WorldWideScience

Sample records for 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat low-fat

  1. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    , in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a period of weight...

  2. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before......, in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a period of weight...

  3. Effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolisms in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Norimitsu; Miyashita, Akira; Tsuru, Tomomitsu; Hikida, Shigeki; Mizote, Hiroyoshi

    2004-04-01

    The beneficial effects of high-monounsaturated fat (high-MUFA) diets on diabetic patients have been reported, whereas studies concerning the effects on animals have been few. Although experiments on animals should be useful in elucidating underlying mechanisms, it is not clear even whether there are benefits of a high-MUFA diet in animals. This study examined the short-term effects of a high-MUFA diet on normal and genetically diabetic mice. The high-MUFA diet supplied 38% of the total calories as fat (26% from MUFA), while a regular diet was 13% fat (3% from MUFA). Normal C5 7BL/6J and diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed either the regular or the high-MUFA diet for 1 wk. Serum glucose and lipid levels were then measured. In normal mice, hepatic triglyceride production was also compared between the two dietary groups using the Triton WR1339 method. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the diabetic mice. After 1 wk of feeding to normal mice, the high-MUFA diet was seen to lower serum triglyceride levels and reduce hepatic triglyceride production in comparison with the regular diet; it is suggested that the lowering of triglyceride consists of mechanisms including reduced hepatic triglyceride production. When diabetic mice were fed the high-MUFA diet with a controlled caloric intake, the serum glucose levels lowered without an accompanying deterioration in lipid metabolism and the impaired glucose tolerance was ameliorated. This study demonstrates that a high-MUFA diet can lower serum triglyceride levels in normal mice and improve disorders of glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

  4. 富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对糖耐量异常患者糖脂代谢的影响%Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文俊; 项松英; 沈飞霞; 王毅; 陈雄; 谷雪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)肠内营养(EN)制剂对糖耐量异常(IGT)患者糖脂代谢的影响。方法:62例IGT患者随机分为试验餐组(n=32)和普通餐组(n=30)。试验餐组服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂(雅培益力佳SR)替代早餐,普通餐组服用等热量的纯牛奶+淡馒头,所有患者分别于干预前和干预4周后检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、餐后2 h胰岛素(PINS)以及血脂系列,就各项指标进行组内前后比较和组间比较。结果:试验餐组干预4周后体质量以及PPG、PINS、血清甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-c)均低于干预前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);干预后,试验餐组PPG、PINS、TG、TC和LDL-c均低于普通餐组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂有利于降低单纯IGT患者PPG和PINS水平,并改善脂质代谢。%Objective: To investigate the effects of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods:Sixty-two patients with impaired glucose tolerance from out-patient clinic were randomized to experimental meal group (Abbott Glucerna SR,n=32) and common breakfast group (isocaloric normal oral diet,n=30), the fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour postprandial insulin, serum lipid pro-ifle were examined before and after 4-week intervention, and the parameters were compared within groups and between groups.Results: The 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, postprandial serum insulin, serum triglycer-ide, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol signiifcantly decreased in experimental meal group (P<0.05 orP<0.01), when compared with that of

  5. Development of low fat UF cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Miočinović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production procedure of low fat cheeses produced from ultrafiltered milk (UF cheese was developed in this study. The production procedure, that includes utilization of UF milk with 2 % of lactose, addition of 1.5 % inulin and salting with 2 % of mixed salt (NaCl/KCl in ratio 3:1 was defined based on the investigation that included the influence of coagulation parameters, different lactose content of UF milk, different inulin content, and different salt type and content on the properties of low fat UF cheeses. Presented production procedure enables the production of a product with satisfactory dietetic and functional properties. Reduced lactose content of UF milk contributes to stabilisation of pH value at an adequate level and achievement of acceptable texture properties of low fat UF cheeses. Defined inulin content (1.5 % improved cheese texture, as well as its functional properties, enabling the cheese produced to be marked as a “good source of fibre”. Reduced sodium content, due to partial substitution of NaCl with KCl, also contributes to the improvement of dietetic properties of cheeses. Low fat UF cheeses, produced according to defined production procedure, were analysed during 8 weeks of ripening and storage periods. Composition, pH values and proteolytic pattern were typical for brined cheeses. Uniform microstructure and acceptable sensory properties, especially the texture, confirm the validity of the developed production procedure of low fat UF cheeses from UF milk.

  6. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  7. Mechanical alloying of biocompatible Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-De Jesús, F; Bolarín-Miró, A M; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Cortés-Escobedo, C A; Betancourt-Cantera, J A

    2010-07-01

    We report on an alternative route for the synthesis of crystalline Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which could be used for surgical implants. Co, Cr and Mo elemental powders, mixed in an adequate weight relation according to ISO Standard 58342-4 (ISO, 1996), were used for the mechanical alloying (MA) of nano-structured Co-alloy. The process was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using hardened steel balls and vials as milling media, with a 1:8 ball:powder weight ratio. Crystalline structure characterization of milled powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to analyze the phase transformations as a function of milling time. The aim of this work was to evaluate the alloying mechanism involved in the mechanical alloying of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The evolution of the phase transformations with milling time is reported for each mixture. Results showed that the resultant alloy is a Co-alpha solid solution, successfully obtained by mechanical alloying after a total of 10 h of milling time: first Cr and Mo are mechanically prealloyed for 7 h, and then Co is mixed in for 3 h. In addition, different methods of premixing were studied. The particle size of the powders is reduced with increasing milling time, reaching about 5 mum at 10 h; a longer time promotes the formation of aggregates. The morphology and crystal structure of milled powders as a function of milling time were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and XR diffraction. PMID:20364362

  8. A New Family of Ce6MoO15 as Fast Oxide Ion Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jing; Meng Jian; Bo Qibing; Che Ping; Wang Jingping; Liu Jianfen; Lu Minfeng; Zhang Deping; Fang Daqing; Cao Xueqiang

    2004-01-01

    A novel solid solution Ce6MoO15 was achieved. Their structure and oxide ionic conductivity were studied.Based on Ce6MoO15, rare earth element substitution on cerium site shows that all resulting oxides enhance the conductivity further, and have high oxide-ion conductivity, which may be a kind of promising material for SOFCs.

