析%Clinical analysis on 20 1- 6 months old infants who have severe pneumonia combine with respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正伦; 蔡杰荣; 程远; 孔卫乾

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析总结1~6月龄婴儿重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭的临床表现和治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析广州市番禺区中心医院儿科2007-2010年3年间收治的1~6月龄婴儿重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭20例临床资料.结果 1~6月龄婴儿重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭临床表现严重,死亡率高.结论 1~6月龄婴儿重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭是儿科临床危重急症,早期发现、早期干预、早插快拔是治疗关键.%Objective To analyze and summarize 1-6 month impact of severe pneumonia with respiratory failure in children clinical manifestations and treatment. Methods Retrospective analysis of Panyu District, Guangzhou City, Central Hospital of Pediatrics 3 years 2007-2010 1 ~ 6 shadow on children admitted with severe pneumonia with respiratory failure in 20 patients with clinical data. Results 1~6 month shadow children with severe pneumonia with respiratory failure severe clinical manifestations and high mortality. Conclusion 1-6 month impact of severe pneumonia with respiratory failure in children is a pediatric clinical critical illness, early detection, early intervention, early intubation is the treatment of rapid extubation in the key treatment strategies.

  17. Survey on the relationship between breastfeeding and anemia in 6-month-old child of flower town in Guangzhou%广州市花山镇6月龄婴儿母乳喂养与贫血关系的调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李功基; 陈霞; 潘银友; 罗就馨; 范雪芬

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and anemia in 6-month-old child of flower town in Guangzhou , as well as the relationship between feeding and anemia .Methods:1 180 infants of 6 months born and examined healthy in flower town from January 2011 to December 2014 were taken as the objective of the study .According to the difference in the way of feeding , all was divided into breast feed-ing group, artificial feeding group, and mixed feeding group.The relationship between different feeding patterns and anemia in infants was ob-served, with the rate of anemia and the mean value of hemoglobin between the three groups compared .And then the main factors of infants'anemia of six months were explored in flower town in Guangzhou .Results:The detection rate of anemia in breastfeeding was much lower than that in artifi-cial feeding and mixed feeding, and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.01).The detection rate of anemia in mixed feeding was less than that in artificial feeding, with the difference statistically significant ( P <0.01) .The comparison of the mean value of hemoglobin between the three groups demonstrated that the mean value of hemoglobin in breastfeeding group was higher than that in mixed feeding group , and the mean value of hemoglobin in mixed feeding group was higher than that in artificial feeding, the difference statistically significant ( P <0.05).Anemia univariate analysis reflected that anemia of the mother, feeding patterns within6 months of infants, complementary feeding, and anemia of 6 -month-old infants were significantly associated .Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors in infants of 6 months were artifi-cial feeding patterns and anemia of the mother; and the addition of the milk and colostrum feeding formula was a protective factor for anemia of in-fants, the difference statistically significant ( P <0.01).Conclusion:Breastfeeding can reduce the prevalence of anemia in

  18. Rib fractures in infants due to cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinak, David

    2007-06-01

    Although it is widely known that adults may sustain fractures of the anterior and/or lateral aspects of the ribs due to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts, relatively little is written about the generation of CPR-related rib fractures in the infant age range. In a series of 70 consecutive autopsies in infants ranging in age from 2 weeks to 8 months, with no history or indications of injury, the parietal pleura of the thoracic cage was stripped and the ribs carefully examined for fracture. Subtle fractures of the anterolateral aspects of the ribs were discovered in 8 (11%) of the 70 cases. In 7 of the 8 cases, multiple ribs were fractured (ranging up to 10 rib fractures), and in 5 of these cases, the rib fractures were bilateral. All of the rib fractures were subtle, had little if any associated blood extravasation, and would have been easily missed had the parietal pleura not been stripped. These anterolateral rib fractures in infants are the likely correlate of anterolateral rib fractures that are not uncommonly seen in the adult population, resulting from resuscitation efforts. The rib fractures are subtle and may not be identified unless the parietal pleura is stripped.

  19. Infant preferences for attractive faces: a cognitive explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A J; Kalakanis, L; Langlois, J H

    1999-05-01

    Research on infant face perception has shown that infants' preferences for attractive faces exist well before socialization from parents, peers, and the media can affect these preferences. Four studies assessed a cognitive explanation for the development of attractiveness preferences: cognitive averaging and infant preferences for mathematically averaged faces, or prototypes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that both adults and 6-month-old infants prefer prototypical, mathematically averaged faces. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that 6-month-olds can abstract the central tendency from a group of naturalistic faces. Taken together, the studies suggest that infants' preferences for attractive faces can be explained by general information-processing mechanisms.

  20. Sudden infant death due to Lactococcal infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Nakayama, M; Nakahira, K; Nakura, Y; Kanagawa, N; Yanagihara, I; Miyaishi, S

    2016-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) of infants is rare, most of which occur associated with congenital heart disease or its cardiac surgery. We experienced a case of sudden death of a four-month-old male infant without congenital heart disease. It was elucidated by postmortem examination that the dead had suffered severe IE, which led him to death. In the microbiological genetic analysis using histological section, the pathogen causing inflammation in the present case was identified as Lactococcus lactis subspecies, although Staphylococci have been reported to be common and important one. Previously reported infectious diseases by Lactococcus lactis subspecies were all adult cases and this is the first report of an infantile death due to Lactococcal IE according to our knowledge. Any fatal disease may be included in sudden death cases targeted for forensic autopsy, even if it is rare. It is expected for forensic pathologists that they note such case and share each experience among themselves and other medical fields to develop a strategy for prevention.

  1. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type Af.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide.

  2. First Report of an Infant Botulism Case Due to Clostridium botulinum Type Af

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laura I. T.; Fernández, Rafael A.; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R.; Dykes, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide. PMID:25502535

  3. Sudden unexpected infant death due to fibroma of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, C; Minnasch, P; Gafumbegete, E; Reiter, A; Gerling, I; Oehmichen, M

    2000-05-01

    A 7-month-old previously healthy female infant was found dead in her crib by her mother shortly after having been laid down to sleep following the noontime feeding. Because the child did not suffer from an acute illness and no other evidence pointed to a cause of death, it was initially assumed by the police that she had died of sudden infant death syndrome. At autopsy, however, the cause of death was determined to be cardiac arrhythmia secondary to fibroma of the heart.

  4. [Persistent tachypnea in infants: possibly due to interstitial pneumonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, M.L.; Nef, J.J.E.M. de; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Merth, I.T.

    2002-01-01

    In three male infants aged 3, 4.5 and 11 months with tachypnea and feeding problems, the initial supplementary examination revealed no possible cause. The tissue obtained by open lung biopsy showed interstitial pneumonia/pneumonitis. The two youngest patients were treated with hydrochloroquine and p

  5. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Mi; Chai, Jee Won [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2), early AI (n=5), sepsis (n=1), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13). Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4%) were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days). The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE) in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%), grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%), and increased PVE in three (21%) infants. Five infants (36%) showed new development (n=4) or increased size (n=1) of GMH. Two of three infants (14%) with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  6. Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis in an Infant due to Naegleria fowleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Khanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM caused by free-living amebae Naegleria fowleri is a rare and fatal condition. A fatal case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in a 5-month-old infant who presented with the history of decrease breast feeding, fever, vomiting, and abnormal body movements. Trophozoites of Naegleria fowleri were detected in the direct microscopic examination of CSF and infant was put on amphotericin B and ceftazidime. Patient condition deteriorated, and he was discharged against medical advice and subsequently expired. We also reviewed previously reported 8 Indian cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM and observed that for the last 5 years, none of the patients responded to amphotericin B. Has an era of amphotericin B-resistant Naegleria fowleri been emerged? Management strategy of PAM needs to be reviewed further.

  7. Can human eyes prevent perceptual narrowing for monkey faces in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Fabrice; Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Méary, David; Dupierrix, Eve; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Perceptual narrowing has been observed in human infants for monkey faces: 6-month-olds can discriminate between them, whereas older infants from 9 months of age display difficulty discriminating between them. The difficulty infants from 9 months have processing monkey faces has not been clearly identified. It could be due to the structural characteristics of monkey faces, particularly the key facial features that differ from human faces. The current study aimed to investigate whether the information conveyed by the eyes is of importance. We examined whether the presence of Caucasian human eyes in monkey faces allows recognition to be maintained in 6-month-olds and facilitates recognition in 9- and 12-month-olds. Our results revealed that the presence of human eyes in monkey faces maintains recognition for those faces at 6 months of age and partially facilitates recognition of those faces at 9 months of age, but not at 12 months of age. The findings are interpreted in the context of perceptual narrowing and suggest that the attenuation of processing of other-species faces is not reversed by the presence of human eyes.

  8. Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murone, Anne-Joëlle Bosset; Stucki, Pascal; Roback, Mark G; Gehri, Mario

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate food intoxication in infants as a consequence of fennel ingestion. Four cases of methemoglobinemia (MetHb) are presented here. Each patient ate homemade fennel purée a few hours prior to arriving to the emergency department with cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen, in the absence of suspected cyanotic heart disease. All 4 patients received treatment with methylene blue and fully recovered. Our cases emphasize that improper handling and storing of vegetables can lead to life-threatening MetHb.

  9. Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi , previously known as Corynebacterium equi, is one of the most important causes of zoonotic infection in grazing animals. Increased cases of human infection with R. equi have been reported especially in immunocompromised patients. Infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report a case of R. equi bacteremia in a 26-day-old immunocompetent infant with recurrent swellings on different parts of the body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report of R. equi bacteremia from an immunocompetent patient from Northern India.

  10. Behavior of Mothers and Infants with and without Down Syndrome during the Still-Face Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Derek G.; Oates, John M.; Goodwin, Julia; Hobson, R. Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of how the constitutional characteristics of infants with Down syndrome (DS) influence the patterning of their relations with caregivers. To assess natural and perturbed interactions between infants with DS and their mothers, we tested ten 6-month-old infants with DS and 20 typically developing (TD) 4-month-old of…

  11. Behavior of Mothers and Infants with and without Down Syndrome during the Still-Face Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Derek G.; Oates, John M.; Goodwin, Julia; Hobson, R. Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been limited study of how the constitutional characteristics of infants with Down syndrome (DS) influence the patterning of their relations with caregivers. To assess natural and perturbed interactions between infants with DS and their mothers, we tested ten 6-month-old infants with DS and 20 typically developing (TD) 4-month-old of…

  12. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mi Shin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD due to adrenal insufficiency (AI in preterm infants. Methods: Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2, early AI (n=5, sepsis (n=1, and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13. Results: Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4% were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days. The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%, grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%, and increased PVE in three (21% infants. Five infants (36% showed new development (n=4 or increased size (n=1 of GMH. Two of three infants (14% with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. Conclusion: LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  13. Hypernatremic Dehydration Due to Concentrated Infant Formula: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Leung

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare but serious clinical condition in newborns and small infants. It is usually caused by diarrhea, improperly prepared infant formula, decreased fluid intake, or exclusive breastfeeding. Symptoms are usually masked until neurological symptoms occur. We report two infants who presented with fever and hypernatremic dehydration caused by concentrating infant formula to alleviate symptoms of constipation, and careless formula preparation due to confusion over spoon sizes, respectively. In the first case, status epilepticus occurred during early treatment, despite close serum sodium monitoring, though the infant was asymptomatic and thriving 4 years after discharge, with no identified neurodevelopmental deficits. The course of treatment was smooth in the second case, and no neurological complications developed. The practice of concentrating infant formula to relieve symptoms of constipation, although temporarily effective, is hazardous to newborns or young infants and can cause hypernatremic dehydration. Spoon sizes supplied with commercial infant formulas (30 mL/spoonful or 60 mL/spoonful should be unified to avoid mistakes during preparation, especially by inexperienced and teenage mothers.

  14. Sudden Infant Death With Area Postrema Lesion Likely Due to Wrong Use of Insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Cappiello, Achille; Termopoli, Veronica; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    We report a noteworthy case of a 7-month-old infant who suddenly and unexpectedly died during her sleep. After a complete postmortem examination, review of the clinical history, and detailed death scene investigation, the death remained unexplained, leading to a diagnosis of sudden infant death syndrome. However, an extensive review of the brainstem neuropathology revealed a severe alteration in the area postrema (a highly vascular structure lying at the base of the fourth ventricle outside of the blood-brain barrier). The alteration was likely due to massive and repeated to a common household insecticide in the last few weeks of life. These results provide an explanation for this sudden infant death, allowing a differential diagnosis from sudden infant death syndrome.

  15. 父母受教育水平对婴儿早期智能发育的影响%The Effect of the Parent's Education on the Early Intellectual Development of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝; 于宗富

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of parent's education on the early intellectual development of infants. Methods: A total of 3,000 infants in a general hospital were sampled and divided into three groups: 3-month-old, 6-month-old and 9-month-old. All of the infants were tested with DST. Results: The parent's education was shown to have a significant effect on the intellectual development of 6-month-old and 9-month-old infants. The better education the parents had, the brighter the infants were. Conclusions: The parent's education had significant effect on the baby's early intelligence development.

  16. Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cupping Glass Treatment in an Infant With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtman, Yariv; Dardik, Rima; Barg, Assaf Arie; Livnat, Tami; Feldman, Zeev; Rubinstein, Marina; Grinberg, Gahl; Rosenberg, Nurit; Kenet, Gili

    2016-06-01

    A 6 months old infant, diagnosed with a rare mutation causing severe hemophilia A, presented with spinal epidural hematoma. Parents later admitted the infant had glass cupping therapy performed within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. The rare mutation, rare bleeding complication, and the eventual course of therapy applied in this case will be discussed in our case report.

  17. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe Madura

    2015-01-01

    -produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n...

  18. Intussusceptions due to trauma in a 17-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invagination is a kind of intestine disease in children and it is occurred between 2 upto 14 years old. This is a report of 17 months infant with intussusception due to trauma. The patient had admitted to emergency department because of motor vehicle accident and because of abdominal pain, abdominal computed tomography (CT scan was done.

  19. Management of tongue and lip laceration due to dystonia in a 1-year-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Beena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the management of tongue and lip lacerations due to dystonia in a 1-year-old infant. A splint was given to raise the bite and prevent repeated trauma and aid in healing of the oral tissue. This paper highlights the importance of pediatric dentist's role in improving quality of patient care in an intensive care unit.

  20. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N = 56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants’ learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old infants (N = 84) involved the still face procedure where infants’ reactions to their mothers’ lack of responsivity were not effective in reestabl...

  1. When Infants Lose Exclusive Maternal Attention: Is It Jealousy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Carrington, Heather A.; Tronick, E. Z.; Carroll, Sebrina R.

    2004-01-01

    To characterize infant reactions to jealousy evocation, 94 6-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped in an episode where the mothers directed positive attention toward a lifelike doll, and in 2 contrasting interactions: face-to-face play and a still-face perturbation. Cross-context comparisons of affects and behaviors revealed that jealousy…

  2. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads…

  3. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads…

  4. Acute renal failure due to bilateral uric acid lithiasis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mete; Boleken, M Emin; Soran, Mustafa; Kanmaz, Turan; Yücesan, Selçuk

    2007-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the complications of urolithiasis, but the role of medical treatment to relieve urinary obstruction in children with ARF is uncertain. We report on infants with acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis. We describe presentation features as well as diagnosis methods and medical treatment in five infants who were admitted to our institution with ARF due to uric acid lithiasis. The medical treatments for all patients were fluid liberalization, urine alkalinization, and oral allopurinol. Two children underwent urinary diversion. Within 8 h, urine output improved in all patients, and the stones passed spontaneously. All obstructed kidneys were relieved with medical treatment, and no renal sequel remained. So this series has showed a role of medical therapy in acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis.

  5. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeate...

  6. Virulence of pertactin-negative Bordetella pertussis isolates from infants, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, Hélène; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-03-01

    Bordetella pertussis isolates that do not express pertactin (PRN) are increasing in regions where acellular pertussis vaccines have been used for >7 years. We analyzed data from France and compared clinical symptoms among infants <6 months old infected by PRN-positive or PRN-negative isolates. No major clinical differences were found between the 2 groups.

  7. Study of community-based intervention on early education caregivers attitude in 0 ~ 6 months old infants%0~6月龄婴儿早期教育综合干预模式对看护人态度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红; 曾芳芳; 朱明范; 陈慧; 石英英; 陈亚英; 江明; 郭丽

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Community as a link, to study community-based intervention on early education'caregivers attitude change. [Methods] 422 newborns selected from November 2009 to March 2010, were divided into intervention group (202) and control group (220). Both groups were given basic health services. In addition, the intervention group were given comprehensive intervention program. Intervention period lasted 6-month. Caregivers knowledge, attitude and behavior change were compared before and after intervention. [Result] Caregivers increased frequency of listening music and movement training significantly, and parents actively participated in other early education course in intervention group. [Conclusion] Early community-based comprehensive intervention can obviously promote caregivers mothering knowledge, attitude and behavior.%目的 以社区家庭为纽带,了解立足社区的婴儿早期教育的综合干预模式对看护人教养态度的影响 方法 选择2009年11月-2010年3月出生的新生儿422人,干预组202人,对照组220人 两组婴儿均给予基本的儿童保健服务,干预组在此基础上给予自行设计的早期教育综合干预方案,干预为期6个月,比较综合干预前后两组看护人的育儿知识、态度、行为的变化情况 结果 干预组看护者明显增加了婴儿听音乐及动作训练的频率,并主动参与其他早教课程 结论 对看护人进行早期教育综合干预,可明显改善看护人的育儿知识、态度和行为.

  8. The relationship between prior night's sleep and measures of infant imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S; Schneider, Silvia; Seehagen, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether sleep quality during the night and naps during the day preceding a learning event are related to memory encoding in human infants. Twenty-four 6- and twenty-four 12-month-old infants' natural sleeping behavior was monitored for 24 hr using actigraphy. After the recording period, encoding was assessed using an imitation paradigm. In an initial baseline phase, infants were allowed to interact with the stimulus to assess spontaneous production of any target actions. Infants then watched an experimenter demonstrate a sequence of three target actions and were immediately given the opportunity to reproduce the demonstrated target actions to assess memory encoding. Analyses revealed significant correlations between nighttime sleep quality variables (sleep efficiency, sleep fragmentation) and immediate imitation in 6-month-olds, but not in 12-month-olds. High sleep quality in the preceding night was thus positively associated with next day's memory encoding in 6-month-old infants.

  9. Bacteremia due to Acinetobacter ursingii in infants: Reports of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Nurhayat; Kepenekli, Eda Kadayifci; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Akkoc, Gulsen; Demir, Sevliya Ocal; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter ursingii is an aerobic, gram-negative, opportunistic microorganism which is rarely isolated among Acinetobacter species. We present two immunocompetent infants who developed bacteremia due to A. ursingii. The first patient is a two -month- old boy who had been hospitalized in pediatric surgery unit for suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula because of recurrent aspiration pneumonia unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. The second patient is a fourteen -month- old boy with prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. A. ursingii was isolated from their blood cultures. They were successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. Although A. ursingii has recently been isolated from a clinical specimen; reports of infection with A. ursingii in children are rare. A. ursingii should be kept in mind as an opportunistic microorganism in children.

  10. The influence of pets on infants' processing of cat and dog images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Karinna B; Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A; Oakes, Lisa M

    2010-12-01

    We examined how experience at home with pets is related to infants' processing of animal stimuli in a standard laboratory procedure. We presented 6-month-old infants with photographs of cats or dogs and found that infants with pets at home (N=40) responded differently to the pictures than infants without pets (N=40). These results suggest that infants' experience in one context (at home) contributes to their processing of similar stimuli in a different context (the laboratory), and have implications for how infants' early experience shapes basic cognitive processing.

  11. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  12. Biotin and carnitine deficiency due to hypoallergenic formula nutrition in infants with milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisako; Tokuriki, Shuko; Okuno, Takashi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yasushi, Akiba; Matsuyama, Go; Sawada, Ken; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid formulas and hydrolyzed formulas given to infants in Japan with milk allergies theoretically contain little, if any, biotin and carnitine. We assessed biotin and carnitine insufficiency in six infants with milk allergy who were fed amino acid formulas and/or hydrolyzed formulas, by measuring urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA) and serum free carnitine (C0), respectively. All patients presented with elevated urine 3-HIA and lowered serum C0 compared with post-menstrual age-matched infants who were fed breast milk or standard infant formulas. Supplementation with biotin and L-carnitine immediately improved the insufficiency. Care should be taken to avoid biotin and carnitine deficiency in allergic infants fed amino acid or hydrolyzed formulas.

  13. Acute liver failure due to Human Herpesvirus 6 in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tronconi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus, drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6 genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases’ review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus’s genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  14. [Acute liver failure due to human herpesvirus 6 in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronconi, G M; Mariani, B; Pajno, R; Fomasi, M; Cococcioni, L; Biffi, V; Bove, M; Corsin, P; Garbetta, G; Barera, G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF) with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus), drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases' review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus's genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  15. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  16. Maternal and Paternal Plasma, Salivary, and Urinary Oxytocin and Parent-Infant Synchrony: Considering Stress and Affiliation Components of Human Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2011-01-01

    Studies in mammals have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in processes of bond formation and stress modulation, yet the involvement of OT in human bonding throughout life remains poorly understood. We assessed OT in the plasma, saliva, and urine of 112 mothers and fathers interacting with their 4-6-month-old infants. Parent-infant…

  17. Deficits in Top-Down Sensory Prediction in Infants At Risk due to Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Boldin, Alex M; Riccio, Julie E; Guillet, Ronnie; Aslin, Richard N

    2017-02-06

    A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]. Is an alteration in early prediction abilities the common cause? Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured top-down sensory prediction in preterm infants (born identification of infants at risk and could guide early intervention regimens.

  18. The neuropsychology of infants' pro-social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Gottwald, Janna; Ekberg, Therese; Elsner, Claudia; Reid, Vincent; Kenward, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants' detection of pro- and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds' observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants' memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants' processing of pro- and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing).

  19. Hypernatremia in breast-fed infants due to elevated breast milk sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J M

    1989-09-01

    The author describes severe hypernatremic dehydration in a 12-day-old, breast-fed infant. The mother's breast milk sodium level at the 13th day of the infant's life was 47 mEq/L, more than three times normal value. At the 30th day, the mother's breast milk sodium level was 16 mEq/L, still more than twice the normal value. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time in a case of this type that the breast milk sodium value of the mother has been followed this late in the infant's life. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that delayed maturation of breast milk composition is of central importance in this condition. A search of the literature reveals that the mothers of these babies fit a clinically distinct profile. Elevated breast milk sodium with hypernatremic dehydration is a cause of significant morbidity in some breast-fed infants. The pathogenesis of this condition and the implications for its prevention are discussed.

  20. Major Full Skin Thickness Burn Injuries in an Infant due to an Incubator: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Ciftci

    2011-06-01

    We conclude that in neonates and infants, relatively low temperatures may cause deep burn injuries. We therefore recommend the delivery of preterm childbirths at well equipped facilities with staff who are qualified to nurse premature neonates. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 85-88

  1. [Infant and child morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal disease in central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuzeta, J J; Merlin, M; Josse, R; Mouanda, V; Kouka Bemba, D

    1988-06-01

    significance of climatic and seasonal variations. Only 7.1% of the reported diarrheal episodes were treated by oral rehydration therapy. 50.7% received some other form of medical treatment, 27.4% received traditional treatment, and 14.7% were not treated. Oral rehydration was not used at all in 2 survey locations and use exceeded 13% in only 3 locations. Diarrhea was a factor in 53% of reported deaths in infants and small children. Deaths due to diarrhea without any associated cause were in 2nd place following measles. Mortality rates due to diarrhea varied from under 65/1000 in survey sites with tropical or equatorial climates to 119.31 and 263.9.1000 in sites with Sahelian climates. Rural diarrheal mortality rates were higher than urban rates except in N'djamena, Chad.

  2. The impact of infant feeding patterns on infection and diarrheal disease due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. Determine the impact of dietary risk factors on patterns of infection by heat labile toxin-producing Escherichia coli (LT-ETEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ninety-eight infants were followed from birth for one year in Guadalajara, Mexico, beginning in august of 1986. Stool and breast milk samples were collected weekly from infants and their mothers, respectively. Mothers were also interviewed on a weekly basis regarding the health of the infants. Parametric hazard models were fit to durations of different LTETEC disease states determined through the analysis of stools. The child's consumption of supplemental foods and liquids as well as specific levels of LT-ETEC-specific breast milk antibodies were included in each model as time-varying covariates. RESULTS. The hazard of LTETEC asymptomatic infection increased 400 percent among children who received oats gruel (hazard rate= 4.01; 95% CI 2.77-5.24. The duration of infection was reduced if the child had had a previous LT-ETEC diarrheal episode (2.12; 95% CI 1.74-2.49 but was prolonged if the child consumed herbal teas (0.53; 95% CI 0.27-0.7. Herbal teas and high LTETEC-specific breast milk antibody levels each reduced the hazard of symptomatic infection by ninety percent. Symptomatic episodes became asymptomatic more rapidly if a child was given rice water. CONCLUSIONS. Specific weaning foods increase the risk of infection. Breastmilk antibodies and liquid infusions reduce diarrheal disease and infection duration.

  3. [Intra-cranial hemorrhage in infants due to vitamin K deficiency - report of 2 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, E; Silva, R J; Filho, J H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Drive attention to the late form of the hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, secondary to vitamin K deficiency, as a cause of intracranial hemorrhage in young infants.METHODS: The authors describe and analyze two cases of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, secondary to vitamin K deficiency, producing intracranially hemorrhage during the second month of age. The most important publications on this subject are reviewed.RESULTS: Both infants had not received prophylaxis with vitamin K at birth. They were both being fed exclusively on breast milk. They developed intracranial hemorrhage, and the clotting defect was rapidly corrected with intramuscular vitamin K. At 3 and 4 years of age, one of them has showed normal psychomotor development, and the other has showed moderate developmental delay with microcephaly.CONCLUSION: Late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn must be considered in young infants, between 2 and 12 weeks of age, with intracranial hemorrhage, especially those fed exclusively on breast milk who did not receive vitamin K at birth. It may produce neurodevelopmental delay. The clotting defect is rapidly corrected with intramuscular vitamin K. This condition is preventable. The prophylaxis is recommended with 1 mg of intramuscular vitamin K to all newborns, at birth, even without risk factors.

  4. Infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via consumption of homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Won Chan; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-10-01

    Limited data are available on the residue levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in baby food. In this study, 24 PBDE congeners were determined in 147 homemade baby food samples collected from 97 households for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and from 24 to 27-month-old infant groups during the period of 2012-2013. The concentrations of total PBDEs (ΣPBDE) ranged from 24.5 to 6000 (mean: 263) pg/g fresh weight, higher than those found in commercial formulae from the United States. The predominant congeners were BDEs 209 and 47, accounting for 92% of the ΣPBDE concentrations, reflected by high deca-BDE consumption in Korea. The residue levels and detection rates of BDE 47 in the baby food samples showed a gradual increasing trend with an increase in infant ages, due to changes in the food ingredients from hypoallergenic to greasy. The daily intakes of BDEs 47 and 209 via baby food consumption ranged from 0.04 to 0.58, 0.80 to 20.3, and 1.06 to 22.3 ng/kg body weight/day for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 24-27-month-old infant groups, respectively; these intakes were lower than the oral reference doses proposed by the US EPA. Together with three exposure sources, baby food, breast milk and dust ingestion for 6-month-old infants, the daily intake of ΣPBDE was 25.5 ng/kg body weight/day, which was similar to the intake via baby food consumption only for over 24-month-old infants in our study. This indicates that baby food is an important exposure pathway of PBDEs for over 24-month-old infants. This is the first study regarding the occurrence and exposure assessment of PBDEs via homemade baby food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Theta Brain Rhythms Index Perceptual Narrowing in Infant Speech Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eBosseler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants’ initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the worlds’ languages narrows—native discrimination increases while nonnative discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine whether brain oscillations in the theta band (4-8Hz, reflecting increases in attention and cognitive effort, would provide a neural measure of the perceptual narrowing phenomenon in speech. Using an oddball paradigm, we varied speech stimuli in two dimensions, stimulus frequency (frequent vs. infrequent and language (native vs. nonnative speech syllables and tested 6-month-old infants, 12-month-old infants, and adults. We hypothesized that 6-month-old infants would show increased relative theta power (RTP for frequent syllables, regardless of their status as native or nonnative syllables, reflecting young infants’ attention and cognitive effort in response to highly frequent stimuli (statistical learning. In adults, we hypothesized increased RTP for nonnative stimuli, regardless of their presentation frequency, reflecting increased cognitive effort for nonnative phonetic categories. The 12-month-old infants were expected to show a pattern in transition, but one more similar to adults than to 6-month-old infants. The MEG brain rhythm results supported these hypotheses. We suggest that perceptual narrowing in speech perception is governed by an implicit learning process. This learning process involves an implicit shift in attention from frequent events (infants to learned categories (adults. Theta brain oscillatory activity may provide an index of perceptual narrowing beyond speech, and would offer a test of whether the early speech learning process is governed by domain-general or domain-specific processes.

  6. Axillary and rectal temperature measurements in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, C J; Hewson, P H; Thornton, A. J.; Cole, T J

    1992-01-01

    Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured during the daytime in 281 infants seen randomly at home and 656 at hospital under 6 months old, using mercury-in-glass thermometers. The normal temperature range derived from the babies at home was 36.7-37.9 degrees C for rectal temperature and 35.6-37.2 degrees C for axillary temperature. Rectal temperature was higher than axillary in 98% of the measurements. The mean (SD) difference between rectal and axillary temperatures was 0.7 (0.5) degrees...

  7. Sleep and physical growth in infants during the first 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; DE Marcas, Gali; Har-Toov, Joseph; Dollberg, Shaul; Bar-Haim, Yair; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between infant sleep patterns and infant physical growth (weight for length ratio) using both objective and subjective sleep measures. Ninety-six first-born, healthy 6-month-old infants and their parents participated in the study. Infant sleep was assessed by actigraphy for four consecutive nights and by the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ). In addition, parents were asked to complete background and developmental questionnaires. Questions about feeding methods were included in the developmental questionnaire. Infants' weight and length were assessed during a standard checkup at the infant-care clinic when the infants were 6 months old. Significant correlations were found between infant sleep and growth after controlling for potential infant and family confounding factors. Actigraphic sleep percentage and reported sleep duration were correlated negatively with the weight-to-length ratio measures. Sex-related differences in the associations between sleep and physical growth were found. Breast feeding at night was correlated with a more fragmented sleep, but not with physical growth. These findings suggest that sleep is related significantly to physical growth as early as in the first months of life. The study supports increasing evidence from recent studies demonstrating a link between short sleep duration and weight gain and obesity in young children.

  8. [Hematological and neurological compromise due to vitamin B12 deficit in infant of a vegetarian mother: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo J, Paulina; Ibarra C, Judith; Paredes M, Marcela

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is extremely common in strict vegetarians and their variants. Infants of vegetarian mothers have a higher risk of deficiency and are more prone to its effects. To report a case in order to warn people about the importance of suspected vitamin B12 deficiency in children of vegetarian mothers. A 12-month old infant, daughter of a longtime vegetarian woman, who presented neurological and hematological compromise due to vitamin B12 deficiency, is discussed. After a short period of parenteral administration of cyanocobalamin and enteral nutrition, the patient evolved with clinical and laboratory improvement, although she still had residual development delay. Vitamin B12 deficiency is often not suspected by the pediatrician in healthy infants. Clinical manifestations can be nonspecific, such as apathy, food refusal and progressive impairment of psychomotor development. A nutritional anamnesis performed on the mother (with great emphasis on those strict vegetarians) to estimate her reserves in the period prior to, during and after delivery can be critical to detect the risk of this vitamin deficiency in young children.

