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Sample records for 6-month exclusive breastfeeding

  1. Patterns of Daily Duration and Frequency of Breastfeeding among Exclusively Breastfed Infants in Shiraz, Iran, A 6-Month Follow-up Study Using Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite numerous studies on the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half year of life, little information is available on actual breastfeeding practices in terms of daily duration and frequency of suckling. This study proposes to determine daily breastfeeding patterns among exclusively breastfed infants from birth to six months. Subject and Methods: An observational prospective follow-up study of daily feeding practices among exclusively breastfed infants was co...

  2. Following the World Health Organization’s Recommendation of Exclusive Breastfeeding to 6 Months of Age Does Not Impact the Growth of Rural Gambian Infants123

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Johnson, William; Sonko, Bakary; Prentice, Andrew M; Darboe, Momodou K; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 mo of life. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the benefit of EBF to age 6 mo on growth in a large sample of rural Gambian infants at high risk of undernutrition. Methods: Infants with growth monitoring from birth to 2 y of age (n = 756) from the ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development) trial were categorized as exclusively breastfed if only breast milk and no other liquids or foods were given. EBF status was entered into confounder-adjusted multilevel models to test associations with growth trajectories by using >11,000 weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) z score observations. Results: Thirty-two percent of infants were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo. The mean age of discontinuation of EBF was 5.2 mo, and growth faltering started at ∼3.5 mo of age. Some evidence for a difference in WAZ and WHZ was found between infants who were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo (EBF-6) and those who were not (nEBF-6), at 6 and 12 mo of age, with EBF-6 children having a higher mean z score. The differences in z scores between the 2 groups were small in magnitude (at 6 mo of age: 0.147 WAZ; 95% CI: −0.001, 0.293 WAZ; 0.189 WHZ; 95% CI: 0.038, 0.341 WHZ). No evidence for a difference between EBF-6 and nEBF-6 infants was observed for LAZ at any time point (6, 12, and 24 mo of age). Furthermore, a higher mean WLZ at 3 mo of age was associated with a subsequent higher mean age at discontinuation of EBF, which implied reverse causality in this setting (coefficient: 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008, 0.120). Conclusion: This study suggests that EBF to age 6 mo has limited benefit to the growth of rural Gambian infants. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN49285450. PMID:28003540

  3. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  4. Association of child care providers breastfeeding support with breastfeeding duration at 6 months.

    Batan, Marilyn; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley

    2013-05-01

    Many lactating mothers participate in the workforce and have their infants cared for outside of their home, yet little is known about their child care providers' (CCPs') support of breastfeeding. This study examines the association between CCPs' breastfeeding support as reported by mothers at 3 months and mother's breastfeeding at 6 months. Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a longitudinal study, followed mothers of infants via mail questionnaires almost monthly from late pregnancy throughout the first year. This study consisted of 183 mothers who breastfed and had their infant in child care at 3 months and answered 5 questions regarding CCPs' supports. Total number of CCPs' support was a summary of responses to individual items and categorized into 3 levels (0-2, 3-4, or 5 total supports). Multiple logistic regressions examined how each breastfeeding support and total number were associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly associated with CCP support to feed expressed breast milk (AOR = 4.55; 95% CI = 1.09, 18.95) and allow mothers to breastfeed at the child care place before or after work (AOR = 6.23; 95% CI = 1.33, 29.16). Compared to mothers who reported fewer than 3 total supports, mothers who reported 5 supports were 3 times as likely to be breastfeeding at 6 months (AOR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.11, 8.13). Our findings suggest that CCPs' breastfeeding support at 3 months, particularly feeding expressed breast milk and allowing mothers to breastfeed before or after work, may help mothers maintain breastfeeding at 6 months.

  5. Do Maternal Quality of Life and Breastfeeding Difficulties Influence the Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding?

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at s...

  6. Role of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Preventing Diarrhea

    Hanifah Rohmah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk has protective factors for infants’ digestive tract. Infants are vulnerable to diseases, one of which is diarrhea. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and the administration of exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Methods: This study was an observational study. Data on mothers with 6 months old infants were collected from Jatinangor Primary Health Center (PHC infant records. The inclusion criteria applied were infants born in April 2012, alive, and living in Jatinangor subdistrict. One hundred and seventy one infants were recorded in April of 2012 in the PHC data. Thirty five were excluded because they were not born in April 2012. Another 45 were excluded because they were not permanent residents of Jatinangor subdistrict, while 4 infants died, and 23 had incomplete data. Therefore, only 66 infants were included as study subjects. Those infants came from 12 villages in the subdistrict of Jatinangor. Data collection was then performed using a questionnaire to the parents during the period of 21–31 October 2012. Results: From 66 infants, the proportion of diarrhea was 66.7%. Only 27.3% of all infants received exclusive breastfeeding. There was a difference in the proportion of diarrhea between infants who were exclusively breastfed and those who were not. Exclusive breastfeeding also reduced the risk of diarrhea (OR= 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83. Conclusions: There is a relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Breastfeeding has a protective effect against diarrhea in infants.

  7. Do maternal quality of life and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding?

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at six months. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 and 4 months postpartum had better QOL in late pregnancy than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in QOL scores at 6 months postpartum. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 months postpartum experienced less breastfeeding difficultties during one month postpartum than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In attempts to promote EBF, mothers with poor QOL or breastfeeding difficulties in early postpartum should be identified and helped.

  8. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  9. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding

    Cai Xiaodong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Proportion of infants 0–5 months who are fed exclusively with breast milk is a common indicator used for monitoring and evaluating infant and young child feeding in a given country and region. Despite progress made since 1990, a previous review in 2006 of global and regional trends found improvement to be modest. The current study provides an update in global and regional trends in exclusive breastfeeding from 1995 to 2010, taking advantage of the wealth of data from recent household surveys. Methods Using the global database of infant and young child feeding maintained by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the authors examined estimates from 440 household surveys in 140 countries over the period between 1995 and 2010 and calculated global and regional averages of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0–5 months for the two time points to assess the trends. Results Trend data suggest the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than six months in developing countries increased from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010. The prevalence increased in almost all regions in the developing world, with the biggest improvement seen in West and Central Africa. Conclusions In spite of the well-recognized importance of exclusive breastfeeding, the practice is not widespread in the developing world and increase on the global level is still very modest with much room for improvement. Child nutrition programmes worldwide continue to require investments and commitments to improve infant feeding practices in order to have maximum impact on children’s lives.

  10. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  11. (Correlation between Family Social Economy Status and Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tanah Kali Kedinding Public Health Centre, Surabaya

    Suci Wulansari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The result of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010 showed that the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months were lower than the exclusive breastfeeding coverage target in Indonesia that is 80%. One of the factor that assumed can affect the continuity of exclusive breastfeeding is social economy condition. Methods: This study was a descriptive research with cross sectional design. Samples were taken from population who were mothers with 6-12 months old children within the area of Puskesmas Tanah Kali Kedinding on 2011. Closed quistionnaire was used to collect data and analyzed with Chi Square. The aim of the study was described the correlation between social economy factors and exclusive breastfeeding on babies. Result: Only a small portion of respondents that had good knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding. There was a significant correlation between good knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice. There was a significant correlation between vocational status of mother and knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding with exclusive breastfeeding practice. There was no significant correlation between education level and family income with exclusive breastfeeding practice. Conclusions: The scope of exclusive breastfeeding must be enhanced. Poor of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding and working mothers influence the low level of exclusive breastfeeding practice. Recomendation: Increasing knowledge of mothers and families about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding, preparation and technical, as well as how storage and giving stored breastfeeding to the baby. Working mothers should try to give the exclusive breastfeeding which it must be facilitated by the company.

  12. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  13. Do Maternal Quality of Life and Breastfeeding Difficulties Influence the Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding?

    Forough Mortazavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at six months. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 and 4 months postpartum had better QOL in late pregnancy than mothers who discontinued it (P<0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups in QOL scores at 6 months postpartum. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 months postpartum experienced less breastfeeding difficultties during one month postpartum than mothers who discontinued it (P<0.05. Conclusion. In attempts to promote EBF, mothers with poor QOL or breastfeeding difficulties in early postpartum should be identified and helped.

  14. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  15. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  16. Profiles of eight working mothers who practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Depok, Indonesia.

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Wibowo, Yulianti; Fahmida, Umi; Roshita, Airin

    2012-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding practice is generally low because of multifaceted factors internally within mothers themselves and also the surroundings. In addition, studies have consistently found that maternal employment outside the home is related to shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding. With all these challenges, it is interesting that there are some mothers who manage to exclusively breastfeed their infants. Therefore, this report aims at exploring the characteristics of working mothers who are able to practice exclusive breastfeeding. The original study population was non-working and working mothers who have infants around 1 to 6 months old. The study design is an observational study with a mixed methods approach using a quantitative study (survey) and qualitative methods (in-depth interview) in sequential order. In addition, in-depth interviews with family members, midwives, supervisors at work, and community health workers were also included to accomplish a holistic picture of the situation. The study concludes that self-efficacy and confidence of the breastfeeding mothers characterize the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Good knowledge that was acquired way before the mothers got pregnant suggests a predisposing factor to the current state of confidence. Home support from the father enhances the decision to sustain breastfeeding.

  17. Pattern of Breastfeeding in Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from birth to 6 months in Tehran - Iran

    Ramin Kermani

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The most important factor which affects ART infants' nutrition pattern is their birth weight. The beginning time of feeding affects their weight and length increase till 6 months. Based on reproductive techniques, breastfeeding was similar in different methods of ART.

  18. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Elizabeth Yohmi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the best and most ideal food for babiesbecause it contains all nutrition needed for their optimal growthand development. Babies who receive breast milk will have strongimmune system, good brain development, and closer emotionalbonding with their mothers. Considering the importance of breastmilk, Indonesian government has been campaigning to endorseexclusive breastfeeding up to six months in the last four years. Todate, there is no national data available to evaluate the exclusivebreastfeeding program. Therefore, Indonesian Pediatric Society(IDAI conducted a national survey on breastfeeding to investigateexclusive breastfeeding rate in Indonesia.Objective To find out the prevalence of exclusive breastfeedingin Indonesia.Methods This study included 22 provinces in Indonesia and targetedon mothers with infants aged 0-11 months. For the quantitativeportion of the study we used simple random sampling design to getthe prevalence from the population. For the qualitative interviewdata we used a stratified random sampling design to ensure thateach infant age group was well represented. Survey location in eachprovince was selected based on defining the capital city to be urbanarea and its sub-urban areas to be rural. This study was performedbetween October – November 2010.Results We found that the prevalences of breastfeeding amongbaby 0-11 months was quite high which were 91%, 86%, and72% in infants aged 0-3 months, 0-6 months, and 6-11 months,respectively. Interestingly, the prevalence of breastfeeding inurban area was higher than in rural area for infants aged 6-11months. However, despite the high prevalence of giving breastmilk, less than half of mothers gave breast milk exclusively, tobabies aged 0-3 months and to those aged 0-6 months. Theawareness to exclusively breastfeed was greater for urban mothersthan for rural ones in those with infants aged 0-6 months. Motherswith high socioeconomic status had the highest

  19. Education, contraceptive use in women and the chance of six months exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia

    Ummi Kalsum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang:Di Indonesia proporsi ibu-ibu yang melaksanakan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI eksklusif selama enam bulan masih rendah. Pada tulisan ini disajikan beberapa faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif 6 bulan. Metode: Analisis naskah ini memakai sebagian data Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia (SDKI 2012 di 33 provinsi di Indonesia berdasarkan desain stratified sampling. Pada analisis ini sub-sampel ialah wanita berumur 15-49 tahun yang mempunyai bayi lahir tunggal hidup berumur 6 bulan, mempunyai bayi hidup bersama ibunya, dan mempunyai data lengkap untuk keperluan analisis ini. Jumlah ibu yang mempunyai anak <2 tahun serta hidup bersama anaknya sebanyak 1040, dan 325 di antaranya yang mempunyai anak 6 bulan serta lengkap datanya.Hasil:Ibu-ibu yang memberi ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan sebanyak 3,7%. Pemakaian kontrasepsi serta pendidikan merupakan dua faktor dominan terhadap kemungkinan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Dibandingkan dengan ibu yang memakai kontrasepsi hormonal, ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi non hormonal serta yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi 7,3 kali lipat dan 9,1 kali lipat lebih tinggi memberikan ASI eksklusif [masing-masing risiko relatif (RRa = 7,25; P = 0,031; dan RRa = 9,08; P = 0,004]. Ditinjau dari segi pendidikan  ibu,  ibu  yang  yang  berpendidikan  rendah  dibandingkan  dengan  ibu  berpendidikan  tinggi/menengah 4.2 kali lipat memberikan ASI eksklusif (RRa = 4,19; P = 0,027.Kesimpulan:Ibu-ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif hingga 6 bulan lebih sering terdapat di antara ibu-ibu yang tidak memakai kontrasepsi serta yang berpendidikan rendah. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:17-22Kata kunci: ASI eksklusif, pendidikan ibu, kontrasepsi AbstractBackground: Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months among Indonesian women is very low. This paper aimed to assess several factors related to exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used part of the data from

  20. Individual peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    Nankunda, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breastfeeding remains a potent child survival strategy estimated to save up to 1.5 million infant deaths every year when optimally practiced. Despite breastfeeding being universal in most of sub-Saharan Africa, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced. Peer counselling for EBF, particularly in non-African settings, has been reported to lead to increased EBF levels. This thesis explores the experiences from the process of setting up a community-based ind...

  1. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: a qualitative and quantitative study

    Elizabeth Yohmi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the best and most ideal food for babies because it contains all nutrition needed for their optimal growth and development. Babies who receive breast milk will have strong immune system, good brain development, and closer emotional bonding with their mothers. Considering the importance of breast milk, Indonesian government has been campaigning to endorse exclusive breastfeeding up to six months in the last four years. To date, there is no national data available to evaluate the exclusive breastfeeding program. Therefore, Indonesian Pediatric Society (IDAI conducted a national survey on breastfeeding to investigate exclusive breastfeeding rate in Indonesia. Objective To find out the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Methods This study included 22 provinces in Indonesia and targeted on mothers with infants aged 0-11 months. For the quantitative portion of the study we used simple random sampling design to get the prevalence from the population. For the qualitative interview data we used a stratified random sampling design to ensure that each infant age group was well represented. Survey location in each province was selected based on defining the capital city to be urban area and its sub-urban areas to be rural. This study was performed between October – November 2010. Results We found that the prevalences of breastfeeding among baby 0-11 months was quite high which were 91%, 86%, and 72% in infants aged 0-3 months, 0-6 months, and 6-11 months, respectively. Interestingly, the prevalence of breastfeeding inurban area was higher than in rural area for infants aged 6-11 months. However, despite the high prevalence of giving breast milk, less than half of mothers gave breast milk exclusively, to babies aged 0-3 months and to those aged 0-6 months. The awareness to exclusively breastfeed was greater for urban mothers than for rural ones in those with infants aged 0-6 months. Mothers with high socioeconomic

  2. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live

  3. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to be cost effective in West Africa. A randomized intervention study from Guinea-Bissau

    Jakobsen, Marianne S; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2008-01-01

    cohort of 1721 infants were randomized to receive health education: promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life according to WHO recommendations at the time of the study. All children were followed from birth to 6 months of age. RESULTS: Introduction of both water and weaning...

  4. A randomized controlled trial of a professional breastfeeding support intervention to increase the exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding

    Fu, Chui-yuk, Idy; 傅翠玉

    2013-01-01

    Breastmilk is the most natural and complete nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding incurs numerous benefits for both infants and mothers. The World Health Organization recommends that mothers exclusively breastfeed their infants for six months and continue breastfeeding for up to two years of age and beyond. More than 80% of Hong Kong mothers now initiate breastfeeding. However, overall breastfeeding duration remains short and rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low. Premature weaning is i...

  5. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    Mateus Solarte, Julio César

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short.Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced.Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems.

  6. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    Julio Cesar Mateus Solarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and pro­tect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. 14.00 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  7. Prevalence and Demographics of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Turkish Women in Ankara

    Neslihan Erkuran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization during the first six months of life. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more for optimal growth, development and health while it is suggested to start supplementary foods beginning from seventh month. The study aimed to determine frequency and examine the affecting factors of EBF in infants who were admitted to a pediatric outpatient clinic in Ankara, Turkey.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six months period among 603 breastfeeding mothers, with infants aged 6–24 months, who attended to the well-baby clinic. Mothers’ perceptions about breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and demographic characteristics were collected by interviewing with mothers.Results: Six months EBF rate was 38%. Median week of EBF was 16 weeks (1-40 weeks. Mothers giving birth at younger (≤19 or older (≥35 ages, and mothers having chronic diseases had shorter median week of EBF (p<0.05. Median duration of breastfeeding was 9 months (0-24 months. When mothers who interrupted EBF were asked why they had introduced supplementary foods early, the most frequent reason was mother’s perceptions of having inadequate breast milk (42.5%.Conclusions: The study indicates that frequency of 6 month EBF (38% and median duration of breastfeeding (16 weeks are low in our region, in Ankara. We must develop a local strategy to overcome mothers’ negative perceptions about EBF.

  8. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  9. Exclusive Breastfeeding, Prevalence and Maternal Concerns: Saudi and Egyptian Mothers

    Nafee Elsayed, Hoda Mohamed; Al-Dossary, Latifa Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is rich in nutrients and anti-bodies and contains the right quantities of sugar, water, fat and protein that promotes not only growth and development of infants but also important for their survive. Exclusive breastfeeding is enough to the needs of infants less than six months without any addition. Several studies mentioned that the…

  10. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (pbreastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  11. The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation

    Sergio Verd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF. This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24–28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes. We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 616 women with normal gestational glucose tolerance and 152 women with an isolated positive 1-h glucose challenge test. The risk of early exclusive breastfeeding cessation was found to increase in women with mildly impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45. Risks of early EBF cessation were also independently associated with the amount of neonatal weight loss and admission to the neonatal ward. Instead, parity was associated with a decreased risk for shorter EBF duration. Insulin resistance—even in the absence of gestational diabetes mellitus—may be an impeding factor for EBF.

  12. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Binns Colin W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Results On discharge from hospital, 50.3% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants out of 96.9% of the mothers who had earlier initiated breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was positively related to vaginal birth, baby's first feed being breast milk, mother living in the suburbs or rural areas, younger age of mother, lower maternal education level and family income. Conclusion The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Zhejiang is only 50.3% on discharge and does not reach Chinese or international targets. A number of behaviours have been identified in the study that could be potentially incorporated into health promotion activities.

  13. Time to Consider Moving Beyond Exclusive Breastfeeding in Southern Africa

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART, there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection. Additional studies are warranted to assess detailed feeding practices in HIV exposed infants in relation to clinical outcomes.

  14. Time to Consider Moving Beyond Exclusive Breastfeeding in Southern Africa

    Wojcicki, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART), there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection. Additional studies are warranted to assess detailed feeding practices in HIV exposed infants in relation to clinical outcomes. PMID:28125026

  15. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding of Preterm Infants. Results from a Prospective National Cohort Study

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding a...

  16. Frequency of exclusive breastfeeding and its affecting factors in Tehran, 2011.

    Hossein Dalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding in two health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences in Khak Sefid, Tehran, Iran. A total of 175 mothers, referred for the third dose of their infants' DPT vaccination program participated in the study by completing a questionnaire regarding characteristics of their pregnancy, delivery and exclusive breastfeeding within the first six months of birth. Two-variable analysis and logistic regression test were applied to evaluate factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding. Results indicated that the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, i.e., breastfeeding within the first six months of birth without the use of any other food with or without vitamin supplementation, was 31.17% (95% CI=23.77%-38.57%, which means 48 infants of 154<179 days old Among 154 infants (<179 days old 48 did not have a history of being separated from their mothers. In logistic regression analysis, the variables which were directly associated with exclusive breastfeeding, with 0.05 significance level of alpha, included breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, eight times or more breastfeeding per day and receiving breastfeeding education during pregnancy. Variables with a negative association with breastfeeding included lack of breast milk, presence of a breast problem that could hinder breastfeeding, bottle feeding, physician or family's advice not to breastfeed and infant's refusal to breastfeed. Frequency of breastfeeding within the six months of birth is less than similar frequencies which are obtained by asking about breastfeeding on the day of the interview. It is recommended to apply real frequency for assessment, evaluation and programming of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of birth.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF GOVERNMENT POLICY AND MOTHER’S PERCEPTION TO EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE

    Mufdlilah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the Indonesian government has campaigned exclusive breastfeeding during the past decade through maternal and child program of Ministry of Health, however, its coverage in Yogyakarta province remains low. Objective: This study aims to analyze factors related to exclusive breastfeeding program, especially indicators that can explain government’s regulation and mothers’ perception to exclusive breastfeeding practice. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involved 185 mothers who have 6-12 months infants with parity 1-3. The correspondents live in Sleman district and had normal delivery in hospital, health center or midwifery private practitioner. The association between the exogenous (government policy and mothers’ perception and the endogenous variables (mothers’ participation to exclusive breastfeeding practice was determined using Lisrel version 8.80. Results: Although the government policy contributed to the success of implementing breastfeeding program (33%, providing breastfeeding rooms (28%, and declaring the related government regulation (17%; however, its contribution was recorded at only 2% to human resources. Knowledge significantly encouraged mothers to breastfeed whilst infrastructure was assessed as a strong determinant of mothers’ willingness to participate in the program at the contribution of 50%. Conclusion: Although there was only a weak association between government regulation to mothers’ perception and between mothers’ perception towards exclusive breastfeeding practice, the study highlights the importance of providing adequate information to improve mothers’ knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding. By knowledge improvement, mothers will have better perception, which in turn will improve their self-efficacy and practices in exclusive breastfeeding.

  18. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  19. Socio-Cultural Aspects in Exclusive Breastfeeding in Sota District (Border States of Papua New Guinea and Merauke, Papua Province

    Sugino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding cultural behavior which is inseparable from cultural views that have been passed down through the generations in the culture concerned (Swaswono & Meutia, 1998. Many studies have been done stating culture as inhibiting factors in exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, culture also plays a role to support health. For that we need a study that takes into account the cultural aspects of exclusive breastfeeding from nursing mothers who have succeeded in giving exclusive breastfeeding. The purpose of this research is to know the description of cultural aspects in exclusive breastfeeding. This study uses the theory of "Sunrise Model's" from Leininger to see the cultural aspects of breastfeeding. The study was conducted in the District of Merauke Regency Sota. This research is a qualitative research method of indepth interviews and observation. Informants in this study as many as 31 people with the details of 10 people as key supported informanst 21 people as supporters. Informant is nursing mothers who have succeeded in giving exclusive breastfeeding. The results showed that in a culture that supports exclusive breastfeeding is the social and family attachments as providers of support for exclusive breastfeeding. Meanwhile, a culture that does not support is the existence of taboos and myths on exclusive breastfeeding. Behavior mothers succeeded in exclusive breastfeeding can differentiate cultures due to health or exacerbate health support as reflected by the decision to give exclusive breastfeeding to their babies despite the many myths and taboos in nursing mothers.

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months.Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants.Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey.Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996.Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  1. Using cognitive-behavioural techniques to improve exclusive breastfeeding in a low-literacy disadvantaged population.

    Rahman, Atif; Haq, Zaeem; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Hafeez, Assad

    2012-01-01

    Despite being an important component of Pakistan's primary health care programme, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months remain among the lowest in the world. Low levels of literacy in women and deeply held cultural beliefs and practices have been found to contribute to the ineffectiveness of routine counselling delivered universally by community health workers in Pakistan. We aimed to address this by incorporating techniques of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) into the routine counselling process. We conducted qualitative studies of stakeholders' opinions (mothers, community health workers, their trainers and programme managers) and used this data to develop a psycho-educational approach that combined education with techniques of CBT that could be integrated into the health workers' routine work. The workers were trained to use this approach and feedback was obtained after implementation. The new intervention was successfully integrated into the community health worker programme and found to be culturally acceptable, feasible and useful. Incorporating techniques of CBT into routine counselling may be useful to promote health behaviours in traditional societies with low literacy rates.

  2. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Mehdi Ranjbaran; Mahmoud Reza Nakhaei; Mina Chizary; Mohsen Shamsi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: The World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommended executive breastfeeding for 6 months after birth. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of executive breastfeeding in Iran by a meta-analysis study to be used by policy-makers in order to health programmer plan in this field. Methods: In this meta-analysis study, the databases of ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar and domestic data...

  3. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices among rural women in Tamil Nadu

    Shankar Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor infant feeding practices and their consequences are one of the world′s major problems and a serious obstacle to social and economic development. Various studies have shown that infant feeding could be influenced by socioeconomic status, maternal education, place of living and many other factors. Hence a prevalence study on exclusive breastfeeding was conducted in rural Tamil Nadu. Aim and Objective: To assess the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practices and the factors influencing them among women in a rural area in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Attyampatti Panchyat Union, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, from March 2011-June 2011. All the 291 children in the age group of six months to two years in Attyampatti Panchayat Union were included in the study, irrespective of any sample. The data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results: Among the study population 52.6% were male children and 47.4% were females. Only 99 (34% children were exclusively breastfed for six months. The majority of women (60.5% initiated breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery. Various demographic factors like the education of the mother, type of delivery, type of family, occupation, number of children, monthly income, family size, age at marriage and religion had a direct influence on exclusive breastfeeding, which in turn influenced the weight of the baby and immune status of the child. Most of the mothers (44.7% inferred that the main reason for giving bottle feed is because of inadequate breast milk secretion. Conclusion: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is low in this particular area. Hence promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and focus on the factors affecting them is highly warranted in this area.

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  5. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding of preterm infants. Results from a prospective national cohort study.

    Ragnhild Maastrup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof. METHODS: A prospective survey based on questionnaires was conducted with a Danish national cohort, comprised of 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-36 weeks. Adjusted for covariates, the pre-specified clinical practices were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-0.8 and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6, respectively. The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2 and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6 were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated with an inadequate breastfeeding duration were the initiation of breast milk expression at 12-24 hours (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.4 and 24-48 hours (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1 vs. before six hours postpartum, and the use of nipple shields (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.9. CONCLUSION: Early initiation of breast milk pumping before 12 hours postpartum may increase breastfeeding rates, and it seems that the use of nipple shields should be restricted. The use of test-weighing and minimizing the use of a pacifier may promote the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, but more research is needed regarding adequate support to the mother when test-weighing is ceased, as more of these mothers ceased exclusive breastfeeding at an early stage after discharge.

  6. Factors associated with breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in mothers returning to paid employment postpartum.

    Bai, Dorothy Li; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Tarrant, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Mothers who are employed postpartum are less likely to continue breastfeeding than mothers who are not formally employed. However, as postpartum employment is increasingly necessary for the majority of new mothers, it is important to investigate factors that influence the continuation of breastfeeding in employed mothers. A sample of 1,738 mothers who returned to paid employment postpartum were recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong, and prospectively followed for 12 months or until their infant was weaned. More than 85 % of participants returned to formal employment within 10 weeks postpartum, with over 90 % of these employed full-time. About one-third of the participants (32 %) were able to combine breastfeeding and employment, with breastfeeding defined as continuing for more than 2 weeks after returning to work postpartum. Later return to work and higher maternal education were associated with new mothers being able to combine breastfeeding and employment. Later return to work, shorter working hours, parental childcare, and higher maternal education were also associated with less likelihood of weaning from any or exclusive breastfeeding. Improvements in employment-related conditions for mothers and additional support for lower educated mothers may be effective strategies to enable employed women to continue breastfeeding after their return to work.

  7. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  8. Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Bhandari, Nita; Kabir, A K M Iqbal; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2008-04-01

    Interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding have been estimated to have the potential to prevent 13% of all under-5 deaths in developing countries and are the single most important preventive intervention against child mortality. According to World Health Organization and United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), only 39% infants are exclusively breastfed for less than 4 months. This review examines programme efforts to scale up exclusive breastfeeding in different countries and draws lesson for successful scale-up. Opportunities and challenges in scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding into Maternal and Child Health programmes are identified. The key processes required for exclusive breastfeeding scale-up are: (1) an evidence-based policy and science-driven technical guidelines; and (2) an implementation strategy and plan for achieving high exclusive breastfeeding rates in all strata of society, on a sustainable basis. Factors related to success include political will, strong advocacy, enabling policies, well-defined short- and long-term programme strategy, sustained financial support, clear definition of roles of multiple stakeholders and emphasis on delivery at the community level. Effective use of antenatal, birth and post-natal contacts at homes and through community mobilization efforts is emphasized. Formative research to ensure appropriate intervention design and delivery is critical particularly in areas with high HIV prevalence. Strong communication strategy and support, quality trainers and training contributed significantly to programme success. Monitoring and evaluation with feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to very high coverage. Legal framework must make it possible for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for at least 4 months. Sustained programme efforts are critical to achieve high coverage and this requires strong national- and state-level leadership.

  9. Aleitamento materno exclusivo e adiposidade Amamantamiento materno exclusivo y adiposidad Exclusive breastfeeding and adiposity

    José Fernando V. N. Moraes

    2011-06-01

    Organization's classification for the body mass index for age. RESULTS: Girls had higher adiposity in the triceps skinfold (p=0.001, subscapular skinfold (p=0.044 and in their sum (p=0.003, when compared to boys. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was similar between genders (25.4% for boys and 22.6% for girls, as it was exclusive breastfeeding (4.3 months for boys and 4.6 months for girls. A significant inverse correlation was found only between exclusive breastfeeding and waist circumference (r=-0.166; p=0.05. Other anthropometric variables showed a trend to present an inverse correlation with exclusive breastfeeding, but lacked statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The significant inverse association between exclusive breastfeeding and waist circumference indicates a possible effect of breastfeeding in body fat distribution in preschool children.

  10. Creating exclusive breastfeeding knowledge translation tools with First Nations mothers in Northwest Territories, Canada

    Pertice Moffitt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is an ideal method of infant feeding affecting lifelong health, and yet the uptake of breastfeeding in some Indigenous communities in Canada's north is low. Objective: The aims of this project were to determine the rate and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a remote community in the Northwest Territories and to create knowledge translation tools to enhance breastfeeding locally. Methods: The study methodology followed three steps. Firstly, a series of retrospective chart audits were conducted from hospital birth records of Tłchǫ women (n=198 who gave birth during the period of 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. A second follow-up chart audit determined the rate of exclusive breastfeeding and was conducted in the local Community Health Centre. Chart audit data included the following factors related to breastfeeding: age of mother, parity, birthweight and Apgar scores. Secondly, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Tłchǫ mothers (n=8 and one Elder were conducted to identify breastfeeding practices, beliefs and the most appropriate medium to use to deliver health messages in Tłchǫ. Third, based on the information obtained in Step 2, two knowledge translation tools were developed in collaboration with a local community Advisory Committee. Results: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the Tłchǫ region is less than 30%. Physiological and demographic factors related to breastfeeding were identified. Thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes from the data, namely, “the pull to formula” (lifestyle preferences, drug and alcohol use, supplementation practices and limited role models and “the pull to breast feeding” (traditional feeding method, spiritual practice and increased bonding with infant. Conclusion: There are a myriad of influences on breastfeeding for women living in remote locations. Ultimately, society informs the choice of infant feeding for the new

  11. Tempo de aleitamento materno exclusivo em recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo Time of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term newborn babies

    Waléria Ferreira da Silva

    2013-02-01

    with exploratory and longitudinal nature on the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term babies. RESULTS: as for the percentage of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding of preterm babies at 6 months old. There were significant differences in the birth weight variable. The causes for the early weaning, we found to be educational factors, followed by cultural factors. As a consequence of early weaning, the practice of oral habits occurred in 98.1% of the children. CONCLUSION: preterm children remained more time in breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding than the term babies. The educational and cultural factors were the main causes for the early weaning, and the consequence was the use of pacifier and bottle.

  12. Tempo de aleitamento materno exclusivo em recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo Time of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term newborn babies

    Waléria Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    with exploratory and longitudinal nature on the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding of preterm and term babies. RESULTS: as for the percentage of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding of preterm babies at 6 months old. There were significant differences in the birth weight variable. The causes for the early weaning, we found to be educational factors, followed by cultural factors. As a consequence of early weaning, the practice of oral habits occurred in 98.1% of the children. CONCLUSION: preterm children remained more time in breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding than the term babies. The educational and cultural factors were the main causes for the early weaning, and the consequence was the use of pacifier and bottle.

  13. "She would sit with me": mothers' experiences of individual peer support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    Nankabirwa Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different strategies have been used to improve the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Peer counsellors are reported to improve exclusive breastfeeding levels, but few studies have assessed the satisfaction of women with the support given, especially in Africa. In this paper we describe women's experiences of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in an East African setting. Methods In the Ugandan site of PROMISE-EBF, a multi-centre community randomised trial to evaluate the effect of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding on infant health, 370 women in the intervention arm participated in a study exit interview. Individual peer counselling was offered to women in 12 of the 24 study clusters, scheduled as five visits: before childbirth and during weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10 after childbirth. During the visits, the women were given information and skills to help them breastfeed exclusively. After the 10-week visit, they were interviewed about their feelings and experiences related to the peer counselling. Results Overall, more than 95% of the women expressed satisfaction with the various aspects of peer counselling offered. Those who had received five or more visits were more likely to give positive responses about their experience with peer counselling than those who had received fewer visits. They explained their satisfaction with time spent with the peer counsellor in terms of how much she discussed with them. Most women felt their knowledge needs about breastfeeding were covered by the peer counsellors, while others expressed a desire to learn about complementary feeding and family planning. Attributes of the peer counsellors included their friendliness, being women and giving support in a familiar and relaxed way. Women were positive about the acquisition of knowledge and the benefit to their babies from the peer counselling. They preferred a peer counsellor to a health worker for support of exclusive

  14. Exclusive breastfeeding practices reported by mothers and the introduction of additional liquids

    Alessandra Marcuz de Souza Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the concept of exclusive breastfeeding held by nursing women by comparing the period they consider that they perform it and the infants' age at the introduction of additional liquids. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 309 women who delivered babies at a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were subjected to descriptive analysis; the variables of interest were crossed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of the women reported having introduced additional liquids before the infants reached aged six months old, while asserting that they were performing exclusive breastfeeding. The following variables were associated with early introduction of liquids: lack of employment (p = 0.0386, younger maternal age (p = 0.0159 and first pregnancy (p = 0.003. CONCLUSION: The concept of exclusive breastfeeding might not be fully clear to women, as they seem to believe that it means not to feed the children other types of milk but that giving other liquids is allowed. These results show that promotion of breastfeeding should take beliefs and values into consideration to achieve effective dialogue and understanding with mothers.

  15. Presence of human milk bank is associated with elevated rate of exclusive breastfeeding in VLBW infants.

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Bellù, Roberto; Turoli, Daniela; De Nisi, Giuseppe; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Human milk confers health benefits of vital importance for the sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Mother's own milk is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and every effort should be made to promote lactation. When mother's milk is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. Yet, occasionally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised. The present data collection planned by the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) in collaboration with the Italian Neonatal Network (INN) attempted to address this concern. A total of 4277 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from 83 Italian NICUs were evaluated for this comparative analysis. The 83 Italian NICUs were divided into two groups: centers with a human milk bank (HMB) and centers without a HMB; the available parameters in the network--"any and exclusive breastfeeding rates" and "exclusive formula rate" at discharge--were compared. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was significantly higher in NICUs with a HMB than in NICUs without (29.6% vs. 16.0%, respectively). Any breastfeeding rate at discharge tended to be higher in the NICUs with HMB (60.4% vs. 52.8%, P = 0.09), and exclusive formula rate was lower in the NICUs with HMB (26.5% vs. 31.3%), but this difference was not significant. This report shows that the presence of a HMB and the use of DHM in NICU are associated with increased breastfeeding rate at discharge from the hospital for VLBW infants.

  16. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with differences in infants' brain responses to emotional body expressions.

    Krol, Kathleen M; Rajhans, Purva; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Much research has recognized the general importance of maternal behavior in the early development and programing of the mammalian offspring's brain. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration, the amount of time in which breastfed meals are the only source of sustenance, plays a prominent role in promoting healthy brain and cognitive development in human children. However, surprisingly little is known about the influence of breastfeeding on social and emotional development in infancy. In the current study, we examined whether and how the duration of EBF impacts the neural processing of emotional signals by measuring electro-cortical responses to body expressions in 8-month-old infants. Our analyses revealed that infants with high EBF experience show a significantly greater neural sensitivity to happy body expressions than those with low EBF experience. Moreover, regression analyses revealed that the neural bias toward happiness or fearfulness differs as a function of the duration of EBF. Specifically, longer breastfeeding duration is associated with a happy bias, whereas shorter breastfeeding duration is associated with a fear bias. These findings suggest that breastfeeding experience can shape the way in which infants respond to emotional signals.

  17. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breastfeeding in Six Months after Birth in Shiraz, Iran

    Mahnaz Haghighi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop the culture of breastfeeding, it is needed to know the level of maternal knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate maternal knowledge and attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding in six months after birth in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out on mothers who referred to health centers. Four health centers were selected from four geographic areas of Shiraz city; finally, 201 mothers was selected and their demographic information and knowledge and attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding were gathered through a researcher made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0.  Results 201 mothers who were 18-45 years old were studied. 43% of them were 30-34 years old. 46% of maternal education level was bachelor andMaster of Science or more and 80% of them were housewives. Their level of knowledge was low (69.2%, moderate (11.4% and high (19.4% respectively. Regarding the level of attitude 11.4% of them were low, 15.4% of them were moderate and the others were high. There was a significant relationship between maternal knowledge with parents’ education and infants’ nutrition (breastfeeding (P

  18. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition.

  19. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Primiparous Mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Minas, Anteneh Girma; Ganga-Limando, Makombo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. Objectives The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers dur...

  20. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study

    Mohsen Saffari; Amir H. Pakpour; Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measu...

  1. Early initiation of breast feeding but not bottle feeding increase exclusive breastfeeding practice among less than six months infant in Indonesia

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-07-01

    data. The sub-sample study was infants under six months. Out of 7226 infant aged less than 6 months, 6397 infant had complete data for the analysis. The Cox regression was used for analysis. Results: Out of 6397 infant, 44% had exclusively breastfeed. Early initiation, bottle-feeding, postnatal care, residence and socio-economic status were associated to exclusive breastfeeding practices. Infant who had early initiation had 66% more exclusively breastfeed compared to delayed initiation [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.45 – 1.90]. Infant who had bottle-feeding or using pacifiers had 71% less to be exclusively breastfed compared to infant who did not have use bottle-feeding/ pacifiers (RRa = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.25 – 0.34. Conclusion: Early initiation within one hour of birth increased exclusive breastfeeding practice, however, bottle-feeding decreased exclusive breastfeeding practice. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:44-8 Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, early initiation, bottle-feeding 

  2. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months Factores asociados al abandono de la lactancia materna durante los primeros 6 meses de vida Fatores associados ao abandono do aleitamento materno durante os primeiros seis meses de vida

    Antoni Oliver Roig

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF and any breastfeeding (ABF cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Cox’s proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration ≤4 months and worse evaluation of previous experience were associated with cessation of ABF and FBF. Lower educational level was associated with cessation of ABF and the use of pacifiers or occasional breast-milk substitutes with cessation of FBF. Attending childbirth education was a protective factor against early FBF or ABF cessation. Activities supporting breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled.El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar los factores asociados al abandono de la lactancia materna (LM y de la lactancia materna completa (LMC. Fueron acompañadas 248 madres que acudieron a la visita posparto. Los datos fueron recolectados mediante entrevista personal durante el primer mes posparto y por teléfono a los cuatro y seis meses siguientes. El análisis se realizó mediante la Regresión de Cox. Los resultados muestran una asociación con el abandono de la LMC y de la LM con no haber amamantado anteriormente, con LM anterior ≤4 meses, y, con una peor valoración de la experiencia anterior. El menor nivel de estudios se relaciona con un mayor abandono de la LM y los chupetes o suplementos en el hospital con el abandono de la LMC. La educación prenatal es un factor protector para la LMC y la LM. Se concluye que el apoyo a la LM debería intensificarse las madres: sin experiencia anterior, con experiencia negativa, y, con

  3. How multiple episodes of exclusive breastfeeding impact estimates of exclusive breastfeeding duration: report from the eight‐site MAL‐ED birth cohort study

    Ambikapathi, Ramya; Kosek, Margaret N.; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Mahopo, Cloupas; Patil, Crystal L.; Maciel, Bruna L.; Turab, Ali; Islam, M Munirul; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bose, Anuradha; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Pendergast, Laura L.; Murray‐Kolb, Laura E.; Lang, Dennis; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is often defined as the time from birth to the first non‐breast milk food/liquid fed (EBFLONG), or it is estimated by calculating the proportion of women at a given infant age who EBF in the previous 24 h (EBFDHS). Others have measured the total days or personal prevalence of EBF (EBFPREV), recognizing that although non‐EBF days may occur, EBF can be re‐initiated for extended periods. We compared breastfeeding metrics in the MAL‐ED study; infants' breastfeeding trajectories were characterized from enrollment (median 7 days, IQR: 4, 12) to 180 days at eight sites. During twice‐weekly surveillance, caretakers were queried about infant feeding the prior day. Overall, 101 833 visits and 356 764 child days of data were collected from 1957 infants. Median duration of EBFLONG was 33 days (95% CI: 32–36), compared to 49 days based on the EBFDHS. Median EBFPREV was 66 days (95% CI: 62–70). Differences were because of the return to EBF after a non‐EBF period. The median number of returns to EBF was 2 (IQR: 1, 3). When mothers re‐initiated EBF (second episode), infants gained an additional 18.8 days (SD: 25.1) of EBF, and gained 13.7 days (SD: 18.1) (third episode). In settings where women report short gaps in EBF, programmes should work with women to return to EBF. Interventions could positively influence the duration of these additional periods of EBF and their quantification should be considered in impact evaluation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27500709

  4. Potential effectiveness of Community Health Strategy to promote exclusive breastfeeding in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya: a quasi-experimental study.