  9. Possibilities to develop low-fat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufeanu Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has proved a relationship between high fat consumption and rise in obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases and high blood pressure. Therefore is recommended the moderate consumption of fat, such that the total fat does not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Our body needs fats because are providers of calories, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and also they are necessary ingredients of the foods. The development of products with low-fat content can be considerate a challenge because the lipids offers aroma, texture, appearance, flavour and mouth feel, qualities that customers want in food products. A fat reduction can be achieved by using different fat replacers to ensure the functionality of the replaced fat. Functional components of fat replacers can have a significant role in promotion of wellbeing, in treating and preventing diseases. Thus, fat replacers should be recognized as safe and healthy, which have sensorial and functional properties. This paper reviews the fat replacers used to obtain foods as meat-based or dairy products. Some ways to obtain healthier meat products by reducing saturated fats content consist in the utilization of unsaturated vegetable oils, vegetable products, fibre. The utilization of fibre in products such bolognas, sausages or hamburgers, can improve the texture profile, binding properties and the characteristics regarding the cooking process. A fat reduction in dairy products can be achieved by replacing it with starches, polysaccharides, gums or fibres from cereal, vegetables and fruits. In acidified milk products, fibres have benefits as: low syneresis, sensory characteristics accepted by consumers, improvement of texture and rheological properties. In cheeses production, the fat reduction can be realised by replacing it with carbohydrate or protein-based replacers in order to obtain a final product with proper characteristics.

  10. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  11. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  12. A low-fat diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Viggers, L;

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes.......To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes....

  13. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped...... a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...

  14. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  15. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  16. Investigating Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products: a segmentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kapirti, A

    2003-05-01

    The present study aims at gaining a first insight into Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products. Although Greece, and in particular Crete, have enjoyed a great popularity in terms of the Mediterranean diet, there has been an almost complete lack of low-fat-related surveys concerning the Greek food consumer. Using this as a research trigger, the current investigation evolves around the conflict between 'sensory appeal' and 'healthiness' of low-fat products, widely described in the international literature. Other crucial factors examined are consumers' awareness, occasional use and conscious purchase of, and willingness to pay for, food products with the 'low-fat' claim. Overall, the study has the objective to segment the Greek market in terms of users' perceptions of light products and to identify a number of well-described clusters with clear-cut socio-demographic and behavioural profile. Three clusters are identified, comprised of consumers with favourable attitudes towards low-fat foods and willing to pay premiums to purchase them.

  17. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. PMID:27132833

  18. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese.

  19. Sensory and instrumental characterization of low-fat and non-fat cream cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janhoj, T.; Frost, M.B.; Prinz, J.; Ipsen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relationships between physical/chemical and sensory properties using a set of 20 low-fat and non-fat cream cheeses. High correlations were found between several descriptors; hand resistance (i.e., tactile firmness) was best predicted by squeezing flow viscometry (r = 0.90) and fo

  20. Development of Low-Fat Soft Dough Biscuits Using Carbohydrate-Based Fat Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to develop low-fat soft dough biscuits using carbohydrate-based fat replacers (maltodextrin and guar gum. A central composite rotatable design was used to optimise the level of sugar 24–36%, composite fat (fat 10.5–24.5%, maltodextrin 10.4–24%, and guar gum 0.1–0.5%, ammonium bicarbonate 0.5–2.5%, and water 20–24% for production of low-fat biscuits. Diameter and stress-strain ratio decreased significantly with increase in the amount of sugar. There was a significant decrease in spread ratio at high amount of water. Hardness was significantly affected by the interactions of ammonium bicarbonate with sugar and fat . The optimum level of ingredients obtained for low-fat biscuits was sugar 31.7 g, fat 13.55 g, maltodextrin 21.15 g, guar gum 0.3 g, ammonium bicarbonate 2.21 g, and water 21 mL based on 100 g flour. The fat level in the optimised low-fat biscuit formulation was found to be 8.48% as compared to 22.65% in control; therefore, the reduction in fat was 62.5%.

  1. Inulins improve sensoric and textural properties of low-fat yoghurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, P.; Meyer, D.; Jellema, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated in detail the effects of the addition of inulins to the sensoric properties of low-fat yoghurts. Yoghurts were prepared from skimmed milk and with different concentrations of inulin (0-4%). Two types of inulin with different chain length of the polymer were used. Attrib

  2. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  3. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-25

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected from the USDA National Nutrient Database. We found that the amount of sugar is higher in the low fat (that is, reduced calorie, light, low fat) and non-fat than 'regular' versions of tested items (Friedman P=0.00001, Wilcoxon P=0.0002 for low fat vs regular food and P=0.0003 for non-fat vs regular food). Our data support the general belief that food that is lower in fat may contain more sugar.

  4. A study of corrosion electrochemical properties of martensite-austenite steel Cr15Ni6Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihal, V.; Hubackova, J.; Kubelka, J.; Mezanec, K.

    1985-11-01

    The steel Cr15Ni6Mo (UHB 119) exhibits a very satisfactory corrosion resistance. However, its superior passivating ability depends on the heat treatment method used. The use of two-step tempering leads primarily to an improved resistance to reactivation and optimum properties are achieved when the basic matrix contains about 40% stable austenite in fine form. This structural state requires the use of tempering temperatures from 625 to 650/sup 0/C in Step 1, and 525/sup 0/C in Step 2 of tempering.

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Ca(DMF)6][Mo6Br8Cl6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi; CAI Li-Zhen; GUO Guo-Cong; LI Qiang; HUANG Jin-Shun

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of MoBr2 with CaCl2 in DMF (N, N'-dimethylformamide) gives the cluster complex [Ca(DMF)6][Mo6Br8Cl6] 1 by using standard Schlenk techniques. This cluster complex crystallizes in triclinic, space group (P1) with a = 10.329(4), b = 10.349(4), c = 12.510(5) (A), α = 103.793(5), β = 98.562(3), γ = 98.268(5)°, V = 1261.5(9)(A)3, Dc = 2.509 g/cm3, Z = 1, C18H42Br8CaCl6Mo6N6O6, Mr = 1906.28, μ = 8.236 mm-1, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073(A)and F(000) = 894. The final R = 0.0589 and wR = 0.1458 for 2759 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The structure is composed of isolated octahedral coordination cations and discrete cluster anions, and these two kinds of ions connect each other to form a 3-D framework with similar packing patterns as CsCl through weak C-H…X (X = Br, Cl) hydrogen bonds.