  9. [Lactose intolerance in hospitalized infants with acute diarrhea due to classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coil (EPEC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, C R; Fagundes-Neto, U

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred and eleven hospitalized weaned infants with acute diarrhea, all under 12 months of age, were studied in order to evaluate the development of lactose intolerance and its association with age, nutritional status, birth weight, dehydration and enteropathogenic agents identified in fecal samples. After been rehydrated the infants received whole cow' milk assuring the intake of 100 kcal/kg per day. Lactose intolerance was defined according t the following criteria: 1) persistence of diarrhea associated with weight loss during 48 hours, 2) development of vomiting and/or abdominal distention associated with excretion of carbohydrate in feces and/or acids tools, 3) metabolic acidosis associated with abdominal distention at anytime of refeeding period. Lactose intolerance was detected in 52.1% (162/311) of the patients and it was significantly associated with age under 6 months (P < 0.01), birth weight under 3000 grams (P < 0.01), development of dehydration (P < 0.01) and with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serotypes infection (P < 0.01).

  10. The Effects of Music and Movement on Mother-Infant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Wendy; Malloch, Stephen; Burnham, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a music and movement (M&M) programme on healthy first-time mothers and their 2-6-month-old infants over a five-week period. Experiment 1 (N?=?96) examined the effects of the M&M activities and the face-to-face (F2F) social contact of a group instruction method on the perception of mothers'…

  11. The Effects of Music and Movement on Mother-Infant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlismas, Wendy; Malloch, Stephen; Burnham, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a music and movement (M&M) programme on healthy first-time mothers and their 2-6-month-old infants over a five-week period. Experiment 1 (N?=?96) examined the effects of the M&M activities and the face-to-face (F2F) social contact of a group instruction method on the perception of mothers'…

  12. Iron status in breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Asih Ratnadi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Ninety infants were selected stratified proportionally random sampling and they met the inclusion criteria. Iron status was determined by the serum ferritin level concentration. The nutritional status was determined by the body weight to age based on the standard criteria of WHO NCHS. The quality of food was defined by asking the parents to keep a diary of consumed in the last 7 days minimally for three days. Out of the 90 infants, 50.4 % of them were males and 45.6 % of them were females. Most of them (93.7% had normal nourished and 8.3 % had undernourished. The prevalence status of low iron was 18.9%. The low iron status began to occur at the age of 4 – 6 months old (6% and the highest at the age of 9 – 12 months old (65%. Statistically significant differences were found between the iron status and the quality of food supplements over age group. The low quality of food is a risk factor influence the status of low iron. It is suggested that the iron supplements be given to breast-fed infant at the age of 4 – 6 months old.

  13. The effect of different acidness lactic acid bacteria on intake,N balance,digestibility and microbial nitrogen flow in the small intestine of 6 month-old sika%不同酸度的乳酸菌饲料添加剂对6月龄梅花鹿消化率及小肠微生物氮流量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓勇

    2012-01-01

    Effect of different acidness lactic acid bacteria on feed intake, N balance, digestibility and microbial nitrogen flow in the small intestine of 6 month-old sika were investigated in the study, in order to determine the suitable pH value of lactic acid bacteria additives in ruminant animals. The results indicated that: Adding different acidity of lactic acid bacteria could significantly improve the sika intake of DM, OM, CF, CP, and nitrogen intake (P0.05), differences among other groups were significant (P<0.05). Adding different acidity of lactic acid bacteria could improve the sika intake of DOM, DCF, N balance, and microbial N of intestinal flow (P<0.05), and pH-5.6 LAB group sikas were significantly higher than the control group on the DOM, DCF, N balance, and microbial N of intestinal flow.%试验通过研究不同酸度的乳酸菌添加剂对6月龄梅花鹿的采食量、氮平衡、消化率以及小肠微生物氮流量的影响,确定乳酸茵添加剂在梅花鹿饲喂中的适宜酸度.结果表明:添加不同酸度的乳酸菌可明显提高梅花鹿对DM、OM、CF、CP以及氮采食量(P<0.05),其中以未调酸的乳酸茵组各种营养成分采食量最高;DM、OM、CF采食量,各组间差异显著(P<0.05),氮的采食量,除调酸组与未调酸组间差异不显著外(P>0.05),其余各组间差异显著(P<0.05).不同酸度的乳酸菌饲料添加剂可提高梅花鹿DOM、DCF、氮沉积以及小肠微生物氮流量,未调酸组的DOM、DCF、氮沉积以及小肠微生物氮流量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).

  14. [Four infants with upper urinary tract infection due to extended-spectrum bata lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yoshifusa; Hoshino, Akihiro; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Mikawa, Takeshi; Fuke, Toshiya; Yoshida, Koichiro; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) are detected mainly in adult urinary specimens, and are believed to cause hospital-acquired infection due to their resistance to many drugs. The incidence of community-acquired infection due to such bacteria is increasing, but few cases of infant upper urinary tract infection (UUTI) have been reported in Japan. We treated four infants with UUTI caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, as determined by genotyping. Using medical records, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical course, antibiotic use and efficacy, antimicrobial susceptibility results, and the presence of underlying disease. One of the four had been previously hospitalized for occult bacteremia. Two developed UUTI after antibiotic treatment, indicating that previous antibiotic use may have been a risk factor in these cases. We could not identify the infection route in all cases. Two of the four had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Renal scintigraphy was done in three. Although an initial dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) defect was detected in all four, only one had renal scarring. E. coli isolates from all four showed PCR signals for blaCTX-M-; one isolate positive for the blaCTX-M3 group and three positive for blaCTX-M14. Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed all isolates to be resistant to cephalosporins, but discrepancies existed between antimicrobial susceptibility results and actual clinical efficacy. Clinically, cefazolin (CEZ) was effective in two subjects and ceftazidime (CAZ) effective in one. Panipenem/betamipron (PAPM/BP) was effective in one. None of the four developed sepsis or meningitis. Post hospitalization antibiotic prophylaxis showed that none of the four has had UUTI recur. Japan's ESBL-producing bacterial infection incidence is increasing, so medical professionals should watch for such UUTI even in first-case occurrence in infants.

  15. Six-month-old infants' perception of the hollow face illusion: evidence for a general convexity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrow, Sherryse L; Mathison, Jordan; Granrud, Carl E; Yonas, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Corrow, Granrud, Mathison, and Yonas (2011, Perception, 40, 1376-1383) found evidence that 6-month-old infants perceive the hollow face illusion. In the present study we asked whether 6-month-old infants perceive illusory depth reversal for a nonface object and whether infants' perception of the hollow face illusion is affected by mask orientation inversion. In experiment 1 infants viewed a concave bowl, and their reaches were recorded under monocular and binocular viewing conditions. Infants reached to the bowl as if it were convex significantly more often in the monocular than in the binocular viewing condition. These results suggest that infants perceive illusory depth reversal with a nonface stimulus and that the infant visual system has a bias to perceive objects as convex. Infants in experiment 2 viewed a concave face-like mask in upright and inverted orientations. Infants reached to the display as if it were convex more in the monocular than in the binocular condition; however, mask orientation had no effect on reaching. Previous findings that adults' perception of the hollow face illusion is affected by mask orientation inversion have been interpreted as evidence of stored-knowledge influences on perception. However, we found no evidence of such influences in infants, suggesting that their perception of this illusion may not be affected by stored knowledge, and that perceived depth reversal is not face-specific in infants.

  16. Four- and six-month-old infants' visual responses to joy, anger, and neutral expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarbera, J D; Izard, C E; Vietze, P; Parisi, S A

    1976-06-01

    24 infants, 12 4-month-olds and 12 6-month-olds, were repeatedly shown slides of 3 facial expressions. The expressions were previously judged by obervers to be indicators of joy, anger, and no emotion, respectively. The duration of the first visual fixation to each presentation of the slides was monitored for each subject. The data indicated that the infants looked at the joy expression significantly more than at either the anger or neutral expressions. The results suggest that infants are capable of discriminating emotion expressions earlier in their development than previous studies have implied.

  17. Intervention by the mental health specialist nurse for preventing sleep disorders due to incorrect habits in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cámara Conde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disorders caused by bad habits in the infant. - To prevent symptoms of anxiety due to lack of sleep in the parents.The program will consist of 6 sessions of 90 minutes long, 3 pre-natal where they thrive knowledge and 3 sessions after to exposure doubts and search for solutions. We think that cooperation between the mental health nurse specialist with the midwife it is necessary to create a program that establish a healthy dream pattern in both infants and their parents, will prevent the sleep disorders by incorrect habits and their effects

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Cerebrolysin in Infants with Communication Defects due to Severe Perinatal Brain Insult: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanein, Sahar M.A.; Deifalla, Shaymaa M.; El-Houssinie, Moustafa; Mokbel, Somaia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The neuroregenerative drug Cerebrolysin has demonstrated efficacy in improving cognition in adults with stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of Cerebrolysin in the treatment of communication defects in infants with severe perinatal brain insult. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 158 infants (age 6-21 months) with communication defects due to severe perinatal brain insul...

  19. Ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block for pain control in an infant with a femur fracture due to nonaccidental trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Oron; Mansour, Karim; Fischer, Jason W J

    2012-02-01

    A 3-month-old infant girl was transferred to our emergency department (ED) with a subtrochanteric femoral neck fracture due to nonaccidental trauma. She received multiple doses of parenteral analgesics both before arrival and in our ED. We performed an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block using 2.0 mL of 0.25% bupivicaine (approximately 1.25 mg/kg) before placing the patient in a Pavlik harness. Successful pain control was achieved within 15 minutes of the procedure allowing pain-free manipulation of the affected extremity. The patient required only a single dose of parenteral narcotics during the ensuing 18 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block used in the ED for pain control in a pediatric patient.

  20. Early Prosodic Acquisition in Bilingual Infants: The Case of the Perceptual Trochaic Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Infants start learning the prosodic properties of their native language before 12 months, as shown by the emergence of a trochaic bias in English-learning infants between 6 and 9 months (Jusczyk et al., 1993), and in German-learning infants between 4 and 6 months (Höhle et al., 2009, 2014), while French-learning infants do not show a bias at 6 months (Höhle et al., 2009). This language-specific emergence of a trochaic bias is supported by the fact that English and German are languages with trochaic predominance in their lexicons, while French is a language with phrase-final lengthening but lacking lexical stress. We explored the emergence of a trochaic bias in bilingual French/German infants, to study whether the developmental trajectory would be similar to monolingual infants and whether amount of relative exposure to the two languages has an impact on the emergence of the bias. Accordingly, we replicated Höhle et al. (2009) with 24 bilingual 6-month-olds learning French and German simultaneously. All infants had been exposed to both languages for 30 to 70% of the time from birth. Using the Head Preference Procedure, infants were presented with two lists of stimuli, one made up of several occurrences of the pseudoword /GAba/ with word-initial stress (trochaic pattern), the second one made up of several occurrences of the pseudoword /gaBA/ with word-final stress (iambic pattern). The stimuli were recorded by a native German female speaker. Results revealed that these French/German bilingual 6-month-olds have a trochaic bias (as evidenced by a preference to listen to the trochaic pattern). Hence, their listening preference is comparable to that of monolingual German-learning 6-month-olds, but differs from that of monolingual French-learning 6-month-olds who did not show any preference (Höhle et al., 2009). Moreover, the size of the trochaic bias in the bilingual infants was not correlated with their amount of exposure to German. The present results thus

  1. Fully-covered metallic stenting in an infant with tracheoesophageal fistula due to button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxiao; Ma, Jing; Liu, Shuaishuai; Liu, Xia; Yan, Xiuli; Niu, Tiehuan; Li, Changxiao; Li, Qian; Wang, Chao; Meng, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Previously, the main treatment options for tracheoesophageal fistula included surgery and conservative treatment. Herein, we report a child suffering from severe tracheoesophageal fistula due to button battery ingestion. The child relapsed soon after a repair surgery. Then, he was endotracheally implanted with a fully-covered metallic stent combined with a jejunal tube feeding. He recovered soon and the stent was removed five months later. The fistula was healed with no relapse during a 25-month follow-up. Therefore, endotracheal implantation of fully-covered metallic stent is an alternative treatment for tracheoesophageal fistula due to button battery ingestion, especially in cases with severe respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001, bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012, bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005, otitis media (p value = 0.003, and skin diseases (p value = 0.047. Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414, bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705, bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706, meningitis (p value 0.043, and septicemia (p value 0.04. Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  3. Cushing syndrome in an infant due to cortisol secreting adrenal pheochromocytoma: a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Vishal; Talukdar, B; Mohta, Anup; Khurana, Nita

    2010-06-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are the most common cause of endogenous Cushing syndrome in infancy and early childhood. Cushing syndrome resulting from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor has been infrequently reported in adults. Cortisol secreting pheochromocytoma is rarely reported in literature. We report an eleven month old child presenting to us as Cushing syndrome with hypertension due to left adrenal tumor. He was treated with antihypertensives and left adrenalectomy was done under perioperative glucocorticoid coverage. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made only after histopathology. Despite the rare association of Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma, preoperative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is required for appropriate perioperative medical and anaesthetic management to prevent life threatening complications.

  4. Advanced glycation end products in infant formulas do not contribute to insulin resistance associated with their consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Simon Klenovics

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infant formula-feeding is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity. In rodents and healthy humans, advanced glycation end product (AGE-rich diets exert diabetogenic effects. In comparison with human breast-milk, infant formulas contain high amounts of AGEs. We assessed the role of AGEs in infant-formula-consumption-associated insulin resistance. METHODS: Total plasma levels of N(ε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML, AGEs-associated fluorescence (λ(ex = 370 nm/λ(em = 445 nm, soluble adhesion molecules, markers of micro- binflammation (hsCRP, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostanes and leptinemia were determined, and correlated with insulin sensitivity in a cross-sectional study in 166 healthy term infants aged 3-to-14 months, subdivided according to feeding regimen (breast-milk- vs. infant formula-fed and age (3-to-6-month-olds, 7-to-10-month-olds, and 11-to-14-month-old infants. Effects of the consumption of low- vs. high-CML-containing formulas were assessed. 36 infants aged 5.8 ± 0.3 months were followed-up 7.5 ± 0.3 months later. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study: 3-to-6-month-olds and 7-to-10-month-old formula-fed infants presented higher total plasma CML levels and AGEs-associated fluorescence (p<0.01, both, while only the 3-to-6-month-olds displayed lower insulin sensitivity (p<0.01 than their breast-milk-fed counterparts. 3-to-6-month-olds fed low-CML-containing formulas presented lower total plasma CML levels (p<0.01, but similar insulin sensitivity compared to those on high-CML-containing formulas. Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, levels of leptin and adhesion molecules did not differ significantly between the groups. Follow-up study: at initial investigation, the breast-milk-consuming infants displayed lower total plasma CML levels (p<0.01 and AGEs-associated fluorescence (p<0.05, but higher insulin sensitivity (p<0.05 than the formulas-consuming infants. At follow-up, the groups did not differ

  5. Conventional rhythms enhance infants' and adults' perception of musical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Hannon, Erin E

    2009-01-01

    Listeners may favour particular rhythms because of their degree of conformity to culture-specific expectations or because of perceptual constraints that are apparent early in development. In two experiments we examined adults' and 6-month-old infants' detection of subtle rhythmic and melodic changes to two sequences of tones, a conventional rhythm that musically untrained adults rated as rhythmically good and an unconventional rhythm that was rated as poor. Detection of the changes was above chance in all conditions, but adults and infants performed more accurately in the context of the conventional rhythm. Unlike adults, who benefited from rhythmic conventionality only when detecting rhythmic changes, infants benefited when detecting melodic as well as rhythmic changes. The findings point to infant and adult parallels for some aspects of rhythm processing and to integrated perception of rhythm and melody early in life.

  6. Severe G6PD Deficiency Due to a New Missense Mutation in an Infant of Northern European Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warny, Marie; Lausen, Birgitte; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We report a term male infant born to parents of Danish descent, who on the second day of life developed jaundice peaking at 67 hours and decreasing on applied double-sided phototherapy. In the weeks following, the infant showed signs of ongoing hemolysis. Laboratory tests showed very low glucose-...

  7. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  8. Somatic mutation of immunoglobulin VH6 genes in human infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridings, J; Dinan, L; Williams, R; Roberton, D; Zola, H

    1998-01-01

    Infants respond to antigen by making antibody that is generally of low affinity for antigen. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, and selection of cells expressing mutations with improved affinity for antigen, are the molecular and cellular processes underlying the maturation of antibody affinity. We have reported previously that neonates and infants up to 2 months of age, including individuals undergoing strong immunological challenge, show very few mutated VH6 sequences, with low mutation frequencies in mutated sequences, and little evidence of selection. We have now examined immunoglobulin genes from healthy infants between 2 and 10 months old for mutation and evidence of selection. In this age group, the proportion of VH6 sequences which are mutated and the mutation frequency in mutated sequences increase with age. There is evidence of selection from 6 months old. These results indicate that the process of affinity maturation, which depends on cognate T–B cell interaction and functional germinal centres, is approaching maturity from 6 months old. PMID:9764600

  9. A nationwide study on hospital admissions due to dehydration in exclusively breastfed infants in the Netherlands : Its incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelleboer, R.A.A.; Bontemps, S.T.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Pereira, R.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the incidence and clinical characteristics in hospital admissions due to dehydration or undernutrition and their laboratory evaluation and treatment outcome in exclusively breastfed infants. Methods: All hospital admissions during the first 3 months of life assessed by the Dutch Pa

  10. A nationwide study on hospital admissions due to dehydration in exclusively breastfed infants in the Netherlands : Its incidence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelleboer, R.A.A.; Bontemps, S.T.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Pereira, R.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the incidence and clinical characteristics in hospital admissions due to dehydration or undernutrition and their laboratory evaluation and treatment outcome in exclusively breastfed infants. Methods: All hospital admissions during the first 3 months of life assessed by the Dutch Pa

  11. Learning-based deformable image registration for infant MR images in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunbo; Wei, Lifang; Gao, Yaozong; Guo, Yanrong; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Many brain development studies have been devoted to investigate dynamic structural and functional changes in the first year of life. To quantitatively measure brain development in such a dynamic period, accurate image registration for different infant subjects with possible large age gap is of high demand. Although many state-of-the-art image registration methods have been proposed for young and elderly brain images, very few registration methods work for infant brain images acquired in the first year of life, because of (a) large anatomical changes due to fast brain development and (b) dynamic appearance changes due to white-matter myelination. To address these two difficulties, we propose a learning-based registration method to not only align the anatomical structures but also alleviate the appearance differences between two arbitrary infant MR images (with large age gap) by leveraging the regression forest to predict both the initial displacement vector and appearance changes. Specifically, in the training stage, two regression models are trained separately, with (a) one model learning the relationship between local image appearance (of one development phase) and its displacement toward the template (of another development phase) and (b) another model learning the local appearance changes between the two brain development phases. Then, in the testing stage, to register a new infant image to the template, we first predict both its voxel-wise displacement and appearance changes by the two learned regression models. Since such initializations can alleviate significant appearance and shape differences between new infant image and the template, it is easy to just use a conventional registration method to refine the remaining registration. We apply our proposed registration method to align 24 infant subjects at five different time points (i.e., 2-week-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old, 9-month-old, and 12-month-old), and achieve more accurate and robust registration

  12. Exploring the safety and efficacy of targeted temperature management amongst infants with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to apparent life threatening events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Kathleen; Telford, Russell; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Dean, J Michael; Moler, Frank W

    2016-12-01

    To explore the safety and efficacy of targeted temperature management amongst infants with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to an apparent life threatening event (ALTE) recruited to the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Paediatric Cardiac Arrest Out-of-Hospital trial. Fifty-four infants (48h to VABS-II) score ≥70, 12-month survival, change in VABS-II score from pre-arrest to 12 months post-arrest, and select safety measures. Amongst infants with pre-arrest VABS-II ≥70 (n=52), there was no difference in 12-month survival with VABS-II ≥70 between therapeutic hypothermia and therapeutic normothermia groups (2/25 (8.0%) vs. 1/27 (3.7%); relative risk 2.16; 95% confidence interval 0.21-22.38, p=0.60). Amongst all evaluable infants (n=53), the change in VABS-II score from pre-arrest to 12 months post-arrest did not differ (p=0.078) between therapeutic hypothermia and therapeutic normothermia groups, nor did 12-month survival (5/26 (19.2%) vs. 1/27 (3.7%); relative risk 5.19; 95% confidence interval 0.65-41.50, p=0.10). Mortality was high amongst infants that were comatose after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ALTE in both therapeutic hypothermia and therapeutic normothermia treated groups. Functional status was markedly reduced among survivors. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00878644). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergence of Japanese infants' prosodic preferences in infant-directed vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akiko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the role of infant-directed vocabulary (IDV) in infants language acquisition, specifically addressing the question of whether IDV forms that are not prominent in adult language may nonetheless be useful to the process of acquisition. Japanese IDV offers a good test case, as IDV characteristically takes a bisyllabic H(eavy)-L(ight) form that is rare in adult speech. In 5 experiments using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP), 8- to 10-month-old Japanese infants, but not 4- to 6-month-olds, were found to show a preference for bisyllabic H-L words over other types of words. These results demonstrate (a) that infants may develop a preference for a dominant prosodic form based on infant-directed speech, even when it is not a prominent characteristic of adult language; and perhaps more importantly, and (b) that infant-directed speech may provide a boost for a feature that could be useful for infants' acquisition of language even when it not prominent in adult language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effect of Spike Lavender Lakhlakhe on Pain Intensity Due to Phlebotomy Procedure in Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Beheshtipoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Premature infants undergo multiple painful procedures during treatment; thus, it must be tried to limit complications caused by diagnostic and treatment procedures using simple and practical methods. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of spike lavender lakhlakhe on pain intensity due to phlebotomy in hospitalized premature infants.Methods: This single-arm, randomized clinical trial was performed on 30 infants chosen through convenience sampling method. Each newborn was considered as its own control. For the test group, one drop of pure (100% spike lavender lakhlakhe was taken by a standard dropper and diluted with 4 ml of warm distilled water by the research assistant. This mixture was stirred at 2-3 cm distance of the newborns’ nose from 60 minutes before until 2 minutes after phlebotomy, such that it could be smelled by the newborns. In both groups, heart rate and blood oxygen saturation were measured by a standard portable device, and the corresponding data was recorded in data collection sheets. Moreover, the infants’ facial expression changes were recorded by a camera and the intensity of pain was measured by Premature Infant Pain Profile before and after the procedure. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired comparison analysis test in SPSS, version 17.Results: Comparison of mean pain intensity caused by phlebotomy in the control and test groups showed a significant difference (7.667±0.311 vs. 4.882±0.311; P

  15. Brain empyema due to Escherichia coli in a 5 month-old infant: a case report and literature review

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    José A. Madrid Gómez Tagle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brain empyema in children is a rare intracranial infection that may result from meningitis, sinusitis, or mechanisms such as head trauma, neurological surgery or hematogenous spread from a remote site. Objective: To describe a case of brain empyema caused by Escherichia coli in an infant. Methodology: A case report is presented with isolation of Escherichia coli arising after the overlap period of meningitis (1-3 months. A literature review of the risk factors, etiology and treatment of brain empyema in children is conducted. Results: The case report is about a 5 month-old male infant with no history of immunodeficiency, plagiocephalic, and with a 3 week-long history of otitis prior to admission. The patient had fever, seizures and rostro-caudal deterioration, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and hypoglycorrhachia. The tomographic images revealed brain empyema. It was posible to isolate Escherichia coli from culture and surgical drainage was required plus systemic antibiotic therapy for 4 weeks. Conclusions: Brain empyema caused by Escherichia coli in infants after the overlap period are very rare. Treatment consists in prompt surgical evacuation, eradication of the primary infection and proper administration of systemic antimicrobials.

  16. Successful treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with topical fresh frozen plasma in an infant

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    Zuhal Özen Tunay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA 6-month-old female infant presented to our clinic with bilateral eyelid swelling, yellowish-white membranes under both lids, and mucoid ocular discharge. Her aunt had similar ocular problems that were undiagnosed. The conjunctival membranes were excised and histopathological investigation of these membranes showed ligneous conjunctivitis. Further, laboratory examination revealed plasminogen deficiency. A good response was observed to topical fresh frozen plasma (FFP treatment without systemic therapy, and the membranes did not recur during the treatment. Topical FFP treatment may facilitate rapid rehabilitation and prevent recurrence in patients with ligneous conjunctivitis.

  17. Successful treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with topical fresh frozen plasma in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Zuhal Özen; Özdemir, Özdemir; Acar, Damla; Gül, Ece; Akbay, Serap

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old female infant presented to our clinic with bilateral eyelid swelling, yellowish-white membranes under both lids, and mucoid ocular discharge. Her aunt had similar ocular problems that were undiagnosed. The conjunctival membranes were excised and histopathological investigation of these membranes showed ligneous conjunctivitis. Further, laboratory examination revealed plasminogen deficiency. A good response was observed to topical fresh frozen plasma (FFP) treatment without systemic therapy, and the membranes did not recur during the treatment. Topical FFP treatment may facilitate rapid rehabilitation and prevent recurrence in patients with ligneous conjunctivitis.

  18. The effects of oral sucrose on pain due to nasogastric tube insertion in premature infants: A crossover clinical trial

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    Jebreili M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Pain in neonates may have adverse impacts. Therefore, relieving pain through harmless, simple, and applicable methods, in order to prevent its dangerous consequences, is of great importance. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of oral sucrose on relieving nasogastric tube insertion pain in premature neonates. Materials and Method: The present study is a crossover clinical trial on 38 preterm infants (gestational age between 28-34 weeks hospitalized in Bistonoh-e-Bahman Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling and divided into two groups using randomized block design. In the first group, nasogastric tube insertion was carried out in the routine way for the first time, and for the second time, by administration of oral sucrose. In the second group, the procedure was performed in the reverse order of that in the first group. In both groups the emerging pain was measured by the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP tool 2 minutes before, during, and 5 minutes after the procedure. Data were analyzed using, chi-square t-test, Students' independent test, paired t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS version 18 to examine the trend of change in pain in time. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that oral sucrose reduces the pain response of infants. The mean pain score during the insertion of nasogastric tube and administration of oral sucrose was 5.95 ± 2.35 and during routine procedures was 9.93 ± 2.89 (P < 0.001. The mean pain score 5 minutes after insertion of nasogastric tube with administration of oral sucrose was 3.66 ± 0.57 and routine procedure was 6.38 ± 0.83 (P = 0.017. Conclusion: It was revealed that oral sucrose can relieve pain caused by nasogastric tube insertion. Therefore, its implementation as a harmless and simple method can reduce pain in preterm infants.

  19. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2017-03-29

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

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    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  1. Chryseobacterium gleum pneumonia in an infant with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalhamid, Baha; Elhadi, Nasreldin; Alsamman, Khaldoon; Aljindan, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Chryseobacterium gleum is commonly distributed in the environment. It can cause a wide variety of infections in immunocompromised patients in hospital setting. A 6 month old infant with nephrotic syndrome was admitted to the emergency room for an acute onset of fever, difficulty breathing, cyanosis, and low oral intake. Cultures of endotracheal tube specimens were positive for Chryseobacterium gleum which was confirmed by ribosomal sequencing. The organism was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, minocycline, and levofloxacin. The patient clinically improved on levofloxacin treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pneumonia caused by Chryseobacterium gleum in an infant with nephrotic syndrome. It is also the first report of C. gleum causing respiratory tract infection in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

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    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  3. Somatic mutation of immunoglobulin V(H)6 genes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridings, J; Dinan, L; Williams, R; Roberton, D; Zola, H

    1998-10-01

    Infants respond to antigen by making antibody that is generally of low affinity for antigen. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, and selection of cells expressing mutations with improved affinity for antigen, are the molecular and cellular processes underlying the maturation of antibody affinity. We have reported previously that neonates and infants up to 2 months of age, including individuals undergoing strong immunological challenge, show very few mutated V(H)6 sequences, with low mutation frequencies in mutated sequences, and little evidence of selection. We have now examined immunoglobulin genes from healthy infants between 2 and 10 months old for mutation and evidence of selection. In this age group, the proportion of V(H)6 sequences which are mutated and the mutation frequency in mutated sequences increase with age. There is evidence of selection from 6 months old. These results indicate that the process of affinity maturation, which depends on cognate T-B cell interaction and functional germinal centres, is approaching maturity from 6 months old.

  4. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Famciclovir in Infants and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Infants and Children ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Adib; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Sallas, William; Kaiser, Guenther; Hamed, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir) formulation in infants aged 1 to 12 months with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus infection. Individualized single doses of famciclovir based on the infant's body weight ranged from 25 to 175 mg. Eighteen infants were enrolled (1 to <3 months old [n = 8], 3 to <6 months old [n = 5], and 6 to 12 months old [n = 5]). Seventeen infants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; one infant experienced immediate emesis and was excluded. Mean Cmax and AUC0-6 values of penciclovir in infants <6 months of age were ∼3- to 4-fold lower than those in the 6- to 12-month age group. Specifically, mean AUC0-6 was 2.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 1 to <3 months, 3.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 3 to <6 months, and 8.8 μg·h/ml in infants aged 6 to 12 months. These data suggested that the dose administered to infants <6 months was less than optimal. Eight (44.4%) infants experienced at least one adverse event with gastrointestinal events reported most commonly. An updated pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, which incorporated the data in infants from the present study and previously published data on children 1 to 12 years of age. An eight-step dosing regimen was derived that targeted exposure in infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age to match the penciclovir AUC seen in adults after a 500-mg dose of famciclovir. PMID:20160046

  5. Toxicants in folk remedies: implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P; Morman, Suzette A; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D

    2016-10-04

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  6. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intra-arterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M.; Schumacher, R.; Hagel, K.J.; Hering, F.

    1983-10-01

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect, within the pulmonary artery, showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive.

  7. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?

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    Christian Paech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children. Coronary stent implantation is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications in this group of patients. Nevertheless, several pediatric cases reporting successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences have been described. The following case presents a successful stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis early after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA at the age of 6 months. The excellent mid-term results and notably the procedure′s potential as a long-term treatment in small children are highlighted. A 6-month-old infant underwent surgery for ALCAPA. Due to sudden postoperative deterioration, cardiac catheterization was performed. Coronary angiography revealed severe (90% ostial LMCA stenosis. A PROMUS drug-eluting stent (Promus Element AL3.0 Χ 8 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA was implanted. The procedure was performed without complications. Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was initiated. Subsequently, cardiac function improved slowly. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter still at the 50 th percentile for age. Neither were signs of heart failure reported at the last follow-up at 7 years of age. Presupposing normal growth, the implanted stent would thus provide sufficient myocardial perfusion with a LMCA lumen at the 40 th percentile at the age of 16 years. In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective mid- to long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis even in very young children.

  8. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism.