    Kimani-Murage, E W; Norris, S A; Mutua, M K; Wekesah, F; Wanjohi, M; Muhia, N; Muriuki, P; Egondi, T; Kyobutungi, C; Ezeh, A C; Musoke, R N; McGarvey, S T; Madise, N J; Griffiths, P L

    2016-04-01

    Early nutrition is critical for later health and sustainable development. We determined potential effectiveness of the Kenyan Community Health Strategy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a quasi-experimental study design, based on three studies [Pre-intervention (2007-2011; n=5824), Intervention (2012-2015; n=1110) and Comparison (2012-2014; n=487)], which followed mother-child pairs longitudinally to establish EBF rates from 0 to 6 months. The Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) study was a cluster randomized trial; the control arm (MIYCN-Control) received standard care involving community health workers (CHWs) visits for counselling on antenatal and postnatal care. The intervention arm (MIYCN-Intervention) received standard care and regular MIYCN counselling by trained CHWs. Both groups received MIYCN information materials. We tested differences in EBF rates from 0 to 6 months among four study groups (Pre-intervention, MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison) using a χ(2) test and logistic regression. At 6 months, the prevalence of EBF was 2% in the Pre-intervention group compared with 55% in the MIYCN-Intervention group, 55% in the MIYCN-Control group and 3% in the Comparison group (PKenya national Community Health Strategy in promoting EBF in urban poor settings where health care access is limited.

  5. Social Analysis of the Benefit of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Muslim Women in Selected Communities in Edo State, Nigeria

    Alenkhe Odianonsen Augustine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food has always been a means of survival as its nutrient function for the survival of the body system, especially infant that need a proper building of their body system. The first, the best and the most complete nutrient a baby needs is the Breast milk. The act and practice of exclusive Breastfeeding have an advance impact on the child, the mother and the society at large, as the study examines the social analysis of the benefit and hindrances of exclusive breastfeeding among the Muslims in selected communities in Edo State, Nigeria. Social Action theory was used to buttress the benefit of exclusive breastfeeding, 150 Muslim women were interviewed with the aid of a structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview administered face-to face to the respondents. A cluster and purposive sampling technique was utilized and the findings analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version. It was discovered that one of the hindrances to exclusive breastfeeding is caused by the health condition f the mother among others, inversely the benefit too numerous one off which is making the children/infant brilliant and healthy. Hence it is recommended that Exclusive Breastfeeding should be encouraged because of its medical/health benefit to both mother and child in both the national and international level for the realization of the Millennium Development Goal strategy by 2015.

  6. Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity: a prospective cohort study

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are increasing among children all over the world. Socio-economic factors may influence the development of overweight and obesity in childhood, and it has been proposed that breastfeeding may protect against obesity. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and obesity when potential confounders, such as socioeconomic factors, are considered. Methods The data analyzed was from ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden, a prospective cohort study. All parents with children born between October 1, 1997 and October 1, 1999 in Southeast Sweden (n = 21,700 were asked to participate. Parents were asked to answer periodic questionnaires from the time of the child's birth (n = 16,058 until he/she was five years of age (n = 7,356. Cutoffs for overweight and obesity were defined according to Cole et al, age and gender adjusted. Short-term exclusive breastfeeding was defined as Results At five years of age, 12.9% of the children in the study wereoverweight and 4.3% were obese. At the age of three months, 78.4% of the children were being breastfed exclusively. The median exclusive breastfeeding duration was four months. High maternal BMI > 30 (AOR = 1.07; CI = 1.05–1.09; P Conclusion We cannot exclude the possibility that exclusive breastfeeding influences weight development, but it does not seem to protect against obesity at five years of age.

  7. Gendered perceptions on infant feeding in Eastern Uganda: continued need for exclusive breastfeeding support

    Karamagi Charles A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor settings, HIV positive mothers are recommended to choose between 'Exclusive breastfeeding' (EBF or 'Exclusive replacement feeding' (ERF. Acceptability, Feasibility, Affordability, Sustainability and Safety (AFASS has been the World Health Organization (WHO's a priori criteria for ERF the last ten years. 'AFASS' has become a mere acronym among many workers in the field of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, PMTCT. Thereby, non-breastfeeding has been suggested irrespective of social norms. EBF for the first half of infancy is associated with huge health benefits for children in areas where infant mortality is high. But, even if EBF has been recommended for a decade, few mothers are practicing it. We set out to understand fathers' and mothers' infant feeding perceptions and the degree to which EBF and ERF were 'AFASS.' Methods Eight focus groups with 81 informants provided information for inductive content analysis. Four groups were held by men among men and four groups by women among women in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Results Two study questions emerged: How are the different feeding options understood and accepted? And, what are men's and women's responsibilities related to infant feeding? A mother's commitment to breastfeed and the husband's commitment to provide for the family came out strongly. Not breastfeeding a newborn was seen as dangerous and as unacceptable, except in cases of maternal illness. Men argued that not breastfeeding could entail sanctions by kin or in court. But, in general, both men and women regarded EBF as 'not enough' or even 'harmful.' Among men, not giving supplements to breast milk was associated with poverty and men's failure as providers. Women emphasised lack of time, exhaustion, poverty and hunger as factors for limited breast milk production. Although women had attended antenatal teaching they expressed a need to know more. Most men felt left out from

  8. Breastfeeding Practices, Demographic Variables, and Their Association with Morbidities in Children

    Dipen V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate feeding practices are the key contributor to reducing morbidities and mortalities in under-five children. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey of mothers of children aged less than 5years was conducted in 781 mothers. More than half of mothers (57.5% started feeding within an hour of birth, 55.9% gave exclusive breastfeeding for six months, 89.1% of the mothers stopped breastfeeding before two years of age, 18.2% of the mothers bottle-fed the babies, and 15.6% had problems during breastfeeding in first 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth promoted exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding for longer duration. Exclusive breastfeeding increased frequency of feeds. Multivariable logistic regression showed that initiation of breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.035, not providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (p < 0.0001, unemployed mothers (p = 0.035, having two or more kids (p = 0.001, and complementary feeds given by person other than mother (p = 0.007 increased hospitalization. Starting breastfeeding after an hour of birth (p = 0.045, severe malnutrition (p = 0.018, and breastfeeding for < two years (p = 0.026 increased rates of diarrhea. Breastfeeding practices were not optimum and interventions to improve these practices need to be strengthened.

  9. A possible strategy for developing a model to account for attrition bias in a longitudinal cohort to investigate associations between exclusive breastfeeding and overweight and obesity at 20 years.

    Oddy, Wendy H; Smith, Grant J; Jacoby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a method that could be applied in a longitudinal cohort study to account for attrition bias in an investigation of exclusive breastfeeding and prevalence of overweight and obesity at 20 years. Participants were compared to non-participants to identify a priori good candidates to predict missing-ness. A logistic regression missing-ness model was developed where probabilities were calculated to generate a pseudo-population of survivors with similar distribution to the original cohort. Final analysis comprised a weighted logistic regression model for cessation of breastfeeding as predicted by overweight and obesity, adjusting for confounding factors, that incorporated generalised estimating equations as final predictive models. Following weighting and scaling in the generalised estimating equation model, the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months, compared to 6 months or later was associated with an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity at 20 years (odds ratio 1.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.93; p = 0.005). Inverse probability weighting offers a possible solution when attrition threatens to bias the results of a study.

  10. Iron sufficiency with prolonged exclusive breast-feeding in Peruvian infants.

    Pastel, R A; Howanitz, P J; Oski, F A

    1981-10-01

    Serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin concentrations were measured in seven Peruvian infants, who ranged in age from 7.5-12.0 months (mean: 9.3 months), who had been exclusively breast-fed all their lives. No infant had evidence of iron deficiency as reflected by a reduced serum ferritin, or an increased erythrocyte porphyrin. Mean serum ferritin and erythrocyte porphyrin values in these seven infants were similar to those of 40 nonanemic, noniron-deficient U.S. infants who ranged in age from 9 to 12 months, on a mixed diet. These findings illustrate that exclusively breast-feeding an infant for at least 9 months of life meets the iron requirements of the full-term infant.

  11. Actual exclusive breastfeeding rates and determinants among a cohort of children living in Gampaha district Sri Lanka: A prospective observational study

    Perera Priyantha J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF during the early months of life reduce infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommendation in Sri Lanka is to continue exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding rates are generally assessed by the 24 recall method which overestimates the actual rates. The objective of this study was to determine actual exclusive breast feeding rates in a cohort of Sri Lankan children and to determine the reasons that lead to cessation of breastfeeding before six months of age. Methods From a cohort of 2215 babies born in Gampaha district, 500 were randomly selected and invited for the study. They were followed up at two (n = 404, four (n = 395 and six (n = 286 months. An interviewer administered questionnaire asked about feeding history and socio-demographic characteristics. Child health development record was used to assess the growth. Results Exclusive breastfeeding rates at two, four and six months were 98.0%, 75.4% and 71.3% respectively. The main reasons to stop exclusive breastfeeding between two to four months was concerns regarding weight gain and between four to six months were mothers starting to work. Majority of the babies that were not exclusively breastfed still continued to have breast milk. Mothers above 30 years had lower exclusive breastfeeding rates compared to younger mothers. Second born babies had higher rates than first borns. There was no significant association between maternal education and exclusive breastfeeding rates. Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding rates were high among this cohort of children. A decrease in EBF was noted between two and four months. EBF up to six months does not cause growth failure. Mothers starting to work and concerns regarding adequacy of breast milk were the major reasons to cease EBF. The actual exclusive breastfeeding rates up to six months was 65.9%.

  12. The Influence of Lactation Education toward Growth of Infants 0-6 Months in Kendari

    Nurmiaty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth is the basis for assessing nutritional adequacy of baby. Appropriate intake of nutrition give an impact on the optimal growth. Growth of infants 0-6 months is a critical period in the first 1000 days of life and appropriate intake is exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding lowers the risk of morbidity and mortality infants. This study aims to determine the effect of lactation education toward the growth of infants 0-6 months. This study design was Quasy Experiment, ie. pre-test and post-test with control group design. Samples were 28-30 weeks pregnant women, divided into three groups: 1 those who received education lactation and a modification module (n = 21, 2 a group that only received a modification module (n = 21 and 3 groups only get the MCH book (n = 20. Growth indicators were body weight and body length that measured at birth, months 1, 3 and 6. Statistical analysis using chi square, Wilcoxon test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed lactation education affected the baby's growth at 1, 3 and 6 months. Group 1 has an increase in length and weight of body higher than group 2 and 3. So it is very important to pregnant women and maternity lactation routinely receiveing education to improve breastfeeding practice for optimilizing infant growth.

  13. Social cognitive changes resulting from an effective breastfeeding education program.

    Mesters, Ilse; Gijsbers, Barbara; Bartholomew, Kay; Knottnerus, J Andre; Van Schayck, Onno C P

    2013-02-01

    Infants of parents with a history of asthma could benefit from exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life to reduce the chance of developing childhood asthma. Continuing to breastfeed for 6 months seemed difficult to perform for many Dutch women. Therefore, an educational breastfeeding program was developed and implemented. The program (a theory-based booklet and pre- and postnatal home visits by trained assistants) significantly improved exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months postpartum (48% for intervention vs. 27% for control). Repeated-measurements analyses showed significant increases in knowledge and more positive attitudinal beliefs regarding breastfeeding for 6 months, in particular immediately after exposure to the program, compared with the controls. As expected, over time perceived self-efficacy and women's positive emotions toward breastfeeding increased, and support for breastfeeding diminished in both groups. The intervention group was reported to perceive more pressure to bottle feed and to know more breastfeeding models than the control group. Implications for practice are discussed.

  14. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times.

  15. O crescimento de crianças alimentadas com leite materno exclusivo nos primeiros 6 meses de vida Growth of exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life

    Rosa F. S. V. Marques

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução do crescimento de crianças alimentadas exclusivamente com leite materno durante os primeiros 6 meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de 184 crianças que receberam atenção primária em instituição pública (Programa de Incentivo ao Aleitamento Materno Exclusivo de Belém (PA, entre fevereiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2001. Finalizaram o estudo 102 lactentes nascidos a termo, com peso igual ou superior a 2.500 g, sem intercorrências no período neonatal e alimentados exclusivamente com leite materno sob livre demanda desde o nascimento. Acompanhados mensalmente, foram avaliados os registros de peso e comprimento ao nascer, no primeiro, quarto e sexto meses de vida. Avaliou-se o crescimento através das médias de peso e estatura para cada idade, comparando-se os resultados com o percentil 50º dos gráficos de crescimento do National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS e com outros estudos anteriores com crianças brasileiras em aleitamento materno exclusivo. RESULTADOS: As crianças tiveram crescimento adequado, dobrando de peso antes do quarto mês de vida, com desaceleração do ganho pôndero-estatural após o quarto mês, porém chegando aos 6 meses com médias de peso superiores aos padrões utilizados para comparação. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram que crianças em aleitamento materno exclusivo chegaram aos 6 meses com peso médio superior ao percentil 50º do NCHS, confirmando as vantagens nutricionais do leite materno, principalmente quando as mães recebem orientação sobre a técnica adequada para amamentar.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth of exclusively breastfed infants from birth to six months of life. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of 184 children who received primary care at a public institution (Exclusive Breastfeeding Stimulation Program, PROAME in Belém, state of Pará, Brazil, between February 2000 and January 2001. A total of 102 children completed the study. All were

  16. Breastfeeding practices in urban and rural Vietnam

    Thu Huong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe and compare breastfeeding practices in rural and urban areas of Vietnam and to study associations with possibly influencing person and household factors. This type of study has not been conducted in Vietnam before. Methods Totally 2,690 children, born from 1st March 2008 to 30th June 2010 in one rural and one urban Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, were followed from birth to the age of 12 months. Information about demography, economy and education for persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Standard statistical methods including survival and regression analyses were used. Results Initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life was more frequent in the urban area compared to the rural (boys 40% vs. 35%, girls 49% vs. 40%. High birth weight and living in households with large number of assets significantly increased the probability for early initiation of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months of age was more commonly reported in the rural than in the urban area (boys 58% vs. 46%, girls 65% vs. 53%. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding as well as of any breastfeeding was longer in the rural area than in the urban area (medians for boys 97 days vs. 81 days, for girls 102 days vs. 91 days. The percentages of children with exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least 6 months, as recommended by WHO, were low in both areas. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly shorter for mothers with three or more antenatal care visits or Caesarean section in both areas. High education level of mothers was associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. No significant associations were found between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s age, household economy indicators or household size. Conclusion Intervention programs with the aim to promote breastfeeding are needed. Mothers should

  17. Factors associated with initiation and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge: late preterm compared to 37 week gestation mother and infant cohort

    Ayton Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and examine the factors associated with initiation of, and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge of, late preterm (34 0/7 - 36 6/7 weeks compared to 37 week gestation (37 0/7 - 37 6/7 week mother and baby pairs. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study using a Perinatal National Minimum Data Set and clinical medical records review, at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia in 2006. Results Late preterm and 37 week gestation infants had low rates of initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, 31 (21.1% and 61 (41.5% respectively. After multiple regression analysis, late preterm infants were less likely to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth (OR 0.3 95% CI 0.1, 0.7 p = 0.009 and were less likely to be discharged exclusively breastfeeding from hospital (OR 0.4 95% CI 0.1, 1.0 p = 0.04 compared to 37 week gestation infants. Conclusion A late preterm birth is predictive of breastfeeding failure, with late preterm infants at greater risk of not initiating breastfeeding and/or exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge, compared with those infants born at 37 weeks gestation. Stratifying breastfeeding outcomes by gestational age groups may help to identify those sub-populations at greatest risk of premature cessation of breastfeeding.

  18. Breastfeeding Maternity Clinic Health Class to Promote Exclusive Breastfeeding Effect Observation%产科门诊母乳喂养健康课堂对促进纯母乳喂养效果观察

    陈娟; 范二林

    2015-01-01

    目的调查产科门诊母乳喂养健康课堂对促进纯母乳喂养的效果。方法直接询问方式,调查2014年5月~6月在我院生产的产妇纯母乳喂养情况。结果在产科门诊经历过母乳喂养健康教育培训的产妇在出院时、产后10d、产后42d时纯母乳喂养率显著高于未经过培训的产妇,两者对比有显著意义(<0.05)。结论门诊开展的母乳喂养教育课堂对促进纯母乳喂养有积极的意义。%Objective Investigate the maternity clinic breastfeeding health class to promote the ef ect of exclusive breastfeeding.Methods Direct questions, investigation in May 2014~June of exclusive breastfeeding mothers in our production.Results In obstetrics outpatient health education training through breastfeeding, ten days at the hospital, postpartum maternal postpartum 42 days exclusive breastfeeding rate was significantly higher than that of without training of maternal, both comparisons are significant ( <0.05).Conclusion Outpatient service of breastfeeding education classroom has positive significance to promote exclusive breastfeeding.

  19.  Breastfeeding Status and Some Related Factors in Northern Iran

    Aliakbar Abdollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main objective of this study is to assess the Breastfeeding Duration, Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration and other related factors among children aged less than 5 years old in rural areas of Northern Iran.Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional conducted on 2520 children aged 6-60 months (male: 1309, female: 1211 chosen by cluster random sampling from 20 out of 118 villages. Data were collected from mothers using a questionnaire. The duration of breastfeeding was computed only for children aged over 24 months old. Breastfeeding duration and Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration were classified based on WHO definition. SPSS Version 16 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration was 5.59 months, while 66.4�0of children had exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months. The lowest Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration and the highest Breastfeeding Duration were observed among the Turkman ethnic group. Exclusive Breastfeeding duration of at least 5 months was 14.6�20thus the results were significantly higher than in the Turkman ethnic group (p=0.001. Meanwhile, the results showed that exclusive breastfeeding duration significantly increased with maternal education level (p=0.004. The study found that the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.6 months, and 89.3�0and 74.7�0of children were breastfed for at least 18 and 24 months, respectively. A positive correlation was reported between breastfeeding duration and family size, birth order, maternal age and children nutritional status, (p<0.05. Additionally, lactation period in underweight children was significantly higher than in obese children, (p=0.023.Conclusion: The study found that two-thirds of children exclusively breastfed during the first six months of life and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.6 months. While both exclusive breastfeeding duration and breastfeeding duration were influenced by socio-demographic factors in the rural areas

  20. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  1. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding.

  2. High uptake of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced early post-natal HIV transmission.

    Louise Kuhn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical data showing the clear benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for HIV prevention are needed to encourage implementation of lactation support programs for HIV-infected women in low resource settings among whom replacement feeding is unsafe. We conducted a prospective, observational study in Lusaka, Zambia, to test the hypothesis that EBF is associated with a lower risk of postnatal HIV transmission than non-EBF. METHODS AND RESULTS: As part of a randomized trial of early weaning, 958 HIV-infected women and their infants were recruited and all were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively to 4 months. Single-dose nevirapine was provided to prevent transmission. Regular samples were collected from infants to 24 months of age and tested by PCR. Detailed measurements of actual feeding behaviors were collected to examine, in an observational analysis, associations between feeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission. Uptake of EBF was high with 84% of women reporting only EBF cumulatively to 4 months. Post-natal HIV transmission before 4 months was significantly lower (p = 0.004 among EBF (0.040 95% CI: 0.024-0.055 than non-EBF infants (0.102 95% CI: 0.047-0.157; time-dependent Relative Hazard (RH of transmission due to non-EBF = 3.48 (95% CI: 1.71-7.08. There were no significant differences in the severity of disease between EBF and non-EBF mothers and the association remained significant (RH = 2.68 95% CI: 1.28-5.62 after adjusting for maternal CD4 count, plasma viral load, syphilis screening results and low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Non-EBF more than doubles the risk of early postnatal HIV transmission. Programs to support EBF should be expanded universally in low resource settings. EBF is an affordable, feasible, acceptable, safe and sustainable practice that also reduces HIV transmission providing HIV-infected women with a means to protect their children's lives. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00310726.

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding and its effect on growth of Malawian infants: results from a cross-sectional study

    Kuchenbecker, J.; Jordan, I; Reinbott, A; Herrmann, J; Jeremias, T; Kennedy, G.; Muehlhoff, E; Mtimuni, B; Krawinkel, M B

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the optimal nutrition of children under 2 years of age, it is considered important that they be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months before being given complementary food. Aims and Objectives: A cross-sectional nutritional baseline survey was undertaken in 2011 in the Kasungu and Mzimba Districts of Malawi to assess the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age and its determinants in order to prepare a nutrition education intervention programme. The intentio...

  4. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H.; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status. PMID:28058240

  5. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.

  6. Scaling-up exclusive breastfeeding support programmes: the example of KwaZulu-Natal.

    Chris Desmond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for six months is the mainstay of global child health and the preferred feeding option for HIV-infected mothers for whom replacement feeding is inappropriate. Promotion of community-level EBF requires effective personnel and management to ensure quality counselling and support for women. We present a costing and cost effectiveness analysis of a successful intervention to promote EBF in high HIV prevalence area in South Africa, and implications for scale-up in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The costing of the intervention as implemented was calculated, in addition to the modelling of the costs and outcomes associated with running the intervention at provincial level under three different scenarios: full intervention (per protocol, simplified version (half the number of visits compared to the full intervention; more clinic compared to home visits and basic version (one third the number of visits compared to the full intervention; all clinic and no home visits. Implementation of the full scenario costs R95 million ($14 million per annum; the simplified version R47 million ($7 million and the basic version R4 million ($2 million. Although the cost of the basic scenario is less than one tenth of the cost of the simplified scenario, modelled effectiveness of the full and simplified versions suggest they would be 10 times more effective compared to the basic intervention. A further analysis modelled the costs per increased month of EBF due to each intervention: R337 ($48, R206 ($29, and R616 ($88 for the full, simplified and basic scenarios respectively. In addition to the average cost effectiveness the incremental cost effectiveness ratios associated with moving from the less effective scenarios to the more effective scenarios were calculated and reported: Nothing-Basic R616 ($88, Basic-Simplified R162 ($23 and Simplified-Full R879 ($126. CONCLUSIONS: The simplified scenario, with a

  7. The Terneuzen Birth Cohort. Longer exclusive breastfeeding duration is associated with leaner body mass and a healthier diet in young adulthood

    van Buuren Stef

    2011-05-01

    outcomes was not shown. Conclusions Exclusive BF duration had a significant inverse dose-response relationship with BMI, WC and WHR at young adulthood. BF duration was positively related to a healthier diet at adulthood, but this did not explain the protective effect of BF against body fat. Our results underline the recommendation of the WHO to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months or longer.

  8. Correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life

    Rosa de Fátima da Silva Vieira Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 221 binomials (mother-child enrolled in a breastfeeding support program, who were stratified into six groups according to the children's age group. The sample consisted of children born at term with normal weight, with no neonatal complications and whose mothers did not have anemia or infectious disease at the time of data collection. Interviews were carried out with the mothers, blood was collected by peripheral venipuncture from mothers and children, and children's anthropometric data were assessed. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the hemoglobin levels of mothers and children were calculated. Six multiple linear regression models were adjusted with regression coefficient estimates, considering as statistically significant associations with p ≤ 0.05. Results: The correlation coefficients of hemoglobin levels of mothers and children ranged from 0.253, at three months, to 0.601, at five months. The hemoglobin level of mothers was correlated with the hemoglobin level of their children at four months (r = 0.578 and at five months (r = 0.601. In the adjusted multiple linear regression, the regression coefficients were higher at four months (β = 1.134; p = 0.002 and at five months (β = 0.845; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These findings allow for the conclusion that there is a correlation between the hemoglobin of mothers and the hemoglobin of their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life.

  9. Survey on the relationship between breastfeeding and anemia in 6-month-old child of flower town in Guangzhou%广州市花山镇6月龄婴儿母乳喂养与贫血关系的调查报告

    李功基; 陈霞; 潘银友; 罗就馨; 范雪芬

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and anemia in 6-month-old child of flower town in Guangzhou , as well as the relationship between feeding and anemia .Methods:1 180 infants of 6 months born and examined healthy in flower town from January 2011 to December 2014 were taken as the objective of the study .According to the difference in the way of feeding , all was divided into breast feed-ing group, artificial feeding group, and mixed feeding group.The relationship between different feeding patterns and anemia in infants was ob-served, with the rate of anemia and the mean value of hemoglobin between the three groups compared .And then the main factors of infants'anemia of six months were explored in flower town in Guangzhou .Results:The detection rate of anemia in breastfeeding was much lower than that in artifi-cial feeding and mixed feeding, and the difference was statistically significant ( P <0.01).The detection rate of anemia in mixed feeding was less than that in artificial feeding, with the difference statistically significant ( P <0.01) .The comparison of the mean value of hemoglobin between the three groups demonstrated that the mean value of hemoglobin in breastfeeding group was higher than that in mixed feeding group , and the mean value of hemoglobin in mixed feeding group was higher than that in artificial feeding, the difference statistically significant ( P <0.05).Anemia univariate analysis reflected that anemia of the mother, feeding patterns within6 months of infants, complementary feeding, and anemia of 6 -month-old infants were significantly associated .Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors in infants of 6 months were artifi-cial feeding patterns and anemia of the mother; and the addition of the milk and colostrum feeding formula was a protective factor for anemia of in-fants, the difference statistically significant ( P <0.01).Conclusion:Breastfeeding can reduce the prevalence of anemia in

  10. Why do mothers use nipple shields and how does this influence duration of exclusive breastfeeding?

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Nilsson, Ingrid;

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the contentious discussions about the benefits and risks of nipple shield use. The objective was to explore self-reported reasons for using a nipple shield and examine associations pertaining to the mother, the infant and duration of breastfeeding. Data were collected ...

  11. Breastfeeding among Latino Families in an Urban Pediatric Office Setting

    Elizabeth Sloand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the breastfeeding rate of Latino infants at an urban pediatric clinic in the first six months of life and to identify factors associated with breastfeeding. Methods. Investigators conducted a retrospective chart review of infants seen at the clinic in 2014 as part of a mixed methods study. Topics reviewed included demographics, infant health data, and feeding methods at 5 points in time. Bivariate correlations and cross-tabulations explored associations between variables. Results. Most of the mothers (75% fed their newborns with both breastfeeding and formula (las dos. At 6 months, a majority were formula-fed only (55.9%. Approximately 10% of mothers exclusively breastfed their newborns, and the trend of exclusive breastfeeding remained steady through the 6-month visit. Over time, the number of mothers who exclusively bottle-feed their infants steadily rises. There were no statistical differences among the feeding method groups with regard to birth order of child, number of adults or children in the household, vaccination rate, number of sick visits, or infants’ growth. Conclusions. More targeted attention to this population and other immigrant populations with culturally tailored interventions spanning the prenatal to early infancy periods could increase exclusive breastfeeding and ultimately improve child health.

  12. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding.

  13. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  14. Breastfeeding in Samoa: A Study to Explore Women's Knowledge and the Factors which Influence Infant Feeding Practices

    Archer, Lucy E; Dunne, Thomas F; Lock, Lauren J; Price, Lucy A

    2017-01-01

    A decline in breastfeeding rates in Samoa has been reported over the last century. To assess the length of time women breastfeed, their knowledge of both the advantages of and recommendations for breastfeeding, and the factors that influence their decisions to continue or discontinue breastfeeding, a questionnaire was distributed at Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital. One hundred and twenty-one eligible participants were included aged 18–50 years (mean age 28.2). Ninety percent of participants initiated breastfeeding, and the majority (78%) of babies were exclusively breastfed for at least the recommended 6 months. Many mothers introduced complementary (solid) foods later than World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation's International Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommendations of 6 months. Awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding was mixed. The most widely known advantage was “the development of an emotional bond between mother and baby” (67%). Other advantages were less widely known. Only a small minority were aware that breastfeeding reduces risk of maternal diabetes and aids weight loss post partum. Doctors and healthcare workers were listed as the top factors encouraging breastfeeding. Participants' comments revealed a generally positive attitude towards breastfeeding, a very encouraging finding. Participants identified that the number of breastfeeding breaks available at work and the length of their maternity leave were factors discouraging breastfeeding. Future studies are necessary to determine if problems identified in this study are applicable on a national level. These could be important to determine measures to improve breastfeeding practices in Samoa. PMID:28090399

  15. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication.

  16. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  17. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  18. Breastfeeding and weaning practices among Hong Kong mothers: a prospective study

    Sham Alice

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding provides optimal and complete nutrition for newborn babies. Although new mothers in Hong Kong are increasingly choosing to breastfeed their babies, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are low and duration remains short. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and weaning practices of Hong Kong mothers over the infant's first year of life to determine the factors associated with early cessation. Methods A cohort of 1417 mother-infant pairs was recruited from the obstetric units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong in the immediate post-partum period and followed prospectively for 12 months or until weaned. We used descriptive statistics to describe breastfeeding and weaning practices and multiple logistic regression to investigate the relationship between maternal characteristics and breastfeeding cessation. Results At 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months only 63%, 37.3%, 26.9%, and 12.5% of the infants respectively, were still receiving any breast milk; approximately one-half of breastfeeding mothers were exclusively breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with a longer duration of residence in Hong Kong, and those returning to work postpartum were more likely to wean before 1 month. Mothers with higher education, previous breastfeeding experience, who were breastfed themselves and those who were planning to exclusively breastfeed and whose husbands preferred breastfeeding were more likely to continue breastfeeding beyond 1 month. The introduction of infant formula before 1 month and returning to work postpartum were predictive of weaning before 3 months. Conclusions Breastfeeding promotion programs have been successful in achieving high rates of breastfeeding initiation but the focus must now shift to helping new mothers exclusively breastfeed and sustain breastfeeding for longer.

  19. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding reduces autoimmune diabetes incidence and increases regulatory T-cell frequency in bio-breeding diabetes-prone rats

    Brugman, S.; Visser, J. T. J.; Hillebrands, J. L.; Bos, N. A.; Rozing, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported that exclusive breastfeeding delayed and partially protected bio-breeding diabetes-prone (BBDP) rats from spontaneous autoimmune diabetes development. To investigate whether this protection results from modulation of the (mucosal) immune system, the present study w

  20. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  1. Breastfeeding practices in a public health field practice area in Sri Lanka: a survival analysis

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.

  2. Using community volunteers to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Asma Misbah Qureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available for 6 months, were older (P=0.00 multi-parous (P=0.05 and more educated (P=0.00 compared to those who did not practice EBF. Among them, significantly increased proportion of women agreed that EBF should be continued during the night (P=0.03, infant should be fed on demand (P=0.05, sick child could be given medication (P=0.02, EBF offered protection against childhood diarrhea (P=0.01, and helped mothers with birth spacing (P=0.00. CONCLUSION: This study shows that there is a need for reaching women with reliable information about infant nutrition in Sokoto State. The results show decreased EBF practice among working mothers, young women, mothers with poor education and fewer than five children. Counseling is a useful strategy for promoting the duration of EBF for six months and for developing support systems for nursing mothers. Working mothers may need additional resources in this setting to enable them to practice EBF.

  3. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  4. Aleitamento materno exclusivo entre trabalhadoras com creche no local de trabalho Exclusive breastfeeding among working women with free daycare available at workplace

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores relacionados à decisão das mulheres em amamentar e a duração planejada e, de fato observada, do aleitamento exclusivo entre trabalhadoras que dispõem de creche na empresa. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo no qual se comparou um grupo de 15 trabalhadoras cujos bebês estavam sendo alimentados apenas com leite materno quando começaram a freqüentar a creche da empresa com outro similar que incluía mulheres cujos bebês que, ao ingressar, já estavam recebendo, além do leite materno, outros alimentos. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupos focais. RESULTADOS: Evidenciaram-se como fatores relacionados à decisão de iniciar a amamentação e mantê-la ao retornar ao trabalho: o desejo de amamentar, embasado no valor que as mulheres dos dois grupos atribuíam ao aleitamento materno, bem como seus maridos e outras pessoas significativas (por exemplo: mãe, irmã, amigas. A duração do aleitamento exclusivo relacionou-se principalmente à orientação do pediatra que cuidava do bebê, que foi distinta em cada um dos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A existência da creche no local de trabalho aparece como elemento relevante para a manutenção do aleitamento após a licença de maternidade, especialmente o materno exclusivo. A decisão sobre quanto tempo amamentar de forma exclusiva esteve relacionada às informações recebidas acerca do assunto antes e durante a gestação, e no pós-parto. A diferença entre os dois grupos estudados foi que as mulheres que mantiveram o aleitamento exclusivo por quase seis meses acreditavam que quanto mais tempo dessem somente o leite materno, mais benefícios o bebê teria, enquanto as mulheres do outro grupo acreditavam que três meses de aleitamento exclusivo eram suficientes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors related to the decision of exclusive breastfeeding, and the planned and the actual duration among working women with free daycare available at workplace

  5. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  6. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil

    Graciete O. Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in breastfeeding indicators in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, and to identify population characteristics that might have influenced this trend. METHODS: Three methodologically comparable cross-sectional surveys performed in 1996, 2001, and 2009 were analyzed. These involved 2,159, 2,319, and 1,471 children younger than 1 year of age who were vaccinated in national multivaccination campaigns in the respective years. A standardized questionnaire was used, containing closed questions on consumption of breast milk and other foods on the day before the survey, along with questions regarding the characteristics of the population. RESULTS: The annual growth of the breastfeeding indicators was 2.1% for breastfeeding in the first hour of life (from 52.2% to 68.9%; 1.1% for breastfeeding among children aged 9 to 12 months (from 45% to 59.6%; and 0.8% for exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than 6 months (from 36.9% to 47.4%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 52.3 to 84.3 days, and overall breastfeeding from 278 to 376 days. Some changes in the characteristics of the population were observed, which may have positively influenced the evolution of the breastfeeding indicators (better schooling level among the mothers, less use of dummies/pacifiers, and lower proportions of adolescent mothers, or negatively (greater proportions of primiparous mothers and cesarean deliveries, and lower frequency of births in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. CONCLUSION: There were significant advances in breastfeeding indicators, although they are still far from ideal. Changes observed in population characteristics may have positively or negatively influenced this evolution.

  7. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  8. A decade of change in breastfeeding in China's far north-west

    Xiao Cuiqin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been considerable changes in breastfeeding practices in China over the past forty years. However China is a very large country, and breastfeeding rates in different parts of China vary considerably. The objective of this paper is to identify and compare breastfeeding types and rates between 1994–1996 and 2003–2004 in Shihezi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, PR China. Methods In 1994–1996, a study of breastfeeding (n = 2197 was undertaken in Shihezi, Xinjiang, PR China. A decade later in 2003–2004, a longitudinal study (n = 545 of infant feeding practices was undertaken in the same area. Results The 'any breastfeeding' rates at 1, 4 and 6 months were 94%, 82% and 78% respectively in the early 1990s. A decade later, breastfeeding at 1 month was lower, but rates at 4 and 6 months remained the same. In 2004 the 'full breastfeeding' rate at one month was significantly higher (57% than a decade earlier (38%, but after 3 months there was a rapid decline. This reflected a shift in the way complementary foods are introduced: the initial introduction was later, but by a higher proportion of mothers. Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding at one month is significantly lower in 2003–2004 when compared to 1994–1996. The 'full breastfeeding' rates were initially higher, but after 3 months were then lower. The Chinese national breastfeeding targets were not reached in either period of the study. These studies show the need to further promote full or exclusive breastfeeding and further longitudinal studies are necessary to provide the detailed knowledge about risk factors required for health promotion programs.

  9. Nutritional management of the breastfeeding dyad.

    Valentine, Christina J; Wagner, Carol L

    2013-02-01

    Milk is successfully produced by mothers regardless of their nutritional status. Nevertheless, the concentrations of some nutrients, specifically vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B3, B6, and B12, fatty acids, and iodine, in human milk depend on or are influenced by maternal diet. A healthy and varied diet during lactation ensures adequate maternal nutrition and optimal concentration of some nutrients in human milk. Exclusive breastfeeding meets the nutritional needs of infants for 6 months of life with the exception of vitamins D and K, which should be given to breastfed infants as supplements.

  10. Poor adherence to national and international breastfeeding duration targets in an Australian longitudinal cohort.

    Alexis J Hure

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To report on the proportion and characteristics of Australian infants who are fed, and mothers who feed, in accordance with the national and international breastfeeding duration targets of six, 12 and 24 months. Furthermore, to examine the longitudinal breastfeeding duration patterns for women with more than one child. METHODS: Breastfeeding duration data for 9773 children have been self-reported by a national sample of 5091 mothers aged 30-36 years in 2009, participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. RESULTS: Only 60% of infants received the minimum recommended 6 months of breast milk, irrespective of breastfeeding exclusivity. Less than 30% of infants received any breast milk at 12 months, and less than 3% were breastfed to the international target of 24 months. Young, less educated, unmarried or low-income women were at an increased risk of premature breastfeeding cessation. For women with three or more children, nearly 75% of women who breastfed their first child for at least six months reached this breastfeeding duration target for their next two children. CONCLUSION: While national breastfeeding rates are typically evaluated in relation to the infant, a novel component of our study is that we have assessed maternal adherence to breastfeeding duration targets and the longitudinal feeding practices of women with more than one child. Separate evaluations of maternal and infant breastfeeding rates are important as they differ in their implications for public health policy and practice.

  11. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  12. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    Hong Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28. Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  13. A family practice breastfeeding education pilot program: an observational, descriptive study

    Laughlin Kathleen M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States Preventive Services Task Force found that effective interventions for extending breastfeeding duration are generally begun during the prenatal period, provide ongoing support for patients and combine information with face-to-face guidance. A 2001 literature review had similar findings but also found that employing a lactation consultant in the clinical setting may increase breastfeeding duration rates. Thus, a program was developed at a family practice office that employed a lactation consultant and followed the American Academy of Pediatrics' "Ten Steps to Support Parents' Choice to Breastfeed Their Baby." Methods The program distributed handouts at each prenatal and well-child visit (up to one year. Using questionnaires, a small audit project evaluated the program's impact on breastfeeding goals, duration, in-hospital exclusivity and maternal perception of success. Mothers completed goal surveys at baseline and post-intervention, usually while waiting for prenatal clinic visits. Duration was assessed by surveys completed during well-infant visits, postal mailings or telephone interviews at breastfeeding cessation, 6 months and 1 year. The outcomes measured were increases in goals, maternal perception of success, duration and in-hospital exclusivity. Results Participants included 33 women: 48% had a bachelor's or master's degree, 61% were non-Hispanic white, and 67% reported incomes of US$75,000 or higher. At baseline 5/31 planned to exclusively breastfeed for 4–6 months and 5/33 planned to breastfeed for 6–12 months. Post-intervention there was a 200% increase (15/31 in the exclusively breastfeeding 4–6 month group and a 160% increase (13/33 in the 6–12 month duration group. Actual in-hospital exclusivity rates were 61%, 6-month duration rates were 73%, and 12-month rates were 33%. Over 75% of mothers reported feeling successful. Conclusion This small pilot educational program may have significant

  14. Maternity Care Practices and Breastfeeding Among Adolescent Mothers Aged 12-19 Years--United States, 2009-2011.

    Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Dee, Deborah L; Sharma, Andrea J; Smith, Ruben A

    2016-01-22

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months of life, and that mothers continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in 2011, only 19.3% of mothers aged ≤20 years in the United States exclusively breastfed their infants at 3 months, compared with 36.4% of women aged 20-29 years and 45.0% of women aged ≥30 years. Hospitals play an essential role in providing care that helps mothers establish and continue breastfeeding. The U.S. Surgeon General and numerous health professional organizations recommend providing care aligned with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), including adherence to the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (Ten Steps), as well as not providing gift packs containing infant formula. Implementing BFHI-aligned maternity care improves duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding among mothers; however, studies have not examined associations between BFHI-aligned maternity care and breastfeeding outcomes solely among adolescent mothers (for this report, adolescents refers to persons aged 12-19 years). Therefore, CDC analyzed 2009-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data and determined that among adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, self-reported prevalence of experiencing any of the nine selected BFHI-aligned maternity care practices included in the PRAMS survey ranged from 29.2% to 95.4%. Among the five practices identified to be significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes in this study, the more practices a mother experienced, the more likely she was to be breastfeeding (any amount or exclusively) at 4 weeks and 8 weeks postpartum. Given the substantial health advantages conferred to mothers and children through breastfeeding, and the particular vulnerability of adolescent mothers to lower breastfeeding rates, it is important for hospitals to provide evidence-based maternity practices related to breastfeeding as part of their

  15. 深圳市6个月内婴儿母亲纯母乳喂养知信行及手机利用需求调查%Survey on KABP of exclusive breastfeeding and utilization of mobile phones among mothers whose babies were under six months old

    吴缃琦; 孙晓勉; 何珊茹

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市6个月内婴儿母亲纯母乳喂养知信行情况,并根据婴儿母亲手机利用需求提出方便、有效、可行、易于接受的有针对性的健康教育干预措施.方法 随机抽取在深圳市3个区妇幼保健院儿保科进行6个月内儿童常规体检的婴儿母亲1000名进行问卷调查.结果 6个月内纯母乳喂养率为61.2%,非纯母乳喂养主要原因为自述母乳不足(42.01%),按需哺乳知识知晓率最低(47.7%),母乳喂养知识主要来源为医务人员(50.1%),纯母乳喂养组与非纯母乳喂养组在母乳喂养信心(χ2=7.131,P=0.008)、家人支持(χ2=5.648,P=0.017)、开奶时间(χ2=45.083,P<0.01)、母婴同室(χ2=19.765,P<0.01)、夜间哺乳(χ2=15.666,P<0.01)方面比较,差异有统计学意义.调查显示86.8%的婴儿母亲愿意通过手机接收母乳喂养知识.结论 为进一步提高6个月内纯母乳喂养率,医务人员应加强母乳喂养宣教,鼓励产妇家属共同参与,增强产妇母乳喂养信心,用工单位提供便利支持母乳喂养,医院落实爱婴医院政策,发挥手机快捷、互动平台作用进行母乳喂养健康教育干预.%Objective To get to know the knowledge, attitude, belief and practice ( KABP ) of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers whose babies were under six months old, and to propose convenient, effective, feasible, more accepting and targeted health education interventions according to those mothers' status of mobile phone utilization.Methods A total of 1000 mothers who took their under 6-month-old babies to receive routine physical examinations at department of child health at three district women and child health institutes in Shenzhen were randomly selected and received questionnaire survey.Results The exclusive breastfeeding rate in mothers whose babies were under six months old was 61.2%.The main reason for non-exclusive breastfeeding was insufficient breast milk (42.01%).The awareness rate of breastfeeding on

  16. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  17. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breastfeeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “energies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  18. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breast-feeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk. Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. “Bio-geno-immuno-nutrition” of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their “en-ergies” need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  19. Breastfeeding counsel against cancers

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2016-01-01

    The anticancer potential by breastfeeding is not fully tapped in the light of the present knowledge of the subject. Literature indicates that breastmilk has anticancer action but may underestimate its full capacity. The protective spectrum within breastmilk hints on the need for a more comprehensive understanding of it as an anticancer tool. Exclusive breastfeeding could confer protection from carcinogenesis with a greater impact than realised. A literature review was conducted using four electronic databases. Selected areas were extracted after thorough perusal of the articles. The uninitiated would take exclusive breastfeeding seriously if actively counselled as an anticancer tool. Advice on details of the breastfeeding process and holistic information on breastfeeding may endow a greater impact among the skeptics. Counselling the breastfeeding mother on information sometimes not imparted, such as on maternal nutrition, details of the process of breastfeeding, benefits of direct breastfeeding versus milk expression and her psychosocial well being may make a difference in optimising anticancer action that exists in breastmilk.Additionally, its anticancer potential provides a platform to universally improve physical and psychosocial well being of women who breastfeed. Statistics of protection by breastfeeding in some maternal and childhood cancers are evident. "Bio-geno-immunonutrition" of breastmilk may shield the mother and infant from carcinogenesis in more ways than appreciated. The molecular basis of mother-to-infant signals and their "energies" need to be researched. Breastfeeding as a modifiable behaviour provides cost effective nutrition with potential for both cancer immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy.