  6. Study of Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Low Fat Salami: An Innovative Italian Meat Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Pavoni, Enrico; Bertasi, Barbara; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Losio, Marina N.; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs) leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C. PMID:27800321

  7. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo

    2015-04-01

    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P salt replacement while added PHF decreased their values. Textural properties were lower (P < 0.05) in the treated products. Addition of PHF significantly (P < 0.05) decreased cholesterol and glycolipids contents at 8 % and 12 % levels, respectively. Sensory evaluation exhibited that 40 % NaCl can efficiently be replaced and 8 % PHF can be incorporated as a source of fibre in low fat chicken nuggets without significant effect on various attributes. PMID:25829611

  8. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  9. [Low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet for weight loss--which is better?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauner, H

    2004-10-01

    Several recent clinical studies show that a low-carbohydrate diet produces a greater initial weight loss than conventional low-fat diets, and is associated with a greater reduction of elevated serum triglycerides. After one year, however, weight loss is similar with both diets. Since the intake of saturated fat is higher on a low-carbohydrate diet, there may be an increased risk of elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, thus furthering atherosclerosis, over the long term. Before low-carbohydrate diets can be considered an equivalent alternative to low-fat diets for the treatment of obesity, long-term clinical trials are urgently required. The greater weight loss under low-carbohydrate diets would appear to be due to a lower caloric intake. Successful weight loss largely depends on restricting the intake of calories, but the supply of essential nutrients should be guaranteed. PMID:15532735

  10. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat

    OpenAIRE

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological ...

  11. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches

    OpenAIRE

    Prestes, R. C.; Silva, L. B.; Torri, A. M. P.; Kubota, E. H.; C.S. ROSA; S.S. ROMAN; Kempka, A. P.; I.M. DEMIATE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded...

  12. Acrylamide formation in low-fat potato snacks and its correlation with color development

    OpenAIRE

    Majcher, Malgorzata A.; Jeleñ, Henryk H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin at Agricultural University of Poznań a recipe and technological process of low-fat potato snacks (7% of fat) production, using a combination of extrusion and a roasting process was developed. Due to the character of the product obtained, the amount of acrylamide was analyzed. At the same time, influence of temperature and time of heating on acrylamide formation was verified as well as correlated with color developmen...

  13. Development of Low-Fat Soft Dough Biscuits Using Carbohydrate-Based Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Singh, Gurmukh; Kumbhar, B K

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to develop low-fat soft dough biscuits using carbohydrate-based fat replacers (maltodextrin and guar gum). A central composite rotatable design was used to optimise the level of sugar 24-36%, composite fat (fat 10.5-24.5%, maltodextrin 10.4-24%, and guar gum 0.1-0.5%), ammonium bicarbonate 0.5-2.5%, and water 20-24% for production of low-fat biscuits. Diameter (P fat (P fat biscuits was sugar 31.7 g, fat 13.55 g, maltodextrin 21.15 g, guar gum 0.3 g, ammonium bicarbonate 2.21 g, and water 21 mL based on 100 g flour. The fat level in the optimised low-fat biscuit formulation was found to be 8.48% as compared to 22.65% in control; therefore, the reduction in fat was 62.5%.

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of 1% Or Less Media Campaigns Promoting Low-Fat Milk Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo G. Wootan, DSc,

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four strategies using components of 1% Or Less to promote population-based behavior change. 1% Or Less is a mass-media campaign that encourages switching from high-fat (whole or 2% to low-fat (1% or skim milk. Using a quasi-experimental design, campaigns were previously conducted in four West Virginia communities using different combinations of 1 paid advertising, 2 media relations, and 3 community-based educational activities. Telephone surveys and supermarket milk sales data were used to measure the campaigns’ effectiveness. Methods Using data from the previously completed studies, we analyzed the cost of each campaign. We then calculated the cost per person exposed to the campaign and cost per person who switched from high- to low-fat milk. Results The combination of paid advertising and media relations was the most cost-effective campaign, with a cost of $0.57 per person to elicit a switch from high- to low-fat milk, and the combination of media relations and community-based educational activities was the least cost-effective campaign, with a cost of $11.85 per person to elicit a switch. Conclusion Population-based campaigns using a combination of paid advertising and media relations strategies can be a cost-effective way to promote a behavior change in a community.

  15. Effect of milk preacidification on low fat mozzarella cheese: II. Chemical and functional properties during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, L E; Barbano, D M; Kindstedt, P S; Guo, M R

    2001-06-01

    The effect of milk preacidification on cheese manufacturing, chemical properties, and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella cheese was determined. Four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using no preacidification (control), preacidification to pH 6.0 and pH 5.8 with acetic acid, and preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. This process was replicated four times. Modifications in the typical Mozzarella manufacturing procedures were necessary to accommodate milk preacidification. The chemical composition of the cheeses was similar among the treatments, except the calcium content and calcium as a percentage of protein were lower in the preacidified treatments. During refrigerated storage, the chemical and functional properties of low fat Mozzarella were affected the most by milk preacidification to pH 5.8 with citric acid. The amount of expressible serum, unmelted cheese whiteness, initial unmelted hardness, and initial apparent viscosity were lower with preacidification. The reduction in initial unmelted cheese hardness and initial apparent viscosity in the pH 5.8 citric treatments represents an improvement in the quality of low fat Mozzarella cheese that allows the cheese to have better pizza bake characteristics with shorter time of refrigerated storage. PMID:11417692

  16. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  17. Retinal vessels caliber changes after strabismus surgery: results of 6mo follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Peng; Fu, Jing; Zhou, Jin-Qiong; Wang, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of strabismus surgery on retinal vessels calibers with digital color fundus photographs. METHODS Two hundred consecutive strabismus patients underwent surgery, and 118 patients (female/male, 55/63) who finished 6-month follow-up were finally included in this study. Optic disc-centered digital color fundus photographs of both eyes of all patients were taken prior to surgery and 6mo post surgery. The retinal vascular caliber of 116 operated eyes were measured using the computer program IVAN. The operated eyes were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical methods, recession of one muscle, one muscle recession and one muscle folding, one muscle resection and one muscle recession. The effect of number of altered muscles on retinal vessels was analyzed using statistic software SPSS 16.0. RESULTS The mean age was 12.4±8.6y. Averaged central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) of all patients was 120.31±23.02 µm preoperatively, and 122.87±15.93 µm six months after surgery. Averaged central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) was 171.11±31.73 µm preoperatively and 175.02±21.00 µm postoperatively. There was no significant difference of averaged CRAE (P=0.22) or CRVE (P=0.19) before and after operation. Averaged arteriole to venule ratio (AVR) was 0.71±0.07 before surgery and 0.70±0.07 after surgery. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative retinal vessels calibers among different surgical groups did not show significant differences. Also, there was no advantage of rectus muscle folding to muscle resection. CONCLUSION Up to 6mo after strabismus surgery, the retinal vascular calibers were not altered. No more than two muscles in one surgery are safe for retinal perfusion. PMID:27672600

  18. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Arun K.; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorp...