  9. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

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    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  10. Six-month-old infants' interaction difficulties are mirrored in their preference for perfect contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyj, Norbert; Klein-Radukic, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    During the first months of life, infants switch from a preference for perfect contingent feedback to a preference for less-than-perfect contingent feedback of their own movements. This is an indicator of increasing social interest since others provide less-than-perfect contingent feedback whereas the self provides perfect contingent feedback. We presented 117 6-month-olds with real-time and delayed video feedback of self-performed leg movements and asked parents about difficulties in various socioemotional domains. It was hypothesized that the more infants prefer real-time and therefore perfect contingent feedback over 7 s delayed and therefore perceived noncontingent feedback, the more difficulties parents will report in interaction and communication with their child. Preference for real-time feedback was related to difficulties in interaction, but not to difficulties in communication. Implications of this finding for infants' socioemotional development and health are discussed.

  11. Calibration of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition assessment in Ethiopian infants using air-displacement plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Wibæk; Kæstel, Pernille; Skov, R.

    2015-01-01

    on BIA in 0- to 6-month-old Ethiopian infants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study comprised a total of 186 BC assessments performed in 101 healthy infants, delivered at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Infant air-displacement plethysmography (IADP) was the criterion method, whereas weight, length, sex...... by IADP, with an adjusted R(2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.94 and 200 g, respectively. Adding impedance index to the model resulted in a significantly improved model fit (R(2)=0.95; RMSE=181 g). For infants below 3 months of age, inclusion of impedance index did not contribute to an improved...... model fit for predicting FFM compared with a model already comprising weight, sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: The derived equations predicted FFM with acceptable accuracy and may be used in future field surveys, epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted in similar sub-Saharan African population...

  12. Junctional Bradycardia as Early Sign of Digoxin Toxicity in a Premature Infant with Congestive Heart Failure due to a Left to Right Shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Soham; Aly, Ashraf M; Jain, Sunil K

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Congestive heart failure due to left to right cardiac shunt is usually managed medically with diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and, in some cases, with the addition of digoxin. Case We report a 31-week gestation premature male infant who did not respond to such treatment and developed hyperaldosteronism and severe hypokalemia secondary to activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The hypokalemia was not responsive to intravenous KCL supplementation and induced digoxin toxicity despite a relatively normal digoxin level. The earliest signs of digoxin toxicity in the patient were junctional rhythm and bradycardia. The discontinuation of digoxin and the administration of digoxin specific immunoglobulin fragments (Fab) reversed those changes. The addition of spironolactone (an aldosterone antagonist) had a dramatic effect, resulting in clinical improvement of the patient coupled with normalization of Q4 serum and urine electrolytes. Conclusion Serum Digoxin level alone may fail as an independent guide in the diagnosis of digoxin toxicity when hypokalemia is present. In premature infants with congestive heart failure and hypokalemia, addition of an aldosterone antagonist should be considered.

  13. Clinical Manifestations Vary with Different Age Spectrums in Infants with Kawasaki Disease

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    Hao-Chuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology. The diagnosis of KD depends on clinical manifestations. The prevalence of coronary artery abnormality (CAA is 11.0% and results in cardiac sequelae, such as myocardial infarction or coronary aneurysm, which are the most serious complications in KD. Methods. We divided KD's children into different age groups: ≤6 months old, 7 months to 1 year old, and >1 year old, respectively. Different parameters were compared in each group. Results. Infants6 months old are less likely to fulfill KD's major diagnostic criteria within 10 days, are prone to develop incomplete KD with the lowest cholesterol level, and have the greatest chance to have CAA and the laboratory features associated with CAA, such as the longest time needed to confirm CA diagnosis, lower hemoglobin level, lower albumin level, and higher platelet count. Infants <1 year old develop higher percentage of leukocytosis and sterile pyuria. But this group has fewer patients with neck lymphadenopathy.

  14. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  15. [Acute renal failure due to obstructive ureteral stone associated with norovirus gastroenteritis in an infant with congenital solitary kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taiki; Hamano, Atsushi; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    We report a 35 month-old boy with acute renal failure caused by an obstructive ureteral stone associated with norovirus gastroenteritis. He visited his family physician because of fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. He was diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis. The symptoms relieved once, but abdominal pain and vomiting recurred two days after the visit and the volume of urine decreased. He was diagnosed as norovirus gastoenteritis and acute renal failure which was unresponsive to fluid replacement. Ultrasound study of the abdomen showed a solitary kidney with mild hydronephrosis. He was then admitted to our hospital. He was finally diagnosed as acute postrenal failure due to obstructive ureteral stone with left solitary kidney by abdominal computer tomography (CT). We performed transurethral catheterization immediately. The creatinine and blood urea nitrogen returned to normal level in 2 days. The CT performed on the 28th day post operation showed disappearance of the stone after uric alkalization. Recently, some cases of postrenal failure due to bilateral obstructive ureteral stones, mainly ammonium acid urate stones, associated with viral gastroenteritis were reported. As clinical features, they are common in boys three years or younger after an episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high uric acid concentration. By far, the most common cause of acute renal failure in patients with severe gastroenteritis is prerenal failure resulting from hypovolemia. But postrenal cause due to bilateral obstructive stones should be taken in a consideration.

  16. Parenting an infant with a congenital anomaly: how are perceived burden and perceived personal benefits related to parenting stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize parents' negative (perceived burden) and positive (perceived personal benefits) perceptions about parenting an infant with a congenital anomaly (CA), and to investigate their role in parenting stress. Forty-three couples (43 mothers and 36 fathers) whose 6-month-old infants had a CA completed several questionnaires: the Impact on Family Scale-Revised, the Positive Contributions Scale, and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. The results showed similarities between maternal and paternal perceptions. For mothers, higher levels of burden and lower levels of personal benefits were found to predict higher levels of parenting stress. For fathers, greater burden was associated with higher levels of parenting stress. Some dimensions of personal benefits moderated the relationship between burden and parenting stress, for both genders. Specific strategies targeting negative and positive perceptions should be considered when developing psychological interventions to promote the family's adaptation to the experience of parenting an infant with a CA.

  17. A young infant with musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Kao, Pan-Fu

    2003-05-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy is a relatively rare form of epilepsy. In its pure form, it is characterized by epileptic seizures that are provoked exclusively by listening to music. The usual type of seizure is partial complex or generalized tonic-clonic. Precipitating factors are quite specific, such as listening to only one composition or the actual playing of music on an instrument. However, simple sound also can be a trigger. We report a 6-month-old infant with musicogenic epilepsy. She manifested right-sided focal seizures with occasional generalization. The seizures were frequently triggered by loud music, especially that by the Beatles. The interictal electroencephalography results were normal. Ictal spikes were present throughout the left temporal area during continuous electroencephalograpic monitoring. Brain magnetic resonance imaging results were normal, whereas single-photon emission computed tomography of the brain revealed hypoperfusion of the left temporal area. The young age and epileptogenic left temporal lobe lesion in this patient with musicogenic epilepsy were unusual characteristics. Theoretically, three levels of integration are involved in music processing in the brain. The involved integration of this infant's brain may be the sensory level rather than the emotional level. Nevertheless, the personal musicality and musical style of the Beatles might play an important role in this patient's epilepsy.

  18. Pulmonary hypoplasia on preterm infant associated with diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis caused by intrauterine hemorrhage due to massive subchorial hematoma: report of a neonatal autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Marutani, Takamitsu; Hisaoka, Masanori; Tasaki, Takashi; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Shiraishi, Mika; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2012-08-01

    A male infant born prematurely at 31 weeks of gestation weighed 789 g and had mildly brown-colored oral/tracheal aspirates at delivery. The amniotic fluid was also discolored, and its index was below 5. The patient died of hypoxemic respiratory and cardiac failure 2 hours after birth. The maternal profiles showed placenta previa and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at 22 weeks of gestation, and revealed recurrent episodes of antenatal and substantial vaginal bleeding and oligohydramnios, indicating chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence. The thickened placenta, weighing 275 g, grossly displayed unevenness and diffuse opacity with green to brown discoloration in the chorioamniotic surface, and revealed chronic massive subchorial hematomas (Breus' mole) with old peripheral blood clot, circumvallation, and infarction. Microscopically, diffuse Berlin-blue staining-positive hemosiderin deposits were readily encountered in the chorioamniotic layers of the chorionic plate, consistent with diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis (DCH) due to Breus' mole, accompanied by diffuse amniotic necrosis. At autopsy, an external examination showed several surface anomalies and marked pulmonary hypoplasia, 0.006 (less 0.012) of lung:body weight ratio. Since Breus' mole has a close relationship with intrauterine hemorrhage, resulting in DCH, IUGR, and/or pulmonary hypoplasia of the newborn, the present features might be typical.

  19. Associations between infant feeding practices and length, weight, and disease in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, nonexclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough. We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 centimeters and weight by 0.25 kilograms and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or nonmilk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  20. Lessons learnt from the first efficacy trial of a new infant tuberculosis vaccine since BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameris, Michele; McShane, Helen; McClain, J Bruce; Landry, Bernard; Lockhart, Stephen; Luabeya, Angelique K K; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Shea, Jacqui; Hussey, Gregory; van der Merwe, Linda; de Kock, Marwou; Scriba, Thomas; Walker, Robert; Hanekom, Willem; Hatherill, Mark; Mahomed, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    New tuberculosis (TB) vaccines are being developed to combat the global epidemic. A phase IIb trial of a candidate vaccine, MVA85A, was conducted in a high burden setting in South Africa to evaluate proof-of-concept efficacy for prevention of TB in infants. To describe the study design and implementation lessons from an infant TB vaccine efficacy trial. This was a randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of MVA85A to Candin control administered to 4-6-month-old, BCG-vaccinated, HIV-negative infants at a rural site in South Africa. Infants were followed up for 15-39 months for incident TB disease based on pre-specified endpoints. 2797 infants were enrolled over 22 months. Factors adversely affecting recruitment and the solutions that were implemented are discussed. Slow case accrual led to six months extension of trial follow up. The clinical, regulatory and research environment for modern efficacy trials of new TB vaccines are substantially different to that when BCG vaccine was first evaluated in infants. Future infant TB vaccine trials will need to allocate sufficient resources and optimise operational efficiency. A stringent TB case definition is necessary to maximize specificity, and TB case accrual must be monitored closely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  2. Auditory discrimination predicts linguistic outcome in Italian infants with and without familial risk for language learning impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiani, Chiara; Riva, Valentina; Piazza, Caterina; Bettoni, Roberta; Molteni, Massimo; Choudhury, Naseem; Marino, Cecilia; Benasich, April A

    2016-08-01

    Infants' ability to discriminate between auditory stimuli presented in rapid succession and differing in fundamental frequency (Rapid Auditory Processing [RAP] abilities) has been shown to be anomalous in infants at familial risk for Language Learning Impairment (LLI) and to predict later language outcomes. This study represents the first attempt to investigate RAP in Italian infants at risk for LLI (FH+), examining two critical acoustic features: frequency and duration, both embedded in a rapidly-presented acoustic environment. RAP skills of 24 FH+ and 32 control (FH-) Italian 6-month-old infants were characterized via EEG/ERP using a multi-feature oddball paradigm. Outcome measures of expressive vocabulary were collected at 20 months. Group differences favoring FH- infants were identified: in FH+ infants, the latency of the N2* peak was delayed and the mean amplitude of the positive mismatch response was reduced, primarily for frequency discrimination and within the right hemisphere. Moreover, both EEG measures were correlated with language scores at 20 months. Results indicate that RAP abilities are atypical in Italian infants with a first-degree relative affected by LLI and that this impacts later linguistic skills. These findings provide a compelling cross-linguistic comparison with previous research on American infants, supporting the biological unity hypothesis of LLI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Infants' perception of lightness changes related to cast shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    When humans perceive the lightness of an object’s surface in shadows there is an implicit assumption that cast shadows dim the surface. In two experiments, we investigated whether 5- to 8-month-old infants make this assumption about shadows. According to this shadow assumption, the apparent change in lightness produced by shadows on an object’s surface are attributed to blocked light sources. If infants can use the shadow assumption to perceive the object’s lightness in shadows, they will also be able to detect unnatural lightness changes in shadows. We compared the infants’ looking times to the unnatural and the natural lightness changes in the shadow when an object (duck) goes through the cast shadow. In Experiment 1, we examined whether infants could detect the unnatural lightness changes of the object’s surface in shadows. We created computer-graphic movies of unnatural and natural lightness changes to the duck’s surface. Our results showed that 7- to 8-month-olds but not 5- to 6-month-olds significantly preferred the movie with the unnatural changes in lightness, indicating that only the older infants could detect these changes. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the infants’ preference was based on the detection of unnatural lightness changes according to the shadow assumption. The natural and the unnatural lightness changes of Experiment 1 were presented without cast shadows. Under these conditions, neither younger nor older infants showed a significant preference. Taken together, the experiments showed that 7- to 8-month-old infants could detect the unnaturalness of a surface’s lightness changes produced by shadows. In conclusion, our findings suggest that 7- to 8-month-old infants can perceive an object’s lightness in shadows by using an assumption that cast shadows dim the surface of an object. PMID:28296912

  4. Expressive timing in infant-directed singing between 3 and 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, Anne; Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study compared the temporal characteristics of maternal singing at 3 and then at 6 months. Infant-directed (ID) singing is claimed to have different functions in preverbal communication. However few studies have focused on the specific characteristics of ID singing that change across the first months of life. We aimed to explore these changes between 3 and 6 months because musical routines become prominent in the repertoire of games parents and infants spontaneously play during a period referred to as 'the period of games'. We focused specifically on expressive timing because it reflects how mothers dynamically adapt their singing to their infant's states of attention and involvement. We aimed to determine whether the expressive timing cues of maternal singing would be different at 3 and then at 6 months. To this end, the interactions of 18 mother-infant dyads were recorded while mothers were singing a popular French playsong for their infant at 3 and then at 6 months. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers showed final-lengthening and tempo slowing for both age groups, but marked the ends of the hierarchical structural units of the song more saliently with their 6-month-olds. Unexpectedly, infant sex was also found to affect maternal singing: more exaggerated phrase-lengthening patterns were observed in singing to girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hierarchical organization in the temporal structure of infant-direct speech and song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Simone; Kello, Christopher T

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers alter the temporal structure of their utterances when talking and singing to infants compared with adult communication. The present study tested whether temporal variability in infant-directed registers serves to emphasize the hierarchical temporal structure of speech. Fifteen German-speaking mothers sang a play song and told a story to their 6-months-old infants, or to an adult. Recordings were analyzed using a recently developed method that determines the degree of nested clustering of temporal events in speech. Events were defined as peaks in the amplitude envelope, and clusters of various sizes related to periods of acoustic speech energy at varying timescales. Infant-directed speech and song clearly showed greater event clustering compared with adult-directed registers, at multiple timescales of hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. We discuss the relation of this newly discovered acoustic property to temporal variability in linguistic units and its potential implications for parent-infant communication and infants learning the hierarchical structures of speech and language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Infant Perception of Incongruent Shapes in Cast Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A cast shadow occurs when an object blocks the light from an illumination and projects a dark region onto a surface. Previous studies have reported that adults are slower to identify an object when the object has an incongruent cast shadow than when it has a congruent cast shadow (Castiello, 2001. Here, we used the familiarization-novelty preference procedure to examine whether 5- to 8-month-old infants could detect the relationship between object shapes and cast shadows. In Experiment 1, we examined the infants' ability to detect incongruency between objects and cast shadows. Results showed that 7- to 8-month olds could detect incongruence between the object shapes and the cast shadows, whereas 5- to 6-month olds did not. Yet, our control experiment showed that infants could not detect this incongruence from stimuli in which a white outline had been added to the original cast shadow to decrease the possibility of it being perceived as a cast shadow (Experiment 2. The results of these experiments demonstrate that 7- to 8-month olds responded to the congruence of cast shadows and to consistent contrast polarity between the cast shadow and its background.

  7. Becoming musically enculturated: effects of music classes for infants on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Gerry, David; Whiskin, Elaine; Unrau, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Musical enculturation is a complex, multifaceted process that includes the development of perceptual processing specialized for the pitch and rhythmic structures of the musical system in the culture, understanding of esthetic and expressive norms, and learning the pragmatic uses of music in different social situations. Here, we summarize the results of a study in which 6-month-old Western infants were randomly assigned to 6 months of either an active participatory music class or a class in which they experienced music passively while playing. Active music participation resulted in earlier enculturation to Western tonal pitch structure, larger and/or earlier brain responses to musical tones, and a more positive social trajectory. Furthermore, the data suggest that early exposure to cultural norms of musical expression leads to early preferences for those norms. We conclude that musical enculturation begins in infancy and that active participatory music making in a positive social setting accelerates enculturation.

  8. [Macrocytic anemia and neurological signs due to vitamin B-12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, A; Neuwirth, M; Békési, A; Bocskai, E

    2001-11-18

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a very rare disease of infants and young children in Europe. Authors report a case of a 9.5-month-old infant who was exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother and developed serious vitamin B12 deficiency in form of neurological regression, repetitive vomiting, drowsiness, dysphagia, obstipation, and tremor. A few days after intramuscular vitamin substitution his abnormal signs improved dramatically, hematological restitution was reached in six weeks. Authors describe the hematological and neurological signs, the diagnostic and differential-diagnostic pitfalls, therapy, prognosis, and prevention of this condition. Beside reviewing the literature they emphasize the importance of early recognition and intervention and the need of an appropriate doctor-parent cooperation in this disease.

  9. Predicting others' intention involves motor resonance: EMG evidence from 6- and 9-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Elena; Senna, Irene; Bolognini, Nadia; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The study explores infants' ability to generate on-line predictions about others' action goals through the recruitment of motor resonance mechanisms. To this aim, electromyography was recorded from mouth-opening suprahyoid muscles (SM) of 9-month-old infants while watching a video of an adult agent reaching-to-grasp an object and bringing it either to mouth or head. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that at the age of 9 months there is a dynamic mirror modulation of SM activity by action observation, with the infant's muscles responsible for the action final goal being recruited from the action outset. The comparison with the responses of 6-month-olds tested on the same task showed that in younger and older infants there is a different chronometry of the SM activation with respect to the different phases of the observed action (i.e., bringing vs. grasping, respectively). Results suggest that motor resonance mechanisms triggered within the infants' motor system by action observation undergo gradual development during the first year of life. They also indicate that motor resonance may reflect anticipation of the agent's intention based on the goal of the action.

  10. Lactobacillus casei abundance is associated with profound shifts in the infant gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Cox

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut by microorganisms over the first year of life is crucial for development of a balanced immune response. Early alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota of neonates has been linked with subsequent development of asthma and atopy in older children. Here we describe high-resolution culture-independent analysis of stool samples from 6-month old infants fed daily supplements of Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus (LGG or placebo in a double-blind, randomized Trial of Infant Probiotic Supplementation (TIPS. Bacterial community composition was examined using a high-density microarray, the 16S rRNA PhyloChip, and the microbial assemblages of infants with either high or low LGG abundance were compared. Communities with high abundance of LGG exhibited promotion of phylogenetically clustered taxa including a number of other known probiotic species, and were significantly more even in their distribution of community members. Ecologically, these aspects are characteristic of communities that are more resistant to perturbation and outgrowth of pathogens. PhyloChip analysis also permitted identification of taxa negatively correlated with LGG abundance that have previously been associated with atopy, as well as those positively correlated that may prove useful alternative targets for investigation as alternative probiotic species. From these findings we hypothesize that a key mechanism for the protective effect of LGG supplementation on subsequent development of allergic disease is through promotion of a stable, even, and functionally redundant infant gastrointestinal community.

  11. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  12. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Autonomic and Endocrine Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; King, Lucy; Schreier, Hannah; Howard, Jamie M.; Rosenfield, David; Ritz, Thomas; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental exposures may help shape the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, influencing vulnerability for health problems across the lifespan. Little is known about the role of maternal sensitivity in influencing the development of the ANS in early life. Aims To examine associations among maternal sensitivity and infant behavioral distress and ANS and HPA axis reactivity to the Repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R), a dyadic stress task. Study Design Observational repeated measures study. Subjects Thirty-five urban, sociodemographically diverse mothers and their 6-month-old infants. Outcome Measures Changes in infant affective distress, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and T-wave amplitude (TWA) across episodes of the SFP-R were assessed. A measure of cortisol output (area under the curve) in the hour following cessation of the SFP-R was also obtained. Results Greater maternal insensitivity was associated with greater infant sympathetic activation (TWA) during periods of stress and tended to be associated with greater cortisol output following the SFP-R. There was also evidence for greater affective distress and less parasympathetic activation (RSA) during the SFP-R among infants of predominantly insensitive mothers. Conclusions Caregiving quality in early life may influence the responsiveness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS as well as the HPA axis. Consideration of the ANS and HPA axis systems together provides a fuller representation of adaptive versus maladaptive stress responses. The findings highlight the importance of supporting high quality caregiving in the early years of life, which is likely to promote later health. PMID:24794304

  13. The Hollow-Face Illusion in Infancy: Do Infants See a Screen Based Rotating Hollow Mask as Hollow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Tsuruhara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether infants experience the hollow-face illusion using a screen-based presentation of a rotating hollow mask. In experiment 1 we examined preferential looking between rotating convex and concave faces. Adults looked more at the concave—illusory convex—face which appears to counter rotate. Infants of 7- to 8-month-old infants preferred the convex face, and 5- to 6-month-olds showed no preference. While older infants discriminate, their preference differed from that of adults possibly because they don't experience the illusion or counter rotation. In experiment 2 we tested preference in 7- to 8-month-olds for angled convex and concave static faces both before and after habituation to the stimuli shown in experiment 1. The infants showed a novelty preference for the static shape opposite to the habituation stimulus, together with a general preference for the static convex face. This shows that they discriminate between convex and concave faces and that habituation to either transfers across a change in view. Seven- to eight-month-olds have been shown to discriminate direction of rigid rotation on the basis of perspective changes. Our results suggest that this, perhaps together with a weaker bias to perceive faces as convex, allows these infants to see the screen-based hollow face as hollow even though adults perceive it as convex.

  14. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, R K; Henjum, S; Ulak, M; Thorne- Lyman, A L; Ulvik, R J; Shrestha, P S; Locks, L; Fawzi, W; Strand, T A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Subjects/Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother–infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein. Results: The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2–6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) <10.8 g/dl) and 72% among infants 7–12-month-old (Hb <11.3 g/dl). Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin <20 or <12 μg/l, affected 9 and 26% of infants of these same age groups. Twenty percent of mothers had anemia (Hb <12.3 g/dl), but only one-fifth was explained by depletion of iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants. PMID:26626049

  15. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe Madura

    2015-01-01

    -produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n...... and cytotoxic T-cells and decreased T-helper cell counts. The minor FADS alleles were associated with lower breast milk AA and EPA, and infants of mothers carrying the minor allele of FADS SNP rs174556 had higher production of IL-10 (r -0.23; P=0.018), IL-17 (r -0.25; P=0.009) and IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.038) from......Breast milk long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) have been associated with changes in early life immune responses and may modulate T-cell function in infancy. We studied the effect of maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype and breast milk LCPUFA levels on infants' blood T-cell profiles and ex vivo...

  16. Rethinking maternal sensitivity: mothers' comments on infants' mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, E; Fernyhough, C; Fradley, E; Tuckey, M

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated predictors of attachment security in a play context using a sample of 71 mothers and their 6-month-old infants. We sought to rethink the concept of maternal sensitivity by focusing on mothers' ability accurately to read the mental states governing infant behaviour. Five categories were devised to assess this ability, four of which were dependent on maternal responses to infant behaviours, such as object-directed activity. The fifth, mothers' Appropriate minded-related comments, assessed individual differences in mothers' proclivity to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states and processes. Higher scores in this fifth category related to a secure attachment relationship at 12 months. Maternal sensitivity and Appropriate mind-related comments were independent predictors of attachment security at 12 months, respectively accounting for 6.5% and 12.7% of its variance. We suggest that these findings are in line with current theorising on internal working models of attachment, and may help to explain security-related differences in mentalising abilities.

  17. [Maternal infection due to Helicobacter pylori does not increase the risk of the infection in the first trimester of the life of their infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Paula; Villagrán, Andrea; Vera, Macarena; Estay, Alberto; Ortiz, Marlene; Serrano, Carolina; Hernández, Caroll; Harris, Paul R

    H. pylori infection is acquired early in childhood. However, there is little information available regarding the role of breastfeeding and neonatal acquisition of the infection. To evaluate factors affecting the acquisition of H. pylori in newborns and infants from infected mothers. Consecutive mothers and their newborns were recruited into the study from the maternity unit, immediately after delivery. After signing informed consent, one stool sample from the mother was obtained before hospital discharge. Three stool samples of the newborns were then collected at home at 15, 60, and 90 days of life, for the detection of H. pylori antigen (Monoclonal HpSAg, sensitivity 94% and specificity 97%). The socio-epidemiological and biomedical variables were also analysed using a questionnaire. A total of 32 mother-child pairs (64 subjects) were enrolled. The mean maternal age was 30.1±5.1 years, with 53% vaginal delivery, and 85% exclusively breastfed. There were 13 (40%) infected mothers. No H. pylori infection was detected in newborns and infants up to 3 months of follow-up. No significant differences were found in socioeconomic level between infected versus non-infected mothers (both groups mostly in the very high socioeconomic category: 28% and 32%, respectively, P=.15) and in the number of family members between infected versus non-infected mothers (3.8±0.8 vs 4.2±1.8 persons, P=.18). Despite having a significant percentage of H. pylori-infected mothers, no newborn was infected at the third month of life. The protective role of breastfeeding cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Asian infants show preference for own-race but not other-race female faces: The role of infant caregiving arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that 3- to 4-month-olds show a visual preference for faces of the same gender as their primary caregiver (e.g., Quinn et al., 2002. In addition, this gender preference has been observed for own-race faces, but not for other-race faces (Quinn et al., 2008 However, most of the studies of face gender preference have focused on infants at 3 to 4 months. Development of gender preference in later infancy is still unclear. Moreover, all of these studies were conducted with Caucasian infants from Western countries. It is thus unknown whether a gender preference that is limited to own-race faces can be generalized to infants from other racial groups and different cultures with distinct caregiving practices. The current study investigated the face gender preferences of Asian infants presented with male versus female face pairs from Asian and Caucasian races at 3, 6, and 9 months and the role of caregiving arrangements in eliciting those preferences. The results showed an own-race female face preference in 3- and 6-month-olds, but not in 9-month-olds. Moreover, the downturn in the female face preference correlated with the cumulative male face experience obtained in caregiving practices. In contrast, no gender preference or correlation between gender preference and face experience was found for other-race Caucasian faces at any age. The data indicate that the face gender preference is not specifically rooted in Western cultural caregiving practices. In addition, the race dependency of the effect previously observed for Caucasian infants reared by Caucasian caregivers looking at Caucasian but not Asian faces extends to Asian infants reared by Asian caregivers looking at Asian but not Caucasian faces. The findings also provide additional support for an experiential basis for the gender preference, and in particular suggest that cumulative male face experience plays a role in inducing a downturn in the preference in older

  19. Enhancement of gamma oscillations indicates preferential processing of native over foreign phonemic contrasts in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Musacchia, Gabriella; Benasich, April A

    2013-11-27

    Young infants discriminate phonetically relevant speech contrasts in a universal manner, that is, similarly across languages. This ability fades by 12 months of age as the brain builds language-specific phonemic maps and increasingly responds preferentially to the infant's native language. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of infant preference for native over non-native phonemes remain unclear. Since gamma-band power is known to signal infants' preference for native language rhythm, we hypothesized that it might also indicate preference for native phonemes. Using high-density electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) recordings and source-localization techniques to identify and locate the ERP generators, we examined changes in brain oscillations while 6-month-old human infants from monolingual English settings listened to English and Spanish syllable contrasts. Neural dynamics were investigated via single-trial analysis of the temporal-spectral composition of brain responses at source level. Increases in 4-6 Hz (theta) power and in phase synchronization at 2-4 Hz (delta/theta) were found to characterize infants' evoked responses to discrimination of native/non-native syllable contrasts mostly in the left auditory source. However, selective enhancement of induced gamma oscillations in the area of anterior cingulate cortex was seen only during native contrast discrimination. These results suggest that gamma oscillations support syllable discrimination in the earliest stages of language acquisition, particularly during the period in which infants begin to develop preferential processing for linguistically relevant phonemic features in their environment. Our results also suggest that by 6 months of age, infants already treat native phonemic contrasts differently from non-native, implying that perceptual specialization and establishment of enduring phonemic memory representations have been initiated.

  20. The prevalence and factors associated with stunting among infants aged 6 months in a peri-urban South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Kruger, Herculina S; Faber, Mieke; Rothman, Marinel; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-09-07

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in 6-month-old South African infants. This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline of a randomized controlled trial. Weight-for-length, length-for-age and weight-for-age Z-scores were based on the WHO classification. Blood samples were analysed for Hb, plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Socio-economic, breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices were assessed by questionnaire. Setting/Subjects Infants aged 6 months (n 750) from a peri-urban area of Matlosana Municipality, North West Province of South Africa. Stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight affected 28·5, 11·1, 1·7 and 10·1 % of infants, respectively. Exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months of age was reported in 5·9 % of the infants. Multivariable binary logistic regression showed that birth weight (OR=0·12; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·21, P8·3 mg/l) concentrations. The association between stunting and lower birth weight, shorter maternal height and male sex reflects possibly the intergenerational origins of stunting. Therefore, interventions that focus on improving preconceptual and maternal nutritional status, combined with strategies to promote appropriate infant feeding practices, may be an important strategy to prevent stunting in vulnerable settings.

  1. Fecal calprotectin levels are higher in rural than in urban Chinese infants and negatively associated with growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jin-Rong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established simple biomarker of gut inflammation. To examine a possible relationship between linear growth and gut inflammation, we compared fecal calprotectin levels in 6 month old infants from poor rural vs affluent urban families. Methods The project was a cross-sectional comparison of FC from rural and urban populations in China. The relationship between length-for-age Z-score (LAZ and FC concentrations were also compared. Single fecal samples were assayed for FC using EK-CAL ELISA kits. Results The age of subjects for both locations was 6.1 ± 0.2 mo; all were apparently healthy. The mean ± SD of the LAZ for the rural and urban infants were −0.6 ± 0.9 and 0.4 ± 0.9, respectively. FC had a non-normal distribution. The median FC of 420.9 and 140.1 μg/g for rural and urban infants, respectively, were significantly different (P  Conclusion FC levels were significantly elevated in the rural infants and high concentrations accounted for approximately one-third of the low LAZ scores of these infants.

  2. Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-10-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). In total, 48 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls and 24 boys) and 48 young adults (24 women and 24 men) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women regardless of whether they were real or doll faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus nonsocial stimuli, but unlike infants they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy real stimuli and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development that continues into adulthood.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae: development of carbapenem resistance due to acquisition of blaNDM-1 during antimicrobial therapy in twin infants with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying eZhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the mechanism of in vivo development of carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae.Methods: Seven sequential isolates of K. pneumoniae were obtained from twin infants with pneumonia. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution. Carbapenemases including KPC and ML were initially screened using phenotypic methods, and carbapenemase-encoding genes were identified by PCR and amplicon sequencing. Plasmids of all clinical isolates and the conjugants of resistant isolates were estimated by S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Molecular typing were conducted by PFGE of XbaI-digested genomic DNA and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Results: For old brother, the first and third isolates were susceptible to meropenem, whereas the second and fourth isolates were resistant (MICs 16 mg/L. The first and second isolates from the young brother were susceptible to meropenem whereas the third isolate was resistant. All the resistant isolates produced NDM-1 metallo--lactamase. PFGE of XbaI-digested DNA revealed identical patterns for all the 7 isolates. All the isolates had the same sequence type named sequence type 37 (ST37. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of development of carbapenem resistance in vivo mediated by NDM-1 metallo-b-lactamase in K. pneumoniae during treatment of pneumonia with meropenem.