  20. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Patil Sapna S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  1. 新生儿院内纯母乳喂养情况及其影响因素分析%Status of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding and its influence factors

    张悦; 王惠珊; 罗倩; 张丽晋; 王硕; 姚礼明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To find out the status of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding in urban areas of China,and explore the influence factors to in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding. {Methods] 1 288 data were collected in 32 maternity and children health care hospitals of provincial and municipal levels. The breastfeeding status within 24 hours were recalled. The associations between in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding with socio-demographic variables, pregnant and puerperal factors and hospital related factors were explored by Chi-square analyses and binary Logistic regression analyses. [Results] The rate of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding was 46. 6%. Logistic regression showed that high education level,high family income were negative effects to in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding;sucking breast within 30 minutes after-born,breastfeeding during the first day and without feeding sugar water were positive effects to in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding. [Conclusion] Actively carrying out baby-friendly hospital implementation, promoting breastfeeding of focus person, will promote breastfeeding success.%[目的]了解我国城市地区新生儿院内纯母乳喂养情况及孕产情况、产后医院护理行为对院内纯母乳喂养的影响. [方法]以全国32所省、市级妇幼保健院的1 288例产妇为研究对象,采用单因素和Logistic回归法分析产妇出院前24 h内母乳喂养情况及影响院内纯母乳喂养的可能因素. [结果] 出院前产妇的纯母乳喂养率为46.6%.文化程度高、家庭收入高对纯母乳喂养有负性作用;生后半小时早开奶、生后第1天母乳喂养、不添加糖水对纯母乳喂养是正性作用. [结论]积极贯彻爱婴医院的措施,开展有针对性的母乳喂养干预,将有利于促进住院期间母乳喂养成功.

  2. Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children’s daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods in order to prevent obesity. Recent assessment of breastfeeding in Korea has shown that the rate is between 63% and 89%; thus, up-to-dated evidence-based nutritional management of breastfeeding infants to prevent common nutrient deficiencies or excesses should be taught to all clinicians and health care providers.

  3. Maternal return to paid work and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Aikawa, Tomomi; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Sawasdivorn, Siraporn; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the association between mothers' work-related factors and breastfeeding practices in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected from 84 working mothers with a child aged 6 to 24 months who visited the breastfeeding mobile clinic at a nursery goods exhibition. Thai interviewers collected data using a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months was 78.6%, and for 6 months it was 38.1%. Mothers who returned to work 3 months or more after giving birth exclusively breastfed more than the mothers who returned to work in less than 3 months (crude odds ratio [OR] = 4.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.05; adjusted OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.15-14.95). Moreover, mothers who worked at self-employed or family-owned businesses and some mothers working at private companies showed tendencies of returning to work in less than 3 months. Results suggest that longer maternity leave would help extend the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition, the improvement of a breastfeeding supportive environment in the workplace would be valuable and may be an effective means to improve breastfeeding practices and infant health.

  4. 品管圈提高产妇纯母乳喂养率的价值探讨%Quality control circle improve maternal exclusive breastfeeding rate value

    陈朝霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈提高产妇纯母乳喂养率的价值。方法选取我院2014年4月~2015年7月收治产科分娩产妇126例研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和实验组,各63例。对照组采取常规母乳喂养教育与指导,实验组在此基础上实施品管圈活动。对两组产妇的母乳喂养情况进行记录与分析。结果实验组产妇的母乳喂养成功率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组产妇的乳腺炎及乳房胀痛发生率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对产科产妇在常规母乳教育与指导的基础上实施品管圈活动,能有效提升产妇的产母乳喂养率,对于降低乳腺炎等疾病的发病风险作用重大,值得临床推广。%Objective To study the quality control circle of improving maternal exclusive breastfeeding rate value.Methods Select our hospital 126 cases of maternal obstetric delivery analysis and research, in accordance with the principle of random number average divide the 63 cases of patients as control group and observation group. Control group 63 cases take regular breastfeeding education and guidance, observation group 63 cases on the basis of the implementation of quality management circle activity.On two groups of maternal breastfeeding for recording and analysis.Results Observation group of maternal breastfeeding success rate is signiifcantly higher than the control group,(P< 0.05); Observation group of mastitis and maternal breast tenderness incidence was signiifcantly lower than the control group, (P< 0.05.)Conclusion Of obstetrical maternal in regular breast education and guidance on the basis of the implementation of quality management circle activity, can effectively improve the yield of maternal breastfeeding rate, to reduce the risk of diseases such as mastitis effect, worth clinical promotion.

  5. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES OF MOTHER`S OF CHILDREN LESS THAN 2 YEARS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND N UTRITIONAL STATUS OF MOTHER

    Mythili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the various demographic factors affecting breastfeeding practices and the nutritional outcome of children who were exclusively breastfed and the nutritional status who were not exclusively breastfed. METHOD S : Cross sectional descriptive study of children less than 2 years in Anganwadi in and around MGM Hospital Trichy city. RESULTS: Percentage of mothers who initiated breastfeeding in less than 1 hour was 58.52% as against the Nations rate which is 23.4%, however the rate of breastfeeding more than 6 months at Nations level is 56.7% which almost close to the result obtained in this study. CONCLUSION: This study showed that maternal nutritio nal status and socioeconomic status remained positively associated with breastfeeding suggesting social policies affecting maternal nutrition and interventions to overall improve the better living of people which would have long lasting effect in nutrition al outcome of babies.

  6. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  7. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Quyen Thi-Tu Bui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective: This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design: Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results: Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11 but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01. Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13, and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of

  8. Influência da técnica de amamentação nas freqüências de aleitamento materno exclusivo e lesões mamilares no primeiro mês de lactação The influence of breastfeeding technique on the frequencies of exclusive breastfeeding and nipple trauma in the first month of lactation

    Enilda M. L. Weigert

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência da técnica de amamentação nas freqüências de aleitamento materno exclusivo e de lesões mamilares no primeiro mês de lactação. MÉTODOS: Foram pesquisados parâmetros desfavoráveis à amamentação (cinco relacionados ao posicionamento mãe/bebê e três à pega do bebê em 211 mães/bebês na maternidade e, aos 30 dias, no domicílio. Foram comparadas as freqüências desses parâmetros entre as duplas com e sem amamentação exclusiva aos 7 e 30 dias, e entre as mães com e sem lesões mamilares na maternidade. RESULTADOS: O número de parâmetros desfavoráveis na maternidade foi semelhante nas duplas com e sem amamentação exclusiva aos 7 e 30 dias. Porém, aos 30 dias, foi, em média, menor nas duplas em amamentação exclusiva, tanto no posicionamento (1,7±1,2 versus 2,2±1,1; p = 0,009 quanto na pega (1,0±0,6 versus 1,4±0,6; p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of breastfeeding technique on the frequencies of exclusive breastfeeding and nipple trauma in the first month of lactation. METHODS: We searched for unfavorable parameters of breastfeeding (five related to mother/baby positioning and three related to baby' latch on in 211 mother-baby pairs in the maternity ward and at day 30, at home. We compared the frequencies of these parameters between mothers practicing or not exclusive breastfeeding at days 7 and 30, and between mothers with or without nipple trauma at the hospital. RESULTS: The number of unfavorable parameters in the maternity ward was similar for mother-baby pairs practicing or not exclusive breastfeeding at day 7 and 30. However, at day 30, it was, on average, lower among those under exclusive breastfeeding, regarding positioning (1.7±1.2 vs 2.2±1.1; p = 0.009 as well as latch on (1.0±0.6 vs 1.4±0.6; p < 0.001. The number of unfavorable parameters related to latch on in the maternity ward was similar for women with or without nipple trauma, but women without trauma

  9. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Agneta Hörnell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C. A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2, provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote

  10. 2006-07 north metropolitan Perth breastfeeding cohort study: how long are mothers breastfeeding?

    Forde, Karen A; Miller, Laura J

    2010-07-01

    Information about local breastfeeding rates and predictors of breastfeeding outcomes can assist with improving health planning and community support. Longitudinal infant feeding data were collected during scheduled contacts with a Community Child Health Nurse and a telephone survey at 6 months for 3828 infants in Perth, Western Australia. Breastfeeding rates were below recommended targets. Regression analyses identified several significant protective and risk predictors of breastfeeding outcomes. Factors that increased the likelihood of use of artificial baby milk in hospital were low birth weight, multiple births, private hospital, primiparity and mother of Asian ethnicity. At 6 months, factors that reduced the likelihood of breastfeeding were young mother, no tertiary education, multiple births, use of artiicial baby milk in hospital, low birth weight and mother seeking postnatal professional breastfeeding advice within 14 days. A strong commitment by health leaders and professionals is required across the continuum of care to provide timely and consistent support to maintain breastfeeding.

  11. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  12. Exploratory study: breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes towards sexuality and breastfeeding, and disposition towards supporting breastfeeding in future Puerto Rican male parents.

    Rivera Alvarado, Ivelisse; Vázquez García, Virginia; Dávila Torres, René R; Parrilla Rodríguez, Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Identify the breastfeeding knowledge, the attitudes towards sexuality and breastfeeding and the disposition towards supporting breastfeeding in future fathers were the aims of this study. A non-probabilistic sample (n = 100) of future Puerto Rican male parents was used in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used consisting of four sections. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and t-test to the inferential analysis. 88.8% of the participants presented a low level of knowledge. However, 81.6% had a positive attitude toward sexuality and breastfeeding. Also, 92.0% of the participants indicated much/enough willingness to support their partners in exclusively breastfeeding. Disposition to support the breastfeeding was associated with knowledge towards breastfeeding (p = 0.04) and attitudes toward sexuality and breastfeeding (p = 0.00). The knowledge and the attitudes, in this study, are strongly related with the disposition of the father to supporting the breastfeeding in the future.

  13. The relationship between family structure and exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in Nicaragua La relación existente entre las prácticas de lactancia materna exclusiva y la estructura de la familia nicaragüense

    Henry Espinoza

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationship between family structure and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nicaragua. Material and Methods. A subset of the Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1998 was obtained by selecting all last-born infants less than 4 months old at the time of the survey. Weighted chi-squared and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association. Results. Interviewee women heads of household and interviewee women...

  14. Feeding patterns and diet -- children 6 months to 2 years

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000713.htm Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 ... development Can help prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age ...

  15. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    Bazzano AN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Richard A Oberhelman,1 Kaitlin Storck Potts,1 Leah D Taub,1 Chivorn Var2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2National Institute of Public Health, Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Background: Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods: Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results: The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion: Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. Keywords: formative research, health education, lactation, behavior change

  16. Is baby-friendly breastfeeding support in maternity hospitals associated with breastfeeding satisfaction among Japanese mothers?

    Hongo, Hiroko; Nanishi, Keiko; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2015-06-01

    While the World Health Organization's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative has increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, a survey found that only 8.5 % of maternity hospitals in 31 developed countries could be designated baby-friendly. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support is sometimes criticized as mother unfriendly. This study examined whether baby-friendly breastfeeding support was associated with breastfeeding satisfaction, duration, and exclusivity among Japanese mothers. In this cross-sectional study, 601 breastfeeding Japanese mothers completed questionnaires at their infants' 4-month health checkups at two wards in Yokohama, Japan; 363 were included in the analysis. Baby-friendly breastfeeding support was measured based on the WHO's "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding." We measured satisfaction using two subscales of the Japanese version of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale. The association of baby-friendly support with maternal satisfaction was assessed using multiple linear regression, while the prevalence ratios (PRs) for breastfeeding were estimated using Poisson regression. Mothers were stratified by prepartum exclusive breastfeeding intention (yes, n = 256; no, n = 107). Mothers who experienced early skin-to-skin contact with their infants were more likely to report breastfeeding satisfaction than those who did not. Among mothers without exclusive breastfeeding intention, those who were encouraged to feed on demand were more likely to be breastfeeding without formula at 1 month (PR 2.66 [95 % CI 1.32, 5.36]) and to perceive breastfeeding as beneficial for their baby (regression coefficient = 3.14 [95 % CI 0.11, 6.17]) than those who were not so encouraged. Breastfeeding satisfaction was a useful measure of breastfeeding outcome. Early skin-to-skin contact and encouragement to feed on demand in the hospital facilitate breastfeeding satisfaction.

  17. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  18. PRESENT SITUATION OF BREAST-FEEDING AND COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH OF CHILDREN UNDER 36 MONTHS IN WESTERN CHINA

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  19. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of children: assessment at one year of age.

    Hoque, M M; Ahmed, N U; Khan, F H; Jahan, R; Yasmeen, H N; Chowdhury, M A

    2012-04-01

    Breastfeeding is the fundamental component of child survival strategy. It significantly influences neurological development of children. The study was conducted to assess whether exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development, including low birth weight (LBW) babies, in a developing country setting like Bangladesh. This observational study was done on a cohort of newborn infants who were discharged from the special care baby unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital during January 2006 to December 2008 with proper counseling about exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding. Their neuro-developmental follow-up was started at 4 weeks postnatal age and continued at 3-monthly intervals up to 1 year of age. At each visit, cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II). Cognitive development was compared between the babies of exclusive vs. non exclusive breastfeeding, normal weight vs. low birth weight and male vs. female babies. A total of 105 cases were successfully followed-up during this period. Out of these 47(44.8%) babies were exclusively breastfed up to 6 month of age and 58(55.2%) were in nonexclusive group. Overall Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) was slightly more (108.40 ± 23.06 vs. 103.23 ± 19.87) in the exclusive breast fed babies in comparison to nonexclusive breast fed babies, but was significantly more in babies having birth weight >2.5 kg in comparison to those having birth weight of development were more or less same in both normal and LBW groups. Mental and motor development was same in both boys and girls. In behavior ratings, cooperation was significantly high (5.89 ± 2.54 vs. 4.71 ± 3.13, p=0.05) and vocalization (5.89 ± 1.07 vs. 4.58 ± 1.16) was also high, though not significant, in girls than boys.

  20. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...

  1. Protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight can be detected as early as the second year of life: a study of children from one of the most socially-deprived areas of Brazil.

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Coutinho, Sônia B; Santos, Leonor M P; Horta, Bernardo L

    2015-03-01

    Millions of children live in Brazil's semi-arid region, one of the most socially-deprived areas of the country, where undernutrition co-exists with obesity as a consequence of the nutrition transition. There is evidence that childhood obesity predisposes adult obesity and, thus, that obesity should be prevented as early as possible. Some studies have shown that breastfeeding is a protective factor against overweight and obesity while other studies have not found this association. There have been few studies on this association in developing countries and of children below two years of age. The present study aimed to investigate whether children exposed to exclusive breastfeeding for ≥ 6 months showed a lower prevalence of overweight in the second year of life, based on a probability sample of 2,209 children (aged 12 to 24 months). The dependent variable was overweight, defined as weight-for-length z-scores of >2, based on the WHO 2006 standard while the independent variable was exclusive breastfeeding (≥ 6 months). The prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance. After adjusting for potential confounding factors (socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables), children on exclusive breastfeeding for ≥ 6 months showed a lower prevalence of overweight (5.7% vs 9.1%, PR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.89). It was found that exclusive breastfeeding for six months or more is a protective factor against overweight in children in the second year of life living in the Brazilian semi-arid region.

  2. Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding Program in 2013 at Puskesmas of Probolinggo City (A Case Study in Kedopok and Sukabumi of Health Center Services

    Astridya Paramita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientifi c research proves that babies tend to grow more healthy and intelligent with a given exclusive breastfeeding in the fi rst 6 months of life. The coverage of exclusive breastfeeding infants 0–5 months was fl uctuating. This study aimed to review the implementation of exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in Primary Health Care (PHC of Probolinggo City. Methods: Qualitative methods with purposive techniques informant selection was applied in this case study. The study was conducted at the Sukabumi and Kedopok PHC of Probolinggo City in 2013. Results: The results showed the weak management functions of programme in PHC and the less attention of Probolinggo Government related to the limited number of health worker n cost of health promotion activities . The success of exclusive breastfeeding Health Promotion Program is not only determined by the input component , but also creativity and active efforts of health promotion strategies as practiced in Sukabumi PHC. Recommendations: Optimization of monitoring and evaluation program exclusive breastfeeding in PHC from the Municipality/District Government, and his staff; strengthening the input component; and the implementation of advocacy, ”bina suasana”, empowerment and partnerships activities.

  3. Fatores preditivos da interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo no primeiro mês de lactação Factors predicting early discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life

    Graciete O. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Averiguar os fatores associados à interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo no primeiro mês de lactação na cidade de Feira de Santana, BA. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte com 1.309 duplas mães-bebês selecionadas em todas as maternidades do município. Os dados foram coletados no hospital e domicílio ao final do primeiro mês. A associação entre desfecho e variáveis de interesse foi avaliada por meio de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Falta de experiência prévia com amamentação (razão de prevalência 1,24; IC95% 1,75-1,43, presença de fissura mamilar (razão de prevalência 1,25; IC95% 1,09-1,43, horários pré-determinados para amamentar (razão de prevalência 1,42; IC95% 1,09-1,84 e uso de chupeta (razão de prevalência 1,53; IC95% 1,34-1,76 foram identificados como fatores preditivos da interrupção do aleitamento exclusivo. CONCLUSÕES: Medidas de prevenção da interrupção do aleitamento exclusivo devem priorizar mulheres sem experiência com amamentação e contemplar prevenção de traumas mamilares, incentivo à prática do aleitamento em livre demanda e desestímulo ao uso de chupeta.OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of lactation, in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil. METHODS: Cohort study with follow-up of 1,309 mother-child pairs selected from all maternities in the municipality. Data were collected in hospital and in home visits during the first month of life. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between outcome and variables of interest. RESULTS: Lack of prior breastfeeding experience (PR 1.24; 95%CI 1.75-1.43, cracked nipples (PR 1.25; 95%CI 1.09-1.43, use of fixed breastfeeding schedules (PR 1.42; 95%CI 1.09-1.84 and pacifier use (PR 1.53; 95%CI 1.34-1.76 were identified as factors predicting discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to prevent early discontinuation

  4. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Cognition, Executive Function, and Behavioural Disorders in Primary School-Aged Children in Rural South Africa: A Cohort Analysis.

    Tamsen J Rochat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is associated with early child health; its longer-term benefits for child development remain inconclusive. We examine the associations between EBF, HIV exposure, and other maternal/child factors and the cognitive and emotional-behavioural development of children aged 7-11 y.The Vertical Transmission Study (VTS supported EBF in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women; between 2012 and 2014, HIV-negative VTS children (332 HIV exposed, 574 HIV unexposed were assessed in terms of cognition (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition [KABC-II], executive function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Second Edition [NEPSY-II], and emotional-behavioural functioning (parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist, [CBCL]. We developed population means by combining the VTS sample with 629 same-aged HIV-negative children from the local demographic platform. For each outcome, we split the VTS sample into scores above or at/below each population mean and modelled each outcome using logistic regression analyses, overall and stratified by child sex. There was no demonstrated effect of EBF on overall cognitive functioning. EBF was associated with fewer conduct disorders overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.3-0.7], p ≤ 0.01, and there was weak evidence of better cognition in boys who had been exclusively breastfed for 2-5 mo versus ≤1 mo (Learning subscale aOR 2.07 [95% CI 1.0-4.3], p = 0.05. Other factors associated with better child cognition were higher maternal cognitive ability (aOR 1.43 [95% CI 1.1-1.9], p = 0.02, Sequential; aOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.3-2.4], p < 0.001, Planning subscales and crèche attendance (aOR 1.96 [95% CI 1.1-3.5], p = 0.02, Sequential subscale. Factors positively associated with executive function were home stimulation (aOR 1.36 [95% CI 1.0-1.8], p = 0.04, Auditory Attention; aOR 1.35 [95% CI 1.0-1.8], p = 0.05, Response Set and crèche (aOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.0-3.0], p = 0.05, Animal

  5. Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in ireland: potential areas for improvement.

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-08-01

    There is a need to comprehensively examine why mothers in Ireland discontinue breastfeeding early and to explore the factors influencing duration of breastfeeding during the first 6 months postpartum. Findings from this study provide valuable direction for future strategies and interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding duration rates in Ireland.

  6. 孕期健康教育对孕妇分娩方式及纯母乳喂养的影响%Effect of pregnancy health education on delivery modes and exclusive breastfeeding

    吴燕琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Pregnancy He breastfeeding.alth Education on the choice of delivery mode and exclusive. Method :180 pregnant women who were admitted to the hospital from the early pregnancy, and received regular health education to delivery, were observed in the observation group, and 180 pregnant women in the same period, but did not receive normal health education in the control group. Compared the situations of two groups of pregnant women in prenatal childbirth final wishes, the actual delivery, breastfeeding, involution of uterus. Result: The pregnant women in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The proportion of pregnant women in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), Breastfeeding rate and involution of uterus (P < 0.05), Two groups of natural birth rate, exclusive breastfeeding rate and involution of uterus were significantly higher than the control group, differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Pregnancy health education can strengthen maternal understanding of natural childbirth, improve maternal mastery of exclusive breastfeeding-related knowledge, and enhance maternal self-confidence, promote natural childbirth, reduce cesarean section rate, increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, favor involution of uterus ,and improve maternal, infant's quality of life.%目的:探讨孕期健康教育对孕妇分娩方式及纯母乳喂养方式选择的影响。方法:选择从孕早期即入院产检并接受正规健康教育至分娩的孕妇180例为观察组,随机抽取同期产检和分娩、但未接受正规健康教育的孕妇180例为对照组;对比两组孕产妇最终的产前分娩意愿、实际分娩方式、母乳喂养、产后子宫复旧的情况。结果:观察组孕妇经干预后孕产妇自然分娩率明显高于对照组(P<0.01),观察组孕产妇因社会因素行剖宫

  7. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice...... to breast-feed are interrelated, and therefore, analyzing true causal effects presents a number of methodologic challenges....

  8. Increasing loyalty to breastfeeding: investigating a product development strategy.

    Parkinson, Joy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates how social marketing insights were used to influence women's loyalty to breastfeeding. The article reports on a social marketing campaign undertaken by the Australian Breastfeeding Association and a government health department, which used a product development strategy in order to increase breastfeeding loyalty. Seeking new approaches to support breastfeeding behaviors is critical and timely, because while initiation rates of breastfeeding are high in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, duration rates are significantly lower. Results indicate that a product- focused strategy influences pregnant women's loyalty to exclusively breastfeeding.

  9. Related Knowledge and Behavior About Exclusive Breastfeeding and Internet Utilization Status Among Mothers%儿童母亲纯母乳喂养相关知识、行为及网络利用调查

    宋超; 李可基; 简友平; 王丰; 曹玮; 苏清香

    2013-01-01

    目的 抽样调查儿童母亲有关婴幼儿喂养的信息、知识和行为情况,了解儿童母亲纯母乳喂养知识行为现状及网络利用情况.方法 在北京市西城区2所社区预防接种门诊,对前来参与预防接种的儿童母亲(排除未给婴儿添加辅食的儿童母亲)进行相关知识行为调查.结果 被调查的215位儿童母亲中,有56.3%不知道或者不能正确理解纯母乳喂养的概念,知道确切的纯母乳喂养持续时间的仅占27.9%,有32.3%对于婴幼儿纯母乳喂养存在知行不一的现象.87.4%的儿童母亲关注网络中的婴幼儿喂养相关知识,69.9%的儿童母亲会采取搜索引擎的搜索方式.当儿童母亲在网络中找到解决的办法时,90.5%的儿童母亲会选择采纳.结论 儿童母亲对纯母乳喂养相关知识了解不够,应该加强婴幼儿喂养知识的普及工作,绝对数量的儿童母亲关注网络中的婴幼儿喂养知识.%Objective To investigate the breastfeeding knowledge and behavior of the children's mother and network utilization status. Methods Children's mothers from two outpatient departments in Xicheng district were sampled and conducted questionnaire survey. Results Among the surveyed 215 children's mothers, 56. 3% of them did not know or could not correctly understand the concept of exclusive breastfeeding. Merely 27.9% of the subjects knew the exact duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Approximately 32. 3% of the children's mothers' knowledge and behavior were not uniform in terms of the infant exclusive breastfeeding. Approximately 87. 4% of the people paid attention to the knowledge about infant and young child feeding on the internet, and 69. 9% of them tended to use the search engine. After acquired the solution on the internet, 90. 5% of them would choose to adopt. Conclusion The mothers' knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding was poor, calling for strengthened popularization of the feeding knowledge; and the

  10. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding, autumn birth and increased gestational age are associated with lower risk of fever in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Zhu, Q; Li, Y; Li, N; Han, Q; Liu, Z; Li, Z; Qiu, J; Zhang, G; Li, F; Tian, N

    2012-09-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been emerging and reemerging in recent years. This study aims to investigate whether breastfeeding and other factors may affect the profile of fever and disease course in children with HFMD. Three hundred seventy-two preschool children with HFMD were included. The demographics, environmental factors, and delivery- and feeding-associated factors in the children were obtained and their effects on the profile of fever and disease course were analyzed. Of the 372 children, 139 (37.37%) had fever during the disease course. Gender, breastfeeding pattern, birth season and gestational age were significantly different between the children with and without fever (p = 0.034, p fever.

  11. Infant feeding practices and breastfeeding duration in Japan: A review

    Inoue Madoka; Binns Colin W; Otsuka Keiko; Jimba Masamine; Matsubara Manami

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese health system places great emphasis on healthy development. However, the prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding at one month postpartum between 1980 and 2005 has remained unchanged, fluctuating between 42% and 49%. At the same time, the Any Breastfeeding prevalence has gradually increased from about 80% to 95%. In 2010, the latest national breastfeeding report showed that ‘exclusive’ and ‘any’ breastfeeding rates have improved. However, as the World Health Organization (W...

  12. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Shahnaz Kohan; Zeinab Heidari; Mahrokh Keshvari

    2016-01-01

    Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeed...

  13. Nursing care plan standardized breastfeeding

    Susana de la Flor Picado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superiority of human milk in feeding the human infant is incontestable. Breastmilk is a living food can´t be copied and is supported by numerous arguments in support of excellence, both biological and anthropometric or economic. Despite it, has been a significant decline in this practice. Scientific advances, sociological changes and the lack f health personnel have contributed to this expense. Currently, both the WHO and UNICEF cone try relaunching excusive breastfeeding as feeding the infant until 6 months of life. Initiatives whit the Baby Friendly Hospital or the Strategic Plan for the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding trying to promote the recognition of breastfeeding as irrefutable cornerstone for optimal growth and development of our children.Goal: Unify care criteria and actions to promote breastfeeding initiation and maintenance of the same, improving communication between professionals and between them and patients.Methodology: Care Development Plan following the NANDA taxonomies, NOC, NIC.Conclusions: Standardized work promotes decision making and performance of nursing staff to develop a happy breastfeeding.

  14. The association of state law to breastfeeding practices in the US.

    Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hollen, Robin; Tashiro, Stephanie; Cook, Daniel M; Yang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the relationship between breastfeeding initiation and duration with laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. We analyzed breastfeeding practices using the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We evaluated three measures of breastfeeding practices: Mother's reported breastfeeding initiation, a proxy report of infants ever being breastfeed, and a proxy report of infants being breastfeed for at least 6 months. Survey data were linked to eight laws supportive of breastfeeding enacted at the state level. The most robust laws associated with increased infant breastfeeding at 6 months were an enforcement provision for workplace pumping laws [OR (95 % CI) 2.0 (1.6, 2.6)] and a jury duty exemption for breastfeeding mothers [OR (95 % CI) 1.7 (1.3, 2.1)]. Having a private area in the workplace to express breast milk [OR (95 % CI) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)] and having break time to breastfeed or pump [OR (95 % CI) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)] were also important for infant breastfeeding at 6 months. This research responds to breastfeeding advocates' calls for evidence-based data to generate the necessary political action to enact legislation and laws to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. We identify the laws with the greatest potential to reach the Healthy People 2020 targets for breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  15. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  16. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    Adriana Passanha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057. The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54 and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39, after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals.

  17. Tuberculous meningitis: is a 6-month treatment regimen sufficient?

    Loenhout-Rooyackers, J.H. van; Keyser, A.J.M.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2001-01-01

    SETTING: The British Thoracic Society and the American Thoracic Society advise 12 months treatment for tuberculous meningitis, with at least isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and pyrazinamide (Z). OBJECTIVE: To establish whether a 6-month treatment regimen for tuberculous meningitis is equally as effect

  18. Are fathers underused advocates for breastfeeding?

    Kenosi, M

    2011-11-01

    Fathers\\' knowledge base and attitudes influence breastfeeding practice. We aimed to evaluate if Irish fathers felt included in the breastfeeding education and decision process. 67 fathers completed questionnaires, which assessed their role in the decision to breastfeed, knowledge regarding the benefits of breastfeeding and attitude towards breastfeeding.Forty-two (62.7%) of their partners were breastfeeding. Antenatal classes were attended by 38 (56.7%); 59 (88.1%) discussed breastfeeding with their partners and 26 (38.8%) felt that the decision was made together. Twelve (48%) fathers of formula fed infants were unaware that breastfeeding was healthier for the baby. Most fathers (80.6%) felt that breastfeeding was the mother\\'s decision and most (82.1%) felt that antenatal information was aimed at mothers only. Irish fathers remain relatively uninformed regarding the benefits of breastfeeding. This may contribute to their exclusion from the decision to breastfeed. Antenatal education should incorporate fathers more, and this may result in an improvement in our breastfeeding rates.

  19. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # ... search/groups ). Mothers who plan to use a breast pump while traveling may need an electrical current ... during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only breast milk, no other foods or drinks, which protects ...

  20. Alimentos complementares e fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em lactentes até 12 meses de vida em Itapira, São Paulo, 1999 Complementary feeding and factors associated to breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among infant up to 12 months of age, Itapira, São Paulo, 1999

    Celene Aparecida Ferrari Audi

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as práticas alimentares no primeiro ano de vida e fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e ao aleitamento materno exclusivo, no município de Itapira, SP. MÉTODOS: inquérito realizado em 1999 com 679 lactentes menores de 12 meses no Dia Nacional de Vacinação como parte do projeto Amamentação & Municípios. A associação entre o aleitamento e as variáveis independentes condições de nascimento, uso de mamadeira, chupeta e característica maternas, foi verificada por meio de regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: a idade média da mãe foi de 25,5 anos, sendo 41,8% primíparas e 51,7% dos partos cirúrgicos. O peso médio ao nascer foi de 3.223g. Observou-se que 98,1% dos lactentes foram amamentados nos primeiros 30 dias, porém houve introdução precoce de chá, água e outros leites. A prevalência do aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 64,8% no primeiro mês, caindo para 45% e 30,1% aos quatro e seis meses, respectivamente. Aos 12 meses 61,6% dos lactentes eram amamentados. As variáveis associadas ao desmame foram: usar chupeta (OR 5,58; IC95%: 3,94 -7,89, baixo peso ao nascer (OR 2,74; IC95%: 1,46 - 5,13 e hospital de nascimento (OR 1,76; IC95%: 1,22 - 2,52. Para interrupção da amamentação exclusiva, nos primeiros seis meses, os resultados foram: usar chupeta (OR 4,41; IC95%: 2,57 - 7,59 e parto cesárea (OR 1,78; IC95%: 1,09-2,91. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência observada, do aleitamento materno e aleitamento materno exclusivo, ainda está distante das atuais recomendações da OMS.OBJECTIVES: to analyze feeding practices in the first year of life and factors associated to breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding in the municipality of Itapira. METHODS: survey performed in 1999 with 679 infants under twelve months old in the National Vaccination Day as part of the Project Breast-Feeding & Municipalities. Association between breast-feeding and independent variables of birth conditions, bottle use

  1. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-06-01

    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  2. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, Else Marie; Husted, Steen

    2007-01-01

    was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. CONCLUSION: 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed......INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery...

  3. Acute gastroenteritis in infants under 6 months old.

    Fox, R; Leen, C L; Dunbar, E M; Ellis, M E; Mandal, B K

    1990-01-01

    Sixty two babies under the age of 6 months who were admitted with gastroenteritis completed a study of gradual refeeding compared with abrupt refeeding after a period of rehydration. There was no difference in the incidence of recurrence of diarrhoea due to lactose intolerance, effect on weight, or duration of hospital stay. Twenty six babies (42%) had recurrence of diarrhoea after refeeding, all of whom settled with the introduction of a lactose free soya based formula. Well nourished babies...

  4. Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

    Camila Campos Romero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefts of exclusive breastfeeding for the frst 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 - non-breastfed, G2 - shorter than 6 months, G3 - interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 - longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classifed overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05 with odds ratio (OR calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1, 26.1% (G2, 22.1% (G3, and 6.2% (G4. G1 would have signifcantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1 and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3. Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented signifcantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months

  5. US national breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance: current status and recommendations.

    Chapman, Donna J; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-05-01

    Eleven federally funded datasets assessing breastfeeding behaviors in the United States (Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Immunization Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, National Survey of Early Childhood Health, National Survey of Family Growth, Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Survey, and WIC Participant and Program Characteristics) were reviewed to evaluate breastfeeding variables (initiation, duration and exclusivity) and determine whether relevant breastfeeding determinants were collected to evaluate breastfeeding practices from a health disparities perspective. The datasets used inconsistent breastfeeding definitions, limited ethnic descriptors, and varied regarding availability of relevant determinants. Multiple datasets collect breastfeeding data, but a coordinated US breastfeeding monitoring and surveillance system does not exist. Suggestions to improve this system include: standardizing breastfeeding definitions, expanding ethnic/racial descriptors, collecting additional relevant variables, and reducing recall periods.

  6. Maternal, Infant Characteristics, Breastfeeding Techniques, and Initiation: Structural Equation Modeling Approaches

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and infant characteristics, breastfeeding techniques, and exclusive breastfeeding initiation in different modes of birth using structural equation modeling approaches. Methods We examined a hypothetical model based on integrating concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, a breastfeeding initiation model, and a social cognitive theory among 952 mother-infant dyads. The LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool ...

  7. Pediatric Nurse\\s Educational Role in an International Task: Maternal Education Experience on 0-6 Month Baby Nutrition

    Derya Suluhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO, for the baby\\s optimal growth and development, recommends all mothers all over the world feeding infants only breast milk for the first six months, initiating of additional nutrients after the sixth month, and suggests the need to continue to breastfeed for the first two years. The pediatric nurse works for Head of the Turkish delegation at the disposal of the Kosovo for a period of six months has decided to make a priority about an education on feeding infants (0-6 months as a result of a meeting with local health professionals and mothers. It is aimed to improve the level of knowledge about breastfeeding techniques and importance of breastfeeding of the mothers who have a 0-6 month old baby in Kosovo Mamusa Family Health Center. Besides the tasks where I\\ve been doing as a representative of the Turkish Armed Forces in Kosovo, it is an exciting experience in such a personal and professional sense to identify needs of people, plan and implement an education. The health care team assigned to work in the international arena, served especially to keep abreast of the needs and problems of people and work to fulfill the task of interacting with them. It is suggested to make cooperation with the local health care team to identify the issues of health education needs, to make, maintain and evaluate the planned education. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 265-268

  8. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  9. Photorefractive keratectomy for myopia: 6-month results in 95 eyes.

    Tutton, M K; Ramsell, T G; Garston, J B; Tolia, J J; Banerjee, D K; Adhikary, H P; Birch, M; Cherry, P M; Neave, C G; Fichte, C M

    1993-01-01

    Ninety-five eyes of 91 patients with myopia from -1.00 to -6.00 D (mean -3.40 D, +/- 1.2) were treated with an ExciMed UV2OOLA 193-nanometer excimer laser (Summit Technology, Inc, Waltham, Mass) (with version 5.5 software) with a 5-millimeter ablation zone. At 6 months, 67 eyes (70%) were within +/- 0.50 D, 84 eyes (88%) were within +/- 1.00 D, and 94 eyes (99%) were within +/- 2.00 D. There was an average overcorrection of +0.25 D which had decreased to +0.18 D by 9 months. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity was 6/6 or better in 88 eyes (94%) and six eyes (6%) had a corrected visual acuity of 6/9. Fifty percent of eyes had slight astigmatism (mean 0.68 D, range 0.25 to 2.00 D) and this reduced to 0.33D (0.02 > p > 0.01) at 6 months.

  10. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months

    Amelia Hollywood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n=566 prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  11. Theory-Based Design and Development of a Socially Connected, Gamified Mobile App for Men About Breastfeeding (Milk Man)

    White, Becky K; Martin, Annegret; White, James A; Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce R; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding, babies are exclusively breastfed to the recommended 6 months. The support of the father is one of the most important factors in breastfeeding success, and targeting breastfeeding interventions to the father has been a successful strategy in previous research. Mobile technology offers unique opportunities to engage and reach populations to enhance health literacy and healthy behavior. Objective The objective of our study was to use previous research, formative evaluation, and behavior change theory to develop the first evidence-based breastfeeding app targeted at men. We designed the app to provide men with social support and information aiming to increase the support men can offer their breastfeeding partners. Methods We used social cognitive theory to design and develop the Milk Man app through stages of formative research, testing, and iteration. We held focus groups with new and expectant fathers (n=18), as well as health professionals (n=16), and used qualitative data to inform the design and development of the app. We tested a prototype with fathers (n=4) via a think-aloud study and the completion of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Results Fathers and health professionals provided input through the focus groups that informed the app development. The think-aloud walkthroughs identified 6 areas of functionality and usability to be addressed, including the addition of a tutorial, increased size of text and icons, and greater personalization. Testers rated the app highly, and the average MARS score for the app was 4.3 out of 5. Conclusions To our knowledge, Milk Man is the first breastfeeding app targeted specifically at men. The development of Milk Man followed a best practice approach, including the involvement of a multidisciplinary team and grounding in behavior change theory. It tested well with end users during development. Milk Man is currently being trialed as part of the Parent

  12. The Effect of Message-Framing on Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Among Nulliparous Women in Shushtar, Iran

    Merdasi, Fatemeh; Araban, Marzieh; Saki, Malehi Amal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continuing it for 2 years, along with complementary feeding, are the primary objectives of public health plans and nutrition around the world. Self-efficacy is a theoretical framework that could be a strong predictive for breastfeeding. This study aimed to determine the effect of message-framing on self-efficacy of breastfeeding in nulliparous women in Shushtar. Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2015 on 210 nulliparous women in Shushtar (Iran). The participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. The study tool was the short form of breastfeeding self-efficacy scale that was completed on arrival of the study (days 3–5), at the end of week four and at the end of week eight. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using Chi-square, ANOVA, and repeated measurements. Results Mean age of participants was 24.52 years old with standard deviation of 95.4. Mean score of breastfeeding self-efficacy in gain-framed group at days 3–5, week four and week eight was 47.94, 57.43 and 52.8 respectively; in loss-framed group it was 47.76, 56.11 and 52.64 respectively; and in control group it was 45.16, 48.68 and 45.31 respectively. No significant difference was observed between the score of average self-efficacy of days 3–5 and week eight in control group (p=0.93). However, in gain-framed group (p=0.001) and loss-framed group (p=0.004), a significant difference was observed. Conclusion Results of this study showed that message-framing promotes breastfeeding self-efficacy in nulliparous women and in this regard, there is no difference between gain-framed and loss-framed messages. PMID:28243406

  13. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  14. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  15. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Nancy Birungi

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda.Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's decayed missing filled tooth (dmft index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis.Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417 were 21.8 (CI 20.7-22.9 and 21.3(CI 20.7-21.9 months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9 and 1.7 (SD 2.9 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65-1.2. Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7.PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150.