  19. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M;

    2006-01-01

    and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high...

  20. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics.

  1. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics. PMID:27372590

  2. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S.; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected f...

  3. Properties of low-fat ultra-filtered cheeses produced with probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miočinović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that in certain numbers may confer a health benefit on the host. Nowadays, there are many dairy products on the market, especially fermented milks, with probiotics, and their popularity is rising. The aim of this article was to investigate the viability of commercial probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI®L10 i Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI®B94, DSM, Netherland as well as their influence on the changes of composition, pH, proteolysis, microbiological status and sensory properties of low-fat ultra-filtered (UF cheeses within 2 months of ripening. Low-fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream, without (control cheese A and with adjunct probiotic culture (cheese B. The compositional parameters (milk fat, proteins and dry-matter content, pH, proteolysis parameters (water soluble nitrogen, nitrogen soluble in 5% PTA, urea and SDS PAG electrophoresis, as well as the numbers of starters and probiotic bacteria, were determined during ripening. In addition, sensory evaluations of cheeses were performed throughout the ripening time. A significant influence of probiotic strains on the composition, pH and primary proteolysis of cheese during ripening was not found. The counts of commercial probiotic bacteria were maintained at high levels (>107 cfug-1 during the overall ripening period, as a prerequisite of their therapeutic effects. The adjunct probiotic cultures enhanced the rate of secondary proteolysis, which was shown by the significantly higher levels of PTAN/TN of experimental compared to the control cheeses. The sensory evaluation showed that the overall aroma of low-fat cheeses was remarkably improved by the addition of the probiotic cultures used. Based on the results it can be concluded that the low-fat UF cheeses differ in good dietetic and functional properties as well as very acceptable

  4. Adherence to a Low-Fat versus Low-Carbohydrate Diet Differs by Insulin Resistance Status

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Arianna D.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Hekler, Eric B.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows diminished weight loss success in insulin-resistant (IR) women assigned to a low-fat (LF) diet compared to those assigned to a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. These secondary analyses examined the relationship between insulin-resistance status and dietary adherence to either a LF-diet or LC-diet among 81 free-living, overweight/obese women (age= 41.9±5.7 yrs; BMI= 32.6±3.6 kg/m2). This study found differential adherence by insulin-resistance status only to a LF-diet, not a...

  5. Ultrasonically assisted turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, R.; Maurotto, A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in the aerospace and offshore industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratio sustained at elevated temperatures, their fracture-resistance features and exceptionally good corrosion-resistance properties. However, poor thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity of these alloys to tool materials severely impair their machinability. As a result the machining processes of titanium alloys are typically characterized by low cutting feeds and speeds making production of components uneconomical. Recently, a non-conventional hybrid machining technique, namely, ultrasonically assisted turning has been shown to significantly improve the machinability of intractable alloys with a concomitant improvement in material removal rates, thus improving machining economics. In the current work, a 3D finite element model of turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo is developed in the commercial software, MSC Marc/Mentat. A constitutive behaviour of the workpiece material under large deformations and elevated temperatures is adequately represented by a Johnson-Cook material model. For validation of the developed numerical model, experimental tests were carried out. The numerical and experimental results were found to be in good agreement.

  6. Storage related changes in ghee-based low-fat spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, D D; Patel, A A; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R; Bhosle, D N

    2013-04-01

    In order to assess the shelf life of a low fat spread (LFS) based on ghee, the product with (PS) and without (CS) added 0.05 % (w/w) preservative potassium sorbate and packaged in 200 g polystyrene tubs was stored at 5 °C and evaluated for changes in sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological properties. On the basis of flavour score, the PS spread could be stored for 10 weeks without appreciable loss in quality as against the CS spread which could be stored only for 5 weeks. From the point of view of spreadability, body and texture and colour, the CS product was acceptable even after 11 weeks of storage. Use of preservative had an inhibitory effect on the development of free fatty acids (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances. While both the products showed an increasing tendency to whey off during storage, CS wheyed off more than PS. The two spreads showed similar oiling off, which increased slightly during the storage. Microbiologically, the ghee-based low fat spreads with and without preservative was stable for 9 and 3 weeks, respectively, from the view point of yeast and mould growth; but the preservative had little effect on the total viable count. Coliforms were absent in all the samples in fresh and during storage. PMID:24425926

  7. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  8. Low-fat mozzarella as influenced by microbial exopolysaccharides, preacidification, and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisu, B; Shah, N P

    2005-06-01

    Low-fat Mozzarella cheeses containing 6% fat were made by preacidification of milk, preacidification combined with exopolysaccharide- (EPS-) producing starter, used independently or as a coculture with non-EPS starter, and preacidification combined with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and EPS. The impact of these treatments on moisture retention, changes in texture profile analysis, cheese melt, stretch, and on pizza bake performance were investigated over 45 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Preacidified cheeses without EPS (control) had the lowest moisture content (53.75%). These cheeses were hardest and exhibited greatest springiness and chewiness. The meltability and stretchability of these cheeses increased most during the first 28 d of storage. The moisture content in cheeses increased to 55.08, 54.79, and 55.82% with EPS starter (containing 41.18 mg/g of EPS), coculturing (containing 28.61 mg/g of EPS), and WPC (containing 44.23 mg/g of EPS), respectively. Exopolysaccharide reduced hardness, springiness, and chewiness of low-fat cheeses made with preacidified milk in general and such cheeses exhibited an increase in cohesiveness and meltability. Although stretch distance was similar in all cheeses, those containing EPS were softer than the control. Cocultured cheeses exhibited the greatest meltability. Cheeses containing WPC were softest in general; however, hardness remained unchanged over 45 d. Cheeses made with WPC had the least increase in meltability over time. Incorporation of WPC did not reduce surface scorching or increase shred fusion of cheese shreds during pizza baking; however, there was an improvement in these properties between d 7 and 45. Coating of the cheese shreds with oil was necessary for adequate browning, melt, and flow characteristics in all cheese types. PMID:15905427