  4. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the pancreatic head – a case report of a 6 months old child and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomazic Ales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are rare in the pediatric population. Most common localizations were reported in the lungs. A localization in the pancreas needs differentiation from other tumors and chronic pancreatitis. Treatment is surgical resection, although there are reports of treatment with oral steroids and radiation therapy.

  5. Tentativa de infanticídio por um macho dominante de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae em um infante extra-grupo devido a influência do observador Infanticide attempt by a dominant male of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae against an extra-group infant due to the influence of the observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata um caso de tentativa de infanticídio por um macho residente e dominante de um grupo de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 em um infante extra-grupo, em ilha do rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil. O encontro do par fêmea-infante com o macho residente foi propiciado pela interferência humana. Devido às circunstâncias em que ocorreu o fato e a posição hierárquica do agressor, a hipótese de patologia social pareceu plausível na explicação do comportamento.This work reports on an infanticide attempt by a dominant resident male in a group of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 on an extra-group infant in an Island in the Paraná river, Paraná, Brazil. The encounter of an infant-female pair with a resident male was brought about by human interference. Give the circumstances in which the event ocurred and the hierarchical position of the agressor, the social pathology hypothesis seems the most plausible explanation for such behavior.

  6. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geangu

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  7. Narrowing in categorical responding to other-race face classes by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Tanaka, James W

    2016-05-01

    Infants can form object categories based on perceptual cues, but their ability to form categories based on differential experience is less clear. Here we examined whether infants filter through perceptual differences among faces from different other-race classes and represent them as a single other-race class different only from own-race faces. We used a familiarization/novelty-preference procedure to investigate category formation for two other-race face classes (Black vs. Asian) by White 6- and 9-month-olds. The data indicated that while White 6-month-olds categorically represented the distinction between Black and Asian faces, White 9-month-olds formed a broad other-race category inclusive of Black and Asian faces, but exclusive of own-race White faces. The findings provide evidence that narrowing can occur for mental processes other than discrimination: category formation is also affected. The results suggest that frequency of experience with own-race versus other-race classes of faces may propel infants to contrast own-race faces with other-race faces, but not different classes of other-race faces with each other.

  8. Hypersensitivity reaction in an infant fed hydrolyzed lactalbumin contained in a semielemental formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, M B; Stoker, T W; Rudolph, C D; Frick, O L

    1990-02-01

    Following introduction of milk protein formula feedings, a 6-month-old male developed profuse, watery diarrhea progressing to shock, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Reinstitution of enteral feedings with a formula containing hydrolyzed lactalbumin (Travasorb STD) resulted in recurrence of diarrhea with fever. Intestinal and rectal biopsies showed only nonspecific inflammatory changes. He was discharged on an elemental formula (Vivonex). Twenty-three months later, while admitted for evaluation of hypophosphatemic rickets, immunologic testing using the lymphocyte migration inhibition factor (LIF) test demonstrated positive reactions, especially to alpha-lactalbumin (56% inhibition) and whole cow's milk (22%, normal of less than 20% inhibition). Skin tests revealed sensitivity to cow's milk and eggs. Soy formula also produced diarrhea and bloody stools. Protein hydrolysate formulas, touted as hypoallergenic diets, are useful in infants with intolerance to milk protein. This is the first documented case of an immunological reaction to the hydrolyzed whey protein, lactalbumin. Although protein hydrolysate formulas are effective treatment in most infants with milk protein intolerance, allergic reactions are possible. Caution and close observation should be exercised in immunologically sensitized infants rechallenged with any formula.

  9. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  10. An infant with cartilage-hair hypoplasia due to a novel homozygous mutation in the promoter region of the RMRP gene associated with chondrodysplasia and severe immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanavicharn, N; Visitsunthorn, N; Pho-iam, T; Jirapongsananuruk, O; Pacharn, P; Chokephaibulkit, K; Limwongse, C; Wasant, P

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, sparse hair, and immune deficiency. It is caused by mutations in the RMRP gene, which encodes the RNA component of the mitochondrial RNA-processing ribonuclease (RNase MRP). Several mutations have been identified in its promoter region or transcribed sequence. However, homozygous mutations in the promoter region have been only reported in a patient with primary immunodeficiency without other features of CHH. We report on a Thai girl who first presented with chronic diarrhea, recurrent pneumonia, and severe failure to thrive, without apparently disproportionate dwarfism. The diagnosis of CHH was made after the severe wasting was corrected, and disproportionate growth became noticeable. The patient had the typical features of CHH, including sparse hair and metaphyseal abnormalities. The immunologic profiles were consistent with combined immune deficiency. Mutation analysis identified a novel homozygous mutation, g.-19_-25 dupACTACTC, in the promoter region of the RMRP gene. Identification of the mutation enabled us to provide a prenatal diagnosis in the subsequent pregnancy. This patient is the first CHH case with the characteristic features due to the homozygous mutation in the promoter region of the RMRP gene. The finding of severe immunodeficiency supports that promoter mutations markedly disrupt mRNA cleavage function, which causes cell-cycle impairment.

  11. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  12. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  13. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  14. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Figueras, Melània; Teixidó, Maria; Ramon-Casas, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch) whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian), partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual) and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants) were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language.

  15. "Mom called me!" Behavioral and prefrontal responses of infants to self-names spoken by their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imafuku, Masahiro; Hakuno, Yoko; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2014-12-01

    Development of a sense of self is a fundamental process needed for human social interaction. Although functional neuroimaging studies have revealed the importance of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in self-referencing, how this function develops in infancy remains poorly understood. To determine the cerebral basis underlying processing of self-related stimuli, we used behavioral measures and functional multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure prefrontal cortical responses in 6-month-old infants hearing their own names. We also investigated the influence of a mother's voice on name perception in infants - an ability that plays a crucial role in the recognition of social signals. Experiment 1 measured the behavioral preferences of infants for their own names and for other names, spoken either by their mothers or by strangers. Results showed that infants significantly preferred their own name to other names, regardless of speaker type. Experiment 2 examined hemodynamic responses to the same four conditions in the prefrontal cortex. Compared with other names, hearing their own names, especially when spoken by their mother, elicited greater activity in the infant's dorsal mPFC. Furthermore, the magnitude of the cerebral response correlated with the degree of behavioral preference only when involving their mother's voice. These findings suggest that, particularly in the context of their mothers' voice, the dorsal mPFC of infants is already sensitive to social signals related to self at 6 months. At the same time, familiarity and affection related processing are also discussed as possible factors modulating dorsal mPFC activation at this age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Figueras, Melània; Teixidó, Maria; Ramon-Casas, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch) whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian), partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual) and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants) were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language. PMID:23467921

  17. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  18. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  19. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  20. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  1. Síndrome séptico por Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, variedad anitratus Septic syndrome due to acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus in an infant: report of a case and review of the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Tulia Zapata Muñoz

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de síndrome séptico por Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, variedad anitratus, adquirido en la comunidad por un niño inmunocompetente. Esta combinación de circunstancias es inusitada. Se manifestó por meningitis, compromiso del pulmón izquierdo y un absceso glúteo. El niño se recuperó completamente con la antibioterapia. Se propone éste como el primer caso informado en la literatura latinoamericana que reúne las condiciones anotadas. Se hace una síntesis de las características generales de la bacteria, la patogénesis de la infección y las principales enfermedades que produce, así como los medios existentes para prevenirla.

    We report on the case of an immunocompetent infant who presented with a septic syndrome due to a community-acquired infection by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus. Clinical manifestations were meningitis, left Iobar pneumonia with pleural effussion and a gluteal ascess. The patient fully recovered with antibiotic therapy. This case may be the first in the Latin-American medical literature with such unusual combination of features. A review is presented on the general characteristics of Acinetobacter, the pathogenesis of the infections It produces, the main clinical presentations and the methods of prevention.

  2. Left ventricular non-compaction revealed by aortic regurgitation due to Kawasaki disease in a boy with LDB3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Akira; Motoki, Noriko; Akazawa, Yohei; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Hirono, Keiichi; Hata, Yukiko; Nishida, Naoki; Ichida, Fukiko; Koike, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness of childhood characterized by systemic vasculitis, especially coronary arteritis. Aortic valve regurgitation (AVR) is a relatively common complication. There have been no reports to date of heart failure and left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) after acute KD, although the precise etiology of this condition remains unclear. A 6-month-old boy with KD was admitted to hospital. Despite high-dose i.v. gammaglobulin for dilation of the coronary artery, moderate AVR appeared, and thereafter he developed heart failure. A rough, dense LV myocardium indicated LVNC. On genetic testing a heterogenous 163G > A substitution changing a valine to isoleucine in LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3) was identified. Additional cardiac stress, such as that caused by AVR and/or KD might have triggered cardiac failure in the form of LVNC due to LDB3 mutation.

  3. Perception and management of fever in infants up to six months of age: A survey of US pediatricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markson Leona E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fever is an increase in the body's temperature above normal. This study examined how US pediatricians perceive and manage fever generally versus fever occurring after vaccination in infants up to six months of age. Methods A web-based survey of 400 US pediatricians subscribing to the Physician Desk Reference was conducted in December 2008. Data were collected on the respondents' socio-demographics, number of years in practice, type of practice, their definition of fever severity in infants, and their recommendations for managing fever. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the odds of a pediatrician recommending an emergency room visit (ER or a hospital admission, office visits, or other treatment option, as a function of infant's age, temperature, whether the infant has recently received a vaccine, and whether the fever was reported during or after office hours, adjusting for practice type and socio-demographic variables. Results On average, the 400 responding pediatricians' (64% were female, average age of 49 years, years in practice = 20 years threshold for extremely serious fever was ≥39.5°C and ≥ 40.0°C for infants 0-2 month and >2-6 month of age respectively. Infants were more likely to be referred to an ER or hospital admission if they were ≤ 2 months of age (Odds Ratio [OR], 29.13; 95% Confidence interval [95% CI], 23.69-35.82 or >2-4 months old (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.99-3.81 versus > 4 to 6 months old or if they had a temperature ≥ 40.0°C (OR 21.06; 95% CI 17.20-25.79 versus a temperature of 38.0-38.5°C. Fever after vaccination (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.25-0.33 or reported during office hours (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.15-0.20 were less likely to result in referral to ER or hospital admission. Conclusion Within this sample of US pediatricians, perception of the severity of fever in infants, as well as the response to infant fever are likely to depend on the infant's age. Recommendations for the management

  4. Developing the own-race advantage in 4-, 6-, and 9-month-old Taiwanese infants: A perceptual learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Hui-Lin Chien

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous infant studies on the other-race effect have favored the perceptual narrowing view, or declined sensitivities to rarely exposed other-race faces. Here we wish to provide an alternative possibility, perceptual learning, manifested by improved sensitivity for frequently exposed own-race faces in the first year of life. Using the familiarization/visual-paired comparison paradigm, we presented 4-, 6- and 9-month-old Taiwanese infants with oval-cropped Taiwanese, Caucasian, Philippine faces, and each with three different manipulations of increasing task difficulty (i.e., change identity, change eyes, and widen eye spacing. An adult experiment was first conducted to verify the task difficulty. Our results showed that, with oval-cropped faces, the 4 month-old infants could only discriminate Taiwanese change identity condition and not any others, suggesting an early own-race advantage at 4 months. The 6 month-old infants demonstrated novelty preferences in both Taiwanese and Caucasian change identity conditions, and proceeded to the Taiwanese change eyes condition. The 9-month-old infants demonstrated novelty preferences in the change identity condition of all three ethnic faces. They also passed the Taiwanese change eyes condition but could not extend this refined ability of detecting a change in the eyes for the Caucasian or Philippine faces. Taken together, we interpret the pattern of results as evidence supporting perceptual learning during the first year: the ability to discriminate own-race faces emerges at 4 months and continues to refine, while the ability to discriminate other-race faces emerges between 6 to 9 months and retains at 9 months. Additionally, the discrepancies in the face stimuli and methods between studies advocating the narrowing view and those supporting the learning view were discussed.

  5. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eBosch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants’ process towards lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian, partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language.

  6. Auditory Brainstem Response in Term and Preterm Infants with Neonatal Complications: The Importance of the Sequential Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Daniela da

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Literature data are not conclusive as to the influence of neonatal complications in the maturational process of the auditory system observed by auditory brainstem response (ABR in infants at term and preterm. Objectives Check the real influence of the neonatal complications in infants by the sequential auditory evaluation. Methods Historical cohort study in a tertiary referral center. A total of 114 neonates met inclusion criteria: treatment at the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program of the local hospital; at least one risk indicator for hearing loss; presence in both evaluations (the first one after hospital discharge from the neonatal unit and the second one at 6 months old; all latencies in ABR and transient otoacoustic emissions present in both ears. Results The complications that most influenced the ABR findings were Apgar scores less than 6 at 5 minutes, gestational age, intensive care unit stay, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage, and mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Sequential auditory evaluation is necessary in premature and term newborns with risk indicators for hearing loss to correctly identify injuries in the auditory pathway.

  7. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day.

  8. An unusual cause of respiratory distress in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciolelli, Colleen H; Hageman, Joseph R; Groner, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Partial anomalous venous connection (PAPVC) is a congenital cardiovascular defect where one or more (but not all) of the pulmonary veins return anomalously back to the right atrium, either via a direct or indirect connection. It often occurs with other cardiac defects, most commonly a secundum atrial septal defect. Individuals with a large degree of shunting will present with dyspnea, fatigue, and, in some cases, heart failure. Clinical associations and variants of PAPVC include scimitar syndrome, pseudo-scimitar or meandering right pulmonary vein, sinous venosus defects, malposition of the septum primum, and Turner syndrome. The patient in this case, a previously healthy, 6-month-old, full-term male, presented to the emergency department for evaluation of respiratory distress and wheezing. The infant was first seen in his pediatrician's office, where he was noted to be tachypneic and wheezing. He was feeding without difficulty, voiding well, and was active and playful. The patient had passed critical congenital heart disease screening after his birth and prior to discharge, and the family history was negative for any respiratory or cardiac conditions. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is becoming the mode of choice for diagnosis of PAPVC. The definitive treatment is surgical correction, but surgery is not indicated in all cases, especially if the patient is asymptomatic and the degree of shunting is small. Patients with isolated PAPVC who undergo surgical correction have good long-term outcomes. In this case, the patient underwent the Warden procedure, which causes an increased risk of superior vena cava stenosis or obstruction to the right atrium. This patient will require lifelong follow-up to assess for new onset pulmonary venous obstruction.

  9. [Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) capitis in an infant: Microbiological, dermoscopic and ultrastructural features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Ricarte, Ixchel; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Hernández, Marco A; Mena, Carlos; Valencia, Adriana

    2017-04-01

    Trichomycosis is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium flavescens, which regularly affects axillary, and to a a lesser extent, pubic, scrotal and intergluteal, and exceptionally, head hairs or trichomycosis capitis (TC). This condition is characterised by the formation of bacterial nodules. Clinically, it can be confused with white piedra or pediculosis. The diagnosis is made by microscopic and dermoscopic observation and confirmed by culture. To present a case of TC in an infant and illustrate the microscopic, dermoscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics. A 6 month-old boy, otherwise healthy, with multiple yellowish concretions on the hairs of the head. TC was confirmed by yellow fluorescence with Wood’s light; white-yellowish beads, like “rosaries of crystalline stones’’ were observed on dermoscopy, direct examination showed bacterial masses, and Corynebacterium flavescens was identified by culture. A superficial infection, without perforation of the hairs, was confirmed by electron microscopy. Treatment with fusidic acid for 3 weeks achieved a clinical and microbiological cure. TC is a rare condition that affects children, and tends to be mistaken for other diseases of the hair, such as pediculosis and mycotic infections.

  10. [Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) capitis in an infant. Microbiological, dermoscopic and ultrastructural features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Ricarte, Ixchel; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Hernández, Marco A; Mena, Carlos; Valencia, Adriana

    2016-05-05

    Trichomycosis is a superficial infection caused by Corynebacterium flavescens, which regularly affects axillary, and to a a lesser extent, pubic, scrotal and intergluteal, and exceptionally, head hairs or trichomycosis capitis (TC). This condition is characterised by the formation of bacterial nodules. Clinically, it can be confused with white piedra or pediculosis. The diagnosis is made by microscopic and dermoscopic observation and confirmed by culture. To present a case of TC in an infant and illustrate the microscopic, dermoscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics. A 6 month-old boy, otherwise healthy, with multiple yellowish concretions on the hairs of the head. TC was confirmed by yellow fluorescence with Wood's light; white-yellowish beads, like "rosaries of crystalline stones" were observed on dermoscopy, direct examination showed bacterial masses, and Corynebacterium flavescens was identified by culture. A superficial infection, without perforation of the hairs, was confirmed by electron microscopy. Treatment with fusidic acid for 3 weeks achieved a clinical and microbiological cure. TC is a rare condition that affects children, and tends to be mistaken for other diseases of the hair, such as pediculosis and mycotic infections. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  12. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  13. 深圳市婴儿睡眠现状流行病学研究%Epidemiological study on infant sleep status in Shenzhen.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢怡; 孙晓勉; 郑雪媚

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand infant sleep problems through the study of infant sleep status in Shenzhen, and analyse the risk factors. To provide a scientific basis to solve infant sleep problems for pediatricians and children health care workers. [Methods] The survey and temperament tests were taken among 904 parents in five community service centers, at random. [Results] 1) Prevalence of sleep problems among infants was 43. 0% in Shenzhen. 2) The main infant sleep position before 6-month-old was supination. Lateral position and unfixed position gradually increased along with the growth after 6-month-old. Infants sleep on their own or need help to fall asleep had nothing to do with age. 3) Main risk factors were the parents lack of knowledge of sleep, infants with disharmonious temperament, infants sleeping at night with lights and so on.[Conclusions] Infant sleep problems have attracted wide attention from their parents. The parents lack of knowledge of sleep and paying too much attention to infant sleep, is the main risk factor to prevent infants from establishing normal sleep patterns.%[目的]通过对深圳市婴儿睡眠现状的调查研究,了解婴儿睡眠存在的问题,分析可能影响婴儿睡眠问题的危险因素,为儿科和儿童保健工作者解决婴儿睡眠问题提供科学依据. [方法]采用分层随机整群抽样的方法抽取全市5家社区健康服务中心共904名婴儿父母进行问卷调查及气质测试. [结果]深圳市婴儿睡眠问题发生率为43.0%;2)婴儿睡眠姿势6月龄前以仰卧为主,6月龄后侧卧、不固定姿势均随着月龄增长逐渐增多,婴儿自行入睡及需外界帮助入睡方式均与月龄无关;3)影响婴儿睡眠问题的主要因素有父母缺乏睡眠知识,婴儿难养型气质、夜间睡眠开灯等. [结论]婴儿睡眠问题已引起父母广泛关注,父母缺乏睡眠知识而又过多干预婴儿睡眠,是婴儿建立正常的睡眠模式主要相关危险因素.

  14. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskär Thorkild

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers differ from recommendations to mothers of unknown HIV-status. The aim of this study was to compare feeding practices, including breastfeeding, between infants and young children of HIV-positive mothers and infants of mothers in the general population of Uganda. Methods This study compares two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2005 in Eastern Uganda using analogous questionnaires. The first survey consisted of 727 randomly selected general-population mother-infant pairs with unknown HIV status. The second included 235 HIV-positive mothers affiliated to The Aids Support Organisation, TASO. In this article we compare early feeding practices, breastfeeding duration, feeding patterns with dietary information and socio-economic differences in the two groups of mothers. Results Pre-lacteal feeding was given to 150 (64% infants of the HIV-positive mothers and 414 (57% infants of general-population mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under the age of 6 months was more common in the general population than among the HIV-positive mothers (186 [45%] vs. 9 [24%] respectively according to 24-hour recall. Mixed feeding was the most common practice in both groups of mothers. Solid foods were introduced to more than half of the infants under 6 months old among the HIV-positive mothers and a quarter of the infants in the general population. Among the HIV-positive mothers with infants below 12 months of age, 24 of 90 (27% had stopped breastfeeding, in contrast to 9 of 727 (1% in the general population. The HIV-positive mothers were poorer and had less education than the general-population mothers. Conclusion In many respects, HIV-positive mothers fed their infants less favourably than mothers in the general population, with potentially detrimental effects on both the child's nutrition and the risk of HIV transmission. Mixed feeding and pre

  15. Morbimortalidade infantil por diarréia aguda em área metropolitana da região Nordeste do Brasil, 1986-1989 Infant morbimortality due to acute diarrhoea in a metropolitan area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvana de J. do V. Campos

    1995-04-01

    occurred in S. José de Ribamar. The distribution of cases according to age showed a higher prevalence among children of 6-11 months and between 1 and 2 years of age. The prevalence of diarrhoea was highest among the families: that excreted directly into the sea or a latreen; that used water from uncovered wells; that threw their garbage into the sea; and whose bread-winners were unemployed. Diarrhoea was the principal cause of death in both surveys. Infant mortality, in May 1986, was 44.0 per thousand in children under 1 year of age and 12.8 in children under 5 years old; in May 1989 it was 7.9 per thousand and 4.9 per thousand respectively. The decrease in child morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea between 1986 and 1989 was statistically significant.

  16. Factors influencing the bone mineral density in preterm infants%早产婴儿骨密度及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文旭; 杨慧明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the bone mineral development and the factors influencing the development in preterm infants. Methods Ninety preterm and 90 term infants followed up by the child health care service were randomly enrolled. Tibia quantitative ultrasound measurements were used to evaluate bone mineral density described as supersonic speed of sound (SOS) and Z scores at 6 months old ( corrected gestational age for preterm infants). The factors influencing bone mineral development were investigated by questionnaire. Results The SOS values and Z scores in term infants were significantly higher than those in preterm infants at 6 months old. In the preterm group, the SOS values and Z scores were significantly different in infants with different birth weights or gestational ages ( P < 0. 05 ). The SOS values in preterm infants with different weaning time were significantly different. The Z scores in female preterm infants were significantly higher than that in males (P<0. 05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that weaning time and daily time of outdoor activities were independent factors influencing SOS values in preterm infants. Conclusions It is helpful to promote bone mineral development by an appropriate weaning time or increasing the time of outdoor activities in preterm infants.%目的 了解早产儿骨矿发育的情况及影响因素.方法 随机选取儿保门诊随访的早产儿与足月儿各90例,采用定量超声技术测量6月龄时(早产儿为纠正胎龄6月龄)的胫骨骨密度,结果以超声波声速度(SOS)值和Z值表示;同时采用回顾性问卷调查影响骨矿发育的相关因素.结果 足月儿6月龄的SOS值和Z值明显高于纠正胎龄6月龄的早产儿.在早产儿组中,不同出生体重、胎龄婴儿的SOS值和Z值,不同断母乳时间婴儿的SOS值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);早产儿女婴的Z值明显高于男性婴儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元线性回归分析显示,断母乳时间

  17. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  18. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...... analysis of infant development and might be able to tell something about possible motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy. In this paper, we address markerless 3D body part detection of infants using a widely available depth sensor and discuss some of the major challenges that arise. We present a method...

  19. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    analysis of infant development and might be able to tell something about possible motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy. In this paper, we address markerless 3D body part detection of infants using a widely available depth sensor and discuss some of the major challenges that arise. We present a method......Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...

  20. The effect of pain on infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, B F; Conner, D A

    1995-08-01

    Facial, body, and cry behaviors, heart rate, palmar sweating, and acoustic cry measures were compared across differing levels of infant pain. Eighty-eight infants were placed in a 16-cell matrix of 4 ages (0 to 3 mo., 4 to 6 mo., 7 to 9 mo., and 10 to 12 mo.) and levels of pain (LOP) (none, mild, moderate, severe) with 5 to 6 infants occupying each cell. Matrix placement was determined by agreement of > 75% among five pediatric clinical nurse specialists who viewed videotapes and read information about the infant's history, diagnosis, medical and/or surgical status, medications, and nutritional/fluid status. Coded infant behaviors and acoustic cry parameters were compared using a 2-level (LOP, age) MANOVA. Behaviors that differed across LOP were influenced by infant development. Facial expressions were clinically useful LOP indicators only for 0- to 3-month-old infants. Facial and body behaviors and cry measures that differed across LOP in younger infants did not differ in older infants due to the development of intentionality. Cry orientation and consolability may be useful clinical indicators of pain with older infants.

  1. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  2. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  3. Effects of prenatal blood lead exposure lower than 100 μg/L on infants neurobehavioral development%出生前低于100μg/L血铅暴露对婴儿发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 邵迪初; 项张华; 倪为民; 杨水莲; 吴翠娥; 李凭健; 傅华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To determine the effects of prenatal lead exposure(lower than 100 μg/L) on six-month-old infant's growth and development. [Methods] The study subjects were 6-month-old infants whose mothers' blood lead were lower than 100 μg/L both during the 1st and 3rd trimester of gestation in a cohort study. Bayley infant development scale was used to evaluate the infants' development. The differences in mental development index(MDI) and psychomotor development index(PDI) of infant were compared across different prenatal blood exposure levels, using the P25, P50 and P75 of the blood lead during pregnancy as the dividing value of groups, respectively. [Results] The MDI and PDI of 6month-old infants tended to decrease as the increase of prenatal blood lead exposure level. The PDI of 6-month-old infants in the relative high lead level group was lower than that in the relative low lead group as the dividing value of groups was P25 and P50 of blood lead, and the difference were statistically significant(P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the MDI of 6-month-old infants across groups. Besides, multivariate analysis indicated that the PDI of the infants whose prenatal lead concentration higher than P50 was 4.48 point lower than that of infants below P50. Similarly, the PDI of the infants whose prenatal lead concentration higher than P25 was 6.51 point lower than that of infants below P25. The differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Low level prenatal lead exposure may exert an influence on infants' behavior development and such effect might be more significant at the low level of lead exposure, which merits further research.%[目的]探讨出生前100 μg/L以下剂量铅暴露对婴儿6月龄时智力和行为发育的影响.[方法]以出生前孕早期和晚期孕妇血铅低于100 μg/L的婴儿为研究对象,在其6月龄时用Bayley婴幼儿发育量表评价智力发育和精神运动发育.根据孕早期和晚期血铅的P25

  4. Do infants represent the face in a viewpoint-invariant manner? Neural adaptation study as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi eKobayashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent adult fMRI studies reported that face sensitive cortical areas showed attenuated responses to the repeated presentation of an identical facial image compared to the presentation of different facial images (fMRI-adaptation effects: e.g., Andrews & Ewbank, 2004. Building upon this finding, the current study, employing the adaptation paradigm, used NIRS to explore the neural basis of face processing in infants. In Experiment 1, we compared hemodynamic responses in the bilateral temporal regions during the repeated presentation of the same face (the same-face condition and the sequential presentation of different faces (the different-face condition. We found that 1 hemodynamic responses in the channels around the T5 and T6 regions increased during the presentation of different faces compared to those during the presentation of different objects; and that 2 these channels showed significantly lower response in the same-face condition than in the different-face condition, demonstrating the neural adaptation effect in 5- to 8-month-olds as measured by NIRS. In Experiment 2, when faces in both the same-face and different-face conditions were changed in viewpoint, lower hemodynamic responses in the same-face condition were found in 7- to 8-month-olds but not in 5- to 6-month-olds. Our results suggest that faces are represented in a viewpoint-invariant manner in 7- and 8-month-old infants.

  5. The case for social evaluation in preverbal infants: Gazing toward one’s goal drives infants’ preferences for Helpers over Hinderers in the hill paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kiley eHamlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 2007 empirical report, Hamlin, Wynn, and Bloom provided the first evidence that preverbal infants at 6 and at 10 months of age evaluate others on the basis of their helpful and unhelpful actions toward unknown third parties. In their hill paradigm, a Climber puppet tried but failed to climb a steep hill, and was alternately bumped up the hill by the Helper and bumped down the hill by the Hinderer. After being habituated to these events, both 10- and 6-month-olds selectively reached for the Helper over the Hinderer. In response, Scarf, Imuta, Colombo, & Hayne (2012b provided evidence that rather than reflecting an early developing capacity for social evaluation, infants’ choices in Hamlin et al. reflected low-level perceptual preferences whereby infants are drawn to any character who is associated with the Climber bouncing. The current studies represent an attempt to adjudicate between the social and perceptual accounts of infants’ preferences for Helpers over Hinderers in the hill paradigm, by pitting a perceptual cue (e.g., bouncing against a social cue (e.g., whether or not the Climber gazes toward his goal. Infants’ patterns of preference across 2 experiments support the social account.

  6. A mechanism for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Stress-induced leak via ryanodine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, David J.; Dura, Miroslav; Carturan, Elisa; Reiken, Steven; Wronska, Anetta; Marks, Andrew R.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of postneonatal mortality in the United States. Mutations in the RyR2-encoded cardiac ryanodine receptor cause the highly lethal catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT1) in the young. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum and prevalence of RyR2 mutations in a large cohort of SIDS cases. METHODS Using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, and direct DNA sequencing, a targeted mutational analysis of RyR2 was performed on genomic DNA isolated from frozen necropsy tissue on 134 unrelated cases of SIDS (57 females, 77 males; 83 white, 50 black, 1 Hispanic; average age = 2.7 months). RyR2 mutations were engineered by site-directed mutagenesis, heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells, and functionally characterized using single-channel recordings in planar lipid bilayers. RESULTS Overall, two distinct and novel RyR2 mutations were identified in two cases of SIDS. A 6-month-old black female hosted an R2267H missense mutation, and a 4-week-old white female infant harbored a S4565R mutation. Both nonconservative amino acid substitutions were absent in 400 reference alleles, involved conserved residues, and were localized to key functionally significant domains. Under conditions that simulate stress [Protein Kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation] during diastole (low activating [Ca2+]), SIDS-associated RyR2 mutant channels displayed a significant gain-of-function phenotype consistent with the functional effect of previously characterized CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations. CONCLUSIONS Here we report a novel pathogenic mechanism for SIDS, whereby SIDS-linked RyR2 mutations alter the response of the channels to sympathetic nervous system stimulation such that during stress the channels become “leaky” and thus potentially trigger fatal cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:17556193

  7. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  8. Crisis epilépticas generalizadas asociadas a intoxicación pasiva por cocaína en un lactante Generalized epileptic seizures in an infant due to passive exposure to cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aguilera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Las crisis convulsivas sin fiebre en lactantes implican un diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Caso clínico. Lactante mujer de 7 meses que presenta, estando afebril, dos crisis generalizadas tónico-clónicas breves en 23 horas. Su desarrollo psicomotor y estaturo-ponderal seguía un curso normal. Se obtuvo analítica de sangre, ecografía cerebral y electroencefalograma, normales. Debido a una situación sociofamiliar desfavorable, se realizaron tóxicos en orina, positivos para cocaína en dos muestras sucesivas; se negativizaron en 48 horas. Estuvo en contacto con humo ambiental horas previas al inicio de las crisis. Sin crisis en los siguientes 6 meses, con desarrollo normal, sigue bajo vigilancia por asistencia social. Discusión. La inhalación pasiva de humo de cocaína se asocia a crisis convulsivas en lactantes. Este riesgo es casi desconocido en nuestro país, a pesar del aumento del consumo de crack. Ante una primera crisis epiléptica afebril en cualquier edad, se debe incluir de forma rutinaria la detección de tóxicos en orina.Background. The differential diagnosis of afebrile seizures in the first year of life is extensive. Case report. A 7-month old infant presented two afebrile generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 23 hours; her psychomotor and growth development followed a normal course. Laboratory analysis, cerebral echography and electroencephalogram were normal. Urine toxicology was positive for cocaine on two occasions. A negative urine sample was obtained 48 hours later. The parents denied drug abuse but explained a recent exposure to smoke some hours before the episode. The patient had no seizures in the following six months, with normal psychomotor development. Discussion. Passive inhalation of cocaine is associated with seizures in infants. There is no perception of the risk of passive exposure to cocaine in our country, despite the increasing consumption of crack in young adults. Urine toxicology should be

  9. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  10. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation

  11. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  12. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  13. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  14. Patterns of infant mortality in Kuwait from 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waheeb, Salah; Al-Kandary, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Infant death is often tragic, particularly in the Arab World, where infants, especially males, are supposed to carry their family's names due to ancient cultural traditions. The conditions and events that may be associated with infant death are extremely varied. Infants may die from either congenital disorders or natural diseases, or may pass away as a consequence of a complicated delivery. Infants are also victims of accidents and violence such as homicides. The main aim of this study was to investigate the reported medico legal cases of infant mortality in Kuwait due to natural and un-natural causes between 2003 and 2006. The average IMR rate in Kuwait during the study period was better than the IMR average for developing countries and the IMR average for the world during the same study period. In general, these figures for Kuwait are even better than the average for Middle East and North Africa. More medico- legal cases were reported for deaths among Kuwaiti infants in 2004, 2005 and 2006 compared to non Kuwaiti infants. More Kuwaiti infants died due to RTA and domestic accidents. In contrast, only non Kuwaiti infant died from infanticide.