  16. Fatores associados com a duração do aleitamento materno Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding

    Roberto G. Chaves

    2007-06-01

    used to study the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding. The impact on breastfeeding duration of a series of co-variables was assessed by means of Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was 5.3%, and for breastfeeding at 12 months it was 33.7%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 40 days, and median breastfeeding duration was 237 days. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a negative association (p 9 consultations, use of alcohol or tobacco, delay before first feed (> 6 hours and use of a pacifier. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding rates in Itaúna (MG are well below those recommended by the World Health Organization. The principal variables with a negative relationship with duration of exclusive breastfeeding and of complementary feeding are related to mother and baby health care and, therefore, interventions are possible.

  17. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children up to 2 years of age.

    Brown, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children's nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of complementary foods of suitable nutritional and microbiological quality. The amounts of energy and micronutrients required from complementary foods have been estimated as the difference between the total physiological requirements of these food components and the amounts transferred to the child in breast milk. Recommendations for the energy density of complementary foods and their frequency of feeding have also been proposed. Intakes of several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, calcium, selected B vitamins and (in some settings) vitamin A, remain problematic because commonly available, low-cost foods contain inadequate amounts of these nutrients to provide the shortfall in breast milk. Alternative strategies to provide these nutrients include adding animal source foods to the diet, providing fortified, processed complementary foods, administering micronutrient supplements, or offering some combination of these approaches. Advantages, disadvantages, and possible risks of these different strategies are discussed.

  18. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...... focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery......, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months...

  19. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones...... in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants...... based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24-36 weeks. RESULTS: Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached...

  20. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  1. 单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性研究%The correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index

    杨雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate correlation research between milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index.Methods To investigate and analyze the maternal age, height, body weight before childbirth way, prenatal, gestational age, birth weight, baby weight, gender, height in 140 case. milk component content in exclusive breastfeeding andmaternal body mass index were contrastive analysised.Results Antenatal and pre-pregnancy BMI satisfied the equation BMI = 9.036 + 0.873 *. Maternal body index increases were positively associated with milk composition of zinc, calcium, magnesium, protein, fat, minerals, and the solid fat, were negatively correlated with iron, copper, and lactose.Conclusion Maternal body index increases were correlated with milk component content;controlling the maternal weight increase can keep the balance of milk component content.%目的:探讨研究单纯母乳喂养乳汁成分含量与产妇体重指数的相关性。方法:调查分析我院妇产科分娩的140例产妇年龄、身高、孕前体重、产前体重、孕周、分娩方式、婴儿体重、性别、身长等,对比分析产妇体重增长与乳汁成分含量的相关性。结果:产妇产前和孕前BMI满足方程:产前BMI=9.036+0.873*孕前BMI,产妇体重指数增幅与乳汁成分中锌元素、钙元素、镁元素、蛋白质、脂肪、矿物质和非脂肪固体呈正相关,与铁元素、铜元素和乳糖呈负相关。结论:产妇体重指数增加与乳汁成分含量有一定的相关性;控制产妇体重增加可保持乳汁成分含量的均衡性。

  2. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (PLactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (Plactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant.

  3. Application of the Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory and Acknowledgment of Barriers for Improving Breastfeeding Initiation Rates in an Urban Population

    Diwata Bose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding (BF is recognized as the preferred method of infant nutrition by American Academy of Pediatricians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the World Health Organization. Despite the benefits of BF, in 1998 only 69% of new mothers in the United States initiated BF and 29% continued to breastfeed at 6 months. Objective: To assess perceived breastfeeding confidence (BFC and determine barriers in regards to BF in an urban population. Methods: The Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory (BPEBI was used to determine perceived BFC. The survey was distributed to 271 women during prenatal appointments at an urban Milwaukee medical center. BF initiation rate at discharge was determined by records review. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to examine the structure of the BPEBI in this population. Results: Survey response rate was 89%. Overall BFC was 74%. BF initiation rate at discharge was 62%, exclusively BF (EBF at discharge (no bottle-feeding was 55%. In multivariate models, EBF decreased with black race (p=0.02 and with residence in the low socioeconomic status zip codes of the central city of Milwaukee (p=0.01. BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.03, EBF (p=0.03 and length of BF (p=0.02. Factor analysis identified two constructs: BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.006 and EBF (p=0.001 within the motivation construct, and BFC increased with EBF (p=0.000 within the technique/environment construct. Conclusions: The main barriers to increased BFC were lack of prior exposure to BF and nonexclusive breastfeeding practices. BF initiation rate at discharge was low compared to self-reported level of confidence. EBF decreased with black race and with closer proximity to the central city of Milwaukee.

  4. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and ...

  5. Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants.

    Kopp, Franziska

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200 ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200 ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition.

  6. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  7. A study of malnutrition among children aged 6 months to 2 years from a resettlement colony of Delhi.

    Khokhar Anita

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of 1661 children aged 6 months to 2 years who attended the Well Baby Clinic of UHC Gokulpuri, Delhi during the year 2000 was studied. 60.7% of them were malnourished. Undesirable practices of discarding the colostrum, not exclusively breast feeding the child till at least 4 months of age, delayed weaning, dilution of top milk, use of bottle and nipple for feeding the children are still widely prevalent.

  8. The relationship between family structure and exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in Nicaragua La relación existente entre las prácticas de lactancia materna exclusiva y la estructura de la familia nicaragüense

    Henry Espinoza

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the relationship between family structure and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in Nicaragua. Material and Methods. A subset of the Nicaraguan Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1998 was obtained by selecting all last-born infants less than 4 months old at the time of the survey. Weighted chi-squared and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association. Results. Interviewee women heads of household and interviewee women whose husbands were the heads of the household had a significantly lower prevalence of EBF. Exposure to the health care system was not related to EBF. Conclusions. New approaches are needed to promote that men support women's decisions to breastfeed. Health institutions should effectively communicate the benefits of breastfeeding on both the mother and the child.Objetivo. Examinar la relación existente entre la estructura de la familia y la prevalencia de la práctica de lactancia materna exclusiva (LME en Nicaragua. Material y métodos. Se tomó una submuestra de la Encuesta Nicaragüense de Demografía y Salud de 1998, seleccionando a todos los infantes últimos nacidos menores de cuatro meses al momento de la encuesta. Se procedió a hacer un análisis bivariado con la prueba estadística de ji cuadrada y multivariado a través de regresión logística. Resultados. Se encontró que la prevalencia de LME es más baja entre las mujeres jefas de hogar y entre las que vivían en hogares cuyo jefe era el esposo de la entrevistada. El contacto con los servicios de salud no se relacionó con la LME. Conclusiones. La promoción de las prácticas de alimentación infantil debería dirigirse también a los hombres, para que las mujeres que amamantan puedan ser apoyadas por sus parejas. Las instituciones de salud deben comunicar efectivamente a las mujeres los beneficios de la lactancia exclusiva al seno materno.

  9. Anemia em lactentes de baixa renda em aleitamento materno exclusivo Anemia in low-income exclusively breastfed infants

    Marco Antonio A. Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Verificar o comportamento dos valores da hemoglobina e a prevalência de anemia entre lactentes de termo de 3 a 6 meses de idade em aleitamento materno exclusivo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 242 lactentes de 3 a 6 meses de idade com peso de nascimento superior a 2.500 g, em aleitamento materno exclusivo e em acompanhamento no Programa de Promoção do Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do Lactente do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. A dosagem de hemoglobina foi realizada por meio de punção digital entre o terceiro e o sexto meses de vida. Adotaram-se os valores de Hb OBJECTIVE: To verify the behavior of hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence in full term infants, aged 3 to 6 months and on exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 242 infants aged 3 to 6 months with birth weights of more than 2,500 g, on exclusive breastfeeding and monitored by the Program for the Promotion of Infant Growth and Development, part of the Paraisópolis Einstein Community Program. Hemoglobin was assayed by finger prick between the third and sixth months of life. Anemia was defined as Hb < 10.3 g/dL (Saarinen or Hb < 10 g/dL (Brault-Dubuc for infants aged 3 to 5 months and as Hb < 11.0 g/dL (WHO for infants aged 6 months. RESULTS: Mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.3 and 11.4 g/dL at 3 and 4 months and 11.2 and 11.1 g/dL at 5 and 6 months, respectively. The percentage of anemic infants varied depending on age and the cutoff adopted, being 11.8, 10.2 and 8.3% at 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, according to the Brault-Dubuc criteria, and 20.6, 14.8 and 10.4% by the Saarinen criteria. Anemia prevalence at 6 months was 37.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia prevalence rates observed among infants aged between 3 and 6 months varied from 8.3 to 37.5%, justifying increased attention on the part of pediatricians to the hemoglobin levels of infants who are on exclusive breastfeeding, come from low-income families and present risk factors

  10. Aleitamento materno exclusivo e fatores associados a sua interrupção precoce: estudo comparativo entre 1999 e 2008 Lactancia materna exclusiva y factores asociados a su interrupción temprana: estudio comparativo entre 1999 y 2008 Exclusive breastfeeding and factors related to early weaning: a comparative study between 1999 and 2008

    Vera Lúcia V. A. Bezerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os indicadores do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME do Hospital Universitário de Brasília (HUB nos anos de 1999 e 2008 e identificar fatores associados a sua interrupção precoce MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo transversal com análise de prontuários de crianças atendidas nos anos 1999 e 2008 no Ambulatório de Pediatria, Crescimento e Desenvolvimento do HUB. A duração do AME foi dicotomizada em até quatro meses e quatro meses ou mais, estimando as razões de prevalência para o desmame precoce (AMEOBJETIVO: Analizar los indicadores de lactancia materna exclusiva (LME del Hospital Universitario de Brasília (HUB los años de 1999 y 2008 e identificar factores asociados a su interrupción temprana. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo transversal con análisis de prontuarios de niños atendidos en los años de 1999 y 2008 en el Ambulatorio de Pediatría, Crecimiento y Desarrollo del HUB. La duración del LME fue dicotomizada en hasta cuatro meses y cuatro meses o más, estimando las razones de prevalencia para el desmame precoz (LMEOBJECTIVE: To analyze the indicators of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in Brasilia's University Hospital (BUH during a 10-year interval and to verify associated factors to early weaning. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by chart review of children attending the Pediatric Clinic during 1999 and 2008. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was categorized at four months and four months or more. Prevalence ratios for early weaning (EB<4 months were estimated with a model of Poisson regression and robust variance. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the exclusive breastfeeding duration in the studied years. RESULTS: Among 2,173 patients, 1,443 in 1999 and 730 in 2008. There was an increase from 110.7 to 123.6 days in the duration of EB. A significant association between maternal education and early weaning was shown, with a 12.6% higher prevalence in mothers

  11. The Prevalence and Determinants of Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in a Sample of Women in Ireland

    Tarrant, Roslyn; Younger, Katherine; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; White, Martin; Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and ‘any’ breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers. Design: This prospective cross-sectional study involved the recruitment of women during the antenatal period, with subsequent follow-up of mothers who delivered healthy, term singleton infants, at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Se...

  12. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  13. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2 or excess weight (BMIz≥2. Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001 and maternal body mass index (BMI (r=0.113; p=0.002. The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006 and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002. There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age.

  14. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2-4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 to<2) or excess weight (BMIz≥2). Data analysis was carried out by comparison of proportions, coefficient of correlation and multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; p<0.001) and maternal body mass index (BMI) (r=0.113; p=0.002). The correlation was inverse with the total duration of breastfeeding (r=−0.099; p=0.006) and age at non-breast milk introduction (r=−0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. Conclusions: The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. PMID:27452430

  15. Vivências maternas associadas ao aleitamento materno exclusivo mais duradouro: um estudo etnográfico Vivencias de madres asociadas a la lactancia materna exclusiva más duradera: un estudio etnográfico Maternal experiences associated with longer term exclusive breastfeeding: an ethnographic study

    Carolina Guizardi Polido

    2011-01-01

    . RESULTADOS: El amamantamiento se presentó como evento particular en los diferentes contextos de su ocurrencia, sin embargo fue posible identificar que la lactancia exclusiva estuvo ligado a la determinación materna, a pesar de las dificultades vividas. La lactancia materna exclusiva más duradera se relacionó a las madres que se mostraron motivadas con la práctica, concientes de sus beneficios y apoyadas por la familia, aun frente a la interferencia contraria de su medio cultural. CONCLUSIÓN: La ausencia de determinación materna para amamantar exclusivamente debe ser investigada y, cuando presente, recibir abordaje especial de los profesionales de salud.OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of breastfeeding mothers using the Unified Health System who were seeking to obtain knowledge, expectations, perceptions and feelings involved with identifying aspects relevant for more prolonged, exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: A qualitative ethnographic study conducted with eight primiparas and family references, through observation and household interviews during the first semester of the infants' lives. The data were summarized in three categories: starting breastfeeding; experiencing the process of early weaning; maintaining exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: Breastfeeding appeared as a particular event in different contexts of occurrence, however, it was possible to identify that exclusive breastfeeding was linked to maternal determination, despite the difficulties experienced. Longer lasting exclusive breastfeeding was related to the mothers who were highly motivated to practice, those who were aware of its benefits and were supported by their family, even in the face of interference contrary to their culture. CONCLUSION: The lack of determination for exclusive maternal breastfeeding should be investigated and, when present, receive special consideration by health professionals.

  16. Effectiveness of a Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Intervention: Do Hospital Practices Make a Difference?

    Otsuka, Keiko; Taguri, Masataka; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Wakutani, Kiriko; Awano, Masayo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding self-efficacy interventions are important for improving breastfeeding outcomes. However, the circumstances that may influence the effectiveness of the interventions are unclear, especially in the context of hospitals with suboptimal infant feeding practices. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a self-efficacy intervention on breastfeeding self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding, and further assessed the difference in its effect by hospital-routine type. In this interventi...

  17. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among fem...

  18. Breastfeeding duration related to practised contraception in the Netherlands

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Lanting, C.I.; Dommelen, P. van; Treffers, P.E.; Buuren, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain insight into contraception practised and related to breastfeeding duration. Methods: Mothers with infants up to 6 months received a questionnaire on infant feeding (breast or formula feeding) and contraception (hormonal or non-hormonal methods). Estimates of th

  19. Obesity and early cessation of breastfeeding in Denmark

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    the association between high BMI and early cessation of breastfeeding Methods: We used data from a randomized trial of 1597 Danish mothers of singleton infants. Self-reported Maternal postnatal weight and height were available from 1375 (86 %). High BMI was defined as body mass index ≥32 kg/m2 at ~ 17 d after......Background: Obesity is associated with early cessation of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is multi-factorial and several factors contribute to this association. Our aim was to investigate to what extent socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics, parity and prenatal conditions could explain...... delivery. Outcome was cessation of exclusive breastfeeding by 17 wk postpartum used in proportional hazards regression models. Results: In the unadjusted analysis mothers with high postpartum BMI compared to other mothers had a significantly higher rate of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding, and were...

  20. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  2. The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia.

    Walters, Dylan; Horton, Susan; Siregar, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar; Pitriyan, Pipit; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mathisen, Roger; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Rudert, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors' assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025.

  3. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  4. Variáveis que influenciam a manutenção do aleitamento materno exclusivo Variables que influencian la manutención del amamantamiento materno exclusivo Variables that influence the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding

    Nádia Zanon Narchi

    2009-03-01

    la mujer durante el proceso de parto y nacimiento influye de forma directa en el amamantar.This is a descriptive, exploratory and retrospective study, with a quantitative approach, performed in a low-income community in São Paulo, with the purpose to identify whether the maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in the first six months is influenced by the following variables: early contact in the first hour after birth, permanence in joint lodging, type of delivery and type of hospital. Data were collected from 75 medical records and analyzed with the methodology of generalized estimate equations. The results showed that the variables joint lodging, type of hospital and type of delivery interfered in the maintenance of EBF; however, that was not the case with early contact. It was concluded that the EBF indexes were higher in cases where the mother and the baby remained together after the birth, in baby-friendly hospitals and after normal deliveries. It was also observed that the care received by the mother during the process of delivery and birth influences breastfeeding directly.

  5. Physiologic Breastfeeding: A Contemporary Approach to Breastfeeding Initiation.

    Schafer, Robyn; Genna, Catherine Watson

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding has numerous benefits for maternal-child health. Maternity care providers have been shown to play a significant role in establishing breastfeeding, yet there is limited research about clinical approaches that support breastfeeding initiation in the immediate postpartum. Traditional methods that focused on position and attachment have not demonstrated consistent, positive effects on breastfeeding outcomes. Contemporary approaches to breastfeeding initiation emphasize innate maternal and neonatal breastfeeding abilities and the importance of breastfeeding self-efficacy, dyad-centered care, and a supportive breastfeeding environment free from unnecessary interventions. Recommendations for clinical practice for physiologic breastfeeding initiation are provided.

  6. Breastfeeding training for health professionals and resultant changes in breastfeeding duration

    José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Promotion of breastfeeding in Brazilian maternity hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To quantify changes in the breastfeeding duration among mothers served by hospitals exposed to the Wellstart-SLC course, comparing them with changes among mothers attended by institutions not exposed to this course. DESIGN: Randomized Institutional Trial. SETTING: The effects of training on breastfeeding duration was assessed in eight Brazilian hospitals assigned at random to either an exposed group (staff attending the Wellstart-SLC course or a control group. SAMPLE: For each of the eight study hospitals, two cohorts of about 50 children were visited at home at one and six months after birth. The first cohort (n = 494 was composed of babies born in the month prior to exposure to the Wellstart-SLC course, and the second cohort (n = 476 was composed of babies born six months subsequent to this exposure. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to describe the weaning process and log-rank tests were used to assess statistical differences among survival curves. Hazard ratio (HR estimates were calculated by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models to the data. RESULTS: The increases in estimated, adjusted rates for children born in hospitals with trained personnel were 29% (HR = 0.71 and 20% (HR = 0.80 for exclusive and full breastfeeding, respectively. No changes were identified for total breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: This randomized trial supports a growing body of evidence that training hospital health professionals in breastfeeding promotion and protection results in an increase in breastfeeding duration.

  7. 品管圈干预下纯母乳喂养对极低体重早产儿生长发育的影响%Effects of Exclusive Breastfeeding on the Growth and Development of Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants Under the Influence of the Quality Control Circle

    赵英荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈干预下纯母乳喂养对极低体重早产儿生长发育的影响。方法我院将2013年2月~2014年1月收治的60例纯母乳喂养的极低体重早产儿进行随机分组为对照组与观察组,对照组实施传统的护理,观察组实施品管圈方案干预,并观察两组早产儿的日均体质量增长值、周均身长增长值、周均头围增长值。结果观察组纯母乳喂养的上述各项指标均高于对照组,P<0.05。结论品管圈干预下纯母乳喂养对极低体重早产儿生长发育的影响显著。%Objective To investigate the QCC intervention of exclusive breastfeeding in very low birth weight child growth and development.MethodsIn the hospital,60 cases of exclusive breastfeeding for very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group from February 2013 to January 2014. control group was in the implementation of traditional nursing,the observation group implemented QCC program interventions and observed daily weight gain in preterm children the values of the two groups,both circumferential length value growth, increase the value of head circumference al week.Results The above indicators of exclusive breastfeeding in the observation group were higher,P<0.05. Conclusion The growth and development of very low birth weight preterm children under QCC intervention,the effect of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly.

  8. Reasons given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding in Iran

    Olang Beheshteh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in Iran, only 28% of infants were exclusively breastfed at six months, despite a high prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reasons women discontinued exclusive breastfeeding. Method This retrospective study was based on questionnaires and interviews with 63,071 mothers of infants up to 24 months of age, divided into two populations: infants younger than six months and six months or older. The data were collected in 2005–2006 from all 30 provinces of Iran. Results Only 5.3% of infants less than six months of age stopped breastfeeding (mean age of 3.2 months; more commonly in urban than rural areas. The most frequently cited reasons mothers gave for discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding were physicians’ recommendation (54% and insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 28%. Breastfeeding was common after six months of age: only 11% of infants discontinued breastfeeding, at a mean of 13.8 months. The most common reason for discontinuation at this age was insufficient breast milk (self-perceived or true, 45%. Maternal illness or medication (10%, infant illness (6%, and return to work (3% were uncommon causes. Use of a pacifier was correlated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Maternal age and education was not associated with duration of breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis showed that using a pacifier and formula or other bottle feeding increased the risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Physicians and other health professionals have an important role to play in encouraging and supporting mothers to maintain breastfeeding.

  9. Breastfeeding social marketing: lessons learned from USDA's "Loving Support" campaign.

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies

  10. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    Verma Arpana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks. White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]. Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding

  11. A study of the relationship between sexual activity and breastfeeding

    Masoumeh Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran2(Received 2 March, 2009; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Longterm breastfeeding is an important factor for women. Reverse effects of breastfeeding regarding sexual activities have been reported. However, the impact of breastfeeding, along with sexual activity of women during postpartum, is a debatable matter. This effect remains unknown in many societies such as Iran. Sexual activity during breastfeeding from women has not been studied. This study was carried out to compare the association of sexual activity of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women within 2-6 months after birth.Materials and methods: In this historical cohort study, which was carried out in 2007, the sexual activity of breastfeeding women was compared with 198 bottle-feeds women, who were referred to a public maternity health care center in Tehran. Women were recruited within the age of 20-35, being their first or second child and in 2-6 months after birth. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Women were interviewed face-to-face by the first author.Results: Of 456 respondents, 258 were currently breastfeeding and 198 were bottle feed. Mean age of the mothers was 27±4.7 years. 28.3% of breastfeeding women and 22.9% of non breastfeeding women had sexual intercourse within the one month of postpartum period. There was no significant difference between the time of resumption of sexual activity and being breastfeed or not (p<0.07. Also, no significant difference was found between breastfeeding and bottle-feed women on sexual desire and satisfaction prior to pregnancy and in postpartum period (p<0.1, p<0.5. In 49/8% of breastfeed and 43.3% of non breastfeed women, sexual desire was decreased and also in 32.6% and 33%, sexual satisfaction was decreased respectively. The orgasm experience did not have a significant difference between the two groups

  12. Breastfeeding training improves health worker performance in rural Nigeria.

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A; Fabiyi, A K; Ojoofeitimi, E O; Adetugbo, K

    1997-08-01

    The training of health workers in breastfeeding and lactation management is to enable them make correct breastfeeding recommendations to mothers. This study aims to provide answers to two research questions: what components of breastfeeding training are easily achieved with extension health workers, and what health worker variables affect these outcomes. Multivariable analysis of the outcomes of a controlled breastfeeding training programme for community health workers (CHW) in rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria, was performed by logistic regression. The results show that the training was the most powerful predictor of correct CHW recommendations on breastfeeding (OR = 60.25, p-0.0000), and of 'perfect' breastfeeding knowledge (OR = 192.49, p = 0.0000). Younger CHWs (in the age bracket 20 to 29 years) were significantly more likely to make correct recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding (OR = 3.02, p = 0.0304). Other CHW variables such as sex, experience, job status, and marital status did not make consistently significant independent contributions to the outcomes. The results suggest that breastfeeding education can enhance CHW professional recommendations on breastfeeding and should be extended to all categories of health workers.

  13. COMPARISON OF GROWTH, INFECTIONS AND FEEDING HABITS AMONG FORMULA-FED INFANTS STARTING COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AT 4 TO 6 MONTHS OLD WITH THOSE STARTING AT 6 MONTHS OLD.

    Noppornlertwong, Chanon; Tantibhaedhyangkul, Ruangvith

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends starting complementary feeding among infants beginning at 6 months old, as opposed to 4 to 6 months old. We prospectively studied 21 formula-fed infants beginning complementary feeding at 4 to 6 months old and compared them with 20 formula-fed infants starting feeding at 6 months old to determine difference in growth, number of infections and feeding habits. The studied infants were each enrolled at age 4 months. The decision as to which group the infants were classified into was based on the parental decision as to when to start complementary feeding. Initial demographic data were obtained for each subject. Growth, infections, and feeding habit data were recorded. No significant differences in growth were detected between the 2 groups. Respiratory infections at age 10 to 12 months were more common among children who began complementary feeding later. By age 12 months, the percentages of subjects who were bottle feeding and night feeding, and new food acceptance were not different from each other, but those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months were less picky eaters. By 15 months old, those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months had less bottle feeding and better food acceptance. In conclusion, for formula-fed infants, age of onset of complementary feeding was not associated with infant growth or infection rates. However, some feeding habits differed between the two groups. It is unclear if the age of introducing complementary feeding caused these differences or was merely associated with these differences.

  14. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  15. Compreendendo a prática do aleitamento exclusivo: um estudo junto a lactantes usuárias da rede de serviços em Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Understanding exclusive breastfeeding practices: an exploratory study of lactating women using the health services network in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: abordar percepções e vivências de mulheres que amamentaram exclusivamente por seis meses; retratar suas atitudes e o significado que a amamentação tem para elas, esclarecendo como se originou e se sustentou no grupo a prática da amamentação exclusiva. MÉTODOS: estudo qualitativo de investigação social, com enfoque crítico-interpretativo. A amostra foi composta por 13 lactantes, usuárias da rede de serviços de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. A técnica utilizada foi a entrevista individual em profundidade. RESULTADOS: evidenciou-se a complexidade do ato de amamentar, muitas vezes naturalizado e considerado como possível de ser vivenciado, independentemente do contexto social em que se desenvolve. O papel desempenhado pelos pais e avós mostrou-se um elemento importante no processo da amamentação. Constatou-se, que o sucesso do aleitamento materno teve como origem os significados construídos pelas informantes, ao longo de suas vidas e na própria vivência de lactante, na qual se processaram reinterpretações de concepções prévias às suas experiências com o ato de amamentar.. CONCLUSÕES: as experiências reportam à dimensão concreta da vida, na qual se inserem as relações estabelecidas com os serviços e os profissionais de saúde. A motivação e percepção do processo de amamentar ancoram-se em experiências inseridas em redes sócio-familiares, construtoras de autoconfiança, resultando numa determinação, que superam, os diferentes obstáculos apresentados para a conquista da amamentação.OBJECTIVES: this paper focus on perceptions and experiences of women who practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a minimum period of six months. We tried to understand their attitudes and what breastfeeding meant to them in an attempt to understand how this option took place and was maintained in the group making the decision of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: the study was oriented by social survey qualitative

  16. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    Adriana Passanha; Maria Helena D'Aquino Benício; Sônia Isoyama Venâncio; Márcia Cristina Guerreiro dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were ...

  17. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in...

  18. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  19. Breastfeeding Practices among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Tanaka, Keiko; Polanin, Joshua R.; Koempel, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models. Results. Few studies disaggregated NHPI populations when examining breastfeeding practices. Most studies were cross-sectional and our search yielded no randomized or quasirandomized control trials. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that 46.5% NHPI women initiated breastfeeding with 40.8% breastfeeding exclusively. These pooled analyses show that NHPI breastfeeding practices are below the recommended national and international goals and guidelines. Conclusion. Breastfeeding practices among NHPI are heterogeneous and critical disparities exist among certain NHPI subgroups and additional research needs to be conducted to determine the reasons for the disparity. Future studies should work to disaggregate data for NHPI and the various subpopulations. Multicomponent, multilevel strategies are needed to support breastfeeding practices among NHPI. PMID:27774314

  20. Fatores de risco associados ao desmame em crianças até seis meses de idade no município de São Paulo Factores de riesgo asociados al destete en niños hasta seis meses de edad en el municipio de São Paulo Risk factors associated to weaning from breastfeeding until six months of age in São Paulo city

    Cléa Rodrigues Leone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores de risco associados à ausência de aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME em crianças OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados a la ausencia de lactancia materna exclusiva (LME en niños con OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated to interruption of exclusive breastfeeding among children <6 months of age in São Paulo city in 2008. METHODS: A special questionnaire (Breastfeeding and Cities Project-1998 was applied to the parents/guardians of children <6 months of age during the National Poliomyelitis Campaign. Sample calculation used a two stage cluster sampling procedure. The following groups were compared: I (children exclusively breastfed; II (children without exclusive breastfeeding. Factors analyzed: mother's age and schooling, infant birth weight, gender, type of delivery, being born in a Baby-Friendly Hospital, presence of early breastfeeding, use of pacifier in the last 24 hours, and mother working outside home. Statistical analysis included binary logistic regression by SPSS 15.0, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: 724 interviews were performed with 275 (39.1% children in Group I and 429 (60.9% in Group II. Differences between groups were found on: use of pacifier in the last 24 hours (GI 32.3 vs. GII59.8%; p<0.0001, mothers working outside home (GI 12.4 vs. GII 24.8%; p=0.0002 and child's age(GI 74.1±45.3 vs. GII105.8±49.5 days; p<0.0001. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of non-exclusive breastfeeding in this sample with use of pacifier in the last 24 hours (OR 3.02; 95%CI 2.10-4.36; mother working outside home (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.24-3.57, and child's age (OR 1.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.02. CONCLUSIONS: In this population under six months of age, the use of pacifier in the last 24 hours was associated with not being exclusively breastfed, as well as mother work outside home and child's age. These are important factors to consider in breastfeeding promotion programs.

  1. Breastfeeding practices in the city of Iguatu-CE

    Lúcia Vanda Teixeira de Freitas Cavalcante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess breastfeeding practices in Family Health Strategy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study conducted in Family Health Units of the urban area of Iguatu-CE, Brazil, from August 2008 to May 2009. Participants were 402 mothers with children under six months of age who underwent prenatal consultations. We used a form with questions regarding breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, introducing other foods, infant nutrition, consultations prenatal and postpartum visits undertaken by staff. The data were entered into SPSS 16.0 and analyzed descriptively. Results: Among the mothers interviewed (402, most said that was breastfeeding babies (N = 343, 85.3%, but introduced other food (N = 252, 62.6%, verifying low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 252 women who reported offering other food to baby, 158 (62.7% offered on their own, followed by those who chose to follow the indication of relatives and neighbors (N = 63, 25%. Conclusions: The study revealed that mothers of the Family Health Units from Iguatu-EC did not breastfeed their children exclusively, but with the introduction of other foods (other milk, porridge, thereby demonstrating the low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding.

  2. Balancing work and family: effect of employment characteristics on breastfeeding.

    Ogbuanu, Chinelo; Glover, Saundra; Probst, Janice; Hussey, James; Liu, Jihong

    2011-08-01

    This article describes an investigation of the effect of postpartum employment and occupational type on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Postpartum employment status was classified as full-time, part-time, and not employed. Among postpartum workers, occupational type was classified as management, professional, service, sales, administrative, and "other." In adjusted analysis, professional women had a 20% greater likelihood of initiating breastfeeding than administrative workers (risk ratio [RR] 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.30). Full-time workers had a 10% lower likelihood of initiating breastfeeding than those not employed (RR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97). Among breastfeeding initiators, full-time workers had a 19% lower likelihood of any breastfeeding beyond 6 months than those not employed (RR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99). To improve breastfeeding initiation and duration in the United States, part-time options may be an effective solution for working mothers.

  3. Aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta de recém-nascidos internados em berçário de alto risco e os fatores associados a essa prática Exclusive breastfeeding at the point of discharge of high-risk newborns at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and the factors associated with this practice

    Paula G. Bicalho-Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as taxas e o padrão de aleitamento materno dos recém-nascidos internados em berçário de alto risco no momento de sua alta hospitalar e analisar os potenciais fatores que interferem na prática do aleitamento materno exclusivo. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prontuários médicos de 495 recém-nascidos internados no berçário de alto risco da Maternidade Odete Valadares, Minas Gerais, antes e após receber o título de Hospital Amigo da Criança. Foram excluídos os nascidos fora da maternidade e durante o período de transição, crianças ou mães que foram a óbito ou transferidas da instituição e crianças abandonadas e/ou de mães com contra-indicação para amamentar. Foram calculadas razões de chance (odds ratio, OR e intervalos de confiança de 95% a partir de análises bivariadas e multivariadas utilizando a técnica da regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A taxa de aleitamento materno exclusivo na alta passou de 36% no período anterior para 54,6% no período posterior à implementação da Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança. Os fatores de risco independentemente associados com ausência de aleitamento exclusivo foram: uso da dieta por sonda (OR = 3,01, número de consultas pré-natais menor que seis (OR = 2,21, uso de translactação (OR = 2,66, peso ao nascer OBJECTIVE: To study the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at the moment of hospital discharge of newborns admitted to a neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to analyze potential risk factors. METHODS: Four hundred and ninety-five medical records were studied, pertaining to neonates born between 1998 and 1999, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, before and after the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative policies. Babies born during the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative transition period and outside the Maternity ward were excluded from the study, as were children or mothers who were transferred from the institution, abandoned children and

  4. Maternal Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Therapy or Immunizations: Very few Contraindications to Breastfeeding

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life for healthy, term infants (1. There are many benefits associated with breastfeeding, including nutritional, immunological, psychological, developmental, environmental, social, economic and health (eg, decrease in infectious diseases (2-4. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, every effort must be made to minimize contraindications to breastfeeding, particularly unnecessary ones. The present article summarizes the maternal infectious diseases in which continuing breastfeeding is recommended, the very few infectious diseases in which it is not recommended, the rare instances in which maternal antimicrobial therapy indicates a caution for breastfeeding, and the continuation of breastfeeding when a mother or her infant is receiving a routine recommended immunization.

  5. Maternal Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Therapy or Immunizations: Very few Contraindications to Breastfeeding

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends exclusive breastfeeding as the optimal method of infant feeding for the first six months of life for healthy, term infants (1). There are many benefits associated with breastfeeding, including nutritional, immunological, psychological, developmental, environmental, social, economic and health (eg, decrease in infectious diseases) (2-4). To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, every effort must be made to minimize contraindications to breastfee...

  6. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to increase women's confidence in breastfeeding

    Yeung, Lee-man; 楊莉敏

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is the gold standard in infant nutrition. Despite increasing mothers choose to breastfeed, low exclusivity remains. One of the top-ranked and yet modifiable reasons is perceived insufficient milk that results in low confidence in breastfeeding. To date, no review examined the effectiveness of intervention in increasing women’s confidence in breastfeeding. Purpose The purpose of this review was to examine intervention studies that aimed at enhancing women’s c...

  7. Knowledge of newborn healthcare among pregnant women: basis for promotional and educational programs on breastfeeding

    Hugo Issler; Márcia Borges Sanches Rodrigues de Sá; Dulce Maria Senna

    2001-01-01

    CONTEXT: Promotional and educational programs relating to breastfeeding are important for reversing the decline in this practice. Most programs are centered exclusively on breastfeeding, although general knowledge about newborn healthcare may be important, especially among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To study pregnant women's knowledge about general healthcare of newborns, including breastfeeding aspects. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa Health School Cente...

  8. Relationship between breastfeeding and mental development in infants: a population-based cohort study%母乳喂养与婴幼儿智力发育水平关联的队列研究

    蔡传兰; 郝加虎; 陶芳标; 张悦; 王蒂; 朱鹏; 苏普玉; 孙蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding practice and intelligence development of infants and provide research data to improve breastfeeding practice and further promote intelligence development. Methods A population-based birth cohort was established in Ma anshan city of Anhui province as part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study ( C-ABCS ). Information about breastfeeding was obtained by using a questionnaire, the intelligence development of infants was measured by the neuropsychological development examination table for children aged 0 ~ 6 years old. Binary logistic regression models were done to estimate the effects of breastfeeding patterns and duration on children s intelligence development. Results After adjusting for confounders, compared to infants of artificial feeding, infants breastfed exclusively were more likely to have higher level of development quotient and large motor development, infants of almost exclusive breastfeeding were more likely to have higher level of fine motor development. Compared to infants of never breastfeeding, infants of any breastfeeding for up to 5 ~ 6 months had higher development quotient scores, infants of exclusive breastfeeding or almost exclusive breastfeeding for up to 3 ~ 4 months and infants of any breastfeeding for up to 3 ~ 4 months or longer had higher fine motor development scores, of almost exclusive breastfeeding for up to 3 ~ 4 months and infants of any breastfeeding more than 6 months were more likely to have higher level of language development quotient. Conclusion Breastfed infants and prolonged duration of breastfeeding are associated with improved mental development, especially for the infants with the duration of almost exclusive breastfeeding for up to 5 ~6 months.%目的 探讨喂养方式、母乳喂养持续时间与婴幼儿智力发育水平的关联,为促进母乳喂养及最佳持续时间提供科学依据.方法 该研究是基于孕妇人群为基础的队列研究,选

  9. In practice, the theory is different: a processual analysis of breastfeeding in northeast Brazil.

    Scavenius, Michael; van Hulsel, Lonneke; Meijer, Julia; Wendte, Hans; Gurgel, Ricardo

    2007-02-01

    'Na prática, a teoria è outra' (in practice, the theory is different) is an old Brazilian saying. This phrase summarizes well the general practice of breastfeeding in Brazil: 'Breast is best' is central in the pregnant women's future oriented 'theory' of how their infant should be fed. In the subsequent weeks after delivery, however, in the daily practicalities of feeding their infant, this theory is, to a large extent, abandoned. The present study is based on a sample of 300 mothers in the city of Aracaju in the Northeast of Brazil. Through interviews, the differences and similarities between knowledge and practice with respect to infant feeding were established. An explanation of these differences is developed on the basis of a processual analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results of the interview data. Nearly all mothers were knowledgeable of the need to breastfeed, and nearly all mothers had initiated breastfeeding. However, only a minority was exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the interview. A distinction is made between a breastfeeding process and a de-breastfeeding process. The data suggest that mothers, in general, start the de-breastfeeding process with the positive intention of ameliorating the infant's situation without realizing the negative processual consequences that most likely ends in a cessation of breastfeeding. The study supports the view that health policy should underline the processual character of both breastfeeding and de-breastfeeding when promoting the importance of exclusive breastfeeding.

  10. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  11. Eltrombopag for management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (RAISE): a 6-month, randomised, phase 3 study

    Cheng, Gregory; Saleh, Mansoor N; Marcher, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. We aimed to compare the response to once daily eltrombopag versus placebo in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia during a 6-month period....

  12. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  13. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later: A phenomenological hermeneutic study

    Carrinna Hansen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed. Fifteen women were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were a DXA scan at one of the two hospitals showing a T-score below −2.5 (lower back or hip, age 65 years or older; no previous known osteoporotic fracture; at least one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis; and prescription of anti-osteoporotic treatment. Exclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or previous treatment with anti-osteoporotic medication. Data were collected through in-depth interviews shortly after diagnosis and 6 months later. The performed analyses were inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation of texts comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1 being diagnosed, 2 being prescribed medical treatment, and 3 being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support for the patients to gain understanding of their diagnosis and the risk of osteoporotic fracture as well as to learn to live with osteoporosis. The study highlights new health promotion areas for targeting interventions at newly diagnosed patients, helping them accept and interpret the diagnosis, and the medical treatment.

  14. Antibiotics and Breastfeeding.

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Gauthier, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    During the breastfeeding period, bacterial infections can occur in the nursing mother, requiring the use of antibiotics. A lack of accurate information may lead health care professionals and mothers to suspend breastfeeding, which may be unnecessary. This article provides information on the main antibiotics that are appropriate for clinical use and the interference of these antibiotics with the infant to support medical decisions regarding the discontinuation of breastfeeding. We aim to provide information on the pharmacokinetic factors that interfere with the passage of antibiotics into breast milk and the toxicological implications of absorption by the infant. Publications related to the 20 most frequently employed antibiotics and their transfer into breast milk were evaluated. The results demonstrate that most antibiotics in clinical use are considered suitable during breastfeeding; however, the pharmacokinetic profile of each drug must be observed to ensure the resolution of the maternal infection and the safety of the infant.

  15. Breastfeeding - self-care

    ... feel better and decrease your risk of getting cancer from smoking. Your baby will not get any nicotine or other chemicals from cigarettes in your breast milk. Know about your medicines and breastfeeding. Many medicines ...

  16. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  17. Breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed.

    Fallon, Anne; Dunne, Fidelma

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices. The key findings of this review are that breastfeeding as the first feed and exclusive breastfeeding are beneficial to meeting physiological needs. Preparations such as having food nearby and having someone to call on can help meet the woman's safety and security needs. A sense of love and belonging is supported by the practice of an early first breastfeed, but antenatal breast milk expression is currently not recommended. The woman's self-esteem can be enhanced through informed multidisciplinary support. Finally, self-actualisation or success with breastfeeding has been achieved by women with diabetes. Common breastfeeding concerns rather than diabetes have been identified as reasons for cessation of breastfeeding. Practices that support women deal with these concerns are recommended.

  18. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-05-01

    Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.

  19. Promoting breastfeeding through health education at the time of immunizations

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    As an intervention against diarrhoea, promotion of breastfeeding has been suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the present study from Guinea Bissau we tested the possibilities of promoting breastfeeding at a local health centre. A total of 1250 children were allocated randomly...... group (risk rate 1.18 (95% CI 1.03-1.38) and more mothers had an IUD inserted (risk rate 2.45 (1.27-4.70). The median length of breastfeeding was 23 mo in both groups. There was no difference in the number of children weaned early. Although exclusive breastfeeding was promoted by the intervention, early...... weaning of children in special risk groups was not avoided. An evaluation of the impact of the WHO recommendations in different settings is warranted....

  20. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  1. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum.

  2. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 6-month follow-up

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Osterlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons diagnosed with cancer (65 years and above), in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, activities of daily living, hope, social network and support. The investigation points were...... at time of diagnosis (baseline), and again 3 and 6 months after the diagnosis. The study also aimed to investigate which of the aforementioned factors predicted deteriorated QoL in elderly persons with cancer from baseline to the 6-month investigation. At baseline, the sample consisted of 101 individuals...... aged (age 65+) recently diagnosed with cancer (74 women, 27 men), but was reduced to 75 (57 women, 18 men) by the 6-month investigation point. EORTC QLQ C30, Katz ADL, Nowotny's Hope Scale and Interview Schedule for Social Interaction were used in structured personal interviews and questionnaires...

  3. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  4. Pain and emotions reported after childbirth and recalled 6 months later: the role of controllability.