  9. Optimization of processing parameters and ingredients for development of low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kumar, A; Kumbhar, B K; Dar, B N

    2015-02-01

    Increasing demand of low calorie and high fibre containing products give impetus to dairy industry for development of a well palatable low calorie dairy products like paneer. The objective of the present study was to develop low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer. The ingredients were chosen for low-fat fibre- supplemented paneer to reduce the cost and calorie content besides providing the functional benefits. Optimization of ingredients was carried out in terms of independent variables viz wheat bran (0.4-0.8 %), maltodextrin (1-5 %), coagulation temperature (60-80 °C) and amount of citric acid solution (150-210 ml). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to design the experiments and to select the optimum levels of ingredients. Paneer was made by using different levels of ingredients by coagulating hot milk using citric acid solution followed by pressing and dipping in chilled water for texturization. These parameters were evaluated in terms of physico-chemical parameters viz water activity, pH and acidity. Instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) of paneer during optimization trials was done using TAXT 2i Texture Analyzer. The textural responses namely hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were measured via Texture Analyzer. The sensory properties namely flavor, appearance, body and texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability of paneer samples were evaluated by a semi-trained panel of judges using 9-point hedonic scale. Full second order polynomial was developed to predict each response. All the textural and sensory responses were statistically analysed.

  10. Fabrication, tribological and corrosion behaviors of ultra-fine grained Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fuzeng; Zhu, Weiwei; Chu, Kangjie

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and carbides free Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy was fabricated by combination of mechanical alloying and warm pressing. The microstructure, mechanical properties, pin-on-disk dry sliding wear and corrosion behavior in simulated physiological solution were investigated. The produced Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy has elongated ultra-fine grained (UFG) structure of ε-phase with average grain size of 600nm in length and 150nm in thickness. The hardness and modulus were determined to be 8.87±0.56GPa and 198.27±7.02GPa, respectively. The coefficient of friction upon dry sliding against alumina is pretty close to that of the forged Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy. The initial ε-phase and UFG microstructure contribute to reduce the depth of severe plastic deformation region during wear and enable the alloy with excellent wear resistance. The corrosion potential of such UFG Co-Cr-Mo alloy has more positive corrosion potential and much lower corrosion current density than those of ASTM alloy. PMID:26807770

  11. Effects of Starch Addition on Low Fat Rennet Curd Properties and Their Partitioning Between Curd and Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Kelly Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the impact of starches on the properties of low fat rennet curd as measured by microstructural and instrumental analysis. In experiment 1, 17 starches were initially screened for swelling power, impact of curd yield at 5 g/L and 10 g/L in milk, and settling in rennet-induced partially acidified low fat curd. Starches examined were narrowed down to five in experiment 2; they included: modified waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, dextrin, and a mod...

  12. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Flowers; A.K. Groen; A.T. Oler; M.P. Keller; Y. Choi; K.L. Schueler; O.C. Richards; H. Lan; M. Miyazaki; F. Kuipers; C.M. Kendziorski; J.M. Ntambi; A.D. Attie

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprot

  13. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, part 3: Fortified UHT low-fat milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying

  14. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-11-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological and sensory analyses based on acceptance tests were performed. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to be absent. T2 showed higher frequencies for the attributes color (90.0%) and overall acceptability (86.7%), while T3 showed higher frequencies for taste (86.7%) and texture (96.7%). The surimi concentration was reflected in the physical properties of the sausages. It was found that the addition of MSTM surimi to sausage favored greater cutting strength (3.9 N for T2 and 4.9 N for T3). Beyond the surimi utilization, the total replacement of pig lard by cassava starch and soybean protein had also contributed with the texture properties. PMID:24804055

  15. Adherence to a low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diet differs by insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; Otten, J J; Hekler, E B; Gardner, C D

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows diminished weight loss success in insulin-resistant (IR) women assigned to a low-fat (LF) diet compared to those assigned to a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. These secondary analyses examined the relationship between insulin-resistance status and dietary adherence to either a LF-diet or LC-diet among 81 free-living, overweight/obese women [age = 41.9 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI) = 32.6 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)]. This study found differential adherence by insulin-resistance status only to a LF-diet, not a LC-diet. IR participants were less likely to adhere and lose weight on a LF-diet compared to insulin-sensitive (IS) participants assigned to the same diet. There were no significant differences between IR and IS participants assigned to LC-diet in relative adherence or weight loss. These results suggest that insulin resistance status may affect dietary adherence to weight loss diets, resulting in higher recidivism and diminished weight loss success of IR participants advised to follow LF-diets for weight loss.

  16. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  17. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Atsushi; Suyalatu; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Joko, Natsuka; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Migita, Satoshi; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2013-05-01

    The selective laser melting (SLM) process was applied to a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy, and its microstructure, mechanical properties, and metal elution were investigated to determine whether the fabrication process is suitable for dental applications. The microstructure was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a tensile test. Dense builds were obtained when the input energy of the laser scan was higher than 400 J mm⁻³, whereas porous builds were formed when the input energy was lower than 150 J mm⁻³. The microstructure obtained was unique with fine cellular dendrites in the elongated grains parallel to the building direction. The γ phase was dominant in the build and its preferential orientation was confirmed along the building direction, which was clearly observed for the builds fabricated at lower input energy. Although the mechanical anisotropy was confirmed in the SLM builds due to the unique microstructure, the yield strength, UTS, and elongation were higher than those of the as-cast alloy and satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO22764. Metal elution from the SLM build was smaller than that of the as-cast alloy, and thus, the SLM process for the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy is a promising candidate for fabricating dental devices.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of Yb3+, Tm3+ co-doped Gd6MoO12 and its upconversion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Qiu-Mei; Sun, Yu-Mei; Xu, Qi-Guang; Han, Liu; Xue, Bing; Sun, Jia-Yue

    2015-06-01

    Yb3+, Tm3+ co-doped Gd6MoO12 phosphors with different morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method. The dendrites present different morphologies (including hexagonal prisms, spindles, and spheres) after changing the pH value and edetate disodium (EDTA) usage. It is found that each of the two factors plays a crucial role in forming different morphologies. The up-conversion (UC) luminescence is studied. Under 980-nm semiconductor laser excitation, relatively strong blue emission and weak red emission are observed. Finally, the effect of pumping power on the UC luminescence properties and the level diagram mechanism of Gd6MoO12:Yb3+/Tm3+ phosphor are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 20976002), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2122012), the Key Projects for Science and Technology of Beijing Education Commission, China (Grant No. KZ201310011013), and the Education and Research Fund of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011B090400100).