  15. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  16. Cortical Source Localization of Infant Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, GD; Richards, JE

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density EEG recording and cortical source loca...

  17. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  18. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  19. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  20. Lipid content and essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of mature Congolese breast milk are influenced by mothers' nutritional status: impact on infants' EFA supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Dop, M C; Mbemba, F; Traissac, P; Martin-Prével, Y

    1998-03-01

    Optimum infant growth and development, especially neurodevelopment and visual acuity, require sufficient n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acid supplies from the placenta or breast milk. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk were measured in samples from 102 randomly selected Congolese mothers of 5-month-old infants, residing in a suburban district of Brazzaville. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3; 14% of mothers were energy-deficient and 22% were overweight. Breast milk samples from these mothers were low in lipids (mean, 28.70 g/l), and 75% had a lipid content below reference values. Adequate lipid content was associated with a maternal diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats. Breast milk was rich in 8:0-14:0 fatty acids (25.97% of total fatty acids) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3. These findings appear related to Congolese mothers' frequent consumption of high-carbohydrate foods such as processed cassava roots, wheat bread, and doughnuts known to enhance 8:0-14:0 fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as locally produced foods such as fish, vegetable oil, leafy green vegetables, and high-fat fruit that provide n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Milk lipid content was inversely associated with the maternal BMI, but was unrelated to maternal age or socioeconomic status. Since the essential fatty acid content of traditional complementary foods is lower than that present in breast milk, Congolese mothers should be encouraged to postpone the introduction of such foods until their infant is 4-6 months old.

  1. Orthotopic liver transplantation from a living-related donor in an infant with a peroxisome biogenesis defect of the infantile Refsum disease type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maldergem, L; Moser, A B; Vincent, M-F; Roland, D; Reding, R; Otte, J-B; Wanders, R J; Sokal, E

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis defects include a number of severe neurodevelopmental disorders, among which infantile Refsum disease (IRD) occupies the mildest end of the spectrum. Although high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and low phytanic acid diets can correct some of the biochemical defects, they have not consistently altered the progressive course of the disease. We carried out orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in a mildly symptomatic 6-month-old infant who was a sibling of a severely neurologically impaired older sister. After transplantation the clinical course of this young child appeared much improved by comparison to her older sister. She walked alone at 4 years, had acceptable social interaction and had a noticeable recovery of audition. After transplantation her biochemical parameters were significantly improved: phytanic acid and very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) serum concentrations decreased. Abnormal bile acids disappeared from plasma. Although the OLT did not result in a cure of the disorder, the clinical and biochemical results suggest that OLT should be considered in mildly symptomatic patients.

  2. Rapid de novo aneurysm formation after clipping of a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm in an infant with an MYH11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Karsy, Michael; Schmidt, Richard H; Taussky, Philipp; Park, Min S; Bollo, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The authors report the case of a previously healthy 6-month-old girl who presented with right arm and leg stiffening consistent with seizure activity. An initial CT scan of the head demonstrated acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns extending into the left sylvian fissure. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a 7 × 6 × 5-mm saccular aneurysm of the inferior M2 division of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent left craniotomy and microsurgical clip ligation with wrapping of the aneurysm neck because the vessel appeared circumferentially dysplastic in the region of the aneurysm. Postoperative angiography demonstrated a small remnant, sluggish distal flow, but no significant cerebral vasospasm. Fifty-five days after the initial aneurysm rupture, the patient presented again with an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left anterior temporal lobe. Angiogram revealed a circumferentially dysplastic superior division of the M2 branch, with a new 5 × 4-mm saccular aneurysm distinct from the first, with 2 smaller aneurysms distal to the new ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular parent vessel occlusion with Onyx was performed. Genetic testing revealed a mutation of the MYH11. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of rapid de novo aneurysm formation in an infant with an MYH11 mutation. The authors review the patient's clinical presentation and management and comprehensively review the literature on this topic.

  3. Optimal Time of Tracheotomy in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Unal MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infants with respiratory failure may require prolonged intubation. There is no consensus on the time of tracheotomy in neonates. Methods. We evaluated infants applied tracheotomy, time of procedure, and early complications in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU retrospectively from January 2012 to December 2013. Results. We identified 9 infants applied tracheotomy with gestational ages 34 to 41 weeks. Their diagnoses were hypotonic infant, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal cleft, neck mass, and chronic lung disease. Age on tracheotomy ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. Early complication ratio was 33.3% with minimal bleeding (1, air leak (1, and canal revision requirement (1. We discharged 7 infants, and 2 infants died in the NICU. Conclusion. Tracheotomy makes infant nursing easy for staff and families even at home. If carried out by a trained team, the procedure is safe and has low complication. When to apply tracheotomy should be individualized, and airway damage due to prolonged intubation versus risks of tracheotomy should be taken into consideration.

  4. Taxonomic composition of microbiota of colon in breastfed infants with acute colienteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Sydorchuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, paradoxical situation has been created, that testifies adverse evolution of modern acute intestinal infections, especially in infants and vital prognosis for patients by measure of deep study of this disease in patients, which number is significant and continues to grow, and the prognosis is getting worse. Aim: To define the etiology of colienteritis in infants (1–6 months old, the taxonomic composition of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Materials and methods: Content of colon of 48 children (one to six months old with colienteritis underwent bacterial and mycological examination (control group – 35 samples of colon content of practically healthy infants. Results: Etiological structure was determined in 28 (58,33 % of investigations. Consistency index, frequency of occurrence, Margalef species richness, Whittaker species diversity, Simpson and Berger–Parker species dominance indices of bacteria of genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Escherichia did not differ in patients and healthy children. These indices grow in Peptostreptococci: constancy index – by 78,26 %, frequency of occurrence – by 60,00 %, Margalef species richness index – by 2 times, Whittaker species diversity index – by 97,32 %, Simpson species dominance index – by 3 times and Berger - Parker index – by 65,31 %. These indices also grew in conditionally pathogenic Enterobacteria (Proteus by 82,24 %, by 2 times, by 2,03 times, by 68,18 % respectively. Study of taxonomic composition of colon microbiota in children with acute colienteritis showed widespread contamination of biotope (cavity by pathogenic (E. coli Hly +, enteropathogenic E. coli and conditionally pathogenic (C. diversus, Proteus ssp. Enterobacteria, Staphylococci, Peptococcus. This is accompanied with elimination of bacteria of genus Eubacterium from colon cavity. Conclusions: Acute colienteritis in one to six months old breastfed

  5. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  6. Palatal Mucormycosis in An Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Bansal, Vishal; Kantoor, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    The maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis due to its rich vascularity. Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or fungal infections. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. The fungus invades the arteries, leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues. The occurrence of mucormycosis is not considered rare in the jaws of adults, but involvement of the maxilla in infants is not usually seen. The purpose of this report is to discuss the diagnosis and management of a rare case of mucormycosis in the palate of a two-month-old boy.

  7. Los inicios del juego en la primera infancia y su relación con la regulación afectiva diádica y la autorregulación de los infantes The beginnings of play in infancy and its relation with dyadic affective regulation and the infant self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara R. Schejtman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un programa de investigación longitudinal sobre 48 díadas madre-niño a los 6 meses y un seguimiento de 24 de las mismas a los 4/5 años que estudia el pasaje de la regulación afectiva diádica a la autorregulación en los niños (UBACyT P806. Se incluye una revisión teórica sobre la función del juego en la estructuración psíquica. El microanálisis de la interacción a los 6 meses mostró diferencias muy marcadas entre interacción cara a cara y juego libre con juguetes en cuanto a los recursos de autorregulación afectiva de los infantes. Se encontró, también una relación entre las variables de autoestima y funcionamiento reflexivo de las madres y las conductas de exploración lúdica con juguetes observada en los infantes. Estos resultados resaltan el lugar del juego con objetos como mediatizador en el logro de la transición de la regulación afectiva diádica a la autorregulación afectiva.The present program is a follow up research on 48 mother-infant dyads studied when the infants were 6 months old and 24 of the same sample were studied at 4/5 years old about the transition between dyadic affective regulation and infant affective self regulation (UBACyT P806. A theoretical revision of the role of play in psychic development is included. Microanalysis showed differences between face to face interaction and free play interaction at 6 months regarding infant's self-regulatory resources. We also found a relationship between maternal self esteem and reflective function in the mothers, and the exploratory play behaviors observed in the infants. These results underscore the role of play with toys as mediating factor in the transition from dyadic affect regulation to affective self-regulation.

  8. Los inicios del juego en la primera infancia y su relación con la regulación afectiva diádica y la autorregulación de los infantes The beginnings of play in infancy and its relation with dyadic affective regulation and the infant self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara R. Schejtman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un programa de investigación longitudinal sobre 48 díadas madre-niño a los 6 meses y un seguimiento de 24 de las mismas a los 4/5 años que estudia el pasaje de la regulación afectiva diádica a la autorregulación en los niños (UBACyT P806. Se incluye una revisión teórica sobre la función del juego en la estructuración psíquica. El microanálisis de la interacción a los 6 meses mostró diferencias muy marcadas entre interacción cara a cara y juego libre con juguetes en cuanto a los recursos de autorregulación afectiva de los infantes. Se encontró, también una relación entre las variables de autoestima y funcionamiento reflexivo de las madres y las conductas de exploración lúdica con juguetes observada en los infantes. Estos resultados resaltan el lugar del juego con objetos como mediatizador en el logro de la transición de la regulación afectiva diádica a la autorregulación afectiva.The present program is a follow up research on 48 mother-infant dyads studied when the infants were 6 months old and 24 of the same sample were studied at 4/5 years old about the transition between dyadic affective regulation and infant affective self regulation (UBACyT P806. A theoretical revision on the role of play in psychic development is included. Microanalysis showed differences between face to face interaction and free play interaction at 6 months regarding infant's self-regulatory resources. We also found a relationship between the variables maternal self esteem and reflective function in the mothers, and the exploratory play behaviors observed in the infants. These results underscore the role of play with toys as mediating factor in the transition from dyadic affect regulation to affective self-regulation.

  9. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  10. Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wippold, Franz J. [Washington University Medical Center, Neuroradiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); White, Frances V. [Louis Children' s Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St., St. Louis, MO (United States); Jamroz, Gregory [Washington University Medical Center, Neuroradiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Haughey, Bruce; Forsen, James [Barnes-Jewish Hospital and St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2005-09-01

    We report the CT and MR imaging findings of a case of a desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible in a 6-month-old girl who presented with a rapidly enlarging facial mass and who represents one of the youngest reported children with this rare tumor. Although imaging is non-specific and these lesions are best distinguished histologically, the desmoplastic fibroma should be considered when there is an occurrence of any bubbly or cystic expansile mandibular lesion presenting in childhood. (orig.)

  11. Clinical and therapeutic data of a child with ecthyma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilirjana Bakalli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in healthy children is very uncommon. Infants may occasionally present with community-acquired sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, preceded by prolonged contact with contaminated bath water. Ecthyma gangrenosum is a characteristic dermatological manifestation caused most commonly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe the clinical data and therapeutic management of a 6 month-old infant with ecthyma gangrenousum caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, complicated with septicaemia and meningitis. The infant was immunodeficient as indicated by hypogammaglobulinemia, neutropenia, and a low level of C3 complement component.

  12. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  13. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  14. Early neurological signs in preterm infants with unilateral intraparenchymal echodensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cioni, G; Bos, AF; Einspieler, C; Ferrari, F; Martijn, A; Paolicelli, PB; Rapisardi, G; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document the early developmental course of neurological signs in a group of preterm infants at risk for hemiplegia due to unilateral intraparenchymal echodensity (UIPE). Sixteen preterm infants with UIPE and sixteen controls were given serial neurological examinations, ac

  15. Rituximab-based immunosuppression for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Johanna; Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Molinari, Angelo C; Micalizzi, Concetta; Banov, Laura; Schmidt, Madalina; Caprino, Daniela; Marinelli, Doretta; Gallisai, Domenico; Dufour, Carlo

    2009-04-01

    We report a case series of four infants with severe autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) who responded to treatment with rituximab and cyclosporine after having failed first line therapy with high-dose steroid (prednisolone 4-8 mg/kg/d). Rituximab was started at 11-90 d from onset due to continued haemolysis; three infants also received cyclosporine A. Three of four infants reached complete response, defined as normal haemoglobin, reticulocytes and negative indices of haemolysis, at 7-21 months from diagnosis. In long-term follow-up two infants remained disease-free with normal immunology, one had undefined immunodeficiency and one had autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  16. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  17. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  18. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  19. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  20. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  1. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  2. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  3. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  4. A case of Pompe disease in infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Sudorgina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Pompe disease in infant in Orenburg is presented in this article. Clinical picture of the infantile form of the disease is described. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa is presented (alglucosidase alfa is not registered in Russia, was administered due tolife-threatening indication. Nowadays ERT is the only possible pathogenetic treatment of Pompe disease.

  5. Auditory steady-state evoked response in diagnosing and evaluating hearing in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Mai; Xiaozhuang Zhang; Qunxin Lai; Yanfei Wu; Nanping Liao; Yi Ye; Zhenghui Zhong

    2006-01-01

    .4% of the 321 infants failed in the initial hearing screening and secondary screening after 42 days. ② Severe to extremely severe hearing loss was detected in only 16 cases (8.3%) of the 193 infants of 0-6 months, in 9 cases (27.3%) of the 33 infants of 25-30 months,and 13 cases (39.4%) of the 33 infants of 31-36 months. Of the 193 infants of 0-6 months old who failed in the initial screening and the second screening after 42 days, the ASSR auditory threshold was < 30 dB in 97 cases (50.26%), 31-50 dB in 63 cases (32.6%), 51-70 dB in 17 cases (8.8%), 71-90 dB in 7 cases (3.6%), and > 91 dB in 9 cases (4.7%). ③ Among the 321 infants failed in the screening, the auditory threshold in the 6 age groups was < 30 dB in 47.4%, 31-50 dB in 27.1%, 51-70 dB in 8.4%, 71-90 dB in 6.2%, and > 91 dB in 10.9%. ④The difference between ASSR response threshold and VRA auditory thresholds was 6-18 dB in the normal hearing group, mild and moderate hearing loss groups, and there was high correlation between them. The difference of ASSR and VRA thresholds was less than 5 dB between extremely severe and severe hearing loss groups, 5-13 dB between extremely severe and moderate-to-severe hearing loss groups (P < 0.05), and there was no significant differences between severe and moderate-to-severe hearing loss groups (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: ① The hearing was normal in about half of the infants, although they failed in the primary screening and secondary screening. ② The proportion of the severity of hearing loss was increased along with aging. ③ Mild and moderate hearing losses are dominant in infants. ④ ASSR is reliable to evaluate the hearing of infants.

  6. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  7. Can circumcision prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in hospitalized infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, D L; Carter, B S; Bhatia, J

    2000-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an uncommon but concerning condition for hospitalized premature infants. A retrospective chart review of all male infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from June 1996 through March 1999 was conducted at the Medical College of Georgia--a large academic medical center with a tertiary Level III NICU--to investigate the frequency and potential prevention of recurrent UTI in hospitalized infants. The effect of circumcision on recurrence of UTI was also investigated. There were 38 infants with 53 UTIs among 744 male infants admitted during the study period (5.1%). Infants were divided into two groups: A1 UTI and A2 UTI. In groups A1 and A2, 57% of the first UTIs were due to Candida or E. coli, the remaining were due to other gram-negative organisms and Staphylococcus species. Mean gestational age (GA) in groups A1 and A2 were similar (29 +/- 2 weeks, and 29 +/- 4 weeks); however, mean GA of infants with Candida UTI was 27 +/- 2 weeks, and for bacterial UTI, 30 +/- 3 weeks (pUTI once a circumcision was performed. Premature uncircumcised males had an increased risk for UTI (Odds Ratio=11.1, 95% CI, 3.3-28.9, pCircumcision appears beneficial in reducing the risk for recurrent UTI in these infants.

  8. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  9. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for it until their first birthdays. Spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, found in dirt and dust, can contaminate ... from the illness. Prevention Like many germs, the Clostridium botulinum spores that cause botulism in infants are everywhere ...

  10. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  11. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  12. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  13. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  14. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  15. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  16. Reflux in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 14 months. What causes reflux and GERD in infants? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In babies who have reflux, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  17. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  18. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  20. 乙型肝炎表面抗原阳性母亲的婴儿乙型肝炎疫苗单独及与乙型肝炎免疫球蛋白联合免疫后的长期随访研究%A Long-term Follow-up of Hepatitis B Vaccine Inoculated and HB Immunoglobulin Combinely Immunized Infants Born to HBsAg Positive Mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建设; 朱启镕

    2001-01-01

    the occurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection in HB vaccine inoculated infants born to HBsAg positive mothers and its affecting factors and also to study the effect of combined use of HB immunoglobulin (HBIG) and HB vaccine on the blocking of perinatal transmission of HBV, we divided 624 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers into two groups randomly. The first group of infants were simply vaccinated with HB vaccine 20μg at,0, 1, 6 months old. The second group of infants were inoculated with HBIG 100 IU at their birth and further vaccinated with HB vaccine 20μg at 1,2,7 months old. The HBsAg of the two groups of infants was tested at the age of 1,3,6,12,18,24 months old and every year by EIA. They were all followed up for 6.34±1.71 years averagely. The follow-up results showed that there were 89 childeren infected chronically by HBV, among them 82% appeared to be HBsAg positive, firstly seen before the age of 6 months mainly attributing to uterus infection. The HBV chronic infection rate of infants born to HBsAg, HBeAg positive mothers (HB vaccine immunized, 24.5%; HBIG+HB vaccine, 10.6%, P<0.005) was higher than that of infants born to HBsAg positive mothers (HB vaccine immunized, 10.7%; HBIG+HB vaccine 3.8%, P<0.025). Moreover, the chronicity rate of the infants whose HBsAg firstly appeared within 6  months and were born to HBsAg, HBeAg positive mothers was higher than that of the infants born to HBsAg positive months (68%,40% respertively in HB vaccine inoculated group, P<0.025). Infants immunized combinely with HBIG and HB vaccine had their chronic HBV infection decreased from 17.6% to 5.0% at l year old as compared with that of HB vaccine inoculated infants. The total chronic HBV infection rate in children born to HBsAg, HBeAg positive mothers decreased from 24.5% to 10.6% (P<0.005) and that in children born to HBsAg positive mothers decreased from 10.7% to 3.8% (P<0.025). The HBV chronicity rate of HBsAg positive infants born to HBsAg, HBe

  1. 九江市城、乡婴幼儿喂养情况调查及分析%Investigation and analysis of the situation for the feeding of infant and young child in Jiujiang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂琳; 熊飞宇; 秦珊珊; 黄肇华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of different feeding modes, food supplements and the idea and behavior of parents or dependents to feeding on the feeding of infants and young children so as to explore the effective measures for the improvement of the feeding of infants and young children.Methods:The feeding conditions, nutritional status and feeding behavior of parents for 800 cases of infants and young children aged 0 to 3 years old, who already did routine physical examination, were investigated and analyzed.Results:Exclusive breastfeeding rates of infants aged 6 months old or younger in both town and countryside groups were low, accounting for 28.0% and 34.0%, respectively, but the differences between two groups in the rates of breastfeeding, mixed feeding and artificial feeding were not statistically significant. The addition rates of eggs, fruit and meat to the feeding of the infants aged 6 months old or younger were signiifcantly higher in town group than in countryside group. The addition rates of dairy, eggs and fruit to the feeding of the infants and young children over 6 months old were signiifcantly higher in town group than in countryside group while the addition rates of grains, vegetables, and beans were signiifcantly lower in town group than in countryside group, all the differences were statistically signiifcant. The difference in lower weight of body was not statistically signiifcant while the stunting rate was signiifcantly lower in town group than in countryside group, this difference was statistically signiifcant.Conclusion:The idea and behavior of parents or dependents to feeding can affect the result of the feeding of infants and young children. It is of great signiifcance to promote breastfeeding, strengthen the propaganda and education on the knowledge of the feeding of infants and young children so as to improve their physical and mental development.%目的:观察不同喂养方式、辅食添加以及家长或带养人喂养观念、

  2. Feeding of preterm infants and fortification of breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mangili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of the adequate amount of nutrients helps to improve a correct short-term linear growth and long-term neurocognitive development. To reduce the extra-uterine growth delay in very low birth weight infants (VLBW the best strategy of nutrition (parenteral or enteral should be established rapidly, since the first day of life. In preterm infants, nutrition can be administered parenterally and enterally. Prematurity is the most frequent indication for parenteral nutritional support due to intestinal functional immune deficiency, deficiency of digestive enzymatic systems and reduced nutritional reserve of these infants. In terms of enteral nutrition, breast milk is the first choice. In case of preterm and VLBW infants, fortifiers are used to overcome breast milk’s protein and mineral deficiencies. When breast milk is not available, specific infant formula is the alternative.

  3. Three-Quarters Adrenalectomy for Infantile-Onset Cushing Syndrome due to Bilateral Adrenal Hyperplasia in McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, Tomoyo; Goto, Hironori; Toujigamori, Manabu; Ohno, Yasuharu; Korematsu, Seigo; Izumi, Tatsuro; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Ihara, Kenji

    2017-05-19

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is performed in cases with infantile-onset Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) because severe Cushing syndrome with heart failure and liver dysfunction can have a lethal outcome. This procedure can completely ameliorate hypercortisolism, although lifetime steroid replacement therapy and steps to prevent adrenal crisis are necessary. Recently, the efficacy of unilateral adrenalectomy has been reported in adult cases of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, but there is no consensus regarding the appropriate surgical treatment for bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in MAS. A 6-month-old girl presented with café-au-lait spots, short stature, central obesity, a moon face, and hypertension. Endocrinological tests and imaging studies led to the diagnosis of ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia induced by MAS. "Three-quarters adrenalectomy", namely right-sided total adrenalectomy and left-sided half adrenalectomy, was carried out. An activating mutation of the GNAS1 gene (p.Arg201Cys) was identified in the adrenal tissues. Since the operation, our patient has been in a state of clinical remission for more than 2 years. Our original surgical intervention, three-quarters adrenalectomy, may be a new treatment option for Cushing syndrome associated with MAS. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  5. 陕西省某县城婴儿辅食添加的现状调查%Current status of infant food supplement in a county of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫敏; 张田香; 宋戈; 姚红梅; 廖侠; 张剑琴; 邹余粮

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解陕西省某县城父母对婴儿辅食添加知识的掌握状况。方法随机选择母亲对婴儿辅食添加的情况进行问卷调查,并对资料进行分析。结果5~6月龄婴儿平均添加辅食2.33种,其中在5~6月龄的婴儿中,添加谷类、奶类、动物蛋白、植物蛋白和蔬菜水果类的人数分别占总人数的86.1%、54.7%、40.7%、14.0%和34.9%。结论陕西省某县城的大多数家长能及时给婴儿正确添加辅食,问题主要在于添加过早,以及辅食添加的结构不完善。因此应加大对婴儿辅食添加营养健康知识的教育宣传力度,使大家能正确掌握喂养知识,改善婴幼儿的营养状况。%Objective To understand parents ’ knowledge of infants food supplement in a county of Shaanxi Province.Methods A questionnaire was used to survey knowledge of infant food supplement of randomly selected mothers, and the data were analyzed.Results Infants aged 5-6 months old had 2.33 kinds of food supplements on average, and among them 86.1% infants had cereals, 54.7% had milk, 40.7%had animal protein, 14.0% had plant protein, and 34.9% had fruits and vegetables.Conclusion Most parents in the county of Shaanxi Province can add food supplement for infants correctly.However, the problems are too early adding and imperfect component of food supplement.Therefore, knowledge on infant food supplement should be strengthened and popularized, so that parents can master the knowledge to improve infants’ nutrition status.

  6. Prospective study of correlation between infant feeding method and child asthma%婴儿喂养方式与儿童哮喘相关性的前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝朝锋; 朱勇斌; 林舜红; 徐海玲; 林若清; 李依蓝; 欧少阳; 邹春山; 蔡幸生; 卢道奋; 方金涌; 倪敏英; 林锡平; 邢佩卿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether breastfeeding can reduce the incidence of child asthma through analyzing the correlation between the infant feeding method and the child asthma. Methods 3 005 infants (1 442 infants were included in statistics) aged less than 6 months old in the urban and rural areas of jieyang City were collected, of which the Included infants were divided Into the pure breastfeeding group and the pure artificial group according to the feeding method. The two groups were followed up and the incidence of child bronchial asthma was compared between the two groups. Results In the pure breastfeeding group, 92 infants were diagnosed with bronchial asthma, with the asthma Incidence rate of 11.5%. In the pure artificial group, 148 infants were diagnosed with bronchial asthma, with the asthma incidence rate of 23.1%. The asthma Incidence rate of the pure breastfeeding group was significantly lower than that of the pure artificial group, with statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Six months of breastfeeding can reduce the incidence of child asthma.%目的 通过婴儿喂养方式与儿童哮喘相关性的前瞻性研究,探讨母乳喂养是否能够减少儿童哮喘的发生率.方法 收集我市城镇及农村年龄为6个月内的婴儿3 005例(列入统计者1 442例),将列入统计者根据喂养方式的不同分为纯母乳组和纯人工组,对两组进行随访,比较两组儿童支气管哮喘发生率.结果 纯母乳组有92例诊断为支气管哮喘,哮喘发生率为11.5%;纯人工组有148例诊断为支气管哮喘,哮喘发生率为23.1%.纯母乳组的哮喘发生率明显低于纯人工组,两组哮喘发生率比较差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 婴儿母乳喂养6个月能够减少儿童哮喘的发生率.

  7. Infant color preference for red is not selectively context specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Gibbons, Emily; Chittenden, Katie; Alvarez, James; Taylor, Chloe

    2012-10-01

    It has been proposed that human infants, like nonhuman primates, respond favorably to red in hospitable contexts, yet unfavorably in hostile contexts (Maier, Barchfeld, Elliot, & Pekrun, 2009). Here, we replicate and extend the study (Maier et al., 2009) whose findings have been used to support this hypothesis. As in Maier et al., 1-year-old infants were shown a photograph of a happy or angry face before pairs of colors were presented, yet in the current study, the set of stimuli crucially included two colors that are typically preferred by infants (red and blue). The percentage of times that infants looked first at the colors was analyzed for the two emotional "contexts." Following the happy face, infants looked first at red and blue equally, but significantly more than green. Following the angry face, the pattern of looking preference was the same as following the happy face, but the variation across the three colors was reduced. Contrary to Maier et al.'s hypothesis, there was no evidence that infants are selectively averse to red in angry contexts: following the angry face, "preference" for both red and blue was reduced, but was not significantly below chance. We therefore suggest an alternative account to Maier et al.'s evolutionary hypothesis, which argues that an angry face merely removes infant color preference, potentially due to the perceptual characteristics of the angry face disrupting infants' encoding of color.

  8. Increased enamel hypoplasia and very low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S; Albert, J M; Geng, C; Curtan, S; Lang, K; Miadich, S; Heima, M; Malik, A; Ferretti, G; Eggertsson, H; Slayton, R L; Milgrom, P

    2013-09-01

    Birth cohort studies of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) and early childhood caries (ECC) in very low birthweight (VLBW) and normal birthweight (NBW) infants are rare. In this birth cohort of 234 VLBW and 234 NBW infants, we report the incidence of ECC and DDE at 8 and 18-20 mos of corrected age. Infant medical and maternal socio-demographic data were abstracted from medical records at birth. Dental assessments for ECC and DDE (enamel hypoplasia, demarcated and diffuse opacities) were completed at 8 and 18-20 mos. The incidence of hypoplasia was significantly higher in VLBW compared with NBW infants (8 mos, 19% vs. 2%; 18 mos, 31% vs. 8%). The incidence of ECC (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: ICDAS ≥ 2) was 1.4% (8 mos) and 12% (18-20 mos) and was similar between the VLBW and NBW groups. At both ages, using a beta-binomial regression model to control for potential confounders (maternal and infant characteristics), we found increased risk for enamel hypoplasia among the VLBW infants compared with the NBW infants. African Americans had a lower risk for enamel hypoplasia at 18-20 mos. The VLBW infants should be monitored for ECC due to the presence of enamel hypoplasia.

  9. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  10. Vitamin D intake of Dutch infants from the combination of (fortified) foods, infant formula, and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; Ocké, Marga C

    2017-03-01

    Due to changes in the Dutch fortification policy for vitamin D and the vitamin D supplementation advice for infants (10-μg/d for 0-4 year olds), a partially virtual scenario study was conducted to evaluate the risk of excessive vitamin D intake assigning all infants to a 100 % adherence to the supplementation advice and considering the current fortification practice. Food consumption data from the Nutrition Intake Study (2002; N = 941, 7-19 months) were combined with Dutch food composition data from 2011 to estimate vitamin D intake from (fortified) foods. For infants 0-6 months of age, the consumption volume infant formula was estimated from energy requirement and body weight. All subjects were assigned to take a daily 10 µg vitamin D supplement, according the Dutch supplementation advice for infants. Habitual vitamin D intake was estimated using the Statistical Program to Assess Dietary Exposure and compared with the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) set by the European Food Safety Authority. The median habitual total vitamin D intake was 16-22 µg/day for infants aged 0-6 months (increasing with age) and 13-21 µg/day for infants aged 7-19 months (decreasing with age). About 4-12 % of infants aged 7-11 months exceeded the UL. At the 99th percentile, the intake was 2-4 µg above the UL, depending on age. Infants aged 0-6 and 12-19 months did not exceed the UL. In case of combined intake from infant formula, (fortified) foods, and supplements, vitamin D intakes above the UL are possible among some infants during a limited time period.