    Tinti, Carla; Schmidt, Susanna; Businaro, Nicoletta

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was twofold: to investigate the relationship between subjectively evaluated control, positive and negative emotional feelings, and pain intensity during childbirth; to assess the recall of these aspects of childbirth experience 6 months after delivery. Participants were 123 women who delivered naturally and spoke fluent Italian. Results showed that both immediately after delivery and 6 months later, higher subjective controllability was related to less severe reported pain, more intense positive emotions and less intense negative emotions. Furthermore, although there was no significant bias in the vividness of the recall, 6 months after delivery women reported higher subjective controllability, more intense positive emotions, less intense negative emotions and less intense pain. It is concluded that in preparing women for childbirth, two aspects deserve particular attention: the enhancement of subjectively perceived controllability and the possibility to work on both negative and positive emotions.

  5. Intrauterine Device Placement During Cesarean Delivery and Continued Use 6 Months Postpartum: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Levi, Erika E; Stuart, Gretchen S; Zerden, Matthew L; Garrett, Joanne M; Bryant, Amy G

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare intrauterine device (IUD) use at 6 months postpartum among women who underwent intracesarean delivery (during cesarean delivery) IUD placement versus women who planned for interval IUD placement 6 or more weeks postpartum. Methods In this non-blinded randomized trial women who were undergoing a cesarean and desired an IUD were randomized to intracesarean cesarean delivery or interval IUD placement. The primary outcome was IUD use at 6 months postpartum. A sample size of 112 (56 in each group) was planned to detect a 15% difference in IUD use at 6 months postpartum between groups. Results From March 2012 to June 2014, 172 women were screened and 112 women were randomized into the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Data regarding IUD use at 6 months postpartum was available for 98 women, 48 and 50 women in the intracesarean and interval groups, respectively. A larger proportion of the women in the intracesarean group were using an IUD at 6 months postpartum ((40/48), 83%) compared to those in the interval group ((32/50) 64%, relative risk [RR]=1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.66). Among the 56 women randomized to interval IUD insertion, 22 (39%) of them never received an IUD; 14 (25%) never returned for IUD placement, five (9%) women declined an IUD, and three (5%) had a failed IUD placement. Conclusion IUD placement at the time of cesarean delivery leads to a higher proportion of IUD use at 6 months postpartum when compared to interval IUD placement. PMID:26241250

  6. ABFAB. Attachment to the breast and family attitudes to breastfeeding. The effect of breastfeeding education in the middle of pregnancy on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN21556494

    Waldenström Ulla

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has proven difficult to reach World Health Organization (WHO recommendations that infants be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age 12, yet there is limited knowledge about interventions that are effective in increasing breastfeeding initiation and duration. Particularly lacking is evidence about how to maintain breastfeeding rates in countries which already have a high initiation of breastfeeding. This study aims to determine whether mid-pregnancy breastfeeding education, with a focus on either attitudes to breastfeeding or on technical aspects of breastfeeding, has an effect on rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Secondary aims of the study are to: explore what factors might affect the duration of breastfeeding and evaluate the interventions from the participant and childbirth facilitator perspectives. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial (RCT design will be used. Women having their first baby, and planning to give birth as public patients at the Royal Women's Hospital (RWH, Melbourne, will be approached at 18–20 weeks of pregnancy and invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomly allocated to a control group or one of two group interventions: a previously designed and trialled tool to teach practical aspects of breastfeeding or an exploration of family attitudes to breastfeeding. The latter was developed and piloted by the investigators in conjunction with the group facilitators, prior to trial commencement. The interventions are planned to take place at 20–25 weeks. Data will be collected by questionnaire at recruitment, at interview in hospital after the birth and by telephone interview six months later. Medical/obstetric outcomes will be obtained from the medical record. The sample size (972 was calculated to identify an increase in breastfeeding initiation from 75 to 85% and an increase from 40 to 50% in breastfeeding at six months.

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    ... necessary until he or she gets used to bottle feeding. If your baby has a hard time adjusting ... Positions Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Breastfeeding FAQs: Out and About Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping ...

  8. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  9. Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial.

    Timothy K Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3 were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0% and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%, respectively (p = 0.06; the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8% and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%, respectively (p = 0.01. None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%. CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These

  10. Rapidly-growing buccal mass in a 6-month-old infant.

    Kumar, A; Brierley, D; Hunter, K D; Lee, N

    2015-11-01

    Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign tumours of fetal-embryonal adipocytes that usually present in young children, which is why they are not often included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in infants. We describe a case of a 6-month-old infant with an intraoral buccal lipoblastoma.

  11. Quality of life of elderly persons with cancer: a 6-month follow-up

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Osterlind, Kell; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2007-01-01

    . Emotional function improved significantly over time, and complaints of nausea and vomiting decreased. Contact with a district nurse at baseline predicted deteriorated QoL from baseline to 6 months later. Support from grandchildren increased significantly. About 30% of the total sample deteriorated in Qo...

  12. Is low back pain associated with worse health-related quality of life 6 months later?

    Nolet, P. S.; Kristman, V. L.; Cote, P.;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of low back pain (LBP) on future health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Current evidence suggests that individuals with LBP have poorer HRQoL than those without LBP. However, most of the evidence comes from cross-sectional studies where LBP...... was used to estimate the association between graded LBP at baseline and HRQoL at 6 months while controlling for the effects of confounding. The 6-month follow-up rate was 70.7 % (785/1,110). LBP had a dose-response relationship with worsening physical HRQoL at 6 months, after controlling for age, income......, arthritis, neck pain, and kidney disorders: grade III-IV LBP (beta = -10.23; 95 % CI -12.46, -7.99), grade II LBP (beta = -6.72, 95 % CI -8.79, -4.65), and grade I LBP (beta = -1.77; 95 % CI -3.18, -0.36). There was no dose-response relationship between LBP and mental HRQoL at 6 months. Low back pain has...

  13. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living: Results of a 6-month nutrition education comparative effectiveness trial

    The United States Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region suffers from high prevalence of chronic health conditions with nutritional etiologies, including obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. Responding to the need for effective nutrition interventions in the LMD, a 2-arm, 6-month, n...

  14. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe Madura

    2015-01-01

    -produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n...

  15. Determining the Impact of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure on Self-Regulation at 6 Months

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and…

  16. The Impact of SNAP-ED and EFNEP on Program Graduates 6 Months after Graduation

    Koszewski, Wanda; Sehi, Natalie; Behrends, Donnia; Tuttle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine if graduates from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education or Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program maintained behavioral changes 6 months after completing the program. Staff asked graduates to complete a 10- or 15-question behavior checklist that was identical to the entry and exit…

  17. Early hepatic regeneration index and completeness of regeneration at 6 months after partial hepatectomy

    Kele, P. G.; de Boer, M.; van der Jagt, E. J.; Lisman, T.; Porte, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The liver is known to regenerate following partial hepatectomy (PH), but little is known about the timing and completeness of regeneration relative to the resected volume. This study examined whether liver volume regeneration following PH and its completeness 6 months after surgery is re

  18. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    Aurélia Garry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  19. A 6-month supervised employer-based minimal exercise program for police officers improves fitness.

    Rossomanno, Colleen I; Herrick, Jeffery E; Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month supervised, job-specific moderate exercise program in police officers on body composition, cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular and muscular fitness were assessed at baseline, after a 6-month supervised fitness program and at 12-month follow-up (18 months). One hundred sixty-five (n = 131 men and n = 34 women) young (mean ± SEM, 26.4 ± 1.9 years), overweight (BMI = 26.2 ± 1.2 kg·m) police officers participated. Aerobic exercise progressed from 3 d·wk, 20 minutes per session at 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) to 5 d·wk, 30 minutes per session at 75% of HRR at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Muscular strength training progressed using 8 different calisthenics exercises from 3 d·wk, 2 sets of 5 repetitions using the participant's own BW to 5 d·wk, 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the participant's own BW at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Cardiovascular and muscular fitness was measured using a 0.25-mile obstacle course incorporating various job-specific exercises and expressed as the physical abilities test (PAT) time. There was a significant reduction in BMI (-0.6 ± 0.2 kg·m, p police officers improves fitness and body composition after 6 months in both men and women, but continued supervision of exercise program may be necessary for maintenance of health benefits.

  20. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  1. Fatores associados à interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo de lactentes nascidos com baixo peso assistidos na atenção básica Factors associated with interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in low birth weight infants receiving primary care

    Maria Teresa Cera Sanches

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se a identificar os fatores associados à interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME de lactentes nascidos com baixo peso assistidos na Atenção Básica. Estudo transversal com 170 lactentes assistidos em unidades básicas de saúde (UBS da periferia do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. Incluíram-se nascidos com peso ≤ 2.500g (inclusive gemelares, Apgar (5' ≥ 7 e acompanhados até o terceiro mês. Excluíram-se bebê/mãe com alterações que impedissem o AME e óbitos. Coletaram-se os dados utilizando-se formulários preenchidos nas consultas e prontuários. As razões de prevalência foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Identificou-se associado à interrupção do AME no terceiro mês: idade materna This study aimed to identify factors associated with interruption of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in low birth weight infants receiving primary care. This was a cross-sectional study of 170 infants treated at primary care units on the urban periphery of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included infants with birth weight ≤ 2,500g (including twins and 5-minute Apgar ≥ 7, followed until the third month of life, and excluded infants/mothers with complications that would impede EBF, besides infant/maternal deaths. Data were collected from forms completed during consultations and patient records. Prevalence ratios were obtained by Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with interruption of EBF in the first three months of life: maternal age ≤ 18 years; informal employment (protective factor; alcohol intake during pregnancy; < 6 prenatal visits; multiple gestations; birth weight ≤ 2,000g; difficulty breastfeeding in the first month; complaints in breastfeeding during the first month; and use of pacifiers in the first two months. Prior knowledge of these factors can help plan measures and policies to increase EBF rates among low birth weight infants.

  2. Association between duration of breastfeeding and its influence upon the development of harmful oral habits

    Fabiana Vargas FERREIRA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to identify harmful oralhabits and relate them to the duration of breastfeeding. Material andmethods: This was a retrospective study, using data from 143 dentalcharts of 0-59 months-old children of a public pediatric dental clinic. The charts contained information about presence of harmful oral habits and its frequency, as well as the duration of breastfeeding. Data were analyzed through chi-square test with significance level of 5%. Results:It was observed that 94 children (76.4% used pacifiers, 28 (22.7%presented oral breathing, 18 (14.7% had bruxism and 15 (12.2% bit their nails. Data from 143 dental charts indicated that 94 children(65.7% were breastfed for less than 6 months. There was a statistical significant association between duration of breastfeeding and harmful oral habits. Conclusion: The insufficient duration of breastfeeding is associated with the presence of harmful oral habits.

  3. People's initiative to counteract misinformation and marketing practices: the Pembo, Philippines, breastfeeding experience, 2006.

    Salud, M A Lourdes B; Gallardo, Josephine I; Dineros, Juliana A; Gammad, Alma F; Basilio, Juanita; Borja, Vicenta; Iellamo, Alessandro; Worobec, Lana; Sobel, Howard; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2009-08-01

    The Philippines is among 42 countries accounting for 90% of under 5-year-old deaths. Only 16% of 4 to 5 month old Filipinos exclusively breastfeed. In 2006, almost $100 million was spent advertising formula in the Philippines. To counter widespread misinformation and improve breastfeeding a peer counseling intervention was developed to target mothers with infants less than 2 months of age who were not exclusively breastfeeding or had difficulty breastfeeding. Participants received 3 peer counseling visits. At baseline and 3 weeks later, 24-hour food recalls for infants were collected. The number of exclusively formula-fed infants decreased seven-fold (P P 48 nonexclusively breastfeeding infants, 69.5% had changed feeding methods after 3 home visits, 76% of whom to exclusive breastfeeding. Community-based peer counseling was associated with a drastic improvement of exclusive breastfeeding practices. This intervention evolved and became sustainable by engaging political figures, cities, and communities throughout the process. In 2 years, the Department of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) program has scaled up to improve health service delivery for 161,612 persons in depressed urban communities in the Philippines.

  4. Selected abstracts from the Breastfeeding and Feminism International Conference 2016

    Lisa H. Amir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents A1. Infant feeding and poverty: a public health perspective in a global context Lisa H. Amir A2. Mothers’ experiences with galactagogues for lactation: an exploratory cross sectional study Alessandra Bazzano, Shelley Thibeau, Katherine P. Theall A3. The motherhood journey and breastfeeding: from self-efficacy to resilience and social stigma Anna Blair, Karin Cadwell A4. Breastfeeding as an evolutionary adaptive behavior Emily A. Bronson A5. Conflict-of-interest in public health policy: as real as that logo on your website Elizabeth C. Brooks A6. Co-opting sisterhood and motherhood: behind the scenes of Similac’s aggressive social media campaigns Jodine Chase A7. The exclusion of women from the definition of exclusive breastfeeding Ellen Chetwynd, Rebecca Costello, Kathryn Wouk A8. Healthy maternity policies in the workplace: a state health department’s experience with the “Bring Your Infant to Work” program Lindsey Dermid-Gray A9. Implications for a paradigm shift: factors related to breastfeeding among African American women Stephanie Devane-Johnson, Cheryl Woods Giscombe, Miriam Labbok A10. Social experiences of breastfeeding: building bridges between research and policy: an ESRC-funded seminar series in the UK Sally Dowling A11. Manager’s perspectives of lactation breaks Melanie Fraser A12. The challenging second night: a dialogue from two perspectives Jane Grassley, Deborah McCarter-Spaulding, Becky Spencer A13. The role of lactation consultants in two council breastfeeding services in Melbourne, Australia – some preliminary impressions Jennifer Hocking, Pranee Liamputtong A14. Integrating social marketing and community engagement concepts in community breastfeeding programs Sheree H. Keitt, Harumi Reis-Reilly A15. What happens before and after the maternity stay? Creating a community-wide Ten Steps approach Miriam Labbok A16. #RVABREASTFEEDS: cultivating a breastfeeding-friendly community Leslie Lytle A17

  5. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  6. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  7. Your Guide to Breastfeeding

    ... while breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor about your vitamin B12 needs. Fitness An active lifestyle helps you stay healthy, feel better, and have more energy. It does not affect the qual- ity or quantity of your breast milk or your baby’s growth. If your breasts are ...

  8. Research progress between childhood obesity and breastfeeding%儿童单纯性肥胖和母乳喂养关系的研究进展

    张雪燕; 郭磊; 张志平; 周乐山

    2014-01-01

    肥胖是严重威胁儿童健康的全球性问题.控制儿童肥胖应从预防做起.多数研究发现母乳喂养为儿童肥胖的保护性因素.应鼓励和帮助母亲坚持纯母乳喂养4~6个月.母乳喂养时间长短与儿童肥胖存在一定的负相关,延长母乳喂养时间可适当地减少儿童肥胖发生率.%Obesity as a global issue is a serious threat to children's health.To control childhood obesity must begin with effective preventions.Most studies have found that breast milk can protect against childhood obesity.It is recommended that children should be exclusively breastfed for at least 4-6 months.The duration of breastfeeding has some negative correlation with the prevalence of childhood obesity.Increasing the duration of breastfeeding can properly decrease the risk of childhood obesity.

  9. Crown lengthening in the maxillary anterior region: a 6-month prospective clinical study.

    Deas, David E; Mackey, Scott A; Sagun, Ruben S; Hancock, Raymond H; Gruwell, Scott F; Campbell, Casey M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess osseous parameters and stability of maxillary anterior teeth following crown lengthening surgery. Thirty-six patients requiring facial crown lengthening of 277 maxillary anterior and first premolar teeth were included. Presurgical and intraoperative clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postsurgery at midfacial, mesiofacial, and distofacial line angles. The data presented here suggest that when crown lengthening anterior maxillary teeth, the distance between the desired gingival margin and alveolar crest is usually insufficient to allow for biologic width. In addition, there is significant tissue rebound that may stabilize by 6 months. Tissue rebound appears related to flap position relative to the alveolar crest at suturing. These findings suggest that clinicians should establish proper anterior crown length with osseous resection.

  10. An unusual form of localized papulonodular cutaneous histiocytosis in a 6-month-old boy.

    van Haselen, C W; Toonstra, J; den Hengst, C W; van Vloten, W A

    1995-09-01

    We report a 6-month-old boy with an unusual form of cutaneous histiocytosis. The lesions were noticed shortly after birth, and there was no evidence of systemic disease. This histiocytic disorder could not be classified according to the Histiocyte Society classification, and was therefore designated an 'unclassified' group II histiocytic disorder. The clinical picture was characterized by dark-red papulonodules with a tendency to coalesce into plaques. Histologically, the infiltrate was characterized by non-epidermotropic histiocytes showing varying degrees of differentiation, eosinophils and lymphocytes, and by the absence of foamy cells and Touton giant cells. As a most conspicuous feature, electron microscopic examination revealed laminated dense bodies, whereas Birbeck granules and comma-shaped bodies were absent. This further distinguished this uncommon variant from the well-known class II histiocytoses. During a 6-month follow-up period all the lesions showed marked regression.

  11. Constraints, synergies and avenues for scaling up breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in the Cusco region, Peru [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/Vk0ueY

    Giselle Sarganas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess the feasibility of scaling up exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, antibiotics for pneumonia and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI child interventions in three districts of the Cusco region, Peru. Methods: During field visits, constraints, synergies and solutions to the implementation of the selected interventions were collected through observational recording and interviews of mothers, health workers, and health managers/decision makers. Results are presented for each intervention according to the health system level where they occurred: mother/community, health worker, health centre, and political/managerial levels. Findings: This case study demonstrates that it is feasible to scale up exclusive breastfeeding, antibiotics for pneumonia and IMCI interventions in poverty-stricken rural areas of a low-income country. Factors that helped and hindered the implementation were identified for each intervention. Conclusions: The need for a coherent multi-sector approach that includes regulation, implementation and monitoring of health policies and education of all involved stakeholders was apparent. This study also demonstrates that global health interventions need to undergo local adaptation. Identifying local constraints and facilitating factors in a systematic way as proposed in this study is a useful step to increase their effectiveness and reach at the local level and to identify areas for improvement in the original intervention policies.

  12. Research on breastfeeding and neurobehavioral development%母乳喂养与神经行为发育的相关研究

    刘燕; 林茜; 匡晓妮; 钱红艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objectives] To investigate the early feeding of some infants in Changsha Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital to study the correlation of breastfeeding and neurobehavioral development, which might provide a more rational guidance for infant feeding. [Methods] From July to December of 2010,274 infants aged 6~12 months old who involved in the physical examination in Changsha Maternal and Chil Health Hospital were selected. Questionnaire survey was used to collect the information of feeding,Gesell Development Scale was used to evaluate neurobehavioral development, Anova single factor analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used. [Results] Exclusive breastfeeding after born for 67. 9% .exclusive breastfeeding 6 months for 13. 1%. The Gesell Scales showed that the DQ of female was higher than that of male(Pexclusive breastfeeding were higher than formula feeding and mixed feeding group (P<0. 05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding of the main factor to promote the DQ. [Conclusion] Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding may promote the neurobehavioral development of infants.%[目的]通过调查儿保门诊婴儿喂养情况,探讨母乳喂养与婴儿神经行为发育相关性. [方法]对长沙市妇幼保健院2010年7-12月进行健康体检的274例6~12月龄婴儿进行现况调查,通过问卷调查收集婴儿喂养情况,采用Gesell发育量表对婴儿的神经行为发育进行评估.用ANOVA单因素方差分析及多元逐步回归分析等方法进行统计分析. [结果]出生后纯母乳喂养占67.9%,纯母乳喂养6个月以上占13.1%.婴儿发育商比较,女婴发育商高于男婴(P<0.05);纯母乳喂养组高于人工喂养组和部分母乳喂养组,在适应性、大运动能区,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);多元逐步回归分析显示:纯母乳喂养时间为

  13. Adherence to WHO breastfeeding guidelines among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia: implication for intervention

    Haile D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural

  14. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6-month follow-up results

    Hye Jung Choo; Hae Woong Jeong; Jin Young Park; Sung-Chul Jin; Sung Tae Kim; Jung Hwa Seo; Sun Joo Lee; Young Mi Park

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up.

    Methods:

    We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=...

  15. Large right ventricular fibroma in a 6-month-old infant.

    Horovitz, Alice; van Geldorp, Irene E; Roubertie, François; Thambo, Jean-Benoit

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the case of a 6-month-old girl with a large cardiac fibroma in the right ventricle. Ventricular tachycardia associated with the fibroma was successfully treated with amiodarone. At the age of 3 years, surgical resection was indicated because of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by progression of the tumor. The fibroma was successfully resected, and further follow-up evaluation was uneventful.

  16. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    Fei Yuan; Liyan Wang; Chien-Chen Lin; Cheng-Hung Chou; Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the ...

  17. Creatinine related reference ranges for urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid at 6 months of age.

    M Cole; Parker, L.; Craft, A W; Bell, S.; G. Dale; McGill, A C; Seviour, J. A.; Smith, J

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and creatinine in the urine of 6 month old babies has been studied and reference ranges in the form of centiles constructed for HVA and VMA against creatinine. Over 10,000 urine samples were collected from babies in four health districts in the north of England. HVA and VMA concentration, either independently or when divided by creatinine concentration, were dependent upon the absolute concentration of creatinine i...

  18. Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study.

    Baum, Larry; Cheung, Stanley K K; Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Linda C W; Leung, Vivian P Y; Hui, Elsie; Ng, Chelsia C Y; Chow, Moses; Ho, Ping C; Lam, Sherry; Woo, Jean; Chiu, Helen F K; Goggins, William; Zee, Benny; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Hazel; Cheng, William K F; Fong, Carmen; Lee, Jenny S W; Chan, Ming-Houng; Szeto, Samuel S L; Lui, Victor W C; Tsoh, Joshua; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Iris H S; Lam, Christopher W K

    2007-12-01

    Studies in animals and a short-term human study have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound concentrated in the curry spice turmeric, decreases serum cholesterol concentration. However, no controlled human trials have examined the effect of curcumin on cholesterol. This study investigated the effects of consuming curcumin on the serum lipid profile in men and women. Elderly subjects (n=36) consumed 4 g/d curcumin, 1g/d curcumin, or placebo in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Plasma curcumin and its metabolites were measured at 1 month, and the serum lipid profile was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The plasma curcumin concentration reached a mean of 490 nmol/L. The curcumin concentration was greater after capsule than powder administration. Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.

  19. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  20. Shorter duration of breastfeeding at elevated exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) affect the capability to breastfeed.In two Faroese birth cohorts (N = 1130), concentrations of five PFASs were measured in maternal serum during pregnancy or two weeks after term....... Duration of breastfeeding was assessed by questionnaire and clinical interview. In adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of maternal serum PFASs was associated with a reduction in duration of both total and exclusive breastfeeding, most pronounced for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) where...

  1. Exposed: younger mothers and breastfeeding.

    Noble-Carr, Debbie; Bell, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study, conducted by volunteers from the Australian Capital Territory/Southern New South Wales (ACT/SNSW) Branch of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA), explored the breastfeeding experiences of younger mothers (under the age of 26 years) in the ACT by conducting three focus groups. The study aimed to gain an understanding of how, when and where younger mothers want and need to receive breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers provided important insights into their breastfeeding experiences, which were often characterised by judgement from health professionals and the wider public. A number of key issues were identified including: breastfeeding is far from a cultural norm in our society and as such the risks of artificial baby milk are not clearly understood by many younger mothers; younger mothers are strongly influenced by their partners, mothers and peers and they rely upon them for breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers indicated that a number of improvements could be made to the way that breastfeeding information and support is currently provided within the ACT. The findings indicated that younger mothers (and their significant others) would benefit from receiving clear, concise and consistent breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy, that is positive in tone, not necessarily 'young mum' specific and consistent with a 'less is more' approach. Younger mothers indicated that after the birth of their baby this breastfeeding information needs to be complemented by readily accessible, seamless, respectful support for as long as they need to establish breastfeeding and overcome any breastfeeding challenges. The focus group findings were largely consistent with the existing literature available on younger mothers and breastfeeding and provide valuable insights to all stakeholders responsible for providing breastfeeding information and support to younger mothers.

  2. Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the First 6 Months of Life in South Africa: The IeDEA-SA Collaboration.

    Erna Morden

    Full Text Available HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life.This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes. Data were collected between 2007 and 2013. Linear regression assessed factors affecting birth weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ while growth (longitudinal WAZ was assessed using mixed effects models.We assessed the growth of 2621 HEU infants (median birth WAZ was -0.65 (IQR -1.46; 0.0 and 51% were male. The feeding modalities practised were as follows: 0.5% exclusive breastfeeding, 7.9% breastfeeding with unknown exclusivity, 0.08% mixed breastfeeding and 89.2% formula feeding. Mothers with CD4 <200 cells/μl delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.253 [95% CI -0.043; -0.072], p = 0.006 compared to mothers with aCD4 ≥500 cells/μl. Similarly, mothers who did not receive antiretroviral drugs delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.39 [95% CI -0.67; -0.11], p = 0.007 compared to mothers who received antenatal antiretrovirals. Infants with a birth weight <2 500g (ß 0.070 [95% CI 0.061; 0.078], p <0.0001 experienced faster growth within the first 28 weeks of life compared to infants with a birth weight ≥2 500g. Infants with any breastfeeding exposure experienced slower longitudinal growth compared to formula fed infants (adjusted ß -0.012 [95% CI 0.021; -0.003], p = 0.011.Less severe maternal disease and the use of antiretrovirals positively impacts birth weight in this cohort of South African HEU infants. Formula feeding was common with breastfed infants experiencing marginally slower longitudinal growth.

  3. Cryptosporidium prevalence and risk factors among mothers and infants 0 to 6 months in rural and semi-rural Northwest Tanzania: a prospective cohort study.

    Sarah H Pedersen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium epidemiology is poorly understood, but infection is suspected of contributing to childhood malnutrition and diarrhea-related mortality worldwide.A prospective cohort of 108 women and their infants in rural/semi-rural Tanzania were followed from delivery through six months. Cryptosporidium infection was determined in feces using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Breastfeeding/infant feeding practices were queried and anthropometry measured. Maternal Cryptosporidium infection remained high throughout the study (monthly proportion = 44 to 63%. Infection did not differ during lactation or by HIV-serostatus, except that a greater proportion of HIV-positive mothers were infected at Month 1. Infant Cryptosporidium infection remained undetected until Month 2 and uncommon through Month 3 however, by Month 6, 33% of infants were infected. There were no differences in infant infection by HIV-exposure. Overall, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF was limited, but as the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed declined from 32% at Month 1 to 4% at Month 6, infant infection increased from 0% at Month 1 to 33% at Month 6. Maternal Cryptosporidium infection was associated with increased odds of infant infection (unadjusted OR = 3.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 9.99, while maternal hand washing prior to infant feeding was counterintuitively also associated with increased odds of infant infection (adjusted OR = 5.02, 95% CI = 1.11 to 22.78.Both mothers and infants living in this setting suffer a high burden of Cryptosporidium infection, and the timing of first infant infection coincides with changes in breastfeeding practices. It is unknown whether this is due to breastfeeding practices reducing pathogen exposure through avoidance of contaminated food/water consumption; and/or breast milk providing important protective immune factors. Without a Cryptosporidium vaccine, and facing considerable diagnostic challenges and ineffective treatment in

  4. Breastfeeding experience differentially impacts recognition of happiness and anger in mothers.

    Krol, Kathleen M; Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-12

    Breastfeeding is a dynamic biological and social process based on hormonal regulation involving oxytocin. While there is much work on the role of breastfeeding in infant development and on the role of oxytocin in socio-emotional functioning in adults, little is known about how breastfeeding impacts emotion perception during motherhood. We therefore examined whether breastfeeding influences emotion recognition in mothers. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task, we found that longer durations of exclusive breastfeeding were associated with faster recognition of happiness, providing evidence for a facilitation of processing positive facial expressions. In addition, we found that greater amounts of breastfed meals per day were associated with slower recognition of anger. Our findings are in line with current views of oxytocin function and support accounts that view maternal behaviour as tuned to prosocial responsiveness, by showing that vital elements of maternal care can facilitate the rapid responding to affiliative stimuli by reducing importance of threatening stimuli.

  5. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  6. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (< 1 year) and after 6 months of pain treatment. Blister fluid was collected from the affected and contralateral nonaffected side. We used a multiplex-10 bead array cytokine assay and Luminex technology to measure protein concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the chemokines eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β). We found bilaterally increased proinflammatory TNF-α and MIP-1β and decreased antiinflammatory IL-1RA protein levels in CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome.

  7. Data analysis of 87 tic patients for 6 months' treatment in a Korean medicine clinic.

    Chun, Young-Ho; Kim, Won-Ill; Kim, Bo-Kyung

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the therapeutic effects of treatment for tic disorder and Korean medicine clinical tests, including body mass index (BMI) and heart variability rate (HRV). This study was not a clinical trial, but a data analysis of 87 tic patients who were treated for 6 months during the time period from Nov. 2010 to Jan. 2012. The clinical evaluation of the symptoms was recorded using the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The BMI and the HRV were measured according to a schedule, and various kinds of statistical methods were used. Among the 87 patients, the number of males was 3.34 times the number of females, and 58 patients (66.7%) had been suffering for more than 12 months. The onset age of the males was significantly lower than that of the females, and males had the symptoms longer than females had. Also, males with a family history of tics were 2.5 times as many as females, and their onset ages were substantially lower. At the first medical examinations, the average score on the YGTSS was 34.08, and it decreased linearly as the treatment progressed. After 4 and 6 months of treatment, it had decreased significantly. The YGTSS score and the period of suffering correlated positively. At the first visit, each HRV datum was in the normal range. After the 6 months' treatment, Ln (TP), Ln (LF), and Ln (HF) had dropped substantially in the normal range while Ln (VLF) and the LF/HF ratio had not changed in a meaningful way. During the treatment period, the BMI stayed relatively constant without any meaningful changes.

  8. A Prospective Controlled Study of Kidney Donors: Baseline and 6-Month Follow-up

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Weir, Matthew R.; Nogueira, Joseph M.; Cosio, Fernando G.; Kraus, Edward S.; Rabb, Hamid H.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Posselt, Andrew A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Steffes, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous studies of living kidney donors have been retrospective and have lacked suitable healthy controls. Needed are prospective controlled studies to better understand the effects of a mild reduction in kidney function from kidney donation in otherwise normal individuals. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Consecutive patients approved for donation at 8 transplant centers in the US were asked to participate. For every donor enrolled, an equally healthy control with 2 kidneys who theoretically would have been suitable to donate a kidney was also enrolled. Predictor Kidney donation. Measurements At baseline pre-donation and at 6 months after donation, a medical history, vital signs, measured (iohexol) glomerular filtration rate and other measurements were collected. There were 201 donors and 198 controls that completed both baseline and 6 month visits and form the basis of this report. Results Compared to controls, donors had 28% lower glomerular filtration rate at 6 months (94.6±15.1 [SD] v. 67.6±10.1 mL/min/1.73m2; P<0.001), associated with a 23% greater parathyroid hormone (42.8±15.6 v. 52.7±20.9 pg/mL; P<0.001), 5.4% lower serum phosphate (3.5±0.5 v. 3.3±0.5 mg/dL; P<0.001), 3.7% lower hemoglobin (13.6±1.4 v. 13.1±1.2 g/dL; P<0.001), 8.2% greater uric acid (4.9±1.2 v. 5.3±1.1 mg/dL; P<0.001), 24% greater homocysteine (1.20±0.34 v. 1.49±0.43 mg/L; P<0.001), and 1.5% lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (54.9±16.4 v. 54.1±13.9 mg/dL; P=0.03) level. There were no differences in albumin-creatinine ratios (5.0 [IQR, 4.0-6.6] v. 5.0 [IQR, 3.3-5.4] mg/g; P=0.5), office blood pressure, or glucose homeostasis. Limitations Short duration of follow-up and possible bias resulting from an inability to screen controls with kidney and vascular imaging performed in donors. Conclusions Kidney donors have some, but not all, abnormalities typically associated with mild chronic kidney

  9. ROLE OF PLATELET TRANSFUSIONS IN DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER- 6 MONTHS REPORT

    Geeta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allogenic platelet transfusion plays a major role in the management of thrombocytopenia. The study includes details of pla telet transfusion over a period of 6 months from January-2011 to June-2011 at blood bank of Gan dhi Hospital. Total number of patients who received were 487 and proportionate use of total un its of RDP (Random Donor Platelets issued from blood bank were as follows; dengue hemorrhagic fever (38% and remaining for acute leukemia (12%, Aplastic anemia (10%, sepsis (10% , DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (10%, cardiac surgery (10%. In dengu e hemorrhagic fever, correlation of platelet count with platelet transfusion and platelet increm ent have been evaluated.

  10. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed...... comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1) being diagnosed, 2) being prescribed medical treatment, and 3) being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support...

  11. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

    Wu YS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Shan Wu,1 Pao-Yen Lin,1,2 Chih-Yen Chien,3 Fu-Min Fang,4 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Chi-Fa Hung,1 Yu Lee,1 Mian-Yoon Chong11Department of Psychiatry, 2Institute for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, 3Department of Otolaryngology, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, TaiwanObjective: We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL between those with and without depressive disorders (depression.Materials and methods: Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements.Results: A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%. A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001, loss of speech (P<0.001, low libido (P=0.001, dry mouth (P<0.001, and weight loss (P=0.001 were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001 and nutrition supplements (P<0.001. The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001 and trouble with

  12. Breastfeeding and the prevalence of allergic diseases in schoolchildren: Does reverse causation matter?

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Yasumi, Takahiro; Heike, Toshio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Fujii, Tatsuya; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2010-02-01

    Infants at higher risk of allergic diseases might be breastfed for longer periods compared with infants at lower risk in the hope that breastfeeding might reduce the risk of atopic disorders. Therefore, this intention could manifest as an apparent allergy-promoting effect of breastfeeding or reverse causation. To analyze the effect of breast feeding on the prevalence of allergic diseases at school age, a large questionnaire survey was administered to the parents of schoolchildren aged 7-15 yrs. 13,215 parents responded (response rate, 90.1%). Prevalence rates of allergic diseases were compared according to the type of feeding in infancy (either complete breastfeeding, mixed feeding or complete artificial feeding). In both univariate and multivariate analysis, compared with those with complete artificial feeding, those with mixed and complete breastfeeding showed a significantly lower prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). On the other hand, in univariate analysis, the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) were significantly higher in those with complete breastfeeding (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). There was a significantly higher proportion of complete breastfeeding among those with greater risk of allergic diseases (presence of family history, either eczema or wheeze within 6 months after birth, or FA in infancy). Therefore, our multivariate analysis included these risks as confounding factors, and we found that the promoting effects of breastfeeding on AD and FA disappeared. In conclusion, our data clearly showed the inhibitory effect of breastfeeding on the prevalence of BA at school age. The apparent promoting effect of breastfeeding on the prevalence of AD and FA is most likely because of reverse causation.

  13. Impact of a Baby-Friendly hospital on breastfeeding indicators in Shaqlawa district in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    Shaker, N Z; Hasan, S S; Ismail, Z A

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on WHO-defined breastfeeding indicators in Shaqlawa district in Kurdistan region of Iraq. A household survey was carried out on a purposive non-probability sample of 200 mothers with a child aged < 30 months. Mothers were interviewed using a structured form to determine demographic data and feeding practices of the most recent child. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was 38.1%, exclusive breastfeeding was 15.4% and continued breastfeeding was 61.0% and 39.5% at 1 and 2 years of age respectively. A significant relationship was found between delivery at the Baby- Friendly accredited hospital and early initiation of breastfeeding but not with exclusive or continued breastfeeding. While continued breastfeeding at 1 year and 2 year was good, early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding indicators were not at an acceptable level, which indicates an ineffective role for the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

  14. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6 month followup results

    Choo, Hye Jung; Jeong, Hae Woong; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Young Mi [Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Chul [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels.

  15. Practice effects on the WAIS-III across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    Basso, Michael R; Carona, Francine D; Lowery, Natasha; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-one participants (age M = 24.6; education M = 14.4 years) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III) at baseline and at an interval of either 3 or 6 months later. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Organization Index (POI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores improved significantly across time, whereas no significant change occurred on the Working Memory Index. Specifically, test scores increased approximately 3, 11, 6, 4, 8, and 7 points, respectively on the VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ, VCI, POI, and PSI for both groups. Notably, the degree of improvement was similar regardless of whether the inter-test interval was 3 or 6 months. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-III yields considerable increases in test scores. Reliable change indices indicated that large confidence intervals might be expected. As such, users of the WAIS-III should interpret reevaluations across these intervals cautiously.

  16. Interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and anemia: A 6-month follow-up study

    Megha Dhananjay Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, anemia is a common and serious health disorder among both sexes and all age groups, with anemia of chronic disease (ACD being the second most prevalent anemia. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the tooth caused by specific microorganisms. An immune response to bacteria and their products induces a major vascular response, offering explanatory mechanisms for the interactions between periodontal infection and a variety of systemic disorders. Therefore, periodontitis results in low-grade systemic inflammation, which may cause lower number of erythrocytes and, consequently, lower hemoglobin concentration. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 systemically healthy male patients visiting the outpatient department participated in the study. Of these, 50 patients had healthy periodontium and 50 patients had chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters and red blood cell parameters of all the patients were assessed at baseline and 6 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Statistical analysis using Student′s t-test was performed. Results: Data analysis revealed that patients with chronic periodontitis showed an improvement in both clinical and red blood cell parameters from baseline to 6 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that like any other chronic condition, chronic periodontitis can lead to ACD. It also provides evidence that non-surgical periodontal therapy can improve the anemic status of patients with chronic periodontitis.

  17. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    Fei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement.

  18. Risk factors for suicidal ideation among college students: 6-month follow-up.

    Shtayermman, Oren; Fayda, Matthew G; Knight, Kim L

    This study was a 6-month follow-up study examining risk factors for suicide among college students. The sample included 95 participants who also participated in the first data collection period. Online questionnaires were completed by participants from the first wave. Thirteen percent of the sample had clinically significant levels of suicidal ideation, 3.2% met the criteria for dysthymia, and 15.8% and 17.9% met the DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder, respectfully. About 9.5% met criteria for alcohol dependence and 16.8% met criteria for drug abuse. Overall, 23% of the variance was explained in suicidal ideation with depressive symptoms, presence of anxiety, and high relational victimization scores attributing to 15% of the variance. Results of the 6-month follow-up support prior research suggesting high correlation between Major Depressive Disorder and suicidal ideation. However, there was no correlation found between levels of suicidal ideation and Generalized Anxiety Disorders.

  19. HIV Transmission Risk Persists During the First 6 Months of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Mujugira, Andrew; Celum, Connie; Coombs, Robert W.; Campbell, James D.; Ndase, Patrick; Ronald, Allan; Were, Edwin; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Mugo, Nelly; Kiarie, James; Baeten, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases the risk of sexual HIV transmission by suppressing blood and genital HIV RNA concentrations. We sought to determine HIV transmission risk prior to achieving complete viral suppression. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Using data from the Partners PrEP Study, a prospective study of 4747 heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we examined multiple markers of HIV transmission risk during the first months after ART initiation: time to viral suppression in blood, persistence of HIV RNA in genital specimens, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy incidence, and HIV transmission using survival analysis and GEE logistic regression. Results The cumulative probabilities of achieving blood viral suppression (6 months of ART (0 infections; 167 person-years). Conclusions Residual HIV transmission risk persists during the first 6-months of ART, with incomplete viral suppression in blood and genital compartments. For HIV-serodiscordant couples in which the infected partner starts ART, other prevention options are needed, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, until viral suppression is achieved. PMID:27070123

  20. 6-month evaluation of JinHuang Chinese herbal medicine study in asymptomatic HIV infected Thais.

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Bussaratid, Valai; Chamnachanan, Supat; Naksrisook, Supa; Peonim, Wantanee; Thantamnu, Narumon; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai

    2003-06-01

    Good results of in vitro study of anti-HIV effects of JinHuang, a Chinese herbal medicine led to in vivo study of safety and efficacy among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. It was a prospective open study of 21 asymptomatic HIV infected Thai volunteers. Twelve and 9 were female and male, respectively, with mean age of 29.24 +/- 3.94 years. JinHuang preparation, 6 capsules and 2 bottles of liquid formula orally three times a day, was given on an outpatient basis initially for 6 months. Regular close monitoring and follow-up were done. The side effects reported included : increased bowel movements (81%), vague taste, and smell of drug after initiation (52%). No serious adverse event related to JinHuang was detected during study. No significant changes in terms of log viral load and CD4 count were observed after 6-months' duration. Most of the patients felt that the quality of life was better in terms of better appetite, good sleep and healthy during study participation, however, these were subjective.

  1. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health.

  2. Sleep and physical growth in infants during the first 6 months.

    Tikotzky, Liat; DE Marcas, Gali; Har-Toov, Joseph; Dollberg, Shaul; Bar-Haim, Yair; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between infant sleep patterns and infant physical growth (weight for length ratio) using both objective and subjective sleep measures. Ninety-six first-born, healthy 6-month-old infants and their parents participated in the study. Infant sleep was assessed by actigraphy for four consecutive nights and by the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ). In addition, parents were asked to complete background and developmental questionnaires. Questions about feeding methods were included in the developmental questionnaire. Infants' weight and length were assessed during a standard checkup at the infant-care clinic when the infants were 6 months old. Significant correlations were found between infant sleep and growth after controlling for potential infant and family confounding factors. Actigraphic sleep percentage and reported sleep duration were correlated negatively with the weight-to-length ratio measures. Sex-related differences in the associations between sleep and physical growth were found. Breast feeding at night was correlated with a more fragmented sleep, but not with physical growth. These findings suggest that sleep is related significantly to physical growth as early as in the first months of life. The study supports increasing evidence from recent studies demonstrating a link between short sleep duration and weight gain and obesity in young children.