  19. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Atsushi; Suyalatu; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Joko, Natsuka; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Migita, Satoshi; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2013-05-01

    The selective laser melting (SLM) process was applied to a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy, and its microstructure, mechanical properties, and metal elution were investigated to determine whether the fabrication process is suitable for dental applications. The microstructure was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a tensile test. Dense builds were obtained when the input energy of the laser scan was higher than 400 J mm⁻³, whereas porous builds were formed when the input energy was lower than 150 J mm⁻³. The microstructure obtained was unique with fine cellular dendrites in the elongated grains parallel to the building direction. The γ phase was dominant in the build and its preferential orientation was confirmed along the building direction, which was clearly observed for the builds fabricated at lower input energy. Although the mechanical anisotropy was confirmed in the SLM builds due to the unique microstructure, the yield strength, UTS, and elongation were higher than those of the as-cast alloy and satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO22764. Metal elution from the SLM build was smaller than that of the as-cast alloy, and thus, the SLM process for the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy is a promising candidate for fabricating dental devices. PMID:23500549

  20. 高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养剂用于2型糖尿病%High-monounsaturated-fat Formula for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Enteral Nutrition Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施万英; 徐甲芬; 蔺淑贤; 安丽; 刘莉

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨含高单不饱和脂肪酸的特殊类型肠内营养制剂(Glucerna)对2型糖尿病患者血糖、血脂等方面的影响.方法将60例行肠内营养支持的2型糖尿病患者随机分为对照组和研究组,采用间歇喂饲法,分别经鼻胃管重力滴注两种不同的肠内营养制剂(Nutrison和Glucerna),并于营养支持前、支持后第7、14天测定两组患者的空腹血糖(FBG)、餐后2小时血糖(2hBG)、糖化血红蛋白(GHb)、血清甘油三酯(TG)、胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)等指标.结果研究结束时,对照组FBG[(7.57±2.12)mmol/L]和2hBG[(10.48±2.36)mmol/L]比研究前略有升高,但差异不显著(P>0.05),GHb[(7.47±1.22)%]无明显改变(P>0.05).研究组FBG和2hBG在营养支持后第7天已出现下降,到研究结束时分别降至(6.41±1.98)mmol/L和(9.20±2.38)mmol/L,明显低于研究前和对照组(P<0.05);GHb[(7.05±0.78)%]与研究前和对照组相比虽有所下降,但差异不显著(P>0.05).整个研究期内两组患者血脂水平无明显变化(P>0.05).结论高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂能够降低2型糖尿病患者的血糖水平,尤其是餐后血糖水平,在临床上比标准配方更适合糖尿病患者.

  1. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gregory J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet ( Case presentation A 23 year-old gravida 1 woman with primary lipoprotein lipase deficiency was seen at 7 weeks of gestation in the Lipid Clinic for management of severe hypertriglyceridemia that had worsened with pregnancy. While on her habitual fat intake of 10% of total calories, her pregnancy resulted in an exacerbation of the hypertriglyceridemia, which prompted further restriction of fat intake to Conclusions An extremely low fat diet in combination with topical sunflower oil and gemfibrozil administration was safely implemented in pregnancy associated with the severe hypertriglyceridemia of lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

  2. Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria on the proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat UF cheeses during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pesic Mikulec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of commercial bacteria Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (cheese A and combinations of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei 08, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris 656, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 653 (cheese B and C on composition, proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat cheeses during ripening was investigated. Low fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream. Significant influence of different LAB strains on composition, primary proteolysis and microstructure was not found. Cheeses made with autochthonous LAB showed a higher rate of secondary proteolysis, as well as higher flavour scores, and were more acceptable than control cheese.

  3. Low-fat, high calorie parenteral nutrition (PN), reverses liver affection in long term PN dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Hørby Jørgensen, Marianne; Husby, Steffen;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from...... carbohydrates. The fat-free PN, containing 314 kJ/ml, was provided 5-6 times a week and fat, including essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, 1-2 times a week. Enteral feeding was continued according to individual tolerance. RESULTS: The study included 10 infants with short bowel syndrome (six...

  4. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Gregory J; Veldee Megan Y; Brown Judy A; Tsai Elaine C; Chait Alan; Brunzell John D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet (< 10% of calories) is the primary treatment modality for the prevention of acute pancreatitis, a rare but potentially serious complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Since pregnancy can exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia in the genetic absence of lipoprotein lipase, a further reduction of dietary fat intake to < 1–2% of tota...

  5. Effect of casein to whey protein ratios on the protein interactions and coagulation properties of low-fat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt.

  6. Effect of casein to whey protein ratios on the protein interactions and coagulation properties of low-fat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt. PMID:27522418

  7. Low-fat Gouda cheese made from bovine milk-olive oil emulsion: physicochemical and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Imène; Bornaz, Salwa; Baccouche, Aroua; Sahli, Ali; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of milk-fat replacement on Gouda cheeses composition, lipolysis and sensory characteristics. A Gouda cheese-like product was prepared from the substitution of milk fat with emulsified olive oil. For comparison, the low-fat variant without fat replacers and the full-fat cheese were also studied. Milk samples are initially pasteurized at 72 °C for 3 s, cooled to 35 °C, and added with 0.016 g L(-1) of lactic ferments and 0.30 mL L(-1) of microbial rennet. Total solids content was lower in cheeses containing fat replacers than in full and low-fat control cheeses due to the higher water-binding capacity of fat replacers. Free fatty acids rates were the highest in the case of reduced fat cheese-like product. The full-fat cheese showed a significantly higher overall impression score than all low-fat products.

  8. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2007-02-01

    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  9. Study on the Tribological Properties and Composition of W6Mo5Cr4V2 High Speed Steel Implanted by Boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhi-hai; XIONG Wan-quan; ZHANG Ping; TAN Jun; ZAHO Jun-jun

    2004-01-01

    Boron atoms were implanted into W6Mo5Cr4V2 high-speed steel (HSS) in CC-60 ion implantation machine to improve its tribological properties. The influence of boron implantation dose on the microhardness, friction coefficient and wear resistance of HSS were investigated. The experiment results showed that the implantation of boron can improve the tribological properties of W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel greatly. Then the phase and composition of implanted layer were analyzed by XRD and XPS. The analysisresult revealed that the interface between the implantation layer and substrate appeared to be mixed.With the increase of boron dose, the compound of δ-WB, CrB, BFe3 are the main additive phases, which supposed to be the main reason to improve the tribological properties of W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel.