  11. [General vitamin K prevention in newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, W

    1986-01-01

    Vitamin K is required for the synthesis of active forms of some coagulation factors. Bleeding due to low levels of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn) is most frequently seen in newborns with a low intake of breast milk, who are not fed supplemental formula, since transplacental transfer of vitamin K seems to be small and breast milk is relatively deficient in vitamin K. Severe bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency is also observed in 4-12 weeks old infants. The reason for the deficiency in otherwise healthy infants of this age is unclear. Classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is not existent in infants given vitamin K intramuscularly at birth. Also, the late manifestation of vitamin K deficiency has been observed virtually exclusively in infants, who had not been given vitamin K parenterally at birth. Since most newborns will be breast fed and supplemental formula feeding will not be required in most healthy full term newborns, all newborns should be given a dose of vitamin K intramuscularly immediately after birth. Whether it is safe to administer vitamin K to the mother or orally to the child requires further investigation.

  12. Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the infant during 12 months of follow-up.

  13. 婴儿饮食及生活习惯的干预效果分析%Effects of Intervention on Dietary and Living Habits of Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文静; 李开平; 黄健; 樊欣; 赵妍; 王念蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the effects of child health care outpatient on dietary and living habits of infants.Methods Infants selected randomly from urban area in Chongqing aged up to 3 months were recruited. In the intervention group, infants were accepted all of the designed intervention and guidance, while those infants in the control group received usual health care without changes of the dietary and living habits of infants. Both of the two groups of infants were detected regular the index including breast feeding rate, introduction of food, the frequency of adding complementary food and sleep situation. Results It shows the breast feeding rate of 4 months old infants and the rate of adding food supplement from 4 to 6 months old infants were higher in the intervention group (P<0.05). The frequency of without taking meat, vegetable and fruits everyday were higher in the control group (P<0.01). By 12 months of age,the day time sleep time was longer and the night sleep time was shorter than the control group (P<0.01), but there was no difference between the two groups of the whole day sleep time.Conclusions The intervention from the child health care outpatient can improve dietary and living habits of the infants partly such as enhancing breast feeding rate of the 4 months old infants, and promoting adding food supplement more regularly. However, how to cultivate ifne sleep habits remains further study.%目的:研究儿保门诊对婴儿饮食及生活习惯的干预效果。方法在重庆市城区随机抽取0~3个月龄婴儿为研究对象,干预组接受本研究的所有干预措施,对照组按常规保健服务,定期监测两组婴儿的母乳喂养率、辅食添加时间及添加频次、睡眠状况等指标。结果干预组婴儿4个月内母乳喂养率、4~6个月龄辅食添加率较高(P<0.05),而对照组没有每天进食肉类、蔬菜、水果的频率较高(P<0.01);12个月龄时干预组婴儿

  14. Mortalidade infantil por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias: reflexo das desigualdades sociais em um município do Nordeste do Brasil Infant mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases: a reflection of the social inequalities in a municipality in the Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Bezerra Rodrigues Vilela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar a relação entre o coeficiente de mortalidade infantil (CMI por doenças infecciosas e parasitarias (DIP e o indicador de carência social (ICS, identificando áreas geográficas de maior risco no município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brasil. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo ecológico cujas unidades de análise foram os bairros do município. Os sistemas de informações de mortalidade e de nascidos vivos do Ministério da Saúde foram utilizados para o cálculo do CMI por DIP e o ICS foi construído utilizando dados socioeconômicos do Censo 2000. RESULTADOS: o CMI por DIP foi de 3,56 por 103 nascidos vivos (NV e o coeficiente de mortalidade pós-neonatal foi de 3,39 por 10³ NV. Houve correlação entre ICS e o CMI por DIP (r=0,87; p=0,008; F=12,88. Encontrou-se um risco 48% (RR=1,479 maior das crianças irem a óbito por DIP antes de completarem um ano no estrato de maior carência social. CONCLUSÕES: o ICS é um útil instrumento para o planejamento de ações locais de saúde, contribuindo para a adoção de medidas que promovam a redução da mortalidade infantil, não descartando a necessidade de demandar atenção para o desenvolvimento de políticas sociais e econômicas nas áreas com maiores carências sociais.OBJECTIVES: to study the relationship between the coefficient of infant mortality (CIM due to infectious and parasitic diseases (IPD and the social need indicator, thereby identifying geographical areas at greater risk in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: an ecological study was carried out, in which the units of analysis were the districts of the municipality. The mortality and live birth information systems of the Ministry of Health were used to calculate the CIM/IPD, and the social need indicator was established using socioeconomic data from the 2000 census. RESULTS: the CIM/IPD was 3.56 per 1000 live births and the postnatal mortality

  15. Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: Potential advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, R.S.C.; Moon, R.Y; L'Hoir, M.P.; Blair, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS. Most of this advice remains largely un

  16. Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

    2012-01-01

    We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the inf...

  17. Associação entre fatores sócio-econômicos e mortalidade infantil por diarréia, pneumonia e desnutrição em região metropolitana do Sudeste do Brasil: um estudo caso-controle Association between socioeconomic factors and infant deaths due to diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in a metropolitan area of Southeast Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar fatores determinantes da mortalidade infantil pós-neonatal por diarréia, pneumonia e desnutrição, abordadas como um mesmo grupamento de causas, realizou-se um estudo caso-controle de base populacional na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. No período de maio de 1991 a abril de 1992, foram estudados 396 óbitos após investigação hospitalar da causa de óbito, os quais foram comparados a crianças residentes na mesma vizinhança, emparelhadas por idade. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma população de baixa renda, sendo que a maioria das famílias entrevistadas residiam em favelas. Neste artigo se discute a metodologia utilizada e resultados relevantes relativos aos fatores sócio-econômicos associados às mortes infantis. Verificou-se que a existência de eletrodomésticos no domicílio, o nível de escolaridade materna e paterna, a situação conjugal da mãe e o fato desta trabalhar fora permaneceram estatisticamente associados ao risco de óbito infantil, após ajuste pelas variáveis sócio-econômicas consideradas, utilizando-se modelo de regressão logística condicional. Estes resultados evidenciam a importância do nível sócio-econômico na determinação dos óbitos infantis por causas evitáveis.A population-based case-control study was carried out to identify determinant factors for post-neonatal infant deaths due to diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. From May 1, 1991, to April 30, 1992, 511 post-neonatal deaths due to diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition were selected after investigation of medical records to validate cause of death. Of this total, 396 deaths were compared to a neighborhood control group, matched for age. The study was carried out in a low-income area with a high proportion of families living in shantytowns. The article discusses the methodology and selected socioeconomic factors. Logistic regression analysis indicated that

  18. Involuntary movement in infants during vitamin B12 treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Tosun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaloblastic anemia is rare in infants and is generally due to vitamin B12 (cobalamin deficiency in the mother. Neurologic symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include irritability, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental regression/delay. Herein we present 2 infants with vitamin B12 that developed movement disorder 5 d after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment. Symptoms included tremor and myoclonus, involving in particular the face, tongue, and hands. Clinical findings in infants associated with vitamin B12 deficiency vary, and temporary involuntary movement can be observed during vitamin B12 therapy.

  19. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  20. Infants' Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Zarin koob

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed following the study between the years 1980 to 1982 to investigate risk factors and diagnostic and rehabilitative patterns in a group of newborns suffered hearing loss in a city centre. The current findings which have been attained from 1983 to 1988 manifested that just one third of the deaf newborns can be tracked by means of common auditory evaluation tests in the Neonatal Intense Care Unit (NICU. Although these newborns have been followed sooner than the infants in the Well Baby Nursery (WBN. The age for enrolling in the Parent-Infant Program for both groups is approximately 20 month. During these 8 years it has been detected that the common age for taking part in the rehabilitative programs for newborns is 1 year or more greater than that recommended by Joint Committee on infant hearing

  1. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  2. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  3. Alveolar lymphangioma in infants: report of two cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    The alveolar lymphangioma is a benign but relatively rare condition found only in the oral cavities of black infants. Dentists practising in Ireland may be unaware of this condition due to its racial specificity. This paper presents two case reports of multiple alveolar lymphangiomas found in black infants in a children\\'s hospital in Ireland. The epidemiology, aetiology, clinical presentation, histology, and management options are discussed. The photographs should aid the practitioner in recognising these lesions.

  4. Comparison of the Motor Performance and Vestibular Function in Infants with a Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection or a Connexin 26 Mutation: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; De Leenheer, Els; Van Hoecke, Helen; Goderis, Julie; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    Hearing-impaired children are at risk for vestibular damage and delayed motor development. Two major causes of congenital hearing loss are cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and connexin (Cx) 26 mutations. Comparison of the motor performance and vestibular function between these specific groups is still underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of congenital (c)CMV and Cx26 on the motor performance and vestibular function in 6 months old infants. Forty children (mean age 6.7 months; range 4.8 to 8.9 months) participated in this cross-sectional design and were recruited from the Flemish CMV registry. They were divided into five age-matched groups: normal-hearing control, asymptomatic cCMV, normal-hearing symptomatic cCMV, hearing-impaired symptomatic cCMV, and hearing-impaired Cx26. Children were examined with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test. Symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV children demonstrated a significantly lower gross motor performance compared with the control group (p = 0.005), the asymptomatic cCMV group (p = 0.034), and the Cx26 group (0.016). In this symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV group, 4 out of 8 children had absent cVEMP responses that were related to the weakest gross motor performance. The Cx26 children showed no significant delay in motor development compared with the control children and none of these children had absent cVEMP responses. The weakest gross motor performance was found in symptomatic hearing-impaired cCMV-infected children with absent cVEMP responses. These results suggest that abnormal saccular responses are a major factor for this delayed motor development, although more work is needed including comprehensive vestibular function testing to verify this.

  5. Complement factor H deficiency and endocapillary glomerulonephritis due to paternal isodisomy and a novel factor H mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, L; Schmidt, I M; Kirchhoff, Eva Maria;

    2011-01-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is a regulator of the alternative complement activation pathway. Mutations in the CFH gene are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II and C3 glomerulonephritis. Here, we report a 6-month-old CFH-deficient child...

  6. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  7. Primary adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency in a hypotonic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gago, Manuel; Gómez-Lado, Carmen; Pérez-Gay, Laura; Eirís-Puñal, Jesús; Martínez, Elena Pintos; García-Consuegra, Inés; Martín, Miguel Angel

    2011-06-01

    The spectrum of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency ranges from asymptomatic carriers to patients who manifest exercise-induced muscle pain, occasionally rhabdomyolysis, and idiopathic hyperCKemia. However, previous to the introduction of molecular techniques, rare cases with congenital weakness and hypotonia have also been reported. We report a 6-month-old girl with the association of congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia, muscle deficiency of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, and the homozygous C to T mutation at nucleotide 34 of the adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 gene. This observation indicates the possible existence of a primary adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency manifested by congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia.

  8. Occult intracranial injury in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms and signs of brain injury, and (3) to determine the clinical significance of those ICIs diagnosed in asymptomatic infants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all infants younger than 2 years of age admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with acute ICI during a 6(1/2)-year period. Infants were considered symptomatic if they had loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, vomiting, bulging fontanel, retinal hemorrhages, abnormal neurologic examination, depressed mental status, or irritability. All others were considered to have occult ICI. Of 101 infants studied, 19 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 12%, 28%) had occult ICI. Fourteen of 52 (27%) infants younger than 6 months of age had occult ICI, compared with 5 of 34 (15%) infants 6 months to 1 year, and none of 15 (0%) infants older than 1 year. Eighteen (95%) infants with occult ICI had scalp contusion or hematoma, and 18 (95%) had skull fracture. Nine (47%) infants with occult ICI received therapy for the ICI. No infants with occult ICI (0%) (95% CI 0, 14%) required surgery or medical management for increased intracranial pressure. Only 1 subject (5%) with occult ICI had any late symptoms or complications: a brief, self-limited convulsion. We found that 19 of 101 ICIs in infants admitted with head trauma were clinically occult. All 19 occult ICIs occurred in infants younger than 12 months of age, and 18 of 19 had skull fractures. None experienced serious neurologic deterioration or required surgical intervention. Physicians cannot depend on the absence of clinical signs of brain injury to exclude ICI in infants younger than 1 year of age.

  9. 母亲心理健康状况对婴儿体格和智能发育的影响%Research on the influence of mother's mental health status on infant' s physical growth and intelligent development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农雪艳; 宋娟; 朱锦渊; 张清华; 张明珠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解婴儿期母亲的心理健康状况,研究母亲不同的心理健康状况对婴儿体格及智能发育的影响.[方法]用90项症状自评量表(SCL-90)对婴儿期母亲进行问卷调查,并对婴儿进行体格及智能评估(用Gesell发育诊断量表),所收集的资料均采用t检验. [结果]2 000例婴儿母亲的心理问卷调查显示:6个月婴儿母亲比1岁婴儿母亲显得更为抑郁及焦虑,婴儿的体格及智能发育与母亲的心理健康状况相关. [结论]关心母亲的心理健康是促进婴儿体格及智能发育的重要手段.%[Objective] To research on the influences of the different mother's mental health status on infant's physical growth and intelligent development through learning the infantile mother's mental health status. [Methods] Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90) was used to investigate the infant's mother by questionnaire. With the use of double blind method on infant's physical growth and intelligence development checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale,all the collected data were used by t test. [Results] Through 2 000 infantile mother's psychological questionnaire.it learned that: the 6months old infant's mothers were more depressive and anxious than 1 year old infanfs mothers. The infants physical growth and intelligent development was relative to the mother's mental health status. [Conclusion] To care for the mother's mental health is an important measure for promoting the infanfs physical growth and intelligent development.

  10. Colic in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter

    2010-02-05

    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  11. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  12. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  13. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  14. Bromoderma in an infant*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Isadora da Rosa; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Hagemann, Laura Netto; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Kiszewski, Ana Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Bromoderma is a cutaneous eruption caused by the absorption of bromide. Clinical manifestations include acneiform and vegetative lesions. We report the case of an infant with bromoderma caused by the use of syrup for abdominal colic containing calcium bromide. The lesions regressed after discontinuation of the drug.

  15. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  16. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  17. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  18. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  19. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  20. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  1. 早期教育对婴儿发育影响的临床研究%The influence of early education on infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾燕; 刘小芸; 郭洁; 徐开渝

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate influence of early education on physical and intelligence development of infants. Methods 100 normal term neonates were enrolled and divided into experimental group and control group. The weight and height were conducted for all infants in the two groups. At the end of 6 months old ,9 months old and 1 year old, all infants of the two groups were assessed by Gesell Developmental Scales (GDS) and intelligence development index. Results There was no significant difference on physical development between two groups (P>0. 05). Compared with the control group, adaptability, sophisticated campaigns, language and social interaction of experimental group were higher. Compared with the control group, Mental Developmental Index (MDI)and Psycho-moter Developmental Index (PDI)of experimental group were higher. Conclusion Early education has a positive effect on the child's intelligence development.%目的 探讨早期教育对婴儿体格、智能发育的作用.方法 100名新生儿分为早教组及对照组每组各50例,比较两组婴儿的体重及身长,在6、9、12个月时对两组婴儿应用Gesell发育量表和婴幼儿智能发育量表(CDCC)进行测试.结果 两组婴儿体格发育指标差异不显著(P>0.05).Gesell发育指标评定,两组婴儿适应性、精细动作、语言、个人交往能区发育商差异显著(P<0.05).早教组各能区智力发育商数(MDI)和运动发育商数(PDI)均高于对照组,两组比较差异显著(P<0.05).结论 早期教育对婴儿智能发育有促进作用.

  2. Detecting rickets in premature infants and treating them with calcitriol: experience from two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Li-Chien; Yek, Yung-Lee; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2012-08-01

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. Rickets is a bone disease characterized by growth retardation due to the expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer of the growth plate and a failure to mineralize bone. Consequently, the bone is soft and permits marked bending and distortion. Although the incidence of rickets in preterm infants is lower due to improvements in health care and nutrition, there are still infants at high risk for this disease. However, few reports are available regarding the treatment of rickets in premature infants. Furthermore, published case studies on experiences with using calcitriol as a potential therapeutic for rickets in premature infants are very rare. Herein, we describe the detection of rickets in premature infants and our experience with calcitriol treatment in two premature infants. We recommended the use of oral calcitriol at a dose of 0.03-0.125 μg/kg/day, in addition to an appropriate formula that provides an adequate amount of calcium and phosphate intake. One patient was prescribed calcitriol for 40 days and the other for 37 days. The two infants gradually recovered and were discharged without any obvious side effects. It is recommended that alkaline phosphatase levels be monitored within 1 month after birth in premature infants with a birth weight of <1000 g. Infants presenting with high alkaline phosphatase levels are candidates for a long bone survey.

  3. 葡萄糖酸锌治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻疗效观察%THE EFFECT OF ZINC GLUCONATE ON INFANTS WITH ACUTE DIARRHEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴爱兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of zinc gluconate on infants with acute diarrhea and study its mechanisms. Methods This study consisted of 172 infants with acute diarrhea, who were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Both groups received conventional therapy. In addition to that, zinc gluconate was given to patients in the treatment group for two weeks, 10 mg/d for those below 6 months old and 20 mg/d for those over 6 months old. The total effective rate, symptomdisappearing time, and recurrence during a 3-month follow-up were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group (x2= 6.14, P<0.05). There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of fever, diarrhea, and hospital stay (t=2. 976-5. 907,P<0.01), but no significant difference in terms of vomiting between the two groups (t=O. 532,P>0. 05). During the follow-up duration, the recurrence rate of diarrhea in the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control (x2 =4.40, P<0.05). Conclusion Zinc gluconate is effective in treating infants with acute diarrhea and preventing recurrence of the disease within three months.%目的 观察葡萄糖酸锌治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻的临床疗效,探讨其作用机制.方法 将172例急性腹泻婴幼儿随机分为治疗组和对照组.两组均给予常规治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用葡萄糖酸锌治疗.剂量为≤6个月儿给予葡萄糖酸锌10 mg/d,>6个月儿给予葡萄糖酸锌20 mg/d,疗程均为14 d.比较两组治疗总有效率、I临床症状消失时间及随访3个月腹泻再发生率.结果 治疗组总有效率明显高于对照组(X=6.14,P0.05).在随访3个月过程中,治疗组腹泻再发生率与对照组比较差异有显著性(X=4.40,P<0.05).结论 葡萄糖酸锌可有效治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻并预防3个月内腹泻的再次发生.

  4. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  5. Investigation of sudden infant deaths in the State of Maryland (1990-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fowler, David; Liu, Liang; Ripple, Mary G; Lambros, Zoe; Smialek, John E

    2005-03-10

    The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) has recorded a significant decline in the deaths of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the state of Maryland since 1994. However, infants who died of accidental or non-accidental injuries remained consistent during the same time period. This report focuses on the epidemiological characteristics and scene investigation findings of infant victims who died suddenly and unexpectedly in Maryland between 1990 and 2000. A retrospective study of OCME cases between 1990 and 2000 yielded a total of 1619 infant fatalities. 802 infant deaths were determined to be SIDS, which represented 50% of the total infant deaths in our study population. Five hundred and twenty-three (31.8%) deaths were due to natural diseases, 128 (7.9%) deaths were accidents, and 74 (4.6%) were homicides. The manner of death could not be determined after a thorough scene investigation, review of history and a complete postmortem examination in 92 (5.7%) infants. SIDS deaths most often involved infants who were male and black. The peak incidence of SIDS was between 2 and 4 months of age. The majority of SIDS infants (60%) were found unresponsive on their stomach. Among SIDS infants, 269 (33.4%) were found in bed with another person or persons (bed sharing). Of the bed-sharing SIDS cases, 182 (68%) were African-American. In the past 11 years, 52 infants died of asphyxia due to unsafe sleeping environment, such as defective cribs, ill-fitting mattresses, inappropriate bedding materials. Of the 74 homicide victims, 53 (70%) involved infants less than 6 months of age. Twenty (27%) exhibited the classical abuse syndrome characterized by repeated acts of trauma to the infants.

  6. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Sorcha A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and infant deaths due to infections. Methods To determine the causes and potential risk factors of infant mortality in Nunavut, we reviewed all infant deaths ( Results Sudden death in infancy (SIDS/SUDI; 48% and infection (21% were the leading causes of infant death, with rates significantly higher than for Canada (2003–2007. Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42 and bed-sharing (n=47, 29 (69% were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70% were bed-sharing. Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70% had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. CPT1A P479L homozygosity, which has been previously associated with infant mortality in Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations, was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI, infection throughout Nunavut (OR:3.43, 95% CI:1.30-11.47. Conclusion Unexpected infant deaths comprise the majority of infant deaths in Nunavut. Although the CPT1A P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness are underway with local partners.

  7. Compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alexander; Schur, Mathew D; Arkader, Alexandre; Flynn, John; Gornitzky, Alex; Choi, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    To study the cause, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of acute compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers aged compartment syndrome were identified from two large pediatric trauma centers over a fifteen-year period. All children underwent fasciotomy. The mechanism of injury, time of injury, time to diagnosis, compartment pressures, time to fasciotomy, and outcome at the time of the latest follow-up were recorded. Nine (60 %) of fifteen patients developed compartment syndrome secondary to trauma, four (4/15, 27 %) due to infection, and two (2/15, 13 %) due to intravenous infiltration. The average time from injury or hospital admission to fasciotomy was 31.8 h (range 2.9-136.3 h). In general, the functional outcome was excellent at the latest follow-up with thirteen (13/15, 87 %) patients having an excellent outcome. No cases of Volkmann's ischemia were noted at the time of fasciotomy, even when performed as late as 5 days after injury. Compared to the general pediatric population, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers may be further delayed, i.e., >24 h after injury. Despite delays in diagnosis and time to treatment, the present study shows that outcomes in infants and toddlers remain favorable even when fasciotomy is performed 48-72 h after injury. Case series, level IV.

  8. Brain tumors in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  9. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  10. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  11. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  12. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhu; Tao Liu; Guangyi Li; Tong Li; Yoshio Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such sys...

  13. Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb-Rinker, Paromita; León, Juan Andrés; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2015-01-01

    of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality....

  14. Perception of infant cues : the role of childhood experiences and oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis we report our findings assessing individual differences in perception of infant signals due to early-life experiences and variability in the oxytocinergic system. We found that the perception of infant cues differs between individuals with fewer versus more experiences of emoti

  15. Exploring Caregiver Behavior and Knowledge about Unsafe Sleep Surfaces in Infant Injury Death Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tracy; Hackett, Martine; Kaur, Navpreet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In the United States, infant deaths due to sleep-related injuries have quadrupled over the past two decades. One of the major risk factors is the placement of an infant to sleep on a surface other than a crib or bassinet. This study examines contextual circumstances and knowledge and behaviors that may contribute to the placement of…

  16. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue are very pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus, we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates wound healing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities.MethodsThe study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of full-thickness skin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition. The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed.ResultsMost of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by wound contraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resulted in 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with less granulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to the relaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars. There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over two thirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients' parents were satisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases.ConclusionsFull-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by wound contraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skin mobility.

  17. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Moon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue arevery pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus,we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates woundhealing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities.Methods The study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of fullthicknessskin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition.The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatoryagents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed.Results Most of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by woundcontraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resultedin 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with lessgranulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to therelaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars.There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over twothirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients’ parents weresatisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases.Conclusions Full-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by woundcontraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skinmobility.

  18. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  19. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  20. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  1. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Infant Sleep Positioner Example See more images of Infant Sleep ...

  2. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand when and how to give an infant massage. By Mayo Clinic Staff Infant massage is a way for you to gently nurture ... Find out about the possible benefits of infant massage and know how to get started. Research suggests ...

  3. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  4. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  5. Development of infant oral feeding skills: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    The hospital discharge of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. With immature physiologic functions, infants born prematurely cannot be expected to readily feed by mouth at the equivalent age of a third trimester of gestation as the majority of their term counterparts do. Consequently, it is crucial that health care professionals gain an adequate knowledge of the development of preterm infants' oral feeding skills so as to optimize their safety and competency as they transition to oral feeding. With a greater sensitivity toward their immature skills, we can offer these infants a safer and smoother transition to independent oral feeding than is currently observed. This review article is an overview of the evidence-based research undertaken over the past 2 decades on the development of very-low-birth-weight infants' oral feeding skills. The description of the different functional levels where these infants can encounter hurdles may assist caregivers in identifying a potential cause or causes for their individual patients' oral feeding difficulties. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. [Prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2007-11-01

    The prognosis of acute diarrhoea in infants is most often satisfactory in industrialized countries. However, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 children die every year in France from acute dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. In spite of an increasing use over the least few years, oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are used in only 70% of infants presenting with acute diarrhoea. The use of homemade ORS, plain water or fizzy drink should be strictly avoided. In case of acute diarrhoea there is no indication to stop breastfeeding or the use of infant formula for more than 4 hours. Lactose intolerance is observed in only 5-10% of infants. Lactose free formulae should only be used in infants with severe, persistent or recurrent diarrhoea. Under 3-4 months of age, infants with severe diarrhoea should receive for a period of 2-4 weeks lactose free protein hydrolysate formulae. Racecadotril is the only drug with anti-diarrheal properties, with a reduction of the stool output of 50%. Oral antibiotics should only be used in case of Shigella infection or in case of bacterial infection with severe sepsis or underlying debilitating disease. Oral Rotavirus vaccine, that is not reimbursed yet in France, has been shown to dramatically reduce the number of severe cases of diarrhoea with dehydration, and has been associated with a striking reduction of both morbidity and mortality, as well as of the number of hospitalisations during periods of epidemics.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Imported Powered Infant Formula (PIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENIS MAÇI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are well-known long-standing foodborne human pathogen that demonstrate long-term survival in/on dry or low-water activity (aw in foods. Salmonellosis caused by ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula has been reported nationwide. In recent years, 8 reported outbreaks of Salmonella infection in infants have been linked to the consumption of powdered infant formula. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis due to contaminated PIF are likely to be under-reported nationwide even in Albania. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential existence of Salmonella spp. in canned powdered infant formula in Albania. During two years investigation Salmonella spp was on the focus and was detected in 1 out of 70 analysed samples (1.43%. The strain of Salmonella spp. was biochemically identified by the analytical profile index (API 20 E system and poly A, H, and Vi antiserum. Food safety criteria are laid down in EU regulation “EC No. 2073/2005” for Salmonella spp. in dried infant formula and dried dietary foods for special medical purposes intended for infants. These criterias are transposed to Albanian Legislation. A laboratory-based on food-borne disease surveillance systems is needed in terms of strethening control and reducing the risk of exposure.

  8. Mortality due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Burden and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Erviti, Anabella; Caballero, Mauricio T; Vallone, Fernando; Zanone, Stella M; Losada, Juan Ves; Bianchi, Alejandra; Acosta, Patricio L; Talarico, Laura B; Ferretti, Adrian; Grimaldi, Luciano Alva; Sancilio, Andrea; Dueñas, Karina; Sastre, Gustavo; Rodriguez, Andrea; Ferrero, Fernando; Barboza, Edgar; Gago, Guadalupe Fernández; Nocito, Celina; Flamenco, Edgardo; Perez, Alberto Rodriguez; Rebec, Beatriz; Ferolla, F Martin; Libster, Romina; Karron, Ruth A; Bergel, Eduardo; Polack, Fernando P

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of hospitalization and an important cause of death in infants in the developing world. The relative contribution of social, biologic, and clinical risk factors to RSV mortality in low-income regions is unclear. To determine the burden and risk factors for mortality due to RSV in a low-income population of 84,840 infants. This was a prospective, population-based, cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted between 2011 and 2013. Hospitalizations and deaths due to severe lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) were recorded during the RSV season. All-cause hospital deaths and community deaths were monitored. Risk factors for respiratory failure (RF) and mortality due to RSV were assessed using a hierarchical, logistic regression model. A total of 2,588 (65.5%) infants with severe LRTI were infected with RSV. A total of 157 infants (148 postneonatal) experienced RF or died with RSV. RSV LRTI accounted for 57% fatal LRTI tested for the virus. A diagnosis of sepsis (odds ratio [OR], 17.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.14-21.16 for RF) (OR, 119.39; 95% CI, 50.98-273.34 for death) and pneumothorax (OR, 17.15; 95% CI, 13.07-21.01 for RF) (OR, 65.49; 95% CI, 28.90-139.17 for death) were the main determinants of poor outcomes. RSV was the most frequent cause of mortality in low-income postneonatal infants. RF and death due to RSV LRTI, almost exclusively associated with prematurity and cardiopulmonary diseases in industrialized countries, primarily affect term infants in a developing world environment. Poor outcomes at hospitals are frequent and associated with the cooccurrence of bacterial sepsis and clinically significant pneumothoraxes.

  9. Choroid development and feasibility of choroidal imaging in the preterm and term infants utilizing SD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Tomas A; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Chiu, Stephanie J; Farsiu, Sina; Cabrera, Michelle T; Maldonado, Ramiro S; Tran-Viet, Du; Freedman, Sharon F; Wallace, David K; Toth, Cynthia A

    2013-06-14

    To determine whether choroidal imaging is feasible in preterm and term infants using an 840-nm portable spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system without the use of enhanced-depth imaging techniques and to assess choroidal development by comparing choroidal thickness of preterm infants, term infants, and adults. SD-OCT images were obtained from 86 preterm infants, 59 term infants, and nine adults using a portable SD-OCT system plus nine adults using a tabletop system. An unprocessed image across the macula from one randomly selected eye of each participant was selected for determination of whether the choroidal-scleral junction (CSJ) could be visualized and for measurement of choroidal thickness. Subfoveal CSJ was visualized in 96% of young-preterm infants (imaged from 30-36 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA]); 78% of term-aged preterm infants (imaged from 37-42 weeks PMA); 49% of term infants; and 39% of adult subjects. Racial pigmentation did not affect CSJ visibility in young-preterm infants (P = 0.57). Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in young-preterm infants, term-aged preterm infants, term infants, and adults was 176 ± 53 μm, 289 ± 92 μm, 329 ± 66 μm, and 258 ± 66 μm, respectively, and these were all statistically significantly different from one another except term-aged preterms to adults. Infant choroid can be imaged with a portable SD-OCT system without enhanced depth imaging. Melanin in the RPE and choroid does not hinder outer choroidal imaging in young-preterm infants without advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In preterm infants, choroidal thickness increased with age but was thinner when compared to term infants suggesting delayed development due to ROP.