  3. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable. PMID:27867255

  4. Safety and 6-month effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion: a prospective study

    Duhon BS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bradley S Duhon,1 Daniel J Cher,2 Kathryn D Wine,2 Harry Lockstadt,3 Don Kovalsky,4 Cheng-Lun Soo5On behalf of the SIFI Study Group1Neurosurgical and Spine Specialists, Parker, CO, 2SI-BONE, Inc, San Jose, CA, 3Bluegrass Orthopaedics and Hand Care, Lexington, KY, 4Orthopaedic Center of Southern Illinois, Mount Vernon, IL, 5Health Research Institute, Oklahoma City, OK, USABackground: Sacroiliac (SI joint pain is an often overlooked cause of low back pain. SI joint arthrodesis has been reported to relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients suffering from degeneration or disruption of the SI joint who have failed non-surgical care. We report herein early results of a multicenter prospective single-arm cohort of patients with SI joint degeneration or disruption who underwent minimally invasive fusion using the iFuse Implant System®.Methods: The safety cohort includes 94 subjects at 23 sites with chronic SI joint pain who met study eligibility criteria and underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion with the iFuse Implant System® between August 2012 and September 2013. Subjects underwent structured assessments preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, including SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, Short Form-36 (SF-36, and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 months. The effectiveness cohort includes the 32 subjects who have had 6-month follow-up to date.Results: Mean subject age was 51 years (n=94, safety cohort and 66% of patients were women. Subjects were highly debilitated at baseline (mean VAS pain score 78, mean ODI score 54. Three implants were used in 80% of patients; two patients underwent staged bilateral implants. Twenty-three adverse events occurred within 1 month of surgery and 29 additional events occurred between 30 days and latest follow-up. Six adverse events were severe but none were device

  5. Comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: results of 6-month program

    Evgenia Vladislavovna Orlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of a comprehensive rehabilitation program (CRP in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA for 6 months. Subjects and methods. Sixty patients with early RA were examined. During medical therapy, 6-month CRP was implemented in 34 patients in the study group. The 2-week in-hospital stage involved ten sessions of 15-min local air cryotherapy (-60 °C of the hands, knee or ankle joints; ten classes of 45-min therapeutic exercises (TE under the supervision of a trainer; ten sessions of 45-min ergotherapy (training people how to therapeutically position their joints, to apply their protective methods, to lift and move things, to use assistive devices, and to do hand exercises; orthotics (working wrist orthoses, knee ones, or individual orthopedic insoles; and four 90-min educational program classes. The outpatient and domiciliary stages included 45-min TE thrice weekly; creation of a correct functional stereotype; and orthotics. Twenty-six patients received medical therapy only (a control group. The authors estimated tender joint count (TJC, swollen joint count (SJC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, joint pain on 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS, DAS28, HAQ, RAPID3, hand grip strength, average maximum knee extension and ankle flexion by the EN-TreeM movement analysis, and compliance with drug and non-drug treatments. Results. The study group showed a stably high compliance with therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, less need for symptomatic agents, higher adherence to the methods of creating a correct functional stereotype, orthotics, and regular TE. Twenty-two patients completed 6-month CRP; 12 patents did not complete the treatment because of non-compliance with nondrug methods, primarily TE. Upon completion of the in-hospital stage of CRP, the study group exhibited significant positive changes in pain and functional status and no significant impact on global

  6. 母乳喂养对3岁儿童乳牙患龋病的影响%The impact of breastfeeding on dental caries in children aged 3 years

    邹晓璇; 苗江霞; 李文珺; 张艳玲; 张萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of feeding methods and breastfeeding time on dental caries in children aged 3 years, and to find the key point, as soon as possible to give parents the reasonable feeding guide. Methods An cross-sectional study was conducted on 588 children in a small nursery (aged 3 years) with teeth checking in the Haidian district. Results The prevence of dental caries 40. 4%, 48. 2% and 54. 4% in the group of breastfeeding time less than 6 months, between 6-12 months and more than 12 months respectively. As the breastfeeding time grew, the prevence of dental caries increased (Ptrend = 0. 017). Only the prevence of dental caries in the groups of breastfeeding time more than 12 months was greater than that in the group of breastfeeding time less than 6 months (P = 0. 018). With mixed feeding method, the prevence of dental caries in both the group of breastfeeding time between 6-12 months and more than 12 months were greater than that in the group of breastfceding time less than 6 months (49.7%, 54.3% and 36. 1%; P = 0.026 and P=0. 010). In logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for triditional risk factors, the risk of dental caries in both the group of breastfeeding time between 6-12 months and more than 12 months were signifcantly greater than that in the group of breastfeeding time less than 6 months (OR= 1. 770, 95%CI: 1. 046-2. 995 and OR=2. 549, 95%CI: 1. 420-4. 579). Also with the group of artificial feeding method, the risk of dental caries in group of breastfeeding method descreasded by 60% (OR = 0. 406, 95%CI: 0.167-0.990). Conclusions The risk of dental caries decreases effictively by the breastfeeding method, and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months is better. Overall, the finding shows that dental health education should be encouraged as soon as possible.%目的 探讨喂养方式和母乳喂养时间对3岁儿童乳牙龋的影响,以寻求母乳喂养对乳牙龋患病的关键点,尽早给予父

  7. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  8. Music Therapy May Increase Breastfeeding Rates Among Mothers of Premature Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Antonio J L A Cunha; Albelino S Carvalhaes; Barbosa,Arnaldo P; Martha N. S Vianna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of music therapy on breastfeeding rates among mothers of premature newborns. METHOD: In an open randomized controlled trial, mothers of premature neonates weighting ≤1750g were submitted to music therapy sessions three times a week for 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was breastfeeding rate (exclusive, predominant or continuous) at the moment of infant discharge and at the first follow-up visit (7-15 days after discharge). RESULTS: A total of 94 mothers (48 in the music...

  9. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours.

  10. Breastfeeding and risk of parasitic infection-a review

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding, as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life, is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants. Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding, some of which still controversial, breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding. Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population. The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites, particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution. The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections, make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized. Breast milk, the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission, but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites. The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored. It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens, must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits. Within this context, and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties, researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.

  11. Breastfeeding and risk of parasitic infection-a review

    Prameela; Kannan; Kutty

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding,as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life,is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants.Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding,some of which still controversial,breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding.Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population.The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites,particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution.The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections,make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized.Breast milk,the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission,but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites.The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored.It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens,must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits.Within this context,and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties,researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.

  12. Role of spinal ultrasound in diagnosis of meningitis in infants younger than 6 months

    Nepal, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj-123@live.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh, E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Saxena, Akshay Kumar, E-mail: fatakshay@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bhatia, Anmol, E-mail: anmol_bhatia26@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Singhi, Sunit, E-mail: sunit.singhi@gmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •This was a prospective study to evaluate role of spinal ultrasound (US) in 60 infants (<6 months of age) with clinically suspected meningitis. •On ultrasound examination, we evaluated echogenicity and /or trabeculations in the posterior subarachnoid space and spinal cord pulsations. •Results of spinal US were evaluated in correlation with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. •Results of our study show presence of echogenicity/trabeculations in posterior subarachnoid space or abnormal pulsations of spinal cord and nerve roots are significantly associated with meningitis with a high specificity and positive predictive value in its diagnosis. •Spinal ultrasound can be used as a radiation free imaging modality to detect meningitis. -- Abstract: Background: Spinal ultrasound (US) can detect changes in CSF echogenicity and decreased cord pulsations which reflect the inflammatory changes in meningitis. Till date, there is no published data about the prospective accuracy of spinal US in meningitis. Objective: To assess accuracy of spinal US in diagnosis of meningitis in infants younger than 6 months. Methods: This was an institute ethics committee approved prospective study carried out in infants less than 6 months of age with clinical suspicion of meningitis who presented to pediatric emergency unit. 60 infants each in study and control group were enrolled. US of thoraco-lumbar spine were performed prior to lumbar puncture in all cases. We looked for the presence of echogenicity or trabeculations in posterior subarachnoid space and for presence or absence of spinal cord and nerve root pulsations on real time ultrasound. The results of spinal US were evaluated in correlation with cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Follow up ultrasounds were done in infants who showed abnormal findings after the initiation of treatment and findings compared with initial results. Results: The study group comprised of 40 boys and 20 girls with mean age of 47.85 days. The control

  13. Nutritional status, breastfeeding, and evolution of Infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Dornelles, Cristina T L; Piva, Jefferson P; Marostica, Paulo J C

    2007-09-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infectious disease of infancy. A prospective study was carried out with 175 infants aged up to six months to evaluate their nutritional and breastfeeding status as possible risk factors for unfavourable evolution of previously-healthy infants from a care hospital. Immunofluorescence test for virus and anthropometric assessment were performed. Outcomes were length of oxygen-use, length of hospital stay, and type of hospital unit needed. Seventy-three percent of the infants were well-nourished, 6% undernourished, 8.6% at a nutritional risk, 10.9% overweight, and 1.7% obese. Eighty-one percent of the undernourished and nutritionally at-risk infants and 72% of the well-nourished, overweight, and obese infants did not receive exclusive breastfeeding. The median length of hospital stay was four days and of oxygen-use was 60 hours. The nutritional status did not affect the clinical course of previously-healthy infants with acute viral brochiolitis. The duration of exclusive breastfeeding, but not type of breastfeeding, was inversely related to the length of oxygen-use and the length of hospital stay. Shorter exclusive breastfeeding was observed in infants who were assigned to a paediatric ward or to an intensive care unit. In conclusion, longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with better clinical outcomes.

  14. Longer Breastfeeding in Infancy Decreases Systolic Hypertension Risk in Young Adults

    Rak Karolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that breastfeeding is associated with numerous direct and indirect health benefits for children in later life, although the relationship between breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk is still equivocal. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and cardiovascular risk in young adults. The cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 128 volunteers (71 women and 57 men at the age of 19 years. It consisted of a questionnaire, together with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. It was demonstrated that 90.3% of the participants had been breastfed and the mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.8±7.6 months. Participants who were breastfed for longer than six months had a significantly lower systolic blood pressure than those breastfed for less than six months. Results of analyses were consistent for the female group, the male group and the combined group. The results suggest that breastfeeding for longer than six months decreases systolic hypertension risk in young adults. The promotion of breastfeeding may decrease the rate of cardiovascular disease and thus improve health status of the population.

  15. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    Scott Jane A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91 or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90 in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond.

  16. A study of in-hospital midwifery practices that affect breastfeeding outcomes.

    McAllister, Helen; Bradshaw, Sue; Ross-Adjie, Gail

    2009-11-01

    Whilst breastfeeding is undoubtedly best for both mother and baby, many factors influence a woman's decision about whether to start and when to cease feeding. This study sought to determine which variables, influenced by midwifery practice, may influence the length of breastfeeding. Mothers who had given birth to a live baby at a Perth private hospital were invited to complete a validated, anonymous questionnaire asking about their breastfeeding experience, both in hospital and following discharge. The response rate was 50% (n=266). Although 94% of women were breastfeeding on discharge from hospital, this rate reduced to 59% at 6 months and 21% at 12 months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 7.4 months (SD +/- 4.1). Of five variables thought to be associated with an increased length of breastfeeding, only two were found to be statistically significant: whether a mother could independently attach the baby on discharge (p=0.003) and whether or not artificial baby milk was administered in hospital (pbreastfeeding rates, education for both mothers and midwives must be targeted towards ensuring mothers are able to independently attach their baby on discharge from hospital. The findings also support the discouragement of artificial feeding unless there is a medical indication or the mother has made an informed request.

  17. December 2000: 6 month old boy with 2 week history of progressive lethargy.

    Fan, X; Larson, T C; Jennings, M T; Tulipan, N B; Toms, S A; Johnson, M D

    2001-04-01

    This 6-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a 10-day history of lethargy, obtundation, inability to hold his head up and mild torticollis. MRI and CT scans showed a large solid and cystic mass involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, pineal, superior pons, mesencephalon and posterior right thalamus. He underwent craniotomy initially for a partial tumor resection with an intraoperative diagnosis of desmoplastic astrocytoma. With immunohistochemistry and special stains the diagnosis of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) was made. A near total resection was performed a week after initial resection.The patient then was treated with chemotherapy. Two months later an MRI showed tumor growth. Following additional aggressive chemotherapy, an MRI at 5 months post-resection indicated further tumor progression. This case illustrates that some DIGs may behave more aggressively than typical WHO grade I lesions.

  18. Changes in Neurocognitive Functioning After 6 Months of Mentalization-Based Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Uliaszek, Amanda A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in neurocognitive function that could affect their ability to engage in psychotherapy and may be ameliorated by improvements in symptom severity. In the current study, 18 patients with BPD completed neurocognitive tests prior...... working memory. After 6 months of treatment, patients showed significantly greater increases in sustained attention and perceptual reasoning than controls, with initial deficits in sustained attention among patients resolving after treatment. Improved emotion regulation over the follow-up period...... was associated with increased auditory-verbal working memory capacity, whereas interpersonal functioning improved in parallel with perceptual reasoning. These findings suggest that changes in neurocognitive functioning may track improvements in clinical symptoms in mentalization-based treatment for BPD....

  19. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccines, and 21% (1610/7587) received both live and inactivated vaccines. The effect of VAS did not differ by vaccine group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the policy on overall mortality. VAS had no overall effect......BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall...... mortality. We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of VAS with vaccines. METHODS: We randomized children aged 6 to 23 months 1:1 to VAS (100000 IU if aged 6-11 months, 200000 IU if aged 12-23 months) or placebo at vaccination contacts in Guinea-Bissau. Mortality rates were...

  20. Improvement in physiological and psychological parameters after 6 months of yoga practice.

    Rocha, K K F; Ribeiro, A M; Rocha, K C F; Sousa, M B C; Albuquerque, F S; Ribeiro, S; Silva, R H

    2012-06-01

    Yoga is believed to have beneficial effects on cognition, attenuation of emotional intensity and stress reduction. Previous studies were mainly performed on eastern experienced practitioners or unhealthy subjects undergoing concomitant conventional therapies. Further investigation is needed on the effects of yoga per se, as well as its possible preventive benefits on healthy subjects. We investigated the effects of yoga on memory and psychophysiological parameters related to stress, comparing yoga practice and conventional physical exercises in healthy men (previously yoga-naïve). Memory tests, salivary cortisol levels and stress, anxiety, and depression inventories were assessed before and after 6 months of practice. Yoga practitioners showed improvement of the memory performance, as well as improvements in psychophysiological parameters. The present results suggest that regular yoga practice can improve aspects of cognition and quality of life for healthy individuals. An indirect influence of emotional state on cognitive improvement promoted by yoga practice can be proposed.

  1. The early development of human mirror mechanisms: evidence from electromyographic recordings at 3 and 6 months.

    Turati, Chiara; Natale, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Picozzi, Marta; Longhi, Elena; Cassia, Viola Macchi

    2013-11-01

    In primates and adult humans direct understanding of others' action is provided by mirror mechanisms matching action observation and action execution (e.g. Casile, Caggiano & Ferrari, 2011). Despite the growing body of evidence detailing the existence of these mechanisms in the adult human brain, their origins and early development are largely unknown. In this study, for the first time, electromyographic (EMG) measures were used to shed light on the emergence of mirror motor mechanisms in infancy. EMG activity was recorded while 6- and 3-month-old infants watched two videos displaying an agent reaching for, grasping and bringing an object either to the mouth or to the head. Results indicate that the motor system of 6-month-olds, but not 3-month-olds, was recruited and selectively modulated during observation of the goal-directed actions, favoring the idea that mirror mechanisms driving action understanding gradually emerge during early development.

  2. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to 6 months of football training in untrained hypertensive men

    Andersen, L. J.; Randers, M. B.; Hansen, P. R.;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 3 and 6 months of regular football training on cardiac structure and function in hypertensive men. Thirty-one untrained males with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized 2:1 to a football training group (n = 20) and a control group receiving traditional...... recommendations on healthy lifestyle (n = 11). Cardiac measures were evaluated by echocardiography. The football group exhibited significant (P ... function improved with respect to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21.8 ± 3.2 to 24.5 ± 3.7 mm). Arterial blood pressure decreased in both groups, but significantly more in the football training group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. In conclusion, short-term football...

  3. Preliminary 6 month results from the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis feasibility study.

    Humayun, Mark S; Dorn, Jessy D; Ahuja, Ashish K; Caspi, Avi; Filley, Eugene; Dagnelie, Gislin; Salzmann, Joël; Santos, Arturo; Duncan, Jacque; daCruz, Lyndon; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Eliott, Dean; McMahon, Matthew J; Greenberg, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    The Argus II 60 channel epiretinal prosthesis has been developed in order to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. To date the device has been implanted in 21 subjects as part of a feasibility study. In 6 month post-implantation door finding and line tracking orientation and mobility testing, subjects have shown improvements of 86% and 73%, respectively, for system on vs. system off. In high-contrast Square Localization tests using a touch screen monitor 87% of tested subjects performed significantly better with the system on compared with off. These preliminary results show that the Argus II system provides some functional vision to blind subjects.

  4. Creatinine related reference ranges for urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid at 6 months of age.

    Cole, M; Parker, L; Craft, A W; Bell, S; Dale, G; McGill, A C; Seviour, J A; Smith, J

    1993-03-01

    The relationship between homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and creatinine in the urine of 6 month old babies has been studied and reference ranges in the form of centiles constructed for HVA and VMA against creatinine. Over 10,000 urine samples were collected from babies in four health districts in the north of England. HVA and VMA concentration, either independently or when divided by creatinine concentration, were dependent upon the absolute concentration of creatinine in the sample. After adjustment for creatinine significant differences in the mean concentration of HVA were found between sexes. No such differences were found for VMA. HVA and VMA were also found to be age dependent. Centiles were constructed using a procedure which makes no distributional assumptions about the data. The net effect of utilising these centiles was to increase the predictive value of a positive screening test from 20% to 40% without any increase in the false negative rate.

  5. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    ) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those......BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity...

  6. How midwives learn about breastfeeding.

    Cantrill, Ruth M; Creedy, Debra K; Cooke, Marie

    2003-06-01

    Little is known about how midwives learn about breastfeeding. This study asked midwives to identify breastfeeding information resources used and perceived value for their learning. A mail questionnaire was sent to midwives (n = 3500) through the Australian College of Midwives Inc. (ACMI). A response rate of 31.6% (n = 1105) was obtained. On-the-job experience was the most common source accessed and continuing education the most valuable. Very few respondents (3.1% n = 34) acknowledged either their hospital or university midwifery education program as a valuable breastfeeding information source. There is scope for continuing education programs to address evidence-based lactation and infant feeding information. Midwifery curricula need to teach in-depth knowledge of human lactation and develop clinicians' skill base to assist breastfeeding women. The development of national standards for course accreditation on lactation and infant feeding by ACMI, Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA) would be a useful quality measure.

  7. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. 

  8. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  9. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training and 6-Month Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Schizophrenia Seeking Employment

    Smith, Matthew J.; Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Roberts, Andrea G.; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). METHODS Trainees completed up to 10 hours of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded human resource experts and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. RESULTS Trainees reported the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6 month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=−0.63, pskills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. PMID:26032567

  10. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life.

  11. The Interactions between Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Babies during the Breastfeeding Session.

    Epstein, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Videotaped 12 breastfeeding mothers and their babies during breastfeeding sessions to investigate maternal-infant interactions occurring during breastfeeding sessions. Presents four case studies to examine differences in breastfeeding interactions, as well as benefits and disadvantages that breastfeeding provided different mother-child pairs. (MM)

  12. Representações sociais de mulheres sobre a amamentação: teste de associação livre de idéias acerca da interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo Representaciones Sociales de Mujeres Sobre el Amamantamiento: Prueba de Asociación Libre de Ideas Acerca de la Interrupción Precoz del Amamantamiento Materno Exclusivo Social Representations of Women on Breastfeeding: Free Association of Ideas Test About the Early Interruption of the Exclusive Maternal Breastfeeding

    Cácia Mônica Osório

    2007-06-01

    reconocimiento de la importancia del amamantar materno y de la leche humana. "Salud del bebé" tuvo mayor expresividad en el grupo NTr, sugerido que esas mujeres anclaron el amamantar en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Concluyese que las mujeres reconocen la importancia de amamantar, pero no de su exclusivismo hasta el sexto mes de vida.The early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding (EB constitutes a problem with biological, psychological and sociocultural characteristics. This paper aims to describe the social representations of women who have early weaned EB. We have interviewed 30 women (15 were housewives HM, 15 were working mothers WM in mixed assited nursering in the Family Health Program in the city of Resende (RJ. From August to September 2005, we have collected data through a Free Association of Ideas test, aiming to emerge associations related to the words exploited at the level of social stereotypes, which was followed by the Bardin's content analyses. The data have shown high frequency of the category "pleasure, love and affection", showing the recognition of the importance of breastfeeding and of human milk. "Baby's health" has been more expressive in the HM group, suggesting that these women anchored breastfeeding in the health-sickness process. In conclusion, our women recognize the importance of breastfeeding but not its exclusiveness up to the sixth month of age.

  13. Trends in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Pakistan, 1990-2007

    Hanif Hafsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have profound implications for the maternal and child health status of a society. Feeding practices in Pakistan are suboptimal, leading to adverse outcomes on child health. In Pakistan, the Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH Program, in collaboration with several international organizations, including WHO and UNICEF, is working to improve these feeding practices in the country. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods Estimates on the various indicators for infant and young child feeding proposed by WHO were analyzed in light of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (1990-91 and 2006-07 and several other national studies conducted since 1995. Results Nearly half the core and optional indicators have improved over the years, though modestly; the others have demonstrated no statistically significant improvement over the years. Of the five indicators required in the WHO tool for the assessment of infant and young child feeding, introduction of complementary foods, bottle-feeding, and early initiation of breastfeeding, stand in the poor category, while exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding fall in the fair category, suggesting an overall poor status. Conclusions There is considerable scope to improve breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Pakistan. Further programs should focus on improving the following indicators that have shown no significant development: early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding under six months, continued breastfeeding at two years, age appropriate feeding, and bottle feeding. Effective implementation of interventions that are known to improve breastfeeding practices is imperative, as is further research to yield data that can lead future endeavors.

  14. 山西省城市0~6个月龄婴儿母乳喂养现状调查%0-6 month-old infants breastfed Investigation in urban areas in Shanxi

    任丽丽; 朱玲; 杨建平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of breastfeeding among infants of 0 to 6 months in urban areas in Shanxi,to increase the rate of breastfeeding.Methods A total of urban infants aged 0 -6 months were selected and their mothers were investigated by the questionnaire on site.Results A total of 4 868 urban infants aged 0 -6 months and their mothers were investigated.The rate of breastfeeding was 64.60%,the rate of mixed feeding was 27.90%,the rate of artificial feeding was 7.40%.The infants′mother′s age,culture level, the way of delivery(natural labor,dystocia,cesarean delivery),the situation of the nipple(normal,flat,concave), nutritional status during pregnancy,mother's self awareness of the amount of breasts supply(enough,not enough)were associated with breastfeeding(χ2 =62.367,25.021,67.419,60.941,16.675,8.241,3.081,all P <0.05 or P <0.01).Conclusion The corresponding measures should be taken according to the factors affecting breastfeeding in order to improve the rate of breastfeeding.%目的:了解目前山西省城市0~6个月龄婴儿母乳喂养现状及影响母乳喂养因素,提高母乳喂养率。方法采用现场问卷对城市0~6个月龄婴儿母乳喂养状况进行调查,对调查结果进行统计学分析。结果共调查0~6月龄婴儿及母亲4868例,母乳喂养率为64.60%,混合喂养率27.90%,人工喂养率7.40%。母乳喂养与婴儿母亲年龄、文化程度、分娩方式(顺产、难产、剖宫产)、乳头情况(正常、扁平、凹陷)、孕期营养状况、母亲自觉奶量(充足、不足)有关,差异均有统计学意义(χ2=62.367、25.021、67.419、60.941、16.675、8.241、3.081,均 P <0.05或 P <0.01)。结论应针对影响母乳喂养的因素采取相应措施,提高母乳喂养率。

  15. Mother’s knowledge about breastfeeding at the São Lucas’ Hospital in Juazeiro do Norte (CE - doi:10.5020/18061230.2004.p170

    Erlane Marques Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During human history the maternal process of breastfeeding has become less frequent. Numerous policies have been introduced worldwide to stop this unfavourable trend. The benefits of breastfeeding are well established. However, despite this fact, the rates of breastfeeding continue to be low. Maternal knowledge about breastfeeding influences on the initiation and duration of lactation. This study had the objective of investigating the mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding. A cross-sectional study was designed involving 206 mothers of newborns on their first day of life while they were at the maternity hospital São Lucas (Juazeiro do Norte - Ceará. The mothers answered a standardized questionnaire to test their knowledge on breastfeeding. 32% were adolescent mothers and 60% had not completed elementary school. 61% received prenatal orientation about breastfeeding. 76% of the mothers knew that the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding is six months. 91% knew about the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections. 32% of the mothers believed that their milk was watery. 62% did not know how to solve mammary engorgement. It is concluded that the majority (87% of the mothers answered correctly the questions about breastfeeding, but continuous education over this theme for future mothers is still needed.

  16. Symptoms of postpartum depression and early interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in the first two months of life Sintomas de depressão pós-parto e interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos dois primeiros meses de vida

    Maria Helena Hasselmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the association between postpartum depression and interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in the first two months of life. Cohort study of 429 infants Avaliou-se a associação entre depressão pós-parto e interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos dois primeiros meses de vida. Estudo de coorte com 429 crianças < 20 dias de idade em quatro unidades de saúde no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Considerou-se como interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo a introdução de chá, água, suco, leite artificial ou qualquer outro alimento. Na avaliação da depressão pós-parto utilizou-se a Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. Associações foram expressas como razões de prevalências (linha de base e riscos relativos (primeiro e segundo meses de vida e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança estimados via regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Filhos de mulheres com sintomas de depressão pós-parto apresentam maior risco de interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo nos dois meses de seguimento (RR = 1,46; IC95%: 0,98-2,17 e RR = 1,21; IC95%: 1,02-1,45, respectivamente. Entre mães que amamentam exclusivamente até o primeiro mês de vida, depressão pós-parto não se associou à interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo (RR = 1,44; IC95%: 0,68-3,06. Esses achados apontam para a importância da saúde mental materna no sucesso do aleitamento materno exclusivo.

  17. Gut wall integrity in exclusively breastfed vs. formula-fed infants

    Nur Hayati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk has bioactive substances that modulate gastrointestinal maturation and maintain mucosal integrity of the gut in infants. Markers that are both non-invasive and reliable, such as fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, calprotectin, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA have been used to assess gut integrity in adults. Higher AAT levels may imply greater enteric protein loss due to increase intestinal permeability of immaturity gut. Objective To assess and compare gut integrity of exclusively breastfed (BF and exclusively formula fed (FF infants aged 4-6 months. Methods Subjects were 80 healthy infants (BF=40; FF=40, aged 4-6 months who visited the Pediatric Polyclinic at St. Carolus Hospital, and lived in Pasar Minggu or Cempaka Putih Districts, Jakarta. The fecal AAT was analyzed by an ELISA method. Mann-Whitney and unpaired T-test were used to analyze possible correlations between feeding type and gut integrity. Results The BF group had significantly higher mean fecal AAT than the FF group (P=0.02. Median sIgA levels were not significantly different between groups (P=0.104. The FF group had a higher mean fecal calprotectin level but this difference was also not significant (P=0.443. There was a significant correlation between breastfeeding and mean fecal AAT level (P=0.02, but no significant correlation with calprotectin (P=0.65 or sIgA (P=0.26. Conclusion The breastfed group shows better mucosal integrity compared to the formula fed group. Higher mean fecal AAT level in the BF group is related to the AAT content of breast milk. Therefore AAT content of BF group is actually lower than formula fed group which shows greater mucosal integrity in BF group.

  18. Promoting nutrition in breastfeeding women.

    Wilson, Patty R; Pugh, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Nurses have a vital role in providing nutritional education to breastfeeding women. In this article, the authors discuss the nutritional requirements for breast-feeding women in terms of micronutrients, macronutrients, and minerals. They provide recommendations for women with vegetarian diets and low-income women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program who may have dietary deficiencies, and they present a directed case study to provide an example of how to perform a dietary assessment and the educational support that may be offered by nurses to breastfeeding women.

  19. A 6 month evaluation of a non-powered hybrid mattress replacement system.

    Newton, Heather

    2015-11-11

    In 2013, the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust undertook a 6-week evaluation of the AtmosAir 4000 non-powered reactive pressure redistribution mattress replacement system to determine its suitability in supporting the prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients (phase one). The results demonstrated that the AtmosAir 4000 mattress system, together with skin assessment and repositioning regimes, met the pressure ulcer preventative needs of patients at high and very high risk of developing pressure ulcers. It also resulted in a notable reduction in the use of dynamic air mattresses. Consequently, 50 AtmosAir 4000 mattresses were purchased for two acute medical wards in the evaluation site, where the majority of patients are elderly with an acute medical condition. This article discusses the second phase where an audit compares the number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers reported over a 6-month period with the equivalent time period in 2014. Results show that the number of pressure ulcers reduced by 65% and 50% in the two wards. The number of dynamic mattresses used on the two wards reduced significantly from 28 to 7, which represents a 75% reduction in usage.

  20. In vivo response of AZ31 alloy as biliary stents: a 6 months evaluation in rabbits

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Shengmin; Li, Nan; Guo, Huahu; Zheng, Yufeng; Peng, Jirun

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based metallic materials have been making continuing progress as vascular stents. However, the research of Mg-based materials as non-vascular stents is still at its primary stage. AZ31 stents hereby were implanted into the common bile duct of rabbits for 6 months. The results revealed an existence of 93.82 ± 1.36% and 30.89 ± 2.46% of the original volume after 1 and 3 month, respectively. Whole blood tests indicated an inflammation decreasing to normal level after 3 month implantation. A benign host response was observed via H&E staining. Nonuniform corrosion at the two ends of the stents was observed and considered the results of flow or local inflammation. Moreover, the application of Mg-based materials for different stenting treatment were reviewed and compared. Esophagus was hypothesized most destructive, whilst blood vessel and bile duct considered similar and less destructive. Trachea and nasal cavity were thought to be mildest.

  1. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice.

    Raz, Naftali; Schmiedek, Florian; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The brain shrinks with age, but the timing of this process and the extent of its malleability are unclear. We measured changes in regional brain volumes in younger (age 20-31) and older (age 65-80) adults twice over a 6 month period, and examined the association between changes in volume, history of hypertension, and cognitive training. Between two MRI scans, 49 participants underwent intensive practice in three cognitive domains for 100 consecutive days, whereas 23 control group members performed no laboratory cognitive tasks. Regional volumes of seven brain structures were measured manually and adjusted for intracranial volume. We observed significant mean shrinkage in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum, but no reliable mean change of the prefrontal white matter, orbital-frontal cortex, and the primary visual cortex. Individual differences in change were reliable in all regions. History of hypertension was associated with greater cerebellar shrinkage. The cerebellum was the only region in which significantly reduced shrinkage was apparent in the experimental group after completion of cognitive training. Thus, in healthy adults, differential brain shrinkage can be observed in a narrow time window, vascular risk may aggravate it, and intensive cognitive activity may have a limited effect on it.

  2. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    Ellen Staveborg Kerkelä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods: A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results: Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs.

  3. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  4. In vivo response of AZ31 alloy as biliary stents: a 6 months evaluation in rabbits

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Shengmin; Li, Nan; Guo, Huahu; Zheng, Yufeng; Peng, Jirun

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based metallic materials have been making continuing progress as vascular stents. However, the research of Mg-based materials as non-vascular stents is still at its primary stage. AZ31 stents hereby were implanted into the common bile duct of rabbits for 6 months. The results revealed an existence of 93.82 ± 1.36% and 30.89 ± 2.46% of the original volume after 1 and 3 month, respectively. Whole blood tests indicated an inflammation decreasing to normal level after 3 month implantation. A benign host response was observed via H&E staining. Nonuniform corrosion at the two ends of the stents was observed and considered the results of flow or local inflammation. Moreover, the application of Mg-based materials for different stenting treatment were reviewed and compared. Esophagus was hypothesized most destructive, whilst blood vessel and bile duct considered similar and less destructive. Trachea and nasal cavity were thought to be mildest. PMID:28084306

  5. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    Arndt Büssing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9±8.3 years; 57% Christians starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP, mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief. At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen’s =.33, Religious orientation (=.21, Lightheartedness/Relief (=.75 and mindfulness (=.53 increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1 may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners’ spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2 that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3 that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness.

  6. [The effects of rape 6 months after the attack and factors associated with recovery].

    Streit-Forest, U; Goulet, M

    1987-02-01

    In this study a group of 27 victims seen approximately 6 months after the assault was compared to a matched control group. The results show significantly higher scores on two subscales of IPAT ("ego weakness" and "disposition to guilt") and on 4 scales of the MMPI ("denial", "hypochondriasis", "depression" and "conversion hysteria"); also, the victims' social adjustment seems inferior and the frequency of sexual relations has been reduced considerably for them. The following factors have been evaluated in order to test their relation to the adjustment to the assault: rape by a stranger versus someone known, degree of violence, feelings of self-blame, problems during the crisis, predominant thoughts, professional help, social support, stable relationship, allusion to victim's responsibility for rape and conviction or not of the aggressor. Even though most of these variables show a significant simple correlation with adjustment to rape only four among them remain significantly associated when sociodemographic variables, pre-rape psycho-social problems and life stressors are controlled; the very subjective variable "predominant thoughts" seems to best explain differences in adjustment. The importance of pre-assault variables and of the subjective reaction to rape is discussed.

  7. Multifocal hepatoblastoma in a 6-month-old girl with trisomy 18: a case report

    Kitanovski Lidija

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Edward's syndrome (trisomy 18 is a rare entity with a reported incidence of 1/3000 to 1/7000 births. Less than 10% of patients survive beyond the first year of life, which may influence the fact that malignant tumors are rarely reported in association with this syndrome. Case presentation The authors report a rare case of a 6-month-old girl with trisomy 18 and multifocal hepatoblastoma. The course of the disease, autopsy results and review of the literature are presented. Conclusion Our case represents the seventh published case of hepatoblastoma in a patient with trisomy 18. All of the seven published cases were women, possibly due to the high preponderance of females among the children with Edward's syndrome and longer survival of females with trisomy 18 compared to males. Since both trisomy 18 and hepatoblastoma are rare conditions, the probability that a child with trisomy 18 will independently develop a hepatoblastoma is very low. Therefore, we believe that the existence of these cases in children with trisomy 18 indicates a significant association. It can be assumed that trisomy 18 potentiates the development of hepatoblastoma. Careful clinical and post-mortem studies are needed to recognize the real frequency of hepatoblastoma in children with trisomy 18, who might die from different causes with unrecognizable hepatoblastoma.

  8. Neural dynamics of audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants

    Franziska eKopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young infants are sensitive to multisensory temporal synchrony relations, but the neural dynamics of temporal interactions between vision and audition in infancy are not well understood. We investigated audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants using event-related potentials (ERP. In a prior behavioral experiment (n = 45, infants were habituated to an audiovisual synchronous stimulus and tested for recovery of interest by presenting an asynchronous test stimulus in which the visual stream was delayed with respect to the auditory stream by 400 ms. Infants who behaviorally discriminated the change in temporal alignment were included in further analyses. In the EEG experiment (final sample: n = 15, synchronous and asynchronous stimuli (visual delay of 400 ms were presented in random order. Results show latency shifts in the auditory ERP components N1 and P2 as well as the infant ERP component Nc. Latencies in the asynchronous condition were significantly longer than in the synchronous condition. After video onset but preceding the auditory onset, amplitude modulations propagating from posterior to anterior sites and related to the Pb component of infants' ERP were observed. Results suggest temporal interactions between the two modalities. Specifically, they point to the significance of anticipatory visual motion for auditory processing, and indicate young infants’ predictive capacities for audiovisual temporal synchrony relations.

  9. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm.

  10. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour

    Anna M. Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454 were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184. However, larger feed volumes (>105 g were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009. There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313 or lactose levels (p = 0.587 between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056. Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001 indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232. Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  11. Breastfeeding and allergic disease

    van Odijk, J; Kull, I; Borres, M P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strategies to prevent children from developing allergy have been elaborated on the basis of state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific literature regarding pets and allergies, building dampness and health, and building ventilation and health. A similar multidisciplinary review of infant...... feeding mode in relation to allergy has not been published previously. Here, the objective is to review the scientific literature regarding the impact of early feeding (breast milk and/or cow's milk and/or formula) on development of atopic disease. The work was performed by a multidisciplinary group...... concluded that breastfeeding seems to protect from the development of atopic disease. The effect appears even stronger in children with atopic heredity. If breast milk is unavailable or insufficient, extensively hydrolysed formulas are preferable to unhydrolysed or partially hydrolysed formulas in terms...

  12. Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... days, your baby has fewer than six wet diapers and four stools per day, her urine is ...

  13. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    ... has gotten used to and is good at breastfeeding before you introduce a bottle. Lactation professionals recommend waiting until a baby is about 3 weeks old before offering artificial nipples of any kind (including pacifiers). continue If ...

  14. Mothers' experiences with breastfeeding management and support: a quality improvement study.

    Sarasua, Irene; Clausen, Christina; Frunchak, Valerie

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences on mothers with regard to the breastfeeding support and management provided by healthcare professionals on an acute care postpartum unit in a multiethnic obstetrical referral center in Montreal, Canada. The study survey was largely based on the UNICEF/World Health Organization's (1998) ten steps to successful breastfeeding. The convenience sample included 60 recently-delivered mothers. Findings indicated that primiparous women and women who delivered by caesarean section consistently received more information about breastfeeding management than multiparous women and women who delivered vaginally. However, the study does suggest that all women, regardless of parity or type of delivery, have information and support needs related to breastfeeding. A total of 29 mothers (67%), who intended to breastfeed exclusively, supplemented with artificial baby milk. Of these mothers, 16 (55%) stated 'milk insufficiency' as their primary reasons for supplementing. Overall, respondents perceived healthcare professionals to be encouraging of breastfeeding, and 48 mothers (80%) were 'moderately' to 'very' satisfied with the breastfeeding education and support received. These findings suggest that overall adherence to breastfeeding best practices in the current study hospital are below targets set by the World Health Organization for 'Baby Friendly' status. Results from the study can be used to target areas for improvement.

  15. Adherence to yoga and exercise interventions in a 6-month clinical trial

    Haas M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine factors that predict adherence to a mind-body intervention in a randomized trial. Design We analyzed adherence data from a 3-arm trial involving 135 generally healthy seniors 65–85 years of age randomized to a 6-month intervention consisting of: an Iyengar yoga class with home practice, an exercise class with home practice, or a wait-list control group. Outcome measures included cognitive function, mood, fatigue, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and physical measures. Adherence to the intervention was obtained by class attendance and biweekly home practice logs. Results The drop-out rate was 13%. Among the completers of the two active interventions, average yoga class attendance was 77% and home practice occurred 64% of all days. Average exercise class attendance was 69% and home exercise occurred 54% of all days. There were no clear effects of adherence on the significant study outcomes (quality of life and physical measures. Class attendance was significantly correlated with baseline measures of depression, fatigue, and physical components of health-related quality of life. Significant differences in baseline measures were also found between study completers and drop-outs in the active interventions. Adherence was not related to age, gender, or education level. Conclusion Healthy seniors have good attendance at classes with a physically active intervention. Home practice takes place over half of the time. Decreased adherence to a potentially beneficial intervention has the potential to decrease the effect of the intervention in a clinical trial because subjects who might sustain the greatest benefit will receive a lower dose of the intervention and subjects with higher adherence rates may be functioning closer to maximum ability before the intervention. Strategies to maximize adherence among subjects at greater risk for low adherence will be important for future trials, especially complementary

  16. Cross Cultural Adaptation, Validity, and Reliability of the Farsi Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tools in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Janke, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Iran is decreasing. The breastfeeding attrition prediction tools (BAPT) have been validated and used in predicting premature weaning. Objectives: We aimed to translate the BAPT into Farsi, assess its content validity, and examine its reliability and validity to identify exclusive breastfeeding discontinuation in Iran. Materials and Methods: The BAPT was translated into Farsi and the content validity of the Farsi version of the BAPT was assessed. It was administered to 356 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, who were residents of a city in northeast of Iran. The structural integrity of the four-factor model was assessed in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and item-subscale correlations. Validity was assessed using the known-group comparison (128 with vs. 228 without breastfeeding experience) and predictive validity (80 successes vs. 265 failures in exclusive breastfeeding). Results: The internal consistency of the whole instrument (49 items) was 0.775. CFA provided an acceptable fit to the a priori four-factor model (Chi-square/df = 1.8, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.064, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.911). The difference in means of breastfeeding control (BFC) between the participants with and without breastfeeding experience was significant (P BFC) subscale were higher in women who were on exclusive breastfeeding than women who were not, at four months postpartum (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study validated the Farsi version of BAPT. It is useful for researchers who want to use it in Iran to identify women at higher risks of Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) discontinuation. PMID:26019910

  17. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Glenn Wendy K; Heads Joy; Lawson James S; Whitaker Noel J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the propo...

  18. Breastfeeding, retinoids, and postpartum depression: a new theory.

    Mawson, Anthony R; Xueyuan, Wang

    2013-09-25

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is an international public health problem affecting at least 1 in 8 mothers. Known risk factors include: giving birth to a preterm or low birth weight infant, babies with greater symptoms of illness at age 4-6 weeks, formula feeding, younger maternal age, smoking, and fatigue. Prolonged breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of PPD but the mechanisms are not well understood. Interventions for PPD focusing on psychosocial risk factors have been largely unsuccessful, suggesting that the condition has a mainly biological basis. The hypothesis proposed for consideration is that breastfeeding protects against PPD by maintaining endogenous retinoids (vitamin A-related compounds) below a threshold concentration. In fact, breast milk is rich in retinoids; pregnant women accumulate retinoids in liver and breast in preparation for lactation; there is increasing evidence that retinoids in higher concentration are associated with cognitive disturbances and mood disorders, including depression and suicide; and prolonged lactation reduces maternal stores of retinoids. Consistent with this hypothesis, it is estimated that an amount of vitamin A is transferred from mother to infant during the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding equivalent to 76% of a dose known to cause acute vitamin A poisoning in an adult. Breastfeeding may thus have evolutionary-adaptive functions for both mother and infant, transferring vital nutrients to an infant unable to feed itself, yet at the same time providing a natural means of reducing potentially toxic concentrations of retinoids in the mother.