  10. W6Mo5Cr4V2钢制大规格机用丝锥的热处理%Heat Treatment of Large-Sized Machine Tap of W6Mo5Cr4V2 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顺民; 董向阳

    2015-01-01

    Carbides in large-sized machine tap of high speed steel are difficult to be uniformly distributed,which will have an effect on its heat treatment quality.The large-sized machine tap made of W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel should be heat treated by being successively preheated at 500 to 600 ℃,800 to 850 ℃ and 950 to 1000 ℃ prior to austenitizing;quenched from austenitizing temperature on the low side,i.e.,1200 to 1225 ℃ and at rates of more than 7 ℃/s(preferably,subjected to multiple stage cooling);and sufficiently tempered,thus making certain that the tap conforms with property requirements.Furthermore,the handle of a tap is to be hardened by being first quenched in water then cooled in air instead of by first being quenched in water then cooled in oil to render possibility of the tap cracking less.%高速钢大规格机用丝锥由于尺寸较大,碳化物分布难以均匀,将影响丝锥的热处理质量。对于大规格 W6Mo5Cr4V2钢机用丝锥,为确保其性能达到要求,应按下列工艺进行热处理:淬火加热前,依次于500~600℃、800~850℃和950~1000℃进行预热;淬火温度取下限,即1200~1225℃;以大于7℃/s 的速度进行淬火冷却,最好进行多次分级冷却;充分回火。此外,为减小丝锥的开裂倾向,柄部应采用水淬空冷而不是水淬油冷工艺淬火。

  11. Effects of low-fat dairy consumption on markers of low-grade systemic inflammation and endothelial function in overweight and obese subjects: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2010-11-01

    Although increased concentrations of plasma inflammatory markers are not one of the criteria to diagnose the metabolic syndrome, low-grade systemic inflammation is receiving large attention as a metabolic syndrome component and cardiovascular risk factor. As several epidemiological studies have suggested a negative relationship between low-fat dairy consumption and the metabolic syndrome, we decided to investigate the effects of low-fat dairy consumption on inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules in overweight and obese subjects in an intervention study. Thirty-five healthy subjects (BMI>27 kg/m²) consumed, in a random order, low-fat dairy products (500 ml low-fat milk and 150 g low-fat yogurt) or carbohydrate-rich control products (600 ml fruit juice and three fruit biscuits) daily for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α were decreased by 0.16 (SD 0.50) pg/ml (P = 0.070), and soluble TNF-α receptor-1 (s-TNFR-1) was increased by 110.0 (SD 338.4) pg/ml (P = 0.062) after the low-fat dairy period than after the control period. s-TNFR-2 was increased by 227.0 (SD 449.0) pg/ml (P = 0.020) by the dairy intervention. As a result, the TNF-α index, defined as the TNF-α:s-TNFR-2 ratio, was decreased by 0.000053 (SD 0.00012) (P = 0.015) after the dairy diet consumption. Low-fat dairy consumption had no effect on IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations. The present results indicate that in overweight and obese subjects, low-fat dairy consumption for 8 weeks may increase concentrations of s-TNFR compared with carbohydrate-rich product consumption, but that it has no effects on other markers of chronic inflammation and endothelial function.

  12. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Merino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first line of treatment for hypertriglyceridemic (HTG includes a well-balanced diet, although the association of dietary components with triglyceride (TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic patients is not fully understood. Objective: To describe the main dietary patterns in a cohort of hypertriglyceridaemic patients and to evaluate the association between dietary components and TG levels. Methods: This multicentre cross-sectional study included subjects (n = 1.394 with HTG (TG > 2.25 mmol/L visiting lipid units affiliated with the Spanish Atherosclerosis Society. A validated 14-item food questionnaire was performed to assess diet. Clinical, anthropometry and biochemical parameters were also obtained. Results: Two dietary patterns were defined a posteriori by cluster analysis. Patients following the "prudent dietary pattern" (predominantly fish, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy and legumes had lower TG levels than those with the "western dietary pattern" (predominantly red and processed meat products, alcohol, cakes and pastries and sugar (3.51 ± 2.41 vs. 3.96 ± 3.61 mmol/L, P = 0.002. In a multivariant test, low-fat dairy products (B: -0.089; 95% IC: -16.1, -3.1, P = 0.004 and alcohol intake (B: 0.070; 95% IC: 1.1, 13.1, P = 0.022 were significantly associated with TG concentrations independently of potential confounders. Conclusions: Mediterranean dietary pattern including low-fat dairy products and abstaining from alcohol intake is highly associated with lower TG concentration in hypertriglyceridaemic patients even under lipid-lowering treatment. The reinforcement in nutritional counselling mainly in these food groups should be done and further specifically studies about the direct association of these and other dietary groups should be carried out to the development of more effective nutritional recommendations.

  13. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  14. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, C. K.; Rosenbaum, D.; Han, H.; Geiselman, P.; Wyatt, H; Hill, J.; Brill, C; Bailer, B.; Miller, B. V.; R. Stein; Klein, S; Foster, Gard D.

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n=134) or a LFD (n=136) for two years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated d...

  15. Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D; Nigg, Claudio R

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the "health halo" associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling.

  16. Solid Solution Nitriding Technology of 15Cr-7.5Mn-2.6Mo Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Rui-dong; ZHAO Pin; WANG Chun-Yu; QIU Liang; ZHENG Yang-zeng

    2004-01-01

    Solid solution nitriding technologies of 15Cr-7.5Mn-2.6Mo duplex stainless steel were investigated by using of orthogonal tests. The results show that the best technology would be the processes of 1050℃× 2h + 1150℃× 3h +1050℃× 2h + 1150℃× 4h under pure N2 with PN2=0.15MPa. The high nitrogen austenitic case with the depth of1.62mm can be obtained. Orthogonal tests show that the type of atmosphere has the most notable effect on solid solution nitriding process; the pressure in the furnace and the nitriding processes has a notable effect. X-ray diffraction analyses results indicate that the main phases in the cases of the solution-nitrided samples cooled in the furnace are high nitrogen austenite, CrN, Fe3O4 and nitrogen containing ferrite. In the other samples experienced solid solution nitriding and solution treatment the obtained phase in the cases is high nitrogen austenite only. The results show that solid solution nitriding is a process that nitrogen absolutely diffuses in the austenite. The diffusing activation energy in the conditions of PN2 = 0.15MPa and 1050℃~ 1200℃ is 186.6K J/mol.