  10. The determination of infant feeding attitudes among Turkish mothers using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Sumeyra; Yuvaci, Hilal Uslu; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Cinar, Nursan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale is a valid and reliable scale for Turkish mothers, and to assess maternal attitudes toward various aspects of infant feeding. This methodological, analytical study was conducted at the obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey, from June to August 2015, and comprised mothers of newborn babies. Data was collected using the Turkish version of Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. There were 391 participants in the study. Five items of the original Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale were excluded due to the low correlation with the scale integrity (Cronbach's alpha=0.67). The total mean score of the mothers was 48.11±6.57. A statistically significant difference was found between the educational status, having social security, what the mothers having other children fed these children in the first 6 months and family types (p=0.05 each). Significant difference was also found between the mothers only breastfeeding and the mothers feeding with mother's milk and formula (p=0.008). The scale was found to be culturally acceptable, reliable and valid scale for Turkish mothers.

  11. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  12. Mechanical response of infant brain to manually inflicted shaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Z; Albermani, F

    2010-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a contentious issue on both biomechanical and medical fronts, primarily due to a lack of understanding of the loading-injury relationship of infant shaking and the parameters that are deterministic to its nature. In order to address this lack, a finite element (FE) representation of a three month infant head was developed to apply kinematics derived from physical testing with an anthropomorphic infant surrogate. The FE mesh was derived from a three-dimensional geometric basis, allowing for mesh size grading in regions of high importance, and future patient-specific adaptation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was represented through static pressure equilibration in combination with a locally based squeezing resistance. The results of the simulation indicate that anteroposterior shaking will lead to specific patterns of brain matter motion, increased likelihood of focal axonal injury at contact locations and deep brain structures, and a capacity for the development of subdural hematomas (SDH) due to rupture of central bridging veins.

  13. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  14. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  15. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  16. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  17. Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…

  18. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  19. Recovery of Habituation in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Charity N.; Cohen, Leslie B.

    1970-01-01

    Male infants habituated their fixation time over trials and differentiated between the novel and familiar stimuli when the posthabituation interval was 15 seconds, but neither male nor female infants did so when the interval was 5 minutes. This paper is based upon a thesis submitted by the first author in partial fulfillment of the requirements…

  20. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  1. Cortical source localization of infant cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Richards, John E

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and cortical source localization techniques. The current article provides an overview of a method developed for such analyses. The method consists of four steps: (1) recording high-density (e.g., 128-channel) EEG. (2) Analysis of individual participant raw segmented data with independent component analysis (ICA). (3) Estimation of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) that represent cortical sources for the observed ICA component clusters. (4) Calculation of component activations in relation to experimental factors. We discuss an example of research applying this technique to investigate the development of visual attention and recognition memory. We also describe the application of "realistic head modeling" to address some of the current limitations of infant cortical source localization.

  2. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

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    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  3. [Late hemorrhagic disease in newborn infants. Is the current preventive treatment with oral vitamin K adequate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K N; Tegllund, L; Lange, A; Ebbesen, F

    1992-04-13

    During recent years, we have observed two cases of haemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency which developed late in the neonatal period. One patient was a female infant aged six weeks with severe intracranial bleeding and the other was a female infant aged three weeks with marked haemorrhage from the umbilicus. Both of these infants were entirely breast-fed and had received vitamin K (1 mg fytomenadion) orally at birth. Both infants had unrecognized alfa-1-antitrypsin deficiency with liver involvement. In other European countries, many cases of late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn due to vitamin K deficiency have been registered in infants who had received oral vitamin K prophylaxis. On the basis of these observations and investigations which suggest that oral vitamin K prophylaxis is not so effective as intramuscular administration, it is suggested that the present oral vitamin K prophylaxis should be altered.

  4. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163268.html Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  5. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  6. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  7. Seasonal Timing of Infant Bronchiolitis, Apnea and Sudden Unexplained Infant Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D Sloan

    Full Text Available Rates of Sudden Unexplained Infant Death (SUID, bronchiolitis, and central apnea increase in winter in temperate climates. Though associations between these three conditions are suggested, more work is required to establish if there is a causal pathway linking bronchiolitis to SUID through inducing central apnea. Utilizing a large population-based cohort of infants studied over a 20-year period (n = 834,595, from birth years 1989-2009, we analyzed ecological associations between timing of SUID cases, bronchiolitis, and apnea healthcare visits. Data were analyzed between 2013 and 2015. We used a Cox Proportional Hazards model to analyze possible interactions between maternal smoking and maternal asthma with infant bronchiolitis on time to SUID. SUID and bronchiolitis both occurred more frequently in winter. An increase in bronchiolitis clinical visits occurred within a few days prior to apnea visits. We found a temporal relationship between infant bronchiolitis and apnea. In contrast, no peak in SUID cases was seen during peaks of bronchiolitis. Among those without any bronchiolitis visits, maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of SUID: Hazard Ratio (HR of 2.38 (95% CI: 2.11, 2.67, p-value <0.001. Maternal asthma was associated with an increased risk of SUID among infants with at least one bronchiolitis visit: HR of 2.40 (95% CI: 1.04, 5.54, p-value = 0.04. Consistent trends between bronchiolitis, apnea, and SUID were not established due to small numbers of SUID cases. However, interaction analysis revealed potential differential associations of bronchiolitis and SUID by maternal smoking, maternal asthma status.

  8. Arthrogryposis: A Rare Manifestation in Infant of Diabetic Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar M. Taksande

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is characterized by non-progressive, multiple joint contractures present at birth. The major cause of arthrogryposis is fetal akinesia due to fetal abnormalities like neurogenic, muscle, connective tissue abnormalities or maternal disorders Here we report a rare case of arthrogryposis in infant of diabetic mother with multiple congenital anomalies.

  9. Accidental and Nonaccidental Head Injuries in Infants: Distinguishing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty infants hospitalized with head injury over a 3-year period, 57 (38% due to child abuse, were studied prospectively at the Departments of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Neuro-ophthalmology, and Legal Medicine, CHRU de Lille, France.

  10. Infants' and Mothers' Vagal Reactivity in Response to Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ginger A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exposure to anger in the family is a risk factor for disruptive behavior disorders characterized by ineffective vagal regulation. Effects of anger on developing vagal regulation may be due to direct exposure or to effects on parents' regulation of emotion as parents support infants' regulation. Little is known about the impact of anger…

  11. Everyday Miracles: Supporting Parents of Infants in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Evelyn; McInnis, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a model for supporting parents and their infants during separations due to temporary foster care. Using a case example, the authors describe a model for visit coaching, including their process for assessment and strategies used for intervention. The lessons learned are: (a) that individual parents can present very…

  12. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard;

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...

  13. Auditory maturation and congenital hearing loss in NICU infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Coenraad (Saskia)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe number of preterm births has increased over the past decades as a result of increasing maternal age and in vitro fertilization (1). At the same time the survival of preterm infants has increased due to advances in perinatal and neonatal care. For example, antenatal corticosteroids

  14. Auditory maturation and congenital hearing loss in NICU infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Coenraad (Saskia)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe number of preterm births has increased over the past decades as a result of increasing maternal age and in vitro fertilization (1). At the same time the survival of preterm infants has increased due to advances in perinatal and neonatal care. For example, antenatal corticosteroids fo

  15. Hemispherotomy in an infant with hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa D; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Patil, Varsha A; Sayed, Rafat J

    2015-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a rare hamartomatous congenital malformation of the brain. The epilepsy pattern in HME can be partial seizures or may present as spasms as in epileptic encephalopathy. Epilepsy associated with HME is usually resistant to antiepileptic drugs and requires surgical intervention. Hemispheric disconnection has been reported to be efficient in seizure control and prevents further cognitive injury and developmental delay. We report a case of HME, who underwent a two-stage hemispherotomy due to complications in the first surgery. She had more than 90% reduction of seizures with good developmental outcome on follow-up. Thus, despite risks of the procedure, early surgery should be preferred in infants with HME.

  16. Cerebral candida abscess in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained pus material. The patient responded to combination of surgery (drainage and intravenous amphotericin B. Neurological development six months after hospital discharge was normal. The organism being a rare cause of cerebral abscess in pediatric population is reported here.

  17. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

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    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  18. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

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    Robert M. Kent

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  19. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future.

  20. Lung volume, breathing pattern and ventilation inhomogeneity in preterm and term infants.

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    Philipp Latzin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants, conflicting results exist possibly due to differences in sedation and measurement techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 127 infants with BPD, 58 preterm infants without BPD and 239 healthy term-born infants, at a matched post-conceptional age of 44 weeks during quiet natural sleep according to ATS/ERS standards. Lung function parameters measured were functional residual capacity (FRC and ventilation inhomogeneity by multiple breath washout as well as tidal breathing parameters. Preterm infants with BPD had only marginally lower FRC (21.4 mL/kg than preterm infants without BPD (23.4 mL/kg and term-born infants (22.6 mL/kg, though there was no trend with disease severity. They also showed higher respiratory rates and lower ratios of time to peak expiratory flow and expiratory time (t(PTEF/t(E than healthy preterm and term controls. These changes were related to disease severity. No differences were found for ventilation inhomogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that preterm infants with BPD have a high capacity to maintain functional lung volume during natural sleep. The alterations in breathing pattern with disease severity may reflect presence of adaptive mechanisms to cope with the disease process.

  1. Hepatitis B Postexposure Prophylaxis in Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants

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    Markus Waitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Recommendations for immunoprophylaxis in low-birth-weight (LBW infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive mothers vary. We successfully immunized an HBsAg-exposed infant (birth weight: 400 g and performed a literature review on the outcome of postexposure immunoprophylaxis in HBsAg-exposed preterm and LBW infants. Methods - By use of PubMed we identified articles relevant to the topic. Studies were included if the intended vaccine schedule was completed and follow-up data were reported. Results - Antibody response was reported in 31 LBW infants (birth weight < 2,500 g and 49 infants with gestational age of < 38 weeks. Low anti-HBs antibody levels (< 100 IU/L were found in 9 (29% of the 31 LBW infants. Overall, 2 of 20 (10% preterm infants and 2 of 17 (12% LBW were HBsAg-positive on follow-up. In one study, none of the 26 exposed very LBW infants became infected. Conclusion - Due to heterogeneity in immunization schedules, lack of information on transmission rates, and the small number of included subjects, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal postexposure prophylaxis in LBW infants. We propose that active and passive immunization at birth should be completed by three further active doses (0–1–2–12 month schedule until further prospective studies are available.

  2. The impact of infant feeding patterns on infection and diarrheal disease due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli El impacto de las modalidades de alimentación infantil en la infección y en las enfermedades diarreicas por Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica

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    Kurt Long

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE. Determine the impact of dietary risk factors on patterns of infection by heat labile toxin-producing Escherichia coli (LT-ETEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ninety-eight infants were followed from birth for one year in Guadalajara, Mexico, beginning in august of 1986. Stool and breast milk samples were collected weekly from infants and their mothers, respectively. Mothers were also interviewed on a weekly basis regarding the health of the infants. Parametric hazard models were fit to durations of different LTETEC disease states determined through the analysis of stools. The child's consumption of supplemental foods and liquids as well as specific levels of LT-ETEC-specific breast milk antibodies were included in each model as time-varying covariates. RESULTS. The hazard of LTETEC asymptomatic infection increased 400 percent among children who received oats gruel (hazard rate= 4.01; 95% CI 2.77-5.24. The duration of infection was reduced if the child had had a previous LT-ETEC diarrheal episode (2.12; 95% CI 1.74-2.49 but was prolonged if the child consumed herbal teas (0.53; 95% CI 0.27-0.7. Herbal teas and high LTETEC-specific breast milk antibody levels each reduced the hazard of symptomatic infection by ninety percent. Symptomatic episodes became asymptomatic more rapidly if a child was given rice water. CONCLUSIONS. Specific weaning foods increase the risk of infection. Breastmilk antibodies and liquid infusions reduce diarrheal disease and infection duration.OBJETIVOS. Determinar el impacto de los factores dietéticos sobre patrones de infección por Escherichia coli enterotoxigénica productora de la toxina lábil (ECET-TL. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se reclutaron 98 infantes al nacer, en agosto de 1986; se hizo seguimiento durante un año. En visitas semanales se recolectaron muestras de heces de los niños y una muestra de leche de las madres; éstas fueron entrevistadas sobre la morbilidad del niño. Se ajustaron modelos de hazard a la

  3. Alimentação complementar: práticas inadequadas em lactentes Complementary feeding: inappropriate practices in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cavalcante Caetano

    2010-06-01

    , from the municipalities of Curitiba, São Paulo, and Recife, who were not being exclusively breastfed. Mothers received oral and written information provided by a nutritionist with the purpose of standardizing the feeding data. The computer program NutWin was used to calculate the dietary intake. RESULTS: The median of the infants' age was 6.8 months (4.0-12.6 months. We found that 50.3% of the infants were no longer being exclusively breastfed. Of these, 12.0 and 6.7% among the infants younger and older than 6 months, respectively, were fed with infant formulae instead of breast milk. Therefore, most infants received whole cow's milk. Infant formula dilution was correct in only 23.8 and 34.7% of the infants younger and older than 6 months old, respectively. With regards to complementary feeding, we found that the median age was 4 months for its introduction and 5.5 months for the introduction of family diet. There was high quantitative inappropriateness of micronutrient intake for infants between 6 and 12 months old who were not exclusively breastfed, mainly in terms of zinc (75% and iron (45%. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a high frequency of inappropriate feeding practices and dietary intake in very young infants. These practices may lead to an increased risk of development of chronic diseases in the future.

  4. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  5. Sleep Apnoea in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dario Galante

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available For nearly 3,000 years, it has been recognized that apparently healthy infants could die suddenly and unexpectedly during their sleep .Throughout most of history, it was believed that these infants somehow suffocated, implying that these babies died a respiratory death. Nearly one infant per thousand live births continues to die suddenly and unexpectedly from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS

  6. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking...

  7. Fear of heights in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  8. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  9. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  10. Infant feeding practices and weight gain for length of term normal birth weight infants in the first 6 months of life%喂养习惯与婴儿出生后前6个月按身长体质量增加的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽莉; 孙倩倩; 胡燕琪; 刘金荣; 刘珊珊; 张杰; 盛晓阳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between infant feeding practices and infants growth,especially the weight gain for length in the first 6 months of life. Methods Two-hundred healthy full-term singlet normal birth weight 5 - 6 months old infants and their main care givers were recruited in Kongjiang community health service center in Shanghai. The questionnaires included infants feeding pattern, feeding environment and care givers feeding behaviors, and were completed on-site by investigators. The birth weight was obtained. The weight and length of infants at 6 months were measured. Results There were 70/200 (35.0%) infants overweight (BMI for age Z score>+1) at 6 months. There were more overweight boys than girls (40.0% vs. 30.9%, x2 = 1.798, P = 0.180). Compared with normal weight infants, the overweight infants had same birth weight (3.30 ± 0.35 kg vs. 3.35 ± 0.32 kg, t =1.010, P = 0.314) and same length at 6 months (67.64 ± 2.10 cm vs. 67.91 ± 1.97 cm, t=- 0.896, P = 0.371). However, the overweight infants gained much more weight for length in the first six months of life. At 6 months, the weight and BMI of overweight infants was significantly higher than that of normal weight infants (9.16 ± 0.67 vs. 7.94 ±0.64, t = 12.324, P 0.05). The grandparents played an important role in infants feeding in Shanghai. There were 39.0% infants fed only by grandparents, and 23.0% infants fed jointly by grandparents and parents (x2 = 0.175, P > 0.05).The care givers' educational level and knowledge of feeding skill were similar in overweight and normal weight infants (x2 = 0.446, t = 0.949, P > 0.05). However, the overweight infants were fed more quickly than normal weight infants (Z = 2.753, P +1),占35%.男婴超重多于女婴(40.0%对30.9%,x2=1.798,P=0.180).超重婴儿和体质量正常婴儿的出生体质量一致(3.30±0.35 kg对3.35±0.32 kg,t=1.010,P=0.314),6月龄时两组婴儿的身长也一致(67.64±2.10 cm对67.91±1.97cm,t=0.896,P=0.371).

  11. Mode of delivery and neurosonographic findings in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fetal and preterm infant brain is especially vulnerable to hemorrhagic and ischemic damage at the end of the second and at the beginning of the third trimester. This is due to vascular, cellular and anatomic characteristics of the brain during development. In premature babies, there is a physiological instability and limited autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Hemorrhagic and ischemic damages often occur together, though pathophysiological processes leading to lesions are different. Material and methods The paper deals with a detailed analysis of 860 ultrasound brain scans of prematurely born children. The examinations were performed at the Ultrasound Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. 707 vaginally born premature infants and 153 premature infants born by Cesarean section were examined. The bleeding was graded according to the Papile classification. Results and Discussion Out of 384 children with diagnosed grade I hemorrhage, 75 premature infants (19.5% were born by Cesarean section. In the group of children with grade II hemorrhage, operative deliveries account for 14.7%. From the total of 85 children with grade III hemorrhage, (intraventricular bleeding with chamber dilatation, only 6 premature infants were born by Cesarean section (7%. Intra-parenchymal bleeding was diagnosed in a very small number of premature infants; 0.32% of all diagnosed hemorrhages were grade IV hemorrhages. In this group there were no children born by Cesarean section. The increase of hemorrhage grade is accompanied by a greater rate of pelvic presentation and manual assistance by Bracht. There were 240 prematurely born children with no echosonographically diagnosed hemorrhage, 38% of all examined premature infants. From this number, 13.3% of neonates were born by Cesarean section. Conclusion In the etiology of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially prematurely born ones, apart from the trauma, which plays a

  12. Attentional Bias for Word Learning—Mandarin-Speaking Infants' Discrimination of Persons,Actions,and Objects%汉语婴儿词汇学习的注意偏好

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 郑小蓓; 孟祥芝; Rachel Pulverman; Twila Tardif; 朱莉琪

    2012-01-01

    Word learning requires establishing a mapping between words and concepts.Yet,even before this mapping process,children need to attend to and identify conceptual units from perceptual inputs.From an associative perspective,attention is the initial step of early word learning,and differences in attentional patterns could play a role in language acquisition and development.English learners typically show vocabularies that are dominated by nouns,while studies reveal that verbs are acquired early and in large quantities by Mandarin Chinese learners.However,little research has examined whether English and Mandarin leamers'early comprehension and production of nouns and verbs could be attributed to attentional patterns.Thus,the interest for the present study is whether we will find fundamental differences in attentional patterns to complex scenes across developmental spans.In particular,we are interested in how the process of word learning may interact with attention among children who have not yet begun this process(i.e.6 month olds) vs.children who are in the middle of an explosive phase of early vocabulary development(i.e.18-month-olds). In this study,we explore Mandarin-learning infants'abilities to discriminate among persons,actions,and objects in both silent and word-learning environments.Infants were randomly assigned to a habituation scene,in which a videotaped event of a young woman performing a novel action on a novel object was presented to infants in a habituation paradigm.Once they were bored,the infants were presented with four test trials,in which none(control trial) or one of the three elements changed(person Change,action change,object change) with the other two held consistent with the habituation.The infants'looking time was calculated on-line by a live experimenter who was blind to the stimuli appearing on the screen and coded the infant's eye movement through a curtain hole. These studies aim to further investigate the cognitive mechanism underlying

  13. Aortic mass in a newborn infant with respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Vaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic disease is rare in neonates. Many of the cases reported in literature are attributed to the placement of central catheters. We report on a case of aortic thrombosis in a newborn infant with significant respiratory distress due to meconium aspiration, necessitating intubation and placement of central catheters. Due to the location and size of the thrombus in our case, various subspecialties were involved, which ultimately guided therapy to anti-coagulate the patient.

  14. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M; Adair, Linda; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206). Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight. PMID:19656377

  15. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  16. Copenhagen infant mental health project:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  17. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  18. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  19. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Celiac Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis Inflammatory Bowel Disease Nutrition & Obesity Reflux & GERD Reflux & GERD in Infants Symptoms & Diagnosis ... Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Celiac Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pediatric IBD Nutrition & Obesity Reflux & GERD Research & Grants Our Supporters Site Map © ...

  20. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants ...

  1. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  2. Pharmacological Therapy of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe GER with clinical complications. Despite of this, a concerning pharmacological overtreatment has been increasingly reported. Most of the antireflux drugs, however, have not been specifically assessed in preterm infants; moreover, serious adverse effects have been noticed in association to their administration. This review mainly aims to draw the state of the art regarding the pharmacological management of GER in preterm infants, analyzing the best piecies of evidence currently available on the most prescribed anti-reflux drugs. Although further trials are required, sodium alginate-based formulations might be considered promising; however, data regarding their safety are still limited. Few piecies of evidence on the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors in preterm infants with GER are currently available. Nevertheless, a significantly increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and infections has been largely reported in association with their use, thereby leading to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. The efficacy of metoclopramide in GER’s improvement still needs to be clarified. Other prokinetic agents, such as domperidone and erythromycin, have been reported to be ineffective, whereas cisapride has been withdrawn due to its remarkable cardiac adverse effects.

  3. What could infant and young child nutrition learn from sweatshops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagoe-Moses Isabella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate infant and young child nutrition demands high rates of breastfeeding and good access to nutrient rich complementary foods, requiring public sector action to promote breastfeeding and home based complementary feeding, and private sector action to refrain from undermining breastfeeding and to provide affordable, nutrient rich complementary foods. Unfortunately, due to a lack of trust, the public and private sectors, from both the North and the South, do not work well together in achieving optimal infant and young child nutrition. Discussion As the current debate in infant and young child nutrition is reminiscent of the "sweatshop" debate fifteen years ago, we argue that lessons from the sweatshops debate regarding cooperation between public and private sectors - and specific organizational experiences such as the Ethical Trading Initiative in which companies, trade unions, and civil society organizations work together to enhance implementation of labour standards and address alleged allegations - could serve as a model for improving cooperation and trust between public, civil society and private groups, and ultimately health, in infant and young child nutrition. Summary Lessons from the sweatshops debate could serve as a model to promote cooperation and trust between public and private groups, such that they learn to work together towards their common goal of improving infant and young child nutrition.

  4. Narrowing inequalities in infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170 and infant deaths (n=1,934 were considered. Five different geographic areas were defined according to quintiles of the percentage of low maternal educational level (<6 years of schooling: high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. The chi-square test for trend was used to compare rates between years. Incidence rate ratio was calculated using Poisson regression to identify excess infant mortality in poorer areas compared to higher schooling areas. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR decreased steadily from 18.38 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995 to 12.21 in 1999 (chi-square for trend p<0.001. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates decreased although the drop seemed to be steeper for the post-neonatal component. The higher decline was seen in poorer areas. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in IMR seem to have decreased due to a steeper reduction in both neonatal and post-neonatal components of infant mortality in lower maternal schooling area.

  5. What could infant and young child nutrition learn from sweatshops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter A; Ansett, Sean; Sagoe-Moses, Isabella

    2011-05-05

    Adequate infant and young child nutrition demands high rates of breastfeeding and good access to nutrient rich complementary foods, requiring public sector action to promote breastfeeding and home based complementary feeding, and private sector action to refrain from undermining breastfeeding and to provide affordable, nutrient rich complementary foods. Unfortunately, due to a lack of trust, the public and private sectors, from both the North and the South, do not work well together in achieving optimal infant and young child nutrition. As the current debate in infant and young child nutrition is reminiscent of the "sweatshop" debate fifteen years ago, we argue that lessons from the sweatshops debate regarding cooperation between public and private sectors - and specific organizational experiences such as the Ethical Trading Initiative in which companies, trade unions, and civil society organizations work together to enhance implementation of labour standards and address alleged allegations - could serve as a model for improving cooperation and trust between public, civil society and private groups, and ultimately health, in infant and young child nutrition. Lessons from the sweatshops debate could serve as a model to promote cooperation and trust between public and private groups, such that they learn to work together towards their common goal of improving infant and young child nutrition.

  6. The study of countermeasures on measles control in infants%小月龄婴儿麻疹发病控制对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联君; 康顺爱; 刘英; 姜晓春; 孙丽英; 姜忠林

    2001-01-01

    that the newborn's antibody level can be improved by vaccination to matured women. In order to reduce morbidity of infant measles, the age of first vaccination of measles vaccine should be changed from 8 months old to 6 months old in some regions.

  7. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  8. Parental education and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L D; Cerda, S P

    1999-02-01

    An infant oral health evaluation encompasses the assessment and identification of oral disease, the establishment of preventive practices and the monitoring of developing dentofacial structures. The article presented here focuses on the need for dentists to begin a dialogue with parents of young children with regard to their infant's oral health. Emphasis is on oral hygiene, fluoride intake, non-nutritive habits, bottle feeding and diet.

  9. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  10. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Duman; Reşat Duman; Mehmet Balcı

    2013-01-01

    Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  11. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  12. Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID

  13. Wearable sensor systems for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-02-05

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  14. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, M; Schenker, J; Glassman, M; Ben-david, M

    1978-10-01

    Serum PRL levels were followed serially in full term (FT; 39-41 weeks) and preterm (PT; 30-32 weeks) infants, from birth to 12 and 20 postnatal weeks, respectively. Values were higher in FT infants than in PT infants on day 1 after birth (267 +/- 20 vs. 156 +/- 8 ng/ml) but were similar in both by the age of 2-4 weeks (69 +/- 8 vs. 69 +/- 6 ng/ml). Between the ages of 4-12 weeks, the serum PRL in FT infants fell to near adult levels (24 +/- 2 ng/ml), but this fall was seen much later in PT infants, between 12-20 weeks postnatally (23 +/- 2 ng/ml). When values in FT and PT infants were compared at parallel postmenstrual ages in contradistinction to postnatal ages, a similar course of PRL was discernable in both groups. These data may provide indirect evidence for the establishment and maturation of inhibition of PRL secretion (i.e. PRL-inhibitory factor production) postnatally, between 44-52 weeks postmenstrually.

  15. Cervical accelerometry in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Eric W; Vice, Frank L; Bosma, James F; Gewolb, Ira H

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to use digital signal processing (DSP) technology to describe quantitatively and statistically swallow-associated sounds in preterm infants and to use this method to analyze changes as infants mature. Twelve recordings of accelerometric and physiological data on bottle-feeding preterm infants between 32 and 39 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were analyzed. Cervical auscultation was performed using an accelerometer attached over the larynx. Acoustic data were recorded and graphically displayed using DSP software. Initial discrete sounds (IDSs) were identified and used to construct an average waveform from which a 'variance index' (VI) was calculated for each infant. The shape of the IDS waveforms became progressively more uniform with advancing PMA, as indicated by a significant inverse correlation between VI and PMA (r=0.739; p=0.006). DSP technology facilitated the development of a new method to quantitatively analyze feeding in preterm infants. This method provides an elegant tool to track maturation of infant feeding and assessing feeding readiness. This technique makes the interpretation of cervical auscultation data less subjective by replacing the verbal description of the sounds of feeding with quantitative numeric values. It is anticipated that this method can be automated to facilitate further the analysis of cervical accelerometry data.

  16. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  17. Postpartum Depression And Infant-Mother Attachment Security At One Year:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Tharner, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on effects of postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been divergent. This may be due to not taking into account the effects of stable difficulties not specific for depression, such as maternal personality disorder (PD). Mothers (N = 80) were recruited......-report and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment (in)security was calculated as a continuous score based on the four interactive behavioral scales of the SSP, and the conventional scale for attachment disorganization...... was used. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only if the mother also had a PD diagnosis. Infants of PPD mothers without co-morbid PD did not differ from infants of mothers with nopsychopathology. These results suggest that co-existing PD may be crucial in understanding how PPD impacts...

  18. [Infants wearing teething necklaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I

    2012-10-01

    Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The

  19. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Lad, Vijay; Shanbag, Preeti

    2012-04-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  20. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  1. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Lad, Vijay; Shanbag, Preeti

    2012-01-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days. PMID:22566734

  2. Report of an infant with noma (cancrum oris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Köksal; Yuca, Sevil Ari; Cankaya, Hakan; Caksen, Hüseyin; Calka, Omer; Kiriş, Muzaffer

    2004-06-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is an infectious disease that destroys the oro-facial tissues and other neighboring structures in its fulminating course. The starting point of the disease is acute ulcero-necrotic gingivitis, which results in an extensive gangrenous plaque destroying all of the soft tissues of the face. It predominantly affects children aged 2-16 years and is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene, as in developing countries. We discuss possible predisposing factors in cancrum oris such as malnutrition, infectious diseases, HIV infection, and immune compromise conditions. Poverty is the most important risk factor. We report the case of a 6-month-old child with noma and review the characteristic features of this disease.

  3. Effects of antenatal corticosteroid administration on mortality and long-term morbidity in early preterm, growth-restricted infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, AH; Wolf, H; Bruinse, HW; Smolders-De Haas, H; Van Ertbruggen, [No Value; Treffers, PE

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on mortality, morbidity, and disability or handicap rate in early preterm, growth-restricted infants. Methods: This case-control study in two tertiary care centers included all live-born singleton infants with growth-restriction due to

  4. Development of the Object Permanence Concept in Cleft Lip and Palate and Noncleft Lip and Palate Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecyna, Paula M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of object permanence was investigated with eight infants with cleft lip/palate and four nonimpaired infants. Superior performance of the cleft lip/palate group was found, possibly due to increased environmental stimulation provided by parents. (DB)

  5. Development of the Object Permanence Concept in Cleft Lip and Palate and Noncleft Lip and Palate Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecyna, Paula M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of object permanence was investigated with eight infants with cleft lip/palate and four nonimpaired infants. Superior performance of the cleft lip/palate group was found, possibly due to increased environmental stimulation provided by parents. (DB)

  6. Indonesia lowers infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, S

    1991-11-01

    Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia.

  7. INFANT MORTALITY MAR URAL POPULATION OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum

  8. CHARACTERISTICS AND THE OUTCOME OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT BORN IN SANGLAH HOSPITAL DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Putra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW infants is one of the most important medical problem especially in developing countries. This issue is due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. On the other hand, the long term impact of VLBW infants are poor growth and development including physical, emotional, intelectual (IQ, and disabilities, therefore it could decrease the quality of human resources and become a burden to their family. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome among VLBW infants born in the Sanglah Hospital. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from medical record of all infants with VLBW delivered in Sanglah Hospital from January to Desember 2009. Uncompleted infants and mother medical records were excluded from this study. Of 64 VLBW infants enrolled into the study of which 54.7%  of this subjects was male, median of weight was 1300 g, mean gestational of age was 30.9 (SD 2.28 weeks, and mean lenght of stay was 30.9 (SD 19.7 days. The survival of VLBW infants in this study was 62.5%,  mortality in the early neonatal period was 70,8%. The percentage of VLBW infants who survive was still low and the major causes mortality were HMD (50% and sepsis (41.6%. The mortality of VLBW happened mostly in early neonatal periode.

  9. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  10. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  11. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  12. fNIRS: An emergent method to document functional cortical activity during infant movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota eNishiyori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis underlying the emergence of goal-directed actions in infants has been severely understudied, with minimal empirical evidence for hypotheses proposed. This was largely due to the technological constraints of traditional neuroimaging techniques. Recently, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS technology has emerged as a tool developmental scientists are finding useful to examine cortical activity, particularly in young children and infants due to its greater tolerance to movements than other neuroimaging techniques. fNIRS provides an opportunity to finally begin to examine the neural underpinnings as infants develop goal-directed actions.In this methodological paper, I will outline the utility, challenges, and outcomes of using fNIRS to measure the changes in cortical activity as infants reach for an object. I will describe the advantages and limitations of the technology, the setup I used to study primary motor cortex activity during infant reaching, and example steps in the analyses processes. I will present exemplar data to illustrate the feasibility of this technique to quantify changes in hemodynamic activity as infants move. The viability of this research method opens the door to expanding studies of the development of neural activity related to goal-directed actions in infants. I encourage others to share details of techniques used, as well, including analyticals, to help this neuroimaging technology grow as others, such as EEG and fMRI have.