  19. Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Children’s Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Jianghong Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267, at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21, while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14. The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.

  20. Adipsia and hypernatraemia in a 6-month-old Staffordshire bull terrier

    Vanessa McClure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 6-month-old female Staffordshire bull terrier cross presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital with lethargy, weakness, decreased appetite, abnormal vocalisation, twitching of the facial muscles and ears, circling, alopecia, pruritus, seborrhoea sicca and erythema. Serum biochemistry revealed severe hypernatraemia (200.4 mmol/L; Reference Interval 140 mmol/L – 155 mmol/L. Treatment required careful administration of intravenous fluids. The electrolytes were monitored to ensure slow and controlled sodium normalisation (the target reduction of Na concentration was by 0.5 mmol/L/h –1 mmol/L/h or 12 mmol/L/24 h – 24 mmol/L/24 h. Despite the careful fluid calculations and close monitoring, the serum sodium levels dropped more than the recommended 0.5 mmol/L/h – 1 mmol/L/h in the first 4 h and the fluids had to be adjusted. The patient’s habitus improved and the central nervous system signs started to resolve after 1 day of fluid treatment. The puppy started eating food mixed with water, but made no attempt to drink water. The pruritus and erythema resolved once the sodium levels normalised and the seborrhoea sicca began to resolve. At a follow up visit 20 days post discharge the skin was normal. A diagnosis of hypernatraemia as a result of pure water loss due to hypodipsia or adipsia was made, as the puppy made no attempt to drink water when her serum sodium levels increased (a strong thirst stimulus. Hypernatraemia recurred if she was not forced to take in adequate amounts of water mixed with her food. Dermatological changes such as seborrhoea, hyperkeratosis and alopecia have been reported in a few other cases of hypernatraemia in dogs and sodium levels should be investigated in dermatological patients when no other cause can be established. This study, supported by another retrospective study done in 2008, suggests that the Staffordshire bull terrier may be a breed that is predisposed to hypernatraemia.

  1. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE POWER 4-TO-6 MONTHS AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Sabrine Souissi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR. Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8 training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week, and a control group (CG, n = 8 training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week. The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect, the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect, and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect. For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ, the counter movement jump (CMJ and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ. On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05. The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training

  2. Factors affecting mothers’ choice of breastfeeding vs. formula feeding in the lower Umfolozi district war memorial hospital, KwaZulu-Natal

    Robin C. Dolman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine which factors influence choice of breast- versus the formulafeeding of infants. This may help to understand where the focus should lie in the promotion of breastfeeding. A structured questionnaire was completed by a 100 women and focus-group discussions were held with 22 women who delivered babies at the Lower Umfolozi District War Memorial Hospital (LUDWM in Kwazulu-Natal. Most of the mothers (72% chose breastfeeding and 58% intended to breastfeed for only 6 months. One-third (33% were influenced by health care professionals and 44% of the mothers made their own decisions in their feeding method. Only one participant stated that she chose formula-feeding due to her HIV-positive status, but in the focusgroup discussions, the fear of transmission of HIV through breast-milk was stated as an important reason why mothers chose replacement-feeding. Significantly more HIV-infected than uninfected mothers chose replacement-feeding as the feeding method and mothers who chose breastfeeding were significantly older than mothers who selected replacement-feeding. They made their infantfeeding decision earlier than those who chose replacement-feeding. Findings showed that the majority of women in this study did not have access to running water and flush toilets in their houses.In these areas where replacement-feeding will not be acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, due to lack of sanitation and poor socio-economic status, health professionals should promote exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, even though there is a high prevalence of HIV infection.

    Opsomming

    Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal watter faktore vroue in hulle keuse van bors- of bottelvoeding beïnvloed. Dit sal help om te verstaan op watter faktore gesondheidswerkers moet fokus wanneer borsvoeding bevorder word. ’n Gestruktureerde vraelys is voltooi deur 100 vroue en fokusgroepbesprekings is met 22 vroue

  3. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    Pietilä Anna-Maija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved.

  4. Breastfeeding initiation: impact of obesity in a large Canadian perinatal cohort study.

    Julie Verret-Chalifour

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate incidence of breastfeeding initiation according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in "Grossesse en Santé", a large prospective birth cohort in Quebec City. METHODS: Breastfeeding initiation in the post-partum period, pre-pregnancy BMI, sociodemographic determinants and obstetrical and neonatal factors were collected from years 2005 to 2010 in 6592 women with single pregnancies. Prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was documented in a subgroup of the cohort (years 2009-2010. Log-binomial regression analyses were performed to assess relative risk (RR of non-initiation of breastfeeding between maternal BMI categories in models including pre- and post-natal determinants, after exclusion of variables with a mediating effect. RESULTS: Twenty percent (20% of obese women did not initiate breastfeeding in the post-natal period at hospital compared to 12% for normal weight women. Compared with those having a normal pre-pregnancy BMI, obese women had a higher risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding (RRunadj 1.69, 95% CI 1.44-1.98, even after adjustment for prenatal and sociodemographic factors (RRadj 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46. Furthermore, the risk of non-initiation of breastfeeding in obese women still remained higher after introduction of per- and post-natal factors (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42. The prenatal non-intention to breastfeed was strongly associated with the non-initiation of breastfeeding for all categories of BMI. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with a two-fold rate of non-initiation of breastfeeding. Considering the benefits of breastfeeding and the increasing obesity rate, adapted interventions and specialized support should target both pre- and immediate post-natal periods in this population.

  5. Knowledge of newborn healthcare among pregnant women: basis for promotional and educational programs on breastfeeding

    Hugo Issler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Promotional and educational programs relating to breastfeeding are important for reversing the decline in this practice. Most programs are centered exclusively on breastfeeding, although general knowledge about newborn healthcare may be important, especially among pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: To study pregnant women's knowledge about general healthcare of newborns, including breastfeeding aspects. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Prof. Samuel Barnsley Pessoa Health School Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: All pregnant women who were registered in the prenatal care program during six consecutive months. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Aspects of the current gestation, previous gestations and childbirths, knowledge of the general aspects of newborn healthcare and of breastfeeding practices. RESULTS: The results show that only a little over half of the pregnant women had received any information on newborn healthcare. Misinformation was clearly present regarding proper care of the umbilical stump and the nature of jaundice, and worst regarding how to treat oral thrush and jaundice, and about vaccination. In relation to breastfeeding, even though almost all the pregnant women declared their intention to breastfeed, less than half had a concrete response regarding how long to do it for. The low rates obtained in the topics dealing with the duration, nursing intervals and the attitude to be taken towards hypogalactia show unfamiliarity with the breastfeeding technique. The "weak milk" belief, the misinformation about contraceptive methods during breastfeeding and the cost of artificial formulas also have a negative impact on this practice. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's knowledge of newborn healthcare is low, as much in the aspects of general care as in relation to the practice of breastfeeding. These findings must be taken into consideration in educative programs promoting breastfeeding.

  6. Dynamic Relation Between Working Memory Capacity and Speech Recognition in Noise During the First 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use

    Elaine H. N. Ng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  7. A Clinical Study of the Effectiveness of Two Different 10% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Products: A 6-Month Followup

    S. R. Grobler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching products just after treatment and after a 6-month follow-up period. Methods. Two 10% carbamide peroxide products (Opalescence PF and Nite White ACP were applied nightly for 14 days, according to the manufacturers' instructions. The color of teeth 11 and 21 of thirty-four subjects having A2 or darker teeth were measured with a spectrophotometer (L∗;a∗;b∗ before treatment, just after treatment (14 days and after 6 months. Results and Conclusions. Both products produced significant whitening of teeth with total color change (ΔEab∗ of approximately 5.20 units. There was a significant improvement in all 3 color coordinates (L*,a*, and b∗ for up to 6 months postbleaching (P<.05. Nite White showed a higher degree of relapse (27% than Opalescence (18% over the 6-month period. It is suggested that rebleaching after 6 months is not necessary.

  8. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  9. Níveis de hemoglobina, aleitamento materno e regime alimentar no primeiro ano de vida Hemoglobin concentration, breastfeeding and complementary feeding in the first year of life

    Ana Marlúcia Oliveira Assis

    2004-08-01

    /or water consumption was associated with a reduction in hemoglobin concentration of 0.76 g/dl (p<0,001 among children under age 6 months. For children aged 6-12 months, hemoglobin concentrations increased significantly with the consumption of sugar (p=0.017 and beans (p=0.018, and decreased significantly with the consumption of fruit (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding until age 6 months and continuation of breastfeeding after this age, combined with qualitatively and quantitatively appropriate feeding may contribute towards an increase in hemoglobin concentration in the first year of life.

  10. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices.

  11. Effects of a 6-month football intervention program on bone mass and physical fitness in overweight children

    Seabra, André; Serra, Hugo; Seabra, Ana;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical activity is an important medium for improving bone mass and physical fitness of children, and as such is often emphasized in intervention programs with overweight/obesity children. Only few studies have examined the impact of a specific team sport intervention on the bone...... mass and physical fitness in overweight children. This study examined the effects of a 6-month football intervention program in bone mass and physical fitness of overweight children. Methods: Nine boys (8-12 years; body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) participated in a structured 6-month football program...... bone and physical fitness variables assessed, although FG has shown a higher increase in mean values across intervention, no significant differences were found between groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a 6-month football intervention program in overweight children was effective...

  12. The breastfeeding team: the role of involved fathers in the breastfeeding family.

    Rempel, Lynn A; Rempel, John K

    2011-05-01

    Fathers influence mothers' breastfeeding decisions and experiences. Fathers' perceptions of their roles as members of the breastfeeding family are likely important components of that influence. To explore that possibility, 21 involved fathers of breastfeeding babies volunteered to be interviewed regarding their fathering breastfed babies and their roles in the breastfeeding family. Fathers identified their unique roles as team members ensuring that their babies received the benefits of breastfeeding. A primary fathering role was that of supporting breastfeeding by becoming breastfeeding savvy, by using their knowledge to encourage and assist mothers in breastfeeding, by valuing the breastfeeding mothers, and by sharing housework and child care. Fathers' nurturing roles involved fostering positive father-infant relationships in the face of limited opportunities to bond with their babies through feeding. The experiences of these fathers suggest the importance of assisting them to recognize their unique contributions to the nurture of their children as members of the breastfeeding team.

  13. Aleitamento materno e níveis de hemoglobina em crianças menores de 2 anos em município do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Breastfeeding and hemoglobin concentration in children under 2 years of age in a municipality of São Paulo, Brazil

    Luciane Simões Duarte

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre aleitamento materno e níveis de hemoglobina em crianças menores de 2 anos residentes na cidade de Itupeva, SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em amostra representativa de 254 crianças menores de 2 anos, selecionadas aleatoriamente na área urbana de Itupeva, SP, por procedimento de amostragem por conglomerados em 3 etapas. O aleitamento materno foi classificado utilizando-se as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde e a hemoglobina foi determinada em hemoglobinômetro portátil (HemoCue. Para o diagnóstico, utilizou-se o ponto de corte de 11,0g/dL. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 41,7%. Anemia foi mais freqüente entre os menores de 6 meses que não se encontravam em aleitamento materno (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and hemoglobin concentration in children under 2 years of age in Itupeva City, SP, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a representative sample of 254 children under 2 years of age randomly selected in the urban area of Itupeva, SP. The sampling process was done in three stages. The recommendations made by the World Health Organization were used to classify breastfeeding. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by the cyanmethemoglobin method, using the HemoCue system and anemia was defined when hemoglobin concentration was below 11.0g/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 41.7%. Anemia was more frequent among children who were weaned before 6 months (p<0.05. The mean hemoglobin levels of breastfed children were significantly higher among children under 6 months (p<0.05. Children who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed in the first six months of life had higher mean hemoglobin levels than the remaining children (12.3g/dL versus 10.99g/dL; p=0.022. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that partial or total substitution of

  14. Risk factors for ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children 6 months following mass treatment in Tanzania.

    Luis Carlos Cajas-Monson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world, and for endemic communities, mass treatment with azithromycin reduces the pool of infection. High coverage is essential, especially in children as they are the infectious reservoir. However, infection remains post-mass treatment. We sought to determine risk factors for infection in children post-mass treatment. METHODOLOGY: All children under 9 years in 4 villages in Tanzania were followed from baseline pre-mass treatment to six months post treatment. 1,991 children under nine years were enrolled in the longitudinal study and data on individual and household characteristics was collected at baseline. Clinical trachoma was determined by an ocular exam and infection detected by PCR of an eyelid swab. Azithromycin was offered and infection was reassessed at 6 months. A multilevel logistic regression model was used, accounting for household clustering of children for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline infection was 23.7% and at 6 months was 10.4%, despite 95% coverage. Infection at baseline was positively associated with infection at 6 months (OR = 3.31, 95%CI 2.40-4.56 and treatment had a protective effect (OR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.25-0.80. The age group 2-4 years had an increased risk of infection at 6 months. The household characteristics predictive of infection at 6 months were increasing number of children infected in the household at baseline and increasing number of untreated children in the household. CONCLUSIONS: While one round of mass treatment with high coverage did decrease infection by over 50%, it appears that it is not sufficient to eliminate infection. Findings that young children (ages 2-4 years and households with increasing numbers of infected and untreated children have a positive association with infection at 6 months suggest that such households could be targeted for more intensive follow up.

  15. Is short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients affected by mean first 6 months C2 level?

    Assari Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available International Consensus Conference (ICC has suggested that the whole blood level of Cyclosporine (CsA be kept strictly at a certain level. However, it is not well understood whether failing to maintain these levels will affect the short term outcome in different patient populations or not. We aimed to assess if the short term outcome of Iranian renal transplant recipients will be affected by first 6 months C2 level. In a retrospective cohort, 265 consecutive kidney transplant recipients were categorized as group with mean C2 lower than recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation lower than the recommended ranges; n=213 and group with mean C2 within recommended range (mean C2 levels in the first 6 month after transplantation within the recommended range; n=52. All recipients were negative for panel reactive antibody, and had received their first (living unrelated kidney transplantation in Baqiyatallah hospital, between 2002 and 2003. The groups were similar in characteristics and 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years patient and graft survival rates were considered as outcome. No significant difference was observed in patient and graft survival rates between the two groups (P > 0.05. The patient survival rate in group with mean C2 lower than recommended range and group with mean C2 within recommended range were: 6 months: 98% vs. 98, 1 year: 97% vs. 98%, 2 years: 97% vs. 98% and 3 years: 97% vs. 98%. The graft survival rate in the above groups were as follows: 6 months: 93% vs. 91%, 1 year: 92% vs. 91%, 2 years: 92% vs. 77% and 3 years: 89% vs. 69%, respectively. The result of our study showed that lower mean C2 levels was not necessarily accompanied with a worse short term outcome in our patients. This finding suggests that the optimal level of C2 may be different in ethnic populations.

  16. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Al-Binali Ali Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1% primary-, 89 (23.2% intermediate- and 49 (12.8% high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31% started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3% participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44% and 148 (38.5% of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6% had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68% indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such

  17. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    Fatemeh Nayyeri; Farima Raji; Edith Haghnazarian; Mamak Shariat; Hosein Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Objective:An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old.Materials and methods:Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study....

  18. Overcoming Barriers to Improve Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy in Older Adolescent Mothers

    Beattie-Fairchild, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    A lack of breastfeeding has negative consequences on mother and infant by creating health disparities with a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality. Nationwide, fewer than 60% of mothers younger than age 20 years breastfed exclusively, while fewer than 20% did so in the community being studied. The purpose of this qualitative case study was…

  19. Effect of breastfeeding on childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus%母乳喂养对妊娠期糖尿病母亲子代儿童期超重的影响

    赵亚玲; 马润玫; 黄永坤; 梁琨; 丁臻博

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether breastfeeding can reduce the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Follow-up was performed on 1189 offspring of mothers with GDM between January 2003 and December 2009. The influence of the manner and duration of breastfeeding between 0 to 3 months after birth on the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with GDM was analyzed by logistic regression. Results After correcting confounding factors such as pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational blood sugar, sex, birth weight, age and farther's body weight, it was found that the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring who received exclusive breastfeeding during the first 3 months after birth was lower than in the artificial feeding group (OR: 0.479, 95%CI:0.256-0. 897). Offspring who were breastfed for 0 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months and over 6 months had a lower risk of childhood overweight than the artificial feeding group (OR: 0. 456, 95% CI:0. 233-0. 827; OR: 0. 29, 95% CI: 0. 103-0.817; OR: 0.534, 95% CI: 0.280-0.970), offspring who were breastfed for 4 to 6 months had a lower risk of childhood overweight than those who were breastfed forO to 3 months (OR: 0. 372, 95% CI: 0. 129-0.874) , and offspring who were breastfed for more than 6 months did not show significantly lower risk of overweight than those who were breastfed for less than 6 months ( OR: 0. 769, 95% CI: 0. 470-1. 258). Conclusions Within 3 months of birth, breastfeeding, especially exclusively, may reduce the risk of childhood overweight in the offspring of mothers with GDM. Within 6 months of birth, the risk of childhood overweight decreases as the duration of breastfeeding increases, but prolonging the duration of breastfeeding cannot necessarily reduce the risk of childhood overweight after postnatal six months.%目的 通过对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)母亲子代的随访,探讨母乳喂养是否可以降

  20. Postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding among obese women from the randomized controlled Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) trial

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. DESIGN: Six months postpartum follow...... of breastfeeding mothers was higher among women with postpartum weight retention ≤5 kg compared with those with weight retention > 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy...... up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . METHODS: The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received...

  1. Hepatitis B vaccination in prison with a 3-week schedule is more efficient than the standard 6-month schedule

    Christensen, Peer B; Fisker, Niels; Krarup, Henrik B;

    2004-01-01

    A randomized study of injecting drug users in a Danish prison comparing vaccination at 0, 1 and 3 weeks with the 0, 1 and 6 months schedule (20microg Engerix B i.m.) was conducted. Due to a low participation rate, a second nonrandomized study was conducted in Estonia where all prisoners were...

  2. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Min-Ji Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Results: In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion: This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  3. Which angiographic variable best describes functional status 6 months after successful single-vessel coronary balloon angiopasty?

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); W.R.M. Hermans (Walter); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to determine which quantitative angiographic variable best describes functional status 6 months after coronary balloon angioplasty. BACKGROUND. Several angiographic restenosis criteria have been developed. These can be divided into those that describ

  4. Exclusive Dealing

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...

  5. Neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents 6 months and 12 months after implantation: evaluation by optical coherence tomography

    YAO Zhu-hua; Tetsuo Matsubara; Tsuyoshi Inada; Yasuyoshi Suzuki; Takahiko Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT)is a new imaging modality with resolution of approximately 10 μm and can be employed to visualize intracoronary characteristics.Sirolimus-eluting stents(SES)are susceptible to late thrombosis due to delayed re-endothelialization over the stent struts,which may result in acute myocardial infarction or death.This study was designed to evaluate the re-endothelialization and neointimal coverage of SES with OCT 6 months and 12 months after implantation.Methods A total of 36 patients enrolled in the study underwent OCT examination 6 months(17 patients)and 12 months (19 patients)after SES implantation.The strut apposition to the vessel wall and neointimal coverage on SES struts were evaluated by OCT.Results Forty-six SES and 6561 struts were analyzed.At 6 months,3041 struts(98.7%)were well-apposed and 39 struts(1.3%)were malapposed.At 12 months,3434 struts(98.6%)were well-apposed and 47 struts(1.4%)were malapposed.Furthermore,only 4 SES at 6 months(18.2%)and 10 SES at 12 months(41.7%)were fully covered by neointimal growth.The average neointimal thicknesses covering the analyzed struts at 6 months and 12 months were (42±28)μm and (88±32) μm,respectively.There were 1989 struts at 6 months(72.1%)and 1461 struts at 12 months (45.6%)with neointimal thickness <100 μm.Conclusions OCT was able to visualize the strut apposition to the vessel wall and neointimal coverage on SES struts.At 6-month and 12-month follow-up examinations most struts were covered with thin neointima,but few of the entire SES showed full coverage.To prevent late-stent thrombosis in the presence of uncovered stent struts,longer dual antiplatelet drugs therapy should be recommended.

  6. Analysis of Prognostic Factors of 80 Advanced NSCLC Patients Treated with Gefitinib for more than 6 Months

    Ling DAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Some clinical predictors can be used to evaluate the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, including female, East-Asian, non-smoker, adenocarcinoma, skin rash, etc. The aim of this study is to explore the prognosis of advanced NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib for more than 6 months. Methods Eighty advanced NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib for more than 6 months were collected from January, 2005 to March, 2010. The association of their clinical characteristics with median progression-free survival time (PFS was analysed. Results Significantly longer median PFS were found in patients with > 70 years old, earlier clinical stage (IIIb, non-bone metastasis (27 months vs 12 months; 32 months vs 12 months; 16 months vs 10 months, P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in median PFS between ECOG performance status 0-1 group and 2-4 group, between more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy and 1-4 cycles, between PFS of chemotherapy > 6 months group and ≤6 months group, however, ECOG 0-1 group and more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy or PFS of chemotherapy > 6 months group seemed to have longer median PFS (15 months vs 10 months; 16 months vs 12 months; 14months vs 12 months. Compared with no skin rash and grade 0-I rash group, the patients with rash or grade ≥II rash had longer median PFS (16 months vs 13 months, P=0.171; 19 months vs 11 months, P=0.085. The median PFS was not related with sex, smoking index, pathological types, metastatic sites except bone, treatment strategy, etc (P > 0.05. Conclusion For gefitinib treatment, longer median PFS is likely to be obtained in patients with > 70 years old, earlier clinical stage (IIIb, non-bone metastasis.

  7. Use of Donor Human Milk and Maternal Breastfeeding Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Williams, Thomas; Nair, Harish; Simpson, Judith; Embleton, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    The number of human milk banks is growing worldwide. The introduction of donor human milk (DHM) to neonatal units has been advocated as a strategy to promote maternal breastfeeding. However, concern has been raised that the introduction of DHM may actually lead to a decrease in maternal breastfeeding. To address this question, we conducted a systematic literature review of studies that assessed maternal breastfeeding rates before and after the introduction of DHM. We searched 7 electronic databases, carried out citation tracking, and contacted experts in the field. Where data for breastfeeding rates before and after the introduction of DHM were directly comparable, a relative risk was calculated. Our search identified 286 studies, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. Definitions of patient populations and study outcomes varied, limiting meaningful comparison. Where possible, relative risks (RR) were calculated on aggregated data. The introduction of DHM had a significant positive impact on any breastfeeding on discharge (RR, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.35;P= .005) but none on exclusive maternal breastfeeding on discharge (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.91-1.40;P= .27) or on exclusive administration of own mother's milk (OMM) days 1 to 28 of life (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.78-1.49; P= .65). A single-center study demonstrated a significant decrease in the percentage of feeds that were OMM after the introduction of DHM. In conclusion, the available data demonstrate some evidence of positive and negative effects on measures of maternal breastfeeding when DHM is introduced to a neonatal unit.

  8. Closing the quality gap: promoting evidence-based breastfeeding care in the hospital.

    Bartick, Melissa; Stuebe, Alison; Shealy, Katherine R; Walker, Marsha; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2009-10-01

    Evidence shows that hospital-based practices affect breastfeeding duration and exclusivity throughout the first year of life. However, a 2007 CDC survey of US maternity facilities documented poor adherence with evidence-based practice. Of a possible score of 100 points, the average hospital scored only 63 with great regional disparities. Inappropriate provision and promotion of infant formula were common, despite evidence that such practices reduce breastfeeding success. Twenty-four percent of facilities reported regularly giving non-breast milk supplements to more than half of all healthy, full-term infants. Metrics available for measuring quality of breastfeeding care, range from comprehensive Baby-Friendly Hospital Certification to compliance with individual steps such as the rate of in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding. Other approaches to improving quality of breastfeeding care include (1) education of hospital decision-makers (eg, through publications, seminars, professional organization statements, benchmark reports to hospitals, and national grassroots campaigns), (2) recognition of excellence, such as through Baby-Friendly hospital designation, (3) oversight by accrediting organizations such as the Joint Commission or state hospital authorities, (4) public reporting of indicators of the quality of breastfeeding care, (5) pay-for-performance incentives, in which Medicaid or other third-party payers provide additional financial compensation to individual hospitals that meet certain quality standards, and (6) regional collaboratives, in which staff from different hospitals work together to learn from each other and meet quality improvement goals at their home institutions. Such efforts, as well as strong central leadership, could affect both initiation and duration of breastfeeding, with substantial, lasting benefits for maternal and child health.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of a mobile app in an ecological momentary assessment of early breastfeeding.

    Demirci, Jill R; Bogen, Debra L

    2016-07-14

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a novel data collection method that samples subject experiences in real-time - minimizing recall bias. Here, we describe the feasibility of EMA to track breastfeeding behaviour through a mobile phone app. During their birth hospitalization, we approached healthy, first-time mothers intending to exclusively breastfeed for at least 2 months to participate in a study tracking breastfeeding through 8 weeks postpartum. Participants downloaded a commercially available smartphone app, entered information and thoughts about breastfeeding as they occurred, and emailed this data weekly. We called participants at 2 and 8 weeks to assess breastfeeding status. At the 8-week call, we also assessed participants' experiences using the app. Of the 61 participants, 38% sent complete or nearly complete feeding data, 24% sent some data, and 38% sent no data; 58% completed at least one free-text breastfeeding entry, and five women logged daily or near daily entries. Compared with women who sent no data, those who sent any were more likely to be married, highly educated, intend to breastfeed more than 6 months, have a more favourable baseline attitude towards breastfeeding, and less likely to have used formula during hospitalization. There was a high degree of agreement between participant-reported proportion of breast milk feeds via app and interview data at 2 weeks (ICC 0.97). Experiences with the app ranged from helpful to too time-consuming or anxiety-provoking. Participants and researchers encountered technical issues related to app use and analysis, respectively. While our data do not support the feasibility of stand-alone app-based EMA to track breastfeeding behaviour, it may provide rich accounts of the breastfeeding experience for certain subgroups of women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Breastfeeding profile and practice of Nigerian mothers: a cross-sectional survey

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding patterns in the developing world are still below the recommended levels and the potential to improve child survival remains untapped. This study investigated the breastfeeding profile and practices of Nigerian nursing mothers. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved women at attending selected baby-friendly facilities in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria who had breastfed their most recent baby for a minimum of six months. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographics, infant-maternal characteristics and breastfeeding practices. 383 mothers volunteered for this study, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of the respondent was 29.0 +/- 4.96 years. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate was 86.2%. Breastfeeding initiation time of less than 1 hour after delivery and 24 hours rooming-in practice rate was 78.3% and 79.1% respectively. Daily breastfeeding time and total breastfeeding duration was 8.06 +/- 2.33 hours and 18.3 +/- 4.82 months respectively. The mean onset time for water supplementation was 4.74 +/- 1.77 months with a rate of 30.3% within 1-3 months. Weaning initiation time was mostly (43.9% within 12 to 18 month of infant's age. There was significant association between EBF practice and each of maternal education (X2 = 6.554; P = 0.038 and Socio-Economic Status (SES (X2 = 19.32; P = 0.031 with most of the respondents in the lower SES (56.1% subscribing to EBF. Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF rate for the first six months among Nigerian mothers attending baby-friendly clinics was high. Breastfeeding initiation time after delivery was early, water supplementation to breastfeeding was before 5 months of the infant's life and weaning practice was late. Maternal educational level and socio-economic status significantly influenced EBF practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet

  11. The influence of the type of birth and the mother´s diet on the breastfeeding period.

    Daniela Benites

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal aspects may influence the duration of breastfeeding of newborns, which when reduced harm to their development brings cranio-orofacial. Correlate the type of delivery and maternal diet with breastfeeding period. This was a descriptive study based on the records of the medical records of 820 dyads of mothers and newborns participating in the University Extension Baby Clinic. The results were analyzed, considering a significance level of 5%. The absence of complications during pregnancy was a positive factor for the occurrence of vaginal delivery in 94% of the sample (p<0.001. It was found a high percentage of cesarean delivery (43%. The number of caesarean sections in women with cariogenic diet was higher than in women with non-cariogenic diet. The women who have a cariogenic diet does not have a tendency to breastfeed their children for more than 6 months (p<0.01. Also there was an association between vaginal delivery and longer period of 6 months of breastfeeding (p<0.001. The collected sample mode of delivery and maternal diet influence the duration of breastfeeding.

  12. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  13. The Application of Billings for Fertility Regulation Method during the Period of Breastfeeding

    金碧华; 姜国珠; 潘琢如; 颜洁敏; 彭守静; 陆仁康

    1999-01-01

    In order to adopt Billings Method for fertility regulation during the period of breast-feeding,cervical mucus was observed and monitored in 61 breast-feeding mothers.Urine estrogen and/or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast feeding mothers.Observations on cervical mucus during 244 months were collected.The type of dry or no mucus was observed in 75.27% fully breast-feeding mothers.Constant unchanging mucus was ob-served in 69.39% partially breast-feeding mothers.Developmental changing mucus was observed in 79.25% of mothers bottle-feeding their infants.According to the record on cervical mucus within 6months postpartum,97.14% of the cervical mucus was consistent with normal menstrual cycles.Urine estrogen and /or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast-feeding mothers.The level of estrogen in urine averaged 0.08 μmol/24 h in fully breast feeding mothers and 0.14 μmol/24 h in partially breast-feeding mothers.The peak level averaged 0.21 pmol/24 h in bottle-feeding mothers.The pregnanediol level was determined to confirm ovulation in bottle-feeding mothers.The average levels of cut off and the period of ovutation in 6bottle feeding mother were 7 μmol/24 h and 9 μmol/24 h respectively.Measurement of urine estrogen and pregnanediot level all matched with cervical mucus appearances.Conclusion: Billings Method is a simple,scientific method for contraception without side-effects during breast-feeding period.

  14. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    Kum C Hiong

    Full Text Available The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of

  15. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    ... need for calcium. During pregnancy, women produce more estrogen, a hormone that protects bones. Any bone mass lost during pregnancy is typically ... mass during breastfeeding because they’re producing less estrogen, which is the hormone that protects bones. The good news is that, like bone lost ...

  16. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  17. Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    Casanovas, M C

    1994-01-01

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions.

  18. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  19. Expansion of the baby-friendly hospital initiative ten steps to successful breastfeeding into neonatal intensive care: expert group recommendations.

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Häggkvist, Anna-Pia; Hansen, Mette N; Kylberg, Elisabeth; Frandsen, Annemi L; Maastrup, Ragnhild; Ezeonodo, Aino; Hannula, Leena; Haiek, Laura N

    2013-08-01

    In the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund document Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care, neonatal care is mentioned as 1 area that would benefit from expansion of the original Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The different situations faced by preterm and sick infants and their mothers, compared to healthy infants and their mothers, necessitate a specific breastfeeding policy for neonatal intensive care and require that health care professionals have knowledge and skills in lactation and breastfeeding support, including provision of antenatal information, that are specific to neonatal care. Facilitation of early, continuous, and prolonged skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo mother care), early initiation of breastfeeding, and mothers' access to breastfeeding support during the infants' whole hospital stay are important. Mother's own milk or donor milk (when available) is the optimal nutrition. Efforts should be made to minimize parent-infant separation and facilitate parents' unrestricted presence with their infants. The initiation and continuation of breastfeeding should be guided only by infant competence and stability, using a semi-demand feeding regimen during the transition to exclusive breastfeeding. Pacifiers are appropriate during tube-feeding, for pain relief, and for calming infants. Nipple shields can be used for facilitating establishment of breastfeeding, but only after qualified support and attempts at the breast. Alternatives to bottles should be used until breastfeeding is well established. The discharge program should include adequate preparation of parents, information about access to lactation and breastfeeding support, both professional and peer support, and a plan for continued follow-up.

  20. Prevalência da amamentação em crianças menores de dois anos vacinadas nos centros de saúde escola Breastfeeding prevalence among children less than two years old immunized in primary health care school services

    Daniella Fernandes Camilo

    2004-03-01

    second semester, 36.5% of the children were breastfed, in the third 26.4% and in the fourth semester 13.9%. Children who used public and local health care services were less likely to be weaned than the users of private and non-local health care services (p<0.005. CONCLUSION: This article emphasizes the need to establish goals for exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age and for total breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or more, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Ministry of Health.

  1. The 'Earlybird' gets the breastmilk: findings from an evaluation of combined professional and peer support groups to improve breastfeeding duration in the first eight weeks after birth.

    Kruske, Sue; Schmied, Virginia; Cook, Margaret

    2007-04-01

    Australia has high initiation rates of breastfeeding, but the challenges of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding in the first few months of infant life result in many women changing to artificial formula feeding. This paper reports on the impact of a new strategy to improve breastfeeding duration rates in the first 8 weeks post-partum. The Earlybird Program (EBP) combines the professional expertise of child and family health (C&FH) nurses with the expertise of the participating mothers to support each other in establishing breastfeeding in the first 8 weeks. This retrospective study compared the breastfeeding patterns of first-time mothers who attended the EBP, with the breastfeeding patterns of mothers who accessed individual appointments with the nurses in a 12-month period, and examined the predictors of continued breastfeeding at 8 weeks. The total sample comprised 193 infant records. Women who selected the EBP were more likely to be employed and less likely to be categorized as non-English speaking background. These women also had more visits to the C&FH service. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with breastfeeding cessation at 8 weeks post-natal. After adjusting for variables, only exclusive breastfeeding at first visit and attending the EBP were significant predictors of continuing to breastfeed at 8 weeks. Facilitation skills that recognize the expertise of participating women were considered an important aspect of the programme.

  2. A rapid ethnographic study of breastfeeding in the North and South of Italy

    Passamonte Raquel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past ten years have witnessed a rising trend in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in Italy, but breastfeeding rates increase in an unequal way; they are higher in the North of Italy than in the South. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences, expectations and beliefs of a sample of mothers, and to identify differences, if any, between the North and the South of Italy. Methods The study was conducted in two regions of Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia in the Northeast and Basilicata in the South. Two hundred and seventy-nine mothers of infants and children 6 to 23 months of age were interviewed using an 85-item questionnaire including closed and open questions on infant feeding experiences and beliefs, sources of information and support, reasons for intended and actual choices and practices, and some demographic and social variables. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between May 2001 and September 2002. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data analysis. Results The distribution of the mothers by age, education, employment and parity did not differ from that of the general population of the two regions. The reported rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding were also similar: 95% started breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding was 32% at three and 9% at six months, with 64% and 35% of any breastfeeding, respectively. Some differences were reported in the rates of full breastfeeding, reflecting different ages of introduction of non-nutritive fluids. These, as well as nutritive fluids – including infant formula – and complementary foods, were introduced far too early. Advice on infant feeding was generally provided by health professionals and often was not based on up-to-date recommendations. Mothers were generally aware of the advantages of breastfeeding, but at the same time reported problems that they were not able to solve alone or through social and health system

  3. Association between breastfeeding and breathing pattern in children: a sectional study

    Teresinha S.P. Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. METHODS: this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutritive sucking. To determine the breathing patterns that the children had developed, medical history and clinical examination were used. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exposure on the primary outcome (mouth breathing, and the prevalence ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: of the total sample, 43.1% of the children were mouth breathers, 48.4% had been breastfed exclusively until six months of age or more, and 27.4% had non-nutritive sucking habits. Statistically significant associations were found for bottle-feeding (p < 0.001 and oral habits of non-nutritive sucking (p = 0.009, with an increased likelihood of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern. A statistically significant association was also observed between a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and a nasal breathing pattern presented by children. CONCLUSION: an increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding lowers the chances of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern.

  4. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  5. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  6. AMS INSIGHT--absorbable metal stent implantation for treatment of below-the-knee critical limb ischemia: 6-month analysis.

    Bosiers, Marc; Peeters, Patrick; D'Archambeau, Olivier; Hendriks, Jeroen; Pilger, Ernst; Düber, Christoph; Zeller, Thomas; Gussmann, Andreas; Lohle, Paul N M; Minar, Erich; Scheinert, Dierk; Hausegger, Klaus; Schulte, Karl-Ludwig; Verbist, Jürgen; Deloose, Koen; Lammer, J

    2009-05-01

    Endoluminal treatment of infrapopliteal artery lesions is a matter of controversy. Bioabsorbable stents are discussed as a means to combine mechanical prevention of vessel recoil with the advantages of long-term perspectives. The possibility of not having a permanent metallic implant could permit the occurrence of positive remodeling with lumen enlargement to compensate for the development of new lesions. The present study was designed to investigate the safety of absorbable metal stents (AMSs) in the infrapopliteal arteries based on 1- and 6-month clinical follow-up and efficacy based on 6-month angiographic patency. One hundred seventeen patients with 149 lesions with chronic limb ischemia (CLI) were randomized to implantation of an AMS (60 patients, 74 lesions) or stand-alone percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 57 patients, 75 lesions). Seven PTA-group patients "crossed over" to AMS stenting. The study population consisted of patients with symptomatic CLI (Rutherford categories 4 and 5) and de novo stenotic (>50%) or occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the infrapopliteal arteries who presented with a reference diameter of between 3.0 and 3.5 mm and a lesion length of <15 mm. The primary safety endpoint was defined as absence of major amputation and/or death within 30 days after index intervention and the primary efficacy endpoint was the 6-month angiographic patency rate as confirmed by core-lab quantitative vessel analysis. The 30-day complication rate was 5.3% (3/57) and 5.0% (3/60) in patients randomized for PTA alone and PTA followed by AMS implantation, respectively. On an intention-to-treat basis, the 6-month angiographic patency rate for lesions treated with AMS (31.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.013) than the rate for those treated with PTA (58.0%). Although the present study indicates that the AMS technology can be safely applied, it did not demonstrate efficacy in long-term patency over standard PTA in the infrapopliteal vessels.

  7. Employing crisis postcards with case management in Kaohsiung, Taiwan: 6-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial for suicide attempters

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Shyu, Shi-Sen; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Guei-Ging; Chou, Li-Shiu; Fang, Yun-Ju; Yeh, Pin-Yang; Chung, Tieh-Chi; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide attempts constitute a serious clinical problem and have important implications for healthcare resources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of case management using crisis postcards over a 6-month follow-up period. Method A randomised controlled trial was conducted in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Prevention of further suicide attempts was compared between two groups with and without the postcard intervention. The intervention group consisted of 373 partici...

  8. β2-microglobulin Normalization Within 6 months of Ibrutinib-based Treatment is Associated with Superior PFS in CLL

    Thompson, Philip A.; O’Brien, Susan M.; Xiao, Lianchun; Wang, Xuemei; Burger, Jan A.; Jain, Nitin; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.

    2016-01-01

    High pre-treatment β2-microglobulin (B2M) level is associated with inferior survival outcomes. However, the prognostic and predictive significance of changes in B2M during treatment have not been reported. We analyzed 83 patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens (66 relapsed/refractory) and 198 treatment-naïve (TN) patients treated with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) to characterize change in B2M and their relationship to clinical outcomes. B2M rapidly fell during treatment with ibrutinib; in multivariable analysis (MVA), patients who received FCR [OR 0.40 (0.18–0.90), p=0.027] were less likely to normalize B2M at 6 months than patients treated with ibrutinib. On univariable analysis, normalization of B2M was associated with superior progression-free survival (PFS) from the 6-month landmark in patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens and FCR. On MVA, failure to normalize B2M at 6 months of treatment was associated with inferior PFS [HR 16.9 (1.3–220.0), p=0.031] for ibrutinib-treated patients, after adjusting for the effects of baseline B2M, stage, fludarabine-refractory disease and del(17p). In contrast, in FCR-treated patients, bone marrow MRD-negative status was the only variable significantly associated with superior PFS [HR 0.28 (0.12–0.67), p=0.004]. Normalization of B2M at 6 months in ibrutinib-treated patients thus was a useful predictor of subsequent PFS and may assist clinical decision-making. PMID:26588193

  9. Persistence of psychological distress in surgical patients with interest in psychotherapy: results of a 6-month follow-up.

    Léonie F Kerper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This prospective observational study investigated whether self-reported psychological distress and alcohol use problems of surgical patients change between preoperative baseline assessment and postoperative 6-month follow-up examination. Patients with preoperative interest in psychotherapy were compared with patients without interest in psychotherapy. METHODS: A total of 1,157 consecutive patients from various surgical fields completed a set of psychiatric questionnaires preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, including Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, World Health Organization 5-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5, and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Additionally, patients were asked for their interest in psychotherapy. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used for primary data analysis. RESULTS: 16.7% of the patients were interested in psychotherapy. Compared to uninterested patients, they showed consistently higher distress at both baseline and month 6 regarding all of the assessed psychological measures (p's between <0.001 and 0.003. At 6-month follow-up, neither substantial changes over time nor large time x group interactions were found. Results of ANCOVA's controlling for demographic variables were confirmed by analyses of frequencies of clinically significant distress. CONCLUSION: In surgical patients with interest in psychotherapy, there is a remarkable persistence of elevated self-reported general psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder symptoms over 6 months. This suggests high and chronic psychiatric comorbidity and a clear need for psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment rather than transient worries posed by facing surgery.

  10. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  11. Breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding support programs in the mother's workplace.