  13. Current concepts in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Y L; Paige, D M

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional needs vary during the first year of life according to the infant's individualized pattern of growth and amount of physical activity. After delivery, the infant must make many physiologic adjustments, develop immunologic defenses, and take in adequate nutrients for survival. The type and consistency of foods change as the gastrointestinal system matures and becomes able to metabolize the components and excrete the needed metabolites of increasingly complex foods. The recommended dietary allowance for infancy is based on the amount of nutrients provided to healthy infants in human milk during the first six months of life and on the consumption of formula and increasing amounts of solid food during the second six months. The introduction of solid foods should parallel the developmental changes that occur within the central nervous system throughout the first year; these provide a level of readiness for the infant to manage foods of various textures from full liquid to soft. Even though significant technologic advances have led to changes in the way infants can be fed, human milk is still the optimal choice. Most women can be encouraged to breast-feed regardless of their own nutritional status or dietary intake. Contraindications can be managed on an individual basis. If women do not elect to breast-feed, suitable commercial formulas are available. The important issue in feeding is that of providing a variety of appropriately prepared foods offered in a nonjudgmental atmosphere so that the foundation is laid for the development of good food habits.

  14. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  15. Clinical mimics of infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ann Marie O; Arnon, Stephen S

    2007-04-01

    Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998-2003 in an open-label study until its licensure in October 2003 as BabyBIG. Thereafter, Human Botulism Immune Globulin remained available nationwide as an approved orphan-drug product. To achieve prompt neutralization of circulating botulinum toxin, the decision to treat with Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been based on clinical criteria that include a consistent history and physical findings of bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness. After licensure, the charts of patients who did not have laboratory-confirmed infant botulism were reviewed to identify their actual diagnoses. The approximately 5% of 681 patients treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin who did not have infant botulism fell into 5 categories: spinal muscular atrophy, metabolic disorders, other infectious diseases, miscellaneous, and probable infant botulism lacking laboratory confirmation.

  16. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  17. Onycholysis due to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Female patient, 35 years old who came to the private office due to discoloration of her left thumbnail and little pain since 1 month ago. Clinical examination shows nail disease on her left thumbnail with onycholysis and dyschromia, dermatoscopy showed white-yellowish discoloration (Fig. 1A, B. The rest of the clinical examination was normal. Patient use to using acrylic nails since 2 years ago and denied some trauma at the nail. The diagnosis of onycholysis due to trauma was done and recommended her not to use acrylic nail, maintain the nail short and avoid wetness.

  18. A new holder and surface MRI coil for the examination of the newborn infant hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, R; Casser, H R; Requardt, H; Botschek, A

    1993-01-01

    A special holder was developed for examination of the infant hip joint using MRI. This holder allows the infant hip joint to be examined both in a neutral position and in various defined functional positions. A special integrated surface coil, also developed for this purpose, provides the high spatial resolution required for assessment of the fine joint structures. Thirty infants were examined and the new device has proved useful in advanced hip dysplasia, therapy-resistant subluxation and luxation, and for operative therapy planning (reconstruction of the acetabular roof, redirectional osteotomies). Interpretation errors due to misprojection can be eliminated to a large extent since the holder allows standardized and reproducible positioning.

  19. Airway obstruction after lingual frenulectomy in two infants with Pierre-Robin Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genther, Dane J; Skinner, Margaret L; Bailey, Patti J; Capone, Randolph B; Byrne, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS) is defined as the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and affects approximately 1/8500 births. Airway obstruction is common in infants with PRS and results from glossoptosis leading to pharyngeal obstruction. Any procedure that increases the severity of glossoptosis, such as lingual frenulectomy, may increase the risk of obstruction or aggravate existing obstruction. This report discusses two cases of significant airway decompensation after lingual frenulectomy requiring surgical intervention in infants with PRS. We suggest that lingual frenulectomy be contraindicated in infants with PRS or suspected PRS due to the possible increased risk of airway obstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cord Serum Lipid Profile of Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Almusawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM is a critical issue in pediatrics, which is regarded as a major risk factor for birth trauma, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, birth asphyxia, transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN and jaundice. IDM is also a risk factor for microvascular (e.g., ocular and renal complications and macrovascular complications (e.g., cerebrovascular accident, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of hydrophobic organic molecules which can be extracted from tissues using non-polar solvents. Lipids, due to their hydrophobic property, are mainly found in membranes enclosing various cell organelles. Diabetes mellitus management with insulin (nowadays also with oral hypoglycemic medications has improved the outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM (most infants born to diabetic mother are large for gestational age. The neonatal mortality rate in IDM is over five times higher than that of infants of non-diabetic mothers. In this study, therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of maternal diabetes on cord serum lipid profile. Methods: This prospective (case-control study was carried out on 60 infants born in Al-Zahra teaching hospital during February 2014–October 2014. The study group consisted of 30 randomly chosen IDM, and the control group comprised 30 infants who were born to healthy mothers. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there are significant differences between IDM and infants of healthy mothers regarding lipid profile and birth weight. Conclusion: This study confirms that cord serum lipid profile (serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein is higher at birth in IDM. Moreover, this study shows a significant association between lipid profile and body weight.

  1. The clinical pharmacology of vancomycin in seriously ill preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; Kliegman, R M; Weiner, J S; Huang, M; Yamashita, T S; Blumer, J L

    1987-09-01

    The first dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were studied in 16 seriously ill preterm infants (less than or equal to 34 wk gestational age) with documented Staphylococcus epidermidis infections. One infant was dropped from the study due to peripheral flushing occurring during administration of the first dose. Individual vancomycin doses ranged from 9.8 to 17.8 mg/kg and were infused intravenously over 15-37 min. Fifteen infants were studied after the first dose of vancomycin, whereas only 12 of these 15 were able to be studied under steady state conditions. Vancomycin half-life, steady-state volume of distribution, and body clearance averaged 6.0 h, 0.53 liter/kg, and 1.22 ml/min after the first dose and only slight differences were observed in these parameter estimates under steady state conditions. However, substantial accumulation of vancomycin in serum was observed with multiple dosing. Complete 8-h urine collections were possible in 12 of 15 premature infants after the first dose of vancomycin. Overall, 44.6% of the dose was recovered in the urine with a corresponding vancomycin renal ClR averaging 0.88 ml/min. Vancomycin body Cl correlated directly with renal ClR (r = 0.88, p less than 0.001) and body weight (r = 0.8, p less than 0.001). Vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameter estimates Vdss and Cl correlated directly with body weight, surface area, and postconceptional age. No significant relationships were observed between these parameter estimates and gestational age or postnatal age. Fourteen of 15 infants were treated successfully for their underlying infectious process. These data support the use of lower doses of vancomycin than previously recommended for the treatment of preterm infants.

  2. A Innovative Technique - Modified Feeding Bottle for a Cleft Palate Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vinuta Siddayya; Lingegowda, Ashwini Budunur; Rayannavar, Sounyala; Kumari, Nirmala

    2016-04-01

    Cleft lip and cleft palate are one of the most common craniofacial anomalies. Infants suffer a lot of difficulty in sucking during the initial few days after birth. There is even psychological stress to the parents due to improper feeding and the infants lose weight and are prone to nutritional insufficiency. Due to recent advancement in the medical field, there is a total repair of cleft lip and cleft palate and these procedures are performed in the later stages of infants. It is the multidisciplinary approach which includes pedodontist, oral surgeon, prosthodontist and speech therapist. In this article, the technique is highlighted to fulfill the feeding problem of infants in the early stages of birth with a modified feeding bottle.

  3. Successful management of oral ranula: a rare case in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais Pintos; Pinheiro, Raquel Santos; Braga, David Nascimento; Monteiro, Leonardo Pinto; Castro, Gloria Fernando de Aaujo

    2013-01-01

    An oral ranula is a retention cyst that arises from the sublingual gland as a result of ductal obstruction and fluid retention. This report describes the successful management of a rare case of oral ranula in an infant. A 4-month-old male infant was referred for emergency treatment due to a 2-month history of a swelling in the right sublingual region. The examination revealed a lesion of approximately 3.5 cm in diameter, which was jeopardizing the infant's breastfeeding. The lesion's dimensions suggested a ranula. Surgical specimens were sent for histopathological analysis to confirm the diagnosis. Although there are many different ways to treat an oral ranula, the marsupialization method was followed in this case due to the serious consequences of the infant's restricted access to nourishment. The treatment proved to be successful and after 18 months of follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence.

  4. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  5. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  6. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000805.htm How to Save Money on Infant Formula To use the sharing features ... several months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . Money-Saving Ideas Here are ...

  7. Infants prefer to imitate a reliable person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Brooker, Ivy; Polonia, Alexandra

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that preschoolers prefer to learn from individuals who are a reliable source of information. The current study examined whether the past reliability of a person's emotional signals influences infants' willingness to imitate that person. An emotional referencing task was first administered to infants in order to demonstrate the experimenter's credibility or lack thereof. Next, infants in both conditions watched as the same experimenter turned on a touch light using her forehead. Infants were then given the opportunity to reproduce this novel action. As expected, infants in the unreliable condition developed the expectation that the person's emotional cues were misleading. Thus, these infants were subsequently more likely to use their hands than their foreheads when attempting to turn on the light. In contrast, infants in the reliable group were more likely to imitate the experimenter's action using their foreheads. These results suggest that the reliability of the model influences infants' imitation.

  8. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  9. Lymphatic imaging in unsedated infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Balaguru, Duraisamy; Douglas, William I.; Breinholt, John P.; Greives, Matthew R.; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Primary lymphedema and lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the underlying anatomy and function of the lymphatic system. Diagnostics for the lymphatic vasculature are limited, consisting of lymphoscintigraphy or invasive lymphangiography, both of which require sedation that can restrict use in infants and children. As a result, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients with lymphatic disorders remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. Because near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables image acquisition on the order of tenths of seconds with trace administration of fluorescent dye, sedation is not necessary. The lack of harmful radiation and radioactive contrast agents further facilitates imaging. Herein we summarize our experiences in imaging infants and children who are suspected to have disorders of the lymphatic vascular system using indocyanine green (ICG) and who have developed chylothorax following surgery for congenital heart defects. The results show both anatomical as well as functional lymphatic deficits in children with congenital disease. In the future, NIRF lymphatic imaging could provide new opportunities to tailor effective therapies and monitor responses. The opportunity to use expand NIRF imaging for pediatric diagnostics beyond the lymphatic vasculature is also afforded by the rapid acquisition following trace administration of NIRF contrast agent.

  10. Dummies and the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E A; Taylor, B J; Ford, R P; Stewart, A W; Becroft, D M; Thompson, J M; Scragg, R; Hassall, I B; Barry, D M; Allen, E M

    1993-01-01

    The association between dummy use and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) was investigated in 485 deaths due to SIDS in the postneonatal age group and compared with 1800 control infants. Parental interviews were completed in 87% of subjects. The prevalence of dummy use in New Zealand is low and varies within New Zealand. Dummy use in the two week period before death was less in cases of SIDS than in the last two weeks for controls (odds ratio (OR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.02). Use of a dummy in the last sleep for cases of SIDS or in the nominated sleep for controls was significantly less in cases than controls (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73). The OR changed very little after controlling for a wide range of potential confounders. It is concluded that dummy use may protect against SIDS, but this observation needs to be repeated before dummies can be recommended for this purpose. If dummy sucking is protective then it is one of several factors that may explain the higher mortality from SIDS in New Zealand than in other countries, and may also explain in part the regional variation within New Zealand. PMID:8503676

  11. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly car...

  12. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  13. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study....... Participants filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through...

  14. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...... filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through the use...

  15. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many attempts have been made to mimic the intestinal flora of breast fed infants in formula fed infants. Bothprebioticsandprobioticsbased concepts have been developed to beneficially change the intestinalmicrofloraand thus induce positive health effects. We conducted two infant nutritio...

  16. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, M

    1998-11-01

    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  17. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  18. The Role of Infant Pain Behaviour in Predicting Parent Pain Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pillai Riddell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research investigating how observers empathize or form estimations of an individual experiencing pain suggests that both characteristics of the observer (‘top down’ and characteristics of the individual in pain (‘bottom up’ are influential. However, experts have opined that infant behaviour should serve as a crucial determinant of infant pain judgment due to their inability to self-report.

  19. Motor development and sensory processing: A comparative study between preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; Pereira da Silva, Louise Gracelli; Tudella, Eloisa; Simões Martinez, Cláudia Maria

    2014-10-16

    Infants born preterm and/or with low birth weight may present a clinical condition of organic instability and usually face a long period of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units, being exposed to biopsychosocial risk factors to their development due to decreased spontaneous movement and excessive sensory stimuli. This study assumes that there are relationships between the integration of sensory information of preterm infants, motor development and their subsequent effects.

  20. General Movements in preterm infants undergoing craniosacral therapy: a randomised controlled pilot-trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raith, Wolfgang; Marschik, Peter B.; Sommer, Constanze; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Amhofer, Claudia; Avian, Alexander; Löwenstein, Elisabeth; Soral, Susanne; Müller, Wilhelm; Einspieler, Christa; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate neurological short-term effects of craniosacral therapy as an ideal form of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) due to the soft kinaesthetic stimulation. Methods Included were 30 preterm infants, with a gestational age between 25 and 33 weeks, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the University Hospital of Graz, Austria. The infants were randomized either into the intervention group (IG) which received standard...

  1. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  2. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  3. Hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P; Tan, K K

    1994-02-01

    A three day old male, term infant with hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn was treated successfully with vitamin K and thoracocentesis. Exclusive breast feeding and absence of vitamin K prophylaxis were important diagnostic clues, although hemothorax as a sole manifestation of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is rare. This case highlighted the good prognosis of an uncommon complication when prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are instituted. The importance of vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns is emphasized.

  4. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  5. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

  6. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  7. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  8. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  9. Segmental Production in Mandarin-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D.

    2010-01-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded…

  10. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  11. Investigating human infant anthropomorphism in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we set out to investigate the nature and effects of infant anthropomorphism in products, i.e. products that share features of human infants. Across four studies, evidence suggests that infant anthropomorphism comprise four dimensions: sweetness, simplicity, sympathy, and smallness. We

  12. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  13. Risk of Asthma in Late Preterm Infants: A Propensity Score Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, Gretchen A; Katusic, Slavica K; Qin, Rui; Juhn, Young J

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of asthma, specifically in former late preterm infants, has not been well defined. Covariate imbalance and lack of controlling for this has led to inconsistent results in prior studies. Objective Determine the risk of asthma in former late preterm infants using a propensity score approach. Methods The study was a population-based birth cohort study. Study subjects were all children born in Rochester, Minnesota, between 1976 and 1982. Asthma status during the first seven years of life was assessed by applying predetermined criteria. The propensity score was formulated using 15 covariates by fitting a logistic regression model for late preterm birth versus term birth. We applied the propensity score method to match late preterm infants (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation) to term infants (37 0/7 to 40 6/7 weeks gestation) within a caliper of 0.2 standard deviation of logit of propensity score. Results Of the eligible 7,040 infants, 5,915 children had complete data. Before propensity score matching, late preterm infants had a higher risk of asthma (20 of 262, 7.6%) compared to full-term infants (272 of 5,653, 4.8%)(p=0.039). There was significant covariate imbalance between comparison groups. After matching with propensity scores, we found that former late preterm infants had a similar risk of asthma to the matched full-term infants (6.6% vs. 7.7%, respectively, p=0.61), and the result were consistent with covariate-adjustment, Cox regression models controlling for significant covariates (p=0.57). Conclusion A late preterm birth history is not independently associated with childhood asthma, as the reported risk of asthma among former late preterm infants appears to be due to covariate imbalance. PMID:25944734

  14. Relationship between the nutritional status of breastfeeding Mayan mothers and their infants in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frojo, Gianfranco A; Rogers, Nathaniel G; Mazariegos, Manolo; Keenan, John; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between maternal height and infant length-for-age, and to evaluate how this association is modified by either maternal or infant nutritional status. We hypothesised that maternal excess caloric intake [measured as body mass index (BMI)] would increase the association, while infant nutrition (measured in main meals consumed in addition to breastfeeding) will diminish the effect. Mother and infant pairs in Chimaltenango, Guatemala, were measured for anthropometric values and nutritional status, and mothers were interviewed to elicit nutritional and socio-economic information. Infant length was converted into z-scores based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Odds ratios (ORs), associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) were calculated. Cases were infants below 2 z-scores of the WHO's length-for-age, while controls were infants within the -2 to 2 z-score range. Cases (n = 84) had an increased odds (OR: 3.00, 95% CI: 1.57-5.74) of being born to a stunted mother (below 145 cm) when compared with controls (n = 85). When adjusted for potential confounders, the OR decreased to 2.55 (95% CI: 1.30-5.02). Negative RERI values were produced for the joint exposure of maternal BMI ≥ 25 and maternal stuntedness (RERI: -0.96), as well as for the joint exposure of maternal stuntedness and infant nutrition (RERI: -2.27). Our results confirm that maternal stuntedness is a significant contributor to infant stuntedness; however, this association is modified negligibly by maternal nutritional status and significantly by infant nutritional status, each in a protective manner.

  15. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  17. Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, A; Angen, O; Lisby, M;

    2008-01-01

    was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food...

  18. Infant and child mortality: the implications for fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, L T; Kane, P

    1988-01-01

    In developing countries, infant and child mortality affect fertility through biological or involuntary mechanisms operating through shortened breastfeeding, and more rapid return of ovulation following upon an infant death. Fertility is also affected through volitional responses of couples to perceived mortality levels in the community (insurance effect) or experience of earlier child loss (replacement effect) as well as through societal responses to high probability of child loss. In return, fertility affects infant and child mortality through birth to very young mothers, due to physiological immaturity of teenaged mothers and low birth-weight, as well as through birth to old mothers in high birth orders, due to maternal depletion syndrome. Trussel and Pebley estimated that the elimination of 4th and higher order births, along with the limitation of reproduction within the age of 20 to 34 years old, would reduce infant mortality by about 12%. A large number of studies show strong evidence that the timing and spacing of birth have a significant impact on both maternal and child health. According to Maine and McNamara (1985), who analysed data from 25 developing countries, if all children were born 2 years apart, 1/5 of infant deaths could be avoided. Mother's ill-health, maternal mortality, mother's malnutrition and its consequences in low quality breast milk and short breastfeeding, reduce sharply the new child's chances of survival. Many of these adverse biological and physiological conditions for childbearing can be compensated for by the provision of health care of high quality, including family planning, as well as education and good nutritional status of the mother and her children. Unfortunately, in many societies and for large segments of the population, such conditions are still a dream.

  19. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  20. Infant mortality and infant feeding in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, M E; Marchante, R F; Kramer, M

    1942-03-01

    Data on infant mortality and infant feeding in Puerto Rico were examined. The material studied was the infant and preschool records found in the active and pending files of the public health units. The information tabulated was that of the status of the child at the time of 1st admission to Health Department service, before any specific benefit could have been obtained from that service. A total of 1189 records was tabulated from 3 municipalities: 171 from Ciales; 360 from Guayama; and 658 from Rio Piedras. Results of the 2 sexes were combined. Breastfed means that the sole source of milk was breast. The proportion breastfed declined with advancing age of child. There was a striking difference between Ciales, an area of relatively low infant mortality, and the other 2 municipalities. The proportion breastfed in Ciales was definitely higher than in the other 2 communities in the 2-3 months group. The difference was even greater in the 4-5 months group. The total records from Ciales were only 171, but the differences were statistically significant. Rio Piedras was consistently the lowest in every age group. In the youngest age group of the children there was a decreasing proportion breastfed with the advancing age of the mother. This finding was statistically significant. In the group of children 6 months and older, it appeared that the older mothers had the highest proportion of breastfed children. In this group, the difference according to mother's age only approached significance. In regard to rural-urban differences, there was clearly little difference in the early months of life, but in the older age groups the proportion breastfed was higher for inhabitants of rural areas. These differences were significant and suggest that rural mothers tend to nurse their infants longer. There was no evidence that the rates for older infants in the rural areas were weighted with older mothers tending to have th e highest proportion of infants breastfed at age of 6 months and

  1. Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Flenady, Vicki

    2011-08-10

    Preterm infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. To assess effects of cot-nursing versus incubator care on temperature control and weight gain in preterm infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, as well as previous reviews including cross references through November 2009. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. Eleven potential studies were identified of which five, involving 247 infants, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in no significant difference in mean body temperature (MD 0.02 degrees C; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, four trials), though the one trial that reported on episodes of hyperthermia found this to be statistically more common in the cot-nursing group (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09). There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain. In the cot-nursing group, fewer infants were breast fed on discharge (typical RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.14, three trials, 150 infants) and fewer infants died prior to hospital discharge (typical RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.25, four trials, 235 infants) but these results failed to reach statistical significance. The comparison of cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress

  2. Análise da compliância e gradiente timpanométrico em lactentes com refluxo Analysis of compliance and tympanometric gradient in infants with reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Dias Camboim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar o gradiente timpanométrico e a compliância obtida nas sondas de 226 Hz e 1 kHz entre os grupos de lactentes com e sem refluxo gastroesofágico. MÉTODOS: Cento e dezoito lactentes a termo e pré-termo, de recém-nascidos a 6 meses de idade - 63 com diagnóstico clínico de refluxo gastroesofágico fisiológico realizado por pediatras ou gastropediatras e 55 sem refluxo -, foram submetidos a timpanometria com sondas de 226 Hz e 1 kHz. RESULTADOS: Foram observados maiores valores de compliância com sonda de 1 kHz em ambos os grupos. Ao se comparar a média de compliância entre os grupos, observou-se que o grupo sem refluxo apresentou maiores valores. A média dos valores do gradiente timpanométrico foi maior no grupo sem refluxo, quando comparada ao grupo com refluxo. CONCLUSÃO: A sonda de 1 kHz apresenta maior compliância em lactentes com e sem refluxo, em relação à sonda de 226 Hz. Lactentes com refluxo apresentam compliância dentro dos padrões de normalidade, porém apresentando menor compliância quando comparados com lactentes sem refluxo. Com relação ao gradiente, lactentes com refluxo apresentam valores alterados e/ou dentro dos padrões limítrofes da normalidade, em ambas as orelhas.PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the tympanometric gradient and the compliance obtained in probe tones of 226 and 1 kHz between groups of infants with and without gastroesophageal reflux (GER. METHODS: Participants were 118 full-term and preterm infants, from newborns to 6-month-olds - 63 with clinical diagnosis of physiological GER performed by pediatricians or gastroenterologists, and 55 without GER -, who were submitted to tympanometry with probe tones of 226 and 1 kHz. RESULTS: Higher compliance values were found with 1 kHz in both groups. Comparing the average compliance between groups, we observed that the group without reflux showed higher values. The mean value of the tympanometric gradient was higher in the

  3. Clinical analysis of infant respiratory infection combined with acute otitis media%婴儿呼吸道感染并发急性中耳炎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾西燕; 林秀珍; 刘彦民; 张慧娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related factors of infant respiratory infection combined with acute otitis media.Methods Five hundred and fifty-six cases of respiratory infection infants (including acute upper respiratory infection,bronchitis,pneumonia)admitted from March 2010 to March 2012 in Puyang maternal and child health-care hospital were randomly selected,they were divided into four time periods (0-3 month old,3-6 month old,6-9 month old,9-12 month old) according to the age,and divided into two time periods (less than three days,more than three days) according to the infection time,and then the situation of actue otitis media in infants was analyzed.Results Among the acute upper respiratory tract infection,acute bronchitis and pneumonia,the incidence of acute otitis media in infants had no significant difference (X2 =0.23,P =0.89).Actue otitis media incidence were negatively correlated with age (r =-0.99).With the infection time extension,the incidence of acute otitis media increased significantly(X2 =15.74,P < 0.01),the application of anti-infective drugs in infants with acute otitis media had significantly reduced (X2 =14.02,P < 0.01).Conclusions Respiratory infection combined with acute otitis media in infants is irrelevant to the site of infection,but it' s relevant to the age and infection time,application of anti-infective drugs can reduce the incidence of acute otitis media.%目的 分析婴儿呼吸道感染并发急性中耳炎的相关因素.方法 随机选取2010年3月至2012年3月濮阳市妇幼保健院收治的呼吸道感染(包括急性上呼吸道感染、急性支气管炎、肺炎)患儿556例,按患儿年龄将其分为4个时间段(0~3个月、3~6个月、6~9个月、9~12个月),按感染时间分为2个时间段(3d以内、3d以上),针对并发急性中耳炎情况进行分析.结果 在急性上呼吸道感染、急性支气管炎、肺炎患儿中,急性中耳炎发生率比较差异无统计学意义(X2=0.23,P=0.89);急

  4. Vitamin D deficiency presenting with cardiogenic shock in an infant

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    Manish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old child was referred as a case of dilated cardiomyopathy with cardiogenic shock. On evaluation, hypocalcemia secondary to severe vitamin D deficiency was found. There were no clinical or radiological features of rickets. The child had developed multiorgan failure due to cardiogenic shock at the time of admission and could not be saved despite adequate ventilatory and pharmacologic support. Hypocalcemia should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy in infants.

  5. Chondrosternal Arthritis in Infant: An Unusual Entity

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    Athina Nikolarakou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary arthritis of chondrosternal joint is very rare and occurs in infants less than 18 months of age. Presentation is most often subacute but may be acute. Child presents with a parasternal mass with history of fever and/or local signs of infection. Clinical symptoms vary from a painless noninflammatory to a painful mass with local tenderness and swelling, while fever may be absent. Laboratory data show low or marginally raised levels of white blood cells and C-reactive protein, reflecting, respectively, the subacute or acute character of the infection. It is a self-limiting affection due to the adequate immune response of the patient. Evolution is generally good without antibiotherapy with a progressive spontaneous healing. A wait-and-see approach with close follow-up in the first weeks is the best therapeutic option.

  6. An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli 0142 H6 in a neonatal department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A.; Gerards, L.J.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Dijk, W.C.V.; Roord, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli 0142 H6 in a neonatal ward is described. The epidemic affected 16 of 24 infants (infection-rate 66 per cent), of whom one died due to necrotizing enterocolitis. Administration of antibiotics was of limited value in treatment or in eradicating E.

  7. An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli 0142 H6 in a neonatal department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A.; Gerards, L.J.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Dijk, W.C.V.; Roord, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli 0142 H6 in a neonatal ward is described. The epidemic affected 16 of 24 infants (infection-rate 66 per cent), of whom one died due to necrotizing enterocolitis. Administration of antibiotics was of limited value in treatment or in eradicating E.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

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    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  9. A pseudoisochromatic test of color vision for human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Michele E; Drodge, Suzanne C; Courage, Mary L; Adams, Russell J

    2014-07-01

    Despite the development of experimental methods capable of measuring early human color vision, we still lack a procedure comparable to those used to diagnose the well-identified congenital and acquired color vision anomalies in older children, adults, and clinical patients. In this study, we modified a pseudoisochromatic test to make it more suitable for young infants. Using a forced choice preferential looking procedure, 216 3-to-23-mo-old babies were tested with pseudoisochromatic targets that fell on either a red/green or a blue/yellow dichromatic confusion axis. For comparison, 220 color-normal adults and 22 color-deficient adults were also tested. Results showed that all babies and adults passed the blue/yellow target but many of the younger infants failed the red/green target, likely due to the interaction of the lingering immaturities within the visual system and the small CIE vector distance within the red/green plate. However, older (17-23 mo) infants, color- normal adults and color-defective adults all performed according to expectation. Interestingly, performance on the red/green plate was better among female infants, well exceeding the expected rate of genetic dimorphism between genders. Overall, with some further modification, the test serves as a promising tool for the detection of early color vision anomalies in early human life.

  10. EVALUATION OF STRIDOR AND ABNORMAL CRY IN INFANTS

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    Sridhar Reddy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Turbulent flow due to partial obstruction of the airway gives rise to abnormal or unwanted noise. Noise originating in the larynx or trachea is typically high-pitched and termed ‘stridor’. Laryngomalacia is the most common congenital cause of stridor in infants. In this study, we have analysed the cases of stridor and abnormal cry in infants that have presented to our institute over a span of one year. AIM To identify the causes of stridor and abnormal cry in infants presenting to our institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study of 50 cases of stridor and abnormal cry in infants that presented at a Tertiary Care ENT Hospital in South India from Jan 2015 to Dec 2015. Children below the age of 12 months that presented to our department with stridor and abnormal cry were included in our study. RESULTS The cases were evaluated in terms of Age, Sex ratio, Aetiology and Presenting features and statistically analysed. CONCLUSION The sheer volume of paediatric cases presenting with airway problems and other disease entities necessitates the need for establishment of a dedicated Paediatric ENT wing in every Tertiary Care Hospital.

  11. Invulnerable High Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, David R.; And Others

    In an effort to look at factors moderating the negative effects of preterm low birthweight and perinatal illness, the study followed up (at 7 and 12 months of age) 50 preterm infants whose cumulative morbidity score was greater than 100 and/or who had a life threatening complication. Home visits provided ratings of maternal sensitivity, the…

  12. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  13. Asymmetry and infants born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, J.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis was to contribute to the diagnostic process and clinical decision making by pediatric physiotherapists in very young infants with an atypical motor performance, influenced by both an asymmetric development, and a development according to a preterm birth. In Part I, the

  14. Noise Exclusion Ability in Infants

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    Geroldene Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important perceptual ability is to filter out background distractions from relevant information. However, prior research has not identified when this begins in humans. Our study aims to investigate whether noise exclusion ability occurs in infancy. Infants' contrast sensitivity function (CSF was measured by a Baynesian adaptive inference method. Infants' attention was directed to the middle of a monitor where an 8.72 degree static Gabor grating was presented on the left or right side of the monitor. In half the trials, the grating was presented against a gray background; in the other half, against a 16% contrast random-dot noise background. The experimenter and two independent coders judged which side the infants gazed at (force-choice preferential looking paradigm. One-hundred babies aged from 4 to 10 months satisfied the 70% interrater consistency criterion for inclusion. Four parameters defined the best-fitted CSF for each infant. Of these, peak spatial frequency, bandwidth and truncation of CSF were similar in conditions with and without noise. The peak gain estimate was most significantly impaired by external noise, but a marked 31% improvement was observed in 7- to 10-month-olds. This may be the first sign of development of human's noise exclusion ability, and is worth further study.

  15. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a cure, education, awareness, and mutual support. Nurses who work in neonatal intensive care units and nursery departments have experience caring for very small and fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their ...

  16. Safety of sildenafil in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; P.B. Smith; J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the i

  17. America's Infant-Mortality Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstadt, Nicholas

    1991-01-01

    Conventional explanations attributing the high infant mortality rate in United States to the prevalence of poverty and lack of adequate health care do not tell the whole story. Contributions of parental behavior, lifestyles, and public health care availability versus utilization must be examined in determining public policies to address the…

  18. Infant Mortality: The Shared Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagarty, Margaret C.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the causes for and implications of infant mortality. Besides the more immediate causes such as disease, nutrition, and lifestyle, there are the additional hurdles of government bureaucracy, lack of funds, and institutional attitudes that block access to prenatal care. Suggests structural solutions, including a consistent, individual,…

  19. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  20. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)