    Bettinelli, Maria Enrica

    2012-10-01

    Women should never be forced to make a choice between mother-work and other work. Many women mistakenly think they cannot breastfeed if they plan to return to work, and thus they may not talk with their employers about their intention to breastfeed or how breastfeeding might be supported at their workplace. All breastfeeding policies and strategies underline the importance of providing support for lactating mothers and highlight the need to promote specific interventions in the workplace. Possible strategies for working mothers include having the mother keep the baby with her while she works, allowing the mother to go to the baby to breastfeed during the workday, telecommuting, offering flexible work schedules, maintaining part-time work schedules, and using on-site or nearby child care centres.

  12. Changes in health-related quality of life from 6 months to 2 years after discharge from intensive care

    Flaatten Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensive care patients have, both before and after the ICU stay, a health-related quality of life (HRQOL that differs from that of the normal population. Studies have described changes in HRQOL in the period from before the ICU stay and up to 12 months after. The aim of this study was to investigate possible longitudinal changes in HRQOL in adult patients (>18 years from 6 months to 2 years after discharge from a general, mixed intensive care unit (ICU in a university hospital. Methods This is a prospective cohort study. Follow-up patients were found using the ICU database and the Peoples Registry. HRQOL was measured with the Short Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Answers at 6 months and 2 years were compared for all patients, surgical and medical patients, and different admission cohorts. Differences are presented with 95% confidence intervals. The SF-36 data were scored according to designed equations. SPSS 11.0 was used to perform t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests. Results A total of 100 patients (26 medical and 74 surgical answered the SF-36 after 6 months and again after 2 years. There was overall moderate improvement in 6 out of 8 dimensions of the SF-36, and the average increase in score was + 4.0 for all 8 dimensions. The changes for surgical and medical patients were similar. Neurological and respiratory patients reported increased average HRQOL scores, while cardiovascular patients did not. Patients with worsening of scores from 6 months to 2 years were insignificantly older than patients with improved scores (55.3 vs. 49.7 years, and both groups had comparable severity scores (simplified acute physiology score, SAPS II, 37.2 vs. 36.3 and length of ICU stay (2.7 vs. 3.2 days. The statistically significant changes in HRQOL (in the Role Physical and Social Functioning dimensions were, due to sample size, barely clinically relevant. Conclusion In a mixed ICU population we found moderate increases in HRQOL both for medical

  13. Prevalência do aleitamento materno na região noroeste de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, 2001 Breast-feeding prevalence, northwest region of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2001

    Daniel Felipe Alves Cecchetti

    2005-04-01

    -feeding. RESULTS: The prevalences of the exclusive and the total breast-feeding in the first semester were, respectively, 31.6%, and 74.5%. Among children aged from six to twelve months, 38.0% were breast-fed. In the second year, the prevalence of breast-feeding was reduced to 22.1%. Exclusive breast-feeding changed from 72.2% at the 7th day of life, to 53.8% at the 15th day, to 33.3% at the 3rd month, to 10.0% at the 4th, and to 5.7% at the 6th month. The total breast-feeding prevalence was 100.0% at the 7th day, 79.1% at the 3rd month, 54.3% at the 6th, 34.4% at the 12th, 26.1% at the 18th, and none at the 24th month. Exclusive and the total breast-feeding medians were, respectively, 67 days and 6.6 months. Among children who attended the public health system, 42.2% were breast-fed, against 34.4% of those who attended a private service (p<0.00001.The protecting effect of the Public Health Service remained, when the statistic model was adjusted for age; conversely, it vanished, when variables like income and maternal education were included in the model. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of breast-feeding is below official recommendations.

  14. Breast-feeding: nature's contraceptive.

    Short, R V

    1985-01-01

    Our ancestors achieved the lowest rate of reproduction of any living mammal by the postponement of puberty until well into the 2nd decade of life, a maximal probability of conception of only about 24% per menstrual cycle even when ovulation had commenced, a 4-year birth interval as a result of the contraceptive effects of breastfeeding, and sharply declining fertility during the 4th decade of life, leading to complete sterility at the menopause. This pattern of reproduction was ideally suited to the prevailing lifestyle of the nomadic hunter-gatherer. The postponement of puberty resulted in a prolonged period of childhood dependency, thus enabling parents to transmit their acquired experience to their offspring. Long birth intervals were essential for a woman who had to wander 1000 or more miles each year in search of food, because she could not manage to carry more than 1 child with her at a time. The lifestyle of comparatively recent times of a settled agricultural economy made possible subsequent rural and urban development, but this transition from nomad to city dweller also stimulated fertility. The cultivation of crops and the domestication of animals led to the development of permanent housing, where the mother could leave her baby in a safe place while she worked in the field. The resultant reduction in mother-infant contact coupled with the availability of early weaning foods reduced the suckling frequency, thereby eroding the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding and decreasing the birth interval. The model conquest of disease eventually led to rapid rates of population growth. In the developed countries of Europe and North America, reproduction was subsequently held in check by the use of artificial forms of contraception, but this has yet to take place in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. For a developing country, contraceptives are expensive, may be culturally unacceptable, and carry health risks. Breastfeeding is 1 form of

  15. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health

    Doherty Tanya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. Methods This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150. Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women’s experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. Results By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 – 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 – 10.8, respectively. Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 – 5.7 and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 – 2

  16. It takes a mother to practise breastfeeding : Women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention

    Oosterhoff, Alberta; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, 81% of mothers initiate breastfeeding. After one month the percentage of mothers still breastfeeding drops, despite positive intentions. Little is known about women's perceptions of breastfeeding during the period of intention. Aim: This qualitative study aimed to gai

  17. Breast-milk substitutes: a new old-threat for breastfeeding policy in developing countries. A case study in a traditionally high breastfeeding country.

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. METHODS: Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. PARTICIPANTS: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. TOOLS: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas. OUTCOME MEASURES INCLUDED: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula; 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6-3.2. One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15-2.78, p<0.009. Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41-0.99, p = 0.04. Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. CONCLUSION: In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

  18. Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country

    Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M.; Koffi, Paulin N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Methods Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. Participants: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. Tools: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). Outcome measures included: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6–3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15–2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41–0.99), p = 0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. Conclusion In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries. PMID

  19. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions: a systematic review.

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Martins, Carolina Castro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to search for scientific evidence concerning the association between breastfeeding and bottle feeding and risk of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions. An electronic search was performed in eight databases up to February 2015. Additionally, a gray literature search and hand searches of the reference lists of the selected studies were also carried out. There were no restrictions on language or on year of publication. The methodology of the included articles was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Out of the 817 identified citations, six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. One study showed that children with mixed and permanent dentitions breastfed for more than 6 months presented greater mean protrusion of mandibular incisors and inclination of maxillary incisors compared with those breastfed for less than 6 months or those who were bottle-fed (p bottle feeding and the occurrence of malocclusion in mixed and permanent dentitions.

  20. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  1. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  2. Prenatal adversities and Latino children's autonomic nervous system reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age.

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers' adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13-14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father's absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers' prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring's parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring's heart rate trajectories (pnervous system trajectories (p = .05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers' prenatal adverse experiences may program their children's physiologic trajectory to dampen their

  3. Effects of 6 months yoga program on renal functions and quality of life in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease

    Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Arya, Tung Vir Singh; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of 6 months yoga program in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with CKD were studied and divided into two groups (yoga group and control group) to see the effect of yoga in CKD. Patients in the yoga group were offered yoga therapy along with other conventional treatment modalities, while the control group was only on conventional treatment. Subjects in yoga group were trained to perform specific yogic asanas for at least 5 days a week for 40–60 min a day. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, renal function, requirement of a number of dialysis, and quality of life (QOL) indicators were done. Fifty patients (yoga – 25; control-25) completed 6 months follow-up. Results: In yoga group, a significant reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, significant reduction in blood urea and serum creatinine levels, and significant improvement in physical and psychological domain of the World Health Organization QOL (as assessed by BREF QOL scores) were seen after 6 months. In control group, rise of blood pressure, deterioration of renal function, and QOL were observed. Poststudy comparison between the two groups showed a statistically significant reduction of blood pressure, nonsignificant reduction in blood urea and serum creatinine, and significant improvement in physical and psychological domain of QOL in yoga group as compared to control group. For subjects in yoga group, the need for dialysis was less when compared to control group although this difference was statistically insignificant. Except for inability of some patients to perform certain yogic asanas no adverse effect was found in the study. Conclusion: Six months yoga program is safe and effective as an adjuvant therapy in improving renal functions and QOL of CKD patients. PMID:28149061

  4. White Matter Integrity Declined Over 6-Months, but Dance Intervention Improved Integrity of the Fornix of Older Adults

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Jiao, Yuqin; Knecht, Anya M.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Tammy; Gothe, Neha; Voss, Michelle W.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of cerebral white matter (WM), or structural disconnection, is one of the major neural mechanisms driving age-related decline in cognitive functions, such as processing speed. Past cross-sectional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of greater cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, cognitive training, social engagement, and nutrition on cognitive functioning and brain health in aging. Here, we collected diffusion magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging data from 174 older (age 60–79) adults to study the effects of 6-months lifestyle interventions on WM integrity. Healthy but low-active participants were randomized into Dance, Walking, Walking + Nutrition, and Active Control (stretching and toning) intervention groups (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov). Only in the fornix there was a time × intervention group interaction of change in WM integrity: integrity declined over 6 months in all groups but increased in the Dance group. Integrity in the fornix at baseline was associated with better processing speed, however, change in fornix integrity did not correlate with change in processing speed. Next, we observed a decline in WM integrity across the majority of brain regions in all participants, regardless of the intervention group. This suggests that the aging of the brain is detectable on the scale of 6-months, which highlights the urgency of finding effective interventions to slow down this process. Magnitude of WM decline increased with age and decline in prefrontal WM was of lesser magnitude in older adults spending less time sedentary and more engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In addition, our findings support the anterior-to-posterior gradient of greater-to-lesser decline, but only in the in the corpus callosum. Together, our findings suggest that combining physical, cognitive, and social engagement (dance) may help maintain or improve WM health and more physically active lifestyle is associated with slower WM decline

  5. A study of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices with emphasis on misconceptions amongst the women with under two year children in rural area

    Rahalkar Ashwinee A, Phalke Deepak B, Phalke Vaishali D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. The complementary feeding pattern also plays a very important role in the growth and development of the child. Aims & objectives: To study breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices adopted by women of Loni area. To study the socio-cultural factors influencing breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Settings and Design: Descriptive cross sectional study Methods and Material: 150 women fulfilling eligibility criteria were taken up for the study for duration of two months. A detailed questionnaire was given to the mothers and results were analysed later on. Statistical analysis used: Chi square test Results: In 4.6% cases prelacteal food was given. Colostrum was given in 90% cases, while in 10% it was not given. Only 50.6% babies were breastfed within 1 hour, Complementary feeding was started after 6 months in 84% babies, before 6 months in 4% and 12% did not know when to start weaning. Majority (58% said no to breastfeeding when mother was ill while 56.5% women had no change in their diet after delivery. Mother’s educational status was associated with proper breastfeeding practices while parity and socioeconomic factors had no significant impact. Conclusions: Most of the women adopted appropriate practices regarding breastfeeding and complementary feeding, but still misconceptions were noted. Thus more awareness should be created regarding this topic.

  6. [Nicolau syndrome induced by intramuscular injection of a hexavalent vaccine in a 6-month-old girl].

    Stefano, Paola C; Garello, Mónica; Nolte, María F; Lamy, Patricia; Giglio, Norberto; Castellano, Vanesa; Gentile, Ángela

    2017-02-01

    Nicolau syndrome, also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or livedo-like dermatitis, is a sudden tissue necrosis, a rare complication of intramuscular injection of some drugs. We report a case of a 6-month-old girl who received intramuscularly the third dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP- HVB-IPV/HIb), and immediately presented a livedoid lesion around the injection site, progressing to necrosis. We reinforce the importance of early diagnosis to perform a suitable treatment and clinical follow-up to avoid ischemic secondary complications.

  7. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Horan, Mary K.; Ciara A. McGowan; Gibney, Eileen R.; Jacinta Byrne; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old inf...

  8. Maternal Mental Health and Its Association with Infant Growth at 6 Months in Ethnic Groups: Results from the Born-in-Bradford Birth Cohort Study

    Gemma D Traviss; West, Robert M.; House, Allan O

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth. METHODS: Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK). Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28) was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation) and 6 months postpartum. Modelling incl...

  9. Validation of the Breastfeeding Experience Scale in a Sample of Iranian Mothers

    Forough Mortazavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI. 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ2/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95. Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6 than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3 (P<0.001. Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers.

  10. Validation of the breastfeeding experience scale in a sample of Iranian mothers.

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES) in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ (2)/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95). Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6) than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3) (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers.

  11. Social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women.

    Müller, Fabiana Swain; Silva, Isilia Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to get to know the social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women, as well as to identify the actions in their social environment these women perceive as supportive in their breastfeeding processes. Data were collected through a qualitative approach, using recorded semistructured interviews, organized in accordance with the Collective Subject Discourse and analyzed under the premises of Social Representations Theory. Results showed that the representations of women in this study about support for breastfeeding consist of actions available in the hospital, family and work contexts. In these women's perspective, support is a broad phenomenon that involves aspects of encouragement, promotion and protection to breastfeeding.

  12. Smoking Behaviour before, during, and after Pregnancy: The Effect of Breastfeeding

    Laura Lauria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data for this study were obtained from a population-based follow-up study in 25 Italian Local Health Units (LHUs to evaluate pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care in Italy. A sample of 3534 women was recruited and interviewed within a few days of their giving birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months after delivery, by trained interviewers using questionnaires. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in smoking behaviour from one interview to the next. Of 2546 women who completed the follow-up, smoking prevalences before and during pregnancy were 21.6% and 6.7%; smoking prevalences and smoking relapse at 3, 6, and 12 months were 8.1% and 18.5%, 10.3% and 30.3%, and 10.9% and 32.3%, respectively. Smoking during and after pregnancy was more likely among women who were less educated, single, not attending antenatal classes, employed, and not breastfeeding. The results show that women who are breastfeeding smoke less than not breastfeeding women, even after controlling for other predictors (i.e.,  smoking relapse at 12 months: OR=0.43, 95%  CI:  0.19, 0.94. A low maternal mood increases the risk of smoking relapse within 6 months of about 73%. This study also suggests that prolonged breastfeeding reduces the risk of smoking relapse and that this reduction may be persistent in time. Interventions targeting breastfeeding promotion may also indirectly support smoking cessation, even in absence of specific interventions.

  13. Measurement of Prolactin and Estradiol to Estimate Menses Return of Breastfeeding Mothers

    Bi-hua JIN; He-lian YU; Min-fei JIN; Xue-liang DU; Shu-rong YANG; Jing-chuan WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the measurement of serum prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) is effective and reliable to estimate the returning time of menses during breastfeedingMethods Serum PRL and E2 were measured in 703 breastfeeding mothers during the period of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6~9 months postpartum. Radio-immunoassay (RIA) was used to measure the levels of PRL and E2.The cervical mucus, sexual behaviors and vagina bleeding were also monitored since 56 d after postpantum.Results (1) The average level of serum PRL and E2 was 8.16, 3.66, 0.69 in the fully breastfeeding, mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding groups respectively. It showed that 92.55% mother returned menses within 6 months of postpartum in the bottle-feeding group. (2) According to the results, the levels of serum Prolactin and Estradiol were related to the feeding ways, but not completely related to the duration of postpartum. (3) By using the ratio of PRL to E2 to estimate the time of menses return among the breastfeeding mothers, we found that when the ratio became 0.60, the subjects' menses would returen. The sensitivity and the specificity of this method were 89.85% and 90.68% respectively.Conclusion The measurement of serum PRL and E2 is a simple, effective and reliable method to estimate the return time of menses during breastfeeding period. If possible, it should be promoted for clinical use to prepare for their fertility return.

  14. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  15. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Moimaz Suzely A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  16. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  17. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  18. Initial experience with linear focused shockwave treatment for erectile dysfunction: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

    Reisman, Y; Hind, A; Varaneckas, A; Motil, I

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity shockwaves (LISW) are known to produce revascularization and have been in evaluation and in use to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). The present single-arm pilot study is aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a dedicated shockwave device (Renova) on vasculogenic ED patients. Fifty-eight patients with mild to severe ED were treated by LISW and their erectile function was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF), Sexual Encounter Profile and Global Assessment Questions questionnaires, at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months post treatment. The average IIEF-EF increased significantly from 14.78 at baseline to 21.93 at 3 months post treatment and stabilized at 22.26 at 6 months post treatment. Out of 58 patients, 47 (81%) had a successful treatment. No adverse events were reported during the treatment and the follow-up duration. In conclusion, it suggests that the performance of LISW could add a new advanced treatment for ED.

  19. Adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug offenders: discharge and 6-month outcomes from a prospective matching study.

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Lee, Patricia A; Benasutti, Kathleen M

    2007-05-01

    This article reports recent findings from a program of experimental research examining the effects of adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug-abusing offenders. Prior studies revealed that high-risk participants with (1) antisocial personality disorder or (2) a history of drug abuse treatment performed significantly better in drug court when they were scheduled to attend frequent, bi-weekly judicial status hearings in court. Low-risk participants performed equivalently regardless of the schedule of court hearings. The current study prospectively matched misdemeanor drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based upon an assessment of their risk status, and compared outcomes to those of clients randomly assigned to the standard schedule of court hearings. Results confirmed that high-risk participants graduated at a higher rate, provided more drug-negative urine specimens at 6 months post-admission, and reported significantly less drug use and alcohol intoxication at 6 months post-admission when they were matched to bi-weekly hearings as compared to the usual schedule of hearings. These findings yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug court services. Directions for future research on adaptive programming for drug offenders are discussed.

  20. Safety and efficacy of oral slow release morphine for maintenance treatment in heroin addicts: a 6-month open noncomparative study.

    Vasilev, Georgi N; Alexieva, Daniela Z; Pavlova, Rositsa Z

    2006-01-01

    This open-label, noncomparative, single-center trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of once-daily treatment with slow release oral morphine (SROM) capsules for the maintenance treatment of 20 outpatients with heroin dependency over 6 months at the National Institute for Addictions in Sofia, Bulgaria. Doses were individually titrated up to a mean daily maintenance dose of 760 mg (range 440-1,200 mg). SROM was effective in significantly reducing the signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and craving for heroin, with stabilization generally evident within two weeks. Nineteen patients completed 6 months of treatment and illicit opioid use was virtually eliminated. One patient withdrew voluntarily at 22 weeks. Validated questionnaires and tests indicated improvements in patients' well-being from baseline assessments. These included significant improvements with regard to suicidal depression (85%), anxiety and dysphoria (66%), general illness (58%), social dysfunction (54%), sense of hopelessness (34%), attention (25%), and self-reported typical depressive (27%) and disease-related (11%) symptoms. No deaths, serious adverse events, or withdrawals due to adverse events occurred. Five episodes of constipation and one episode of sweating (all nonserious and of mild or moderate severity) were reported. Vital signs were unaffected by SROM and no weight change was evident over the study period. The observations made in this study indicate a promising role for once-daily treatment with SROM in the clinical management of heroin dependency.

  1. First report of c. 1499G>C mutation in a 6-month-child with cystic fibrosis

    Abbas Sahami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, more than 1800 mutations identified in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene. In this case report, we presented first report of c. 1499G>C mutation in a 6-month-old girl with cystic fibrosis (CF diagnosis. A 6-month-old girl with weakness and meconium Ileus referred to the pediatric clinic in Ilam, in the west of Iran. Patient′s skin was dark and suffered from bronchiectasis. The sweat test was performed, and the concentration of chloride and sodium in patient′s sweat was 130-135 mmol/L and 125-128 mmol/L, respectively. The exon 10 mutation analysis of a CF patient was performed. CFTR mutation analysis revealed the identification of 2 mutations in patient, the mutations were p.F508del (ΔF508 and c. 1499G>C (cd500, respectively. The mutation c. 1499G>C (cd500 were found for the first time in the world. Assessing this mutation in future study and genetic investigation is recommended.

  2. Breastfeeding Knowledge and Practices among Mothers of Children under 2 Years of Age Living in a Military Barrack in Southwest Nigeria

    Modupe Rebekah Akinyinka, MBBS, MPH, FMCPH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human milk is uniquely superior as a source of nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding has many benefits. This study determined the breastfeeding knowledge and practices of women who have children aged 0-2 years living in a Naval Barracks. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 220 women in a Naval Barracks selected using systematic random sampling method. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, and data was analyzed using Epi info 2000 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19. Results: There was generally fair knowledge about breastfeeding among the women. Most of the respondents (97.3% had ever breastfed their babies, 56.5% of them initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery, 24.1% admitted that they gave pre-lacteal feeds, 74.1% practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a mean period of 4.98 months and 30.7% engaged in bottle-feeding. Several factors were significantly associated with breastfeeding practices. Conclusions: Breastfeeding practices varied among the respondents despite the fair knowledge. Global Health Implications: This study reveals the need to educate women and communities worldwide particularly in low-income countries about good breastfeeding practices. Targeting these women will help to improve maternal and child health.

  3. Situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in a medium-sized municipality in the Ribeira Valley, São Paulo

    Gislene dos Anjos Tamasia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in the city of Registro, São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected sociodemographic and feeding information of infants aged less than one year who participated in the 2011 multiple vaccine campaign. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding were analyzed by indicators proposed by the World Health Organization. The association between outcomes (exclusive breastfeeding and introduction to complementary feeding and the explanatory variables (maternal and child characteristics was investigated by the Poisson model with a robust error variance. RESULTS: We analyzed 713 children. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 50.0%. Children who were breastfed exclusively on the first day at home (PR=2.40; 95%CI=1.42-4.06 and not given pacifiers (PR=1.95; 95%CI=1.153.30 were more likely to be exclusively breastfed. The complementary feeding indicators showed that 62.1% of the children aged 6 to 8.9 months consumed fruit plus savory mashes. None of the explanatory variables was significantly associated with this outcome. CONCLUSION: The study identified inappropriate infant feeding practices. Such studies can contribute to the proposal of policies, which is particularly important in an unfavorable social development context characterized by the study city.

  4. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment and therapeutic skills, and (d) understanding the barriers to breastfeeding: how health-care providers can make a difference. Data analysis suggests inconsistencies between the health-care provider’s perceived support and behaviors, lack of knowledge, and significant lack of skill in the assessment and management of breastfeeding couples. PMID:26957893

  5. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    Moraes Camila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx- in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM. Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl, whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg

  6. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT to detect subclinical HNSCC recurrence 6 months after the end of treatment

    Robin, Philippe; Abgral, Ronan; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Keromnes, Nathalie; Palard, Xavier; Salaun, Pierre-Yves [University Hospital of Brest, Nuclear Medicine Department, Brest Cedex (France); Valette, Gerald; Potard, Gael; Marianowski, Remi [University Hospital of Brest, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Brest (France); Rousset, Jean [Military Hospital of Brest, Department of Radiology, Brest (France)

    2015-01-15

    Posttreatment follow-up for the recurrence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a diagnostic challenge. Tissue distortion from radiation and surgery can obscure early detection of recurrence by conventional follow-up approaches such as physical examination or conventional imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is widely validated for the diagnosis of suspected recurrence. Moreover, we have shown in a previous prospective study the high effectiveness of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of subclinical recurrence 12 months after treatment. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an earlier FDG PET/CT, at 6 months after the end of treatment. All patients treated for histologically proven HNSCC from April 2009 to May 2012 at the University Hospital of Brest who did not show any findings suggestive of recurrence at 6 months of their usual follow-up underwent an FDG PET/CT examination. FDG PET/CT findings were correlated with histopathology or imaging follow-up. The study included 116 patients. FDG PET/CT examinations were performed within a mean period ± SD of 5.6 ± 1.8 months after treatment. FDG PET/CT examinations exhibited abnormal FDG uptake in 34 patients and found no suspected recurrence in 82 cases. Of these 82 FDG PET/CT considered as negative, only 1 had a recurrence. Among the 34 positive FDG PET/CT, 22 relapsed whereas 12 did not show evidence of recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/CT in this study for the diagnosis of occult HNSCC recurrence were 96 (22/23) and 87 % (81/93), respectively. The positive predictive value was 65 % (22/34). The negative predictive value was 99 % (81/82). The overall accuracy was 89 % (103/116). Of the 116 patients, FDG PET/CT highlighted 22 (19 %) subclinical recurrences. Our study showed the high effectiveness of FDG PET/CT in the assessment of subclinical HNSCC recurrence 6 months after completion of treatment. These results

  7. Validation of CRASH Model in Prediction of 14-day Mortality and 6-month Unfavorable Outcome of Head Trauma Patients

    Behrooz Hashemi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients withtraumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importancefor their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognosticmodel in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO of patients withtraumatic brain injury. Methods: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discriminationof CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department. Variablesrequired for calculating CRASH expected risks (ER, and observed 14-DM and 6-MUO were gathered. Then ERof 14-DM and 6-MUO were calculated. The patients were followed for 6 months and their 14-DM and 6-MUOwere recorded. Finally, the correlation of CRASH ER and the observed outcome of the patients was evaluated.The data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: In this study, 323 patients with the mean age of 34.0´s 19.4 years were evaluated (87.3% male. Calibration of the basic and CT models in prediction of 14-day and6-month outcome were in the desirable range (P Ç 0.05. Area under the curve in the basic model for predictionof 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89–0.96 and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.95, respectively. In addition,area under the curve in the CT model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.97 and0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, respectively. There was no significant difference between the discriminations of thetwo models in prediction of 14-DM (p Æ 0.11 and 6-MUO (p Æ 0.1. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy showed that CRASH prediction model has proper discrimination and calibration in predicting 14-DMand6-MUO of head trauma patients. Since there was no difference between the values of the basic and CT models,using the basic model is recommended to simplify the risk

  8. Validation of CRASH Model in Prediction of 14-day Mortality and 6-month Unfavorable Outcome of Head Trauma Patients

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Amanat, Mahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahmati, Farhad; Motamedi, Maryam; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importance for their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognostic model in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM) and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO) of patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discrimination of CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department. Variables required for calculating CRASH expected risks (ER), and observed 14-DM and 6-MUO were gathered. Then ER of 14-DM and 6-MUO were calculated. The patients were followed for 6 months and their 14-DM and 6-MUO were recorded. Finally, the correlation of CRASH ER and the observed outcome of the patients was evaluated. The data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: In this study, 323 patients with the mean age of 34.0 ± 19.4 years were evaluated (87.3% male). Calibration of the basic and CT models in prediction of 14-day and 6-month outcome were in the desirable range (P < 0.05). Area under the curve in the basic model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95), respectively. In addition, area under the curve in the CT model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.97) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96), respectively. There was no significant difference between the discriminations of the two models in prediction of 14-DM (p = 0.11) and 6-MUO (p = 0.1). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that CRASH prediction model has proper discrimination and calibration in predicting 14-DM and 6-MUO of head trauma patients. Since there was no difference between the values of the basic and CT models, using the basic model is recommended to simplify the risk

  9. Recovery in horizontal gait after hip resurfacing vs. total hip arthroplasty at 6-month follow-up - a RCT study

    Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    and hip muscle strength were positively associated with gait speed, step length and cadence during maximal walking (R2= 0.13-0.37, P ...-dimensional gait data were collected at self-selected normal and maximal walking speed. Primary outcome was gait speed while secondary outcomes comprised selected temporospatial and kinematic parameters obtained during horizontal walking. Explorative outcome was the relationship between isolated mechanical hip...... and knee muscle performance and horizontal gait function in younger THA patients 56 ± 6 years (range 44-64). Data was collected pre-operatively, 2 and 6 months post-operatively Results: There was no effect of treatment on horizontal self-selected normal speed, however an effect of treatment was observed...

  10. Early changes in muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty. A 6-month follow-up of 30 knees

    Lorentzen, J S; Petersen, M M; Brot, C;

    1999-01-01

    to surgery, and after 3 and 6 months, isokinetic and isometric muscle strength in both legs were measured, using a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. Isokinetic tests showed a bilateral, significant, and progressive increase (30-53%) in flexor muscle strength most pronounced in the operated legs. Isokinetic extensor...... strength increased significantly (14-18%) in the operated legs, while in the contralateral legs, a limited increase was found. Isometric flexion strength significantly decreased in the operated knees (17%). Isometric extension strength showed a temporary decrease at 3 months, which returned...... to the preoperative level. No significant change in isometric strength was observed in the contralateral legs. The knee pain during the muscle strength measurements decreased significantly from the preoperative level, which may indicate that the substantial pain relief within 3 months after a TKA is an important...

  11. Relationships between regulatory temperament dimensions and self-regulatory behaviors at 4 and 6 months of age.

    Aureli, Tiziana; Coppola, Gabrielle; Picconi, Laura; Grazia, Annalisa; Ponzetti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The present study focused on relationships between temperament and behavior in early regulation development. Unlike most studies on the topic, we observed infant behavior in a naturalistic playful situation rather than in experimental stressful procedure, and employed temperament measures uniquely reflecting regulatory dispositions rather than a global measure of reactivity. The infant's self-regulatory behaviors were observed at 4 and 6 months during face-to-face interactions and regulatory dimensions were assessed at 4 months. We found that low intensity pleasure and soothability dimensions, related to the infant physical and social experience, respectively, significantly affected regulatory behavior and their influence showed to depend on the infant's age, with the former dimension being influential at the earlier age and the latter being influential when the behavior was observed at the later age. Results are interpreted on the light of a dynamic view of regulation development.

  12. A Pilot Prospective Randomized Control Trial Comparing Exercises Using Videogame Therapy to Standard Physical Therapy: 6 Months Follow-Up.

    Parry, Ingrid; Painting, Lynda; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Molitor, Fred; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available, interactive videogames that use body movements for interaction are used clinically in burn rehabilitation and have been shown to facilitate functional range of motion (ROM) but their efficacy with burn patients has not yet been proven. The purpose of this pilot randomized control study was to prospectively compare planar and functional ROM, compliance, pain, enjoyment, and exertion in pediatric burn patients receiving two types of rehabilitation therapy. Seventeen school-aged children with 31 affected limbs who demonstrated limited shoulder ROM from burn injury were randomized to receive exercises using either standard therapy ROM activities (ST) or interactive videogame therapy (VGT). Patients received 3 weeks of the designated therapy intervention twice daily. They were then given a corresponding home program of the same type of therapy to perform regularly for 6 months. Standard goniometry and three-dimensional motion analysis during functional tasks were used to assess ROM. Measures were taken at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Pain was measured before and after each treatment session during the 3-week intervention. There was no difference in compliance, enjoyment, or exertion between the groups. Patients in both the ST and VGT groups showed significant improvement in shoulder flexion (P videogames were equally effective as traditional therapy for overall ROM gains and resulted in quicker recovery of motion with less pain experienced. Such videogames are a useful adjunct to therapy and should be considered as part of a holistic approach to rehabilitation within the hospital and at home after discharge in pediatric patients recovering from burn injury.

  13. Localised treatment and 6-month outcomes in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis at a tertiary ophthalmology service in Ga-Rankuwa

    Fatima Laher

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. There are few data from before the antiretroviral therapy (ART era for cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV-R from settings where cost limits use of systemic treatment. This study examines CMV-R treatment and survival outcomes in a public hospital ophthalmology service in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa. Methods. From October 2009 to October 2010, voluntarily consenting participants over the age of 15 years with incident clinically diagnosed CMV-R seen at the Dr George Mukhari Hospital ophthalmology clinic were prospectively enrolled in an observational study. Treatment was per clinic protocols and patients were followed up with structured data collection for up to 6 months. Results. Eight individuals, all HIV infected and 50% female, were identified and enrolled. At enrolment, median age was 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 32 - 39 years, median CD4 count 20 cells/μl (IQR 13 - 46.5 cells/μl, and 50% were currently receiving ART (mean duration of ART use 18 days, standard deviation (SD 2.99 days. No participant received systemic ganciclovir, but 6 reported symptom combinations suggesting systemic CMV: shortness of breath (n=3, diarrhoea (n=3 and/or central nervous system complaints (n=3. Ten eyes had visual impairment less than counting fingers at enrolment. Treatment combinations were: ART plus intravitreal ganciclovir (n=5, intravitreal ganciclovir alone (n=2, and ART alone (n=1. Six-month outcomes were: death (n=1, survival (n=6, loss to follow-up (n=3, untraceable (n=1, systemic symptom resolution (4/4, visual acuity deterioration (0/5, and persisting uveitis (2/3. Conclusion. In the ART era, incident CMV-R appears to be uncommon in this setting. CMV-R may occur within the first 3 weeks after ART initiation. Even in CMV-R patients with suggestive systemic symptoms, 6-month survival is good despite no systemic CMV therapy. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:68-71.

  14. Changes of quality of life and cognitive function in individuals with Internet gaming disorder: A 6-month follow-up.

    Lim, Jae-A; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and cognitive dysfunction and is increasingly recognized as a social problem in various countries. However, no evidence exists to determine whether QOL and cognitive dysfunction stabilize after appropriate management. The present study addressed improvement in QOL and cognitive functioning associated with changes in addiction symptoms following outpatient management for IGD. A total of 84 young males (IGD group: N = 44, mean age: 19.159 ± 5.216 years; healthy control group: N = 40, mean age: 21.375 ± 6.307 years) participated in this study. We administered self-report questionnaires at baseline to assess clinical and psychological characteristics, and conducted traditional and computerized neuropsychological tests. Nineteen patients with IGD completed follow-up tests in the same manner after 6 months of outpatient treatment, which included pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A baseline comparison of patients with IGD against the healthy control group showed that the IGD patients had more symptoms of depression and anxiety, higher degrees of impulsiveness and anger/aggression, higher levels of distress, poorer QOL, and impaired response inhibition. After 6 months of treatment, patients with IGD showed significant improvements in the severity of IGD, as well as in QOL, response inhibition, and executive functioning. Additionally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a favorable prognosis for IGD patients with low working memory functioning and high executive functioning at baseline. These results provide evidence regarding longitudinal changes in QOL and cognitive function following psychiatric intervention for IGD. Furthermore, it appears that response inhibition may be an objective state marker underlying the pathophysiology of IGD.

  15. Randomised controlled trial of cognitive-motivational therapy program for the initial phase of schizophrenia: a 6-month assessment

    Carol Palma-Sevillano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the relative effectiveness of routine care (RC in addition to a specific early intervention program (PIPE compared to routine care alone. Methods: A total of 34 participants in the initial phase of schizophrenia took part in randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive either routine care (RC; n = 13 or routine integrated with Cognitive-Motivational Therapy (PIPE; n = 21. PIPE comprised individual and family Cognitive-Motivational therapy plus routine care for 12 months. In this paper we present preliminary results at 6 months after the beginning of the intervention. Clinical assessments were carried out at pre-treatment, and in this manuscript the results at 3 and 6 months after starting the intervention by external raters are presented, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and relapses. Mann-Whitney test and MANOVAs analysis for variance effects were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Significant greater clinical effects were observed in those patients treated in RC+PIPE at three months from baseline assessment and at six months in PANSS scale (Mann-Whitney test; p < 0.000. Other benefits of the program included increase in global activity, reduced relapse rates, and reduction of the pharmacological treatment. Conclusions: These findings show the effectiveness of a program of routine care integrated with cognitive-motivational interventions (individual and family therapy over routine psychiatric care alone for patients who are in the initial phase of schizophrenia.

  16. 喂养方式与0~6月龄婴儿肥胖关系的研究%Correlation between Different Feeding Types and Obesity in 0-6 Month Old Infants

    陈凯; 叶小青; 彭雪娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究不同的喂养方式与0~6月龄婴儿的超重和肥胖之间是否有关系,从而为制定预防儿童超重和肥胖干预措施提供依据.方法 回顾调查512名婴儿,定期儿童保健系统管理,比较出生以后0~6月内不同喂养方式对婴儿的超重和肥胖的影响,探讨不同的喂养方式与超重和肥胖率之间的关系.结果 42d、3月、4月、5月、6月龄婴儿的母乳喂养组与配方奶喂养组以及混合喂养组三者之间的超重率和肥胖率的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 不同喂养方式与婴儿期的超重和肥胖无相应关系,未显示母乳喂养对0~6月龄婴儿的肥胖发生有保护作用.婴儿的性别、出生体重、分娩方式、母亲年龄、文化水平、职业、家庭经济状况以及辅食添加时间对6月龄儿童肥胖发生率影响不明显.%Objective To explore the relationship between different feeding patterns and overweight and obesity in 0 to 6-month-old infants,so as to develop the prevention measures of childhood overweight and provide the basis for obesity interventions. Methods Child care system management was carried out and the data of 512 infants were surveyed to analyze the effects of feeding patterns on the overweight and obesity in 0 to 6-monlh-old infants. Results Among the breastfeeding group .formula feeding group and the mixed feeding group,the difference in the incidence of overweight and obesity in 42 day,3-month,4-month, 5-month and 6-month-old infants was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion There is no corresponding relationship between the feeding patterns and ihe incidence of overweight and obesity in infants, the result does not reveal a protective effect of breastfeeding.The baby's sex and birth weight,mode of delivery,maternal age,educational level,occupation,family economic conditions and the time for adding complementary foods have not an obvious effect on the incidence of obesity in children aged 6

  17. Music Therapy May Increase Breastfeeding Rates Among Mothers of Premature Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Antonio J L A Cunha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of music therapy on breastfeeding rates among mothers of premature newborns. METHOD: In an open randomized controlled trial, mothers of premature neonates weighting ≤1750g were submitted to music therapy sessions three times a week for 60 minutes. The primary endpoint was breastfeeding rate (exclusive, predominant or continuous at the moment of infant discharge and at the first follow-up visit (7-15 days after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 94 mothers (48 in the music therapy group and 46 in the comparison group were studied. Breastfeeding was more frequent in the music therapy group at the moment of the infant hospital discharge (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.99-1.51; P = .06; NNT = 6.3 and at the first follow-up visit (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-1.57; P = .03; NNT = 5.6. Breastfeeding rates were higher in the intervention group at day 30 and day 60 after discharge, but these results were not statistically significant (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.73-5.6 and RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.95-1.71 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy increased breastfeeding rates in premature newborns at discharge, as well as 7-15 days later. This approach could be useful for increasing breastfeeding rates among premature newborns. [Editors note: The article presented here is republished from Jornal de Pediatria, 2011, 87(3, 206-212, doi: 10.2223/JPED.2086, with the kind permission from the publisher and the authors.

  18. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Mary K. Horan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI, remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142 and intervention group (n = 138, who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  19. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Horan, Mary K

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  20. A Maternity different: Breastfeeding and Phytotherapy

    María Dolores Hernández Benítez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary health therapies has grown progressively since the 1950s. This article presents a bibliographical review on galactogogues. The main objective is to identify scientific evidence of plants used traditionally as galactogogues in our environment, and its efficacy and safety. We carried out a literature review in order to find the scientific evidence available on the Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cuidatge CUIDEN. The keywords used were: phytotherapy, breastfeeding galactogogues, herbal agents, herbal products, breastfeeding and galactogogues. To conclusion although the use of natural remedies, improve breastfeeding should provide accurate and updated health information and women transmit security capabilities.

  1. Breastfeeding and the Affordable Care Act.

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Noble, Alice

    2015-10-01

    Mothers who receive or qualify for the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program or have lower income are less likely to start and continue breastfeeding than their more advantaged counterparts. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers to provide break time and space to express breast milk and requires insurance companies to cover breastfeeding support, supplies, and counseling at no cost to mothers. This ACA benefit does not extend to all Medicaid recipients or women in the WIC program. Legislative and regulatory efforts are needed to provide comprehensive coverage for all women and reduce disparities in breastfeeding.

  2. 二胎孕妇母乳喂养认知、态度现状及知识需求调查%Investigation of breastfeeding cognition,attitude and knowledge demand for pregnant women with the second child

    勾宝华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide the basis for health education by investigation of breastfeeding cognition,feeding pattern,attitude and knowledge for pregnant women with the second child.Methods Using a self-designed general information and breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire,a total of 1 98 pregnant women with second child who admitted from September 201 5 to March 201 6 and registered in-patient clinic received the investigation.Results Cognitive scores of second pregnant women with breastfeeding were in the range of 0 -20 points with average score (7.25 ±5.62)points,which was at a low level;top 3 ordinal breastfeeding knowledge sources were mother and other relatives,international circle of friends and health education from postpartum medical staff.The desired pathway to obtain knowledge in turn were health education from postpartum medical staff,hospital issued promotional text information,prenatal outpatient breast feeding counseling,and pregnant women school,etc.Different feeding ways for the first child:exclusive breastfeeding rate was 38.3%;mixed feeding rate was 48.4%;artificial feeding rate was 1 3.1 %;the breastfeeding rate was 86.8%.About 39.3%subjects experienced breastfeeding for more than 6 months with a good attitude,confidence for breastfeeding (88.3%) and willing to breastfeed (95.9%).Conclusions Second pregnant women′s perception of breastfeeding situation is not optimistic,which indicate promoting breastfeeding work is urgently needed.Medical staff should carry out a variety of forms,effective breastfeeding during pregnancy health education in timely.%目的:调查二胎孕妇母乳喂养知识、喂养方式和态度的现状,了解其知识需求,为健康教育的开展提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料和母乳喂养知识问卷,对2015年9月—2016年3月在门诊建档198名二胎孕妇进行问卷调查。结果二胎孕妇对母乳喂养认知得分范围为0~20分,平均(7.25±5.62)分,得分偏低

  3. Effect of 6 months of whole body vibration on lumbar spine bone density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    Lai CL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Liang Lai,1,2 Shiuan-Yu Tseng,1,2 Chung-Nan Chen,3 Wan-Chun Liao,2 Chun-Hou Wang,4 Meng-Chih Lee,1,5,* Pi-Shan Hsu5,* 1Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiology, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Physical Therapy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Family Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world's attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women.Methods: This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz and high-magnitude (3.2 g WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention.Results: Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047, while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188. The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016.Conclusion: This study found

  4. Histological Study of the Caecal Tonsil in the Cecum of 4- 6 Months of Age White Leghorn Chicks

    M. Rezaian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecum, the largest part of chicken’s larg