  17. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles.

  18. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. PMID:27258146

  19. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul J; Mellett, Natalie; Pally, Suzana; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Chris K; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (Pfermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (Pproducts did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more favourable. PMID:23756569

  20. Physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat cupuaçu and açaí nectar: characterization and changes during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Eneide Taumaturgo Macambira Braga FERNANDES; Maciel, Vlayrton Tomé; Maria Luzenira de SOUZA; Cydia de Menezes FURTADO; Lucia Helena de Oliveira WADT; Clarissa Reschke da CUNHA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat açaí and cupuaçu nectar, as well as changes in these parameters during storage. Nectars were prepared with açaí pulp previously defatted by centrifugation on a pilot scale. The study consisted of two steps. In the first step, the physicochemical characteristics, instrumental color, and sensory acceptance of the nectar prepared with low-fat açaí pulp were evaluated and compared with t...

  1. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  2. Low-fat dietary pattern and change in body-composition traits in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial123

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Cara L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley; Howard, Barbara; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beresford, Shirley AA; Snetselaar, Linda; Vitolins, Mara; Allison, Matthew; Budrys, Nicole; Prentice, Ross; Peters, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Trial was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a low-fat (≤20% of total energy) or a usual diet in relation to chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.

  3. Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjevardi, Zhaleh Sadat; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2015-07-10

    Psyllium husk gum (PHG) as an ideal fat replacer was utilized to improve the production of an industrial low-fat yogurt gel. The combined effects of critical structural components (PHG concentration (0.072-0.128%) and fat content (0.29-1.71%)) on the textural (firmness and syneresis), rheological (viscosity), and chemical (pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)) attributes of developed set-yogurts were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-order polynomial equations with high R(2) demonstrated a good agreement between experimental and predicted data. The optimal formulation for achieving optimal pH (4.39) and TTA (81% lactic acid), maximizing firmness (0.172 N) and viscosity (6.40 Pa s) and minimizing whey separation (36.21 mL/100g) was 0.12% PHG and 0.63% fat. Sensory characterization also revealed that the yogurts manufactured at optimal point had more aroma, texture and overall acceptability than the control yogurts.

  4. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Matthew T; Groen, Albert K; Oler, Angie Tebon; Keller, Mark P; Choi, Younjeong; Schueler, Kathryn L; Richards, Oliver C; Lan, Hong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuipers, Folkert; Kendziorski, Christina M; Ntambi, James M; Attie, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprotein X. The rate of LDL clearance was decreased in VLF SCD1(-/-) mice relative to VLF SCD1(+/+) mice, indicating that reduced apoB-containing lipoprotein clearance contributed to the hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, HDL-cholesterol was dramatically reduced in these mice. The presence of increased plasma bile acids, bilirubin, and aminotransferases in the VLF SCD1(-/-) mice is indicative of cholestasis. Supplementation of the VLF diet with MUFA- and PUFA-rich canola oil, but not saturated fat-rich hydrogenated coconut oil, prevented these plasma phenotypes. However, dietary oleate was not as effective as canola oil in reducing LDL-cholesterol, signifying a role for dietary PUFA deficiency in the development of this phenotype. These results indicate that the lack of SCD1 results in an increased requirement for dietary unsaturated fat to compensate for impaired MUFA synthesis and to prevent hypercholesterolemia and hepatic dysfunction. Therefore, endogenous MUFA synthesis is essential during dietary unsaturated fat insufficiency and influences the dietary requirement of PUFA.

  5. Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjevardi, Zhaleh Sadat; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2015-07-10

    Psyllium husk gum (PHG) as an ideal fat replacer was utilized to improve the production of an industrial low-fat yogurt gel. The combined effects of critical structural components (PHG concentration (0.072-0.128%) and fat content (0.29-1.71%)) on the textural (firmness and syneresis), rheological (viscosity), and chemical (pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)) attributes of developed set-yogurts were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-order polynomial equations with high R(2) demonstrated a good agreement between experimental and predicted data. The optimal formulation for achieving optimal pH (4.39) and TTA (81% lactic acid), maximizing firmness (0.172 N) and viscosity (6.40 Pa s) and minimizing whey separation (36.21 mL/100g) was 0.12% PHG and 0.63% fat. Sensory characterization also revealed that the yogurts manufactured at optimal point had more aroma, texture and overall acceptability than the control yogurts. PMID:25857984

  6. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  7. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  8. Analyzing Serum-Stimulated Prostate Cancer Cell Lines After Low-Fat, High-Fiber Diet and Exercise Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Soliman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum from men undergoing a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise intervention has previously been shown to decrease growth and increase apoptosis in serum-stimulated, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells associated with a reduction in serum IGF-I. Here we sought to determine the underlying mechanisms for these anticancer effects. Again, the intervention slowed growth and increased apoptosis in LNCaP cells; responses that were eliminated when IGF-I was added back to the post-intervention samples. The p53 protein content was increased and NFκB activation reduced in the post serum-stimulated LNCaP cells. Similar results were observed when the IGF-I receptor was blocked in the pre-intervention serum. In androgen-independent PC-3 cells, growth was reduced while none of the other factors were changed by the intervention. We conclude that diet and exercise intervention might help prevent clinical PCa as well as aid in the treatment of PCa during the early stages of development.

  9. The effects of phytosterol in low fat milk on serum lipid levels among mild-moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukmaniah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important risk factors for CHD is dyslipidemia, among others hypercholesterolemia or high LDL-cholesterol. Plant-sterols or phytosterols (PS are among dietary factors known to lower blood cholesterol as part of therapeutic life-style changes diet. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of PS properly solubilized in a-partly vegetable oil-filled low fat milk, on serum lipid levels in mild-moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized, two-arm parallel control group trial was conducted at Department of Nutrition-University of Indonesia in Jakarta from June to November 2006. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive dietary life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g phytosterol/day in low-fat milk (PS-group or control group receiving the counseling alone for six weeks period. There were no significant changes of serum total and LDL-cholesterol of control group after a six week of dietary counseling (respectively 218.3 ± 18.6 mg/dL to 219.6 ± 24.3 mg/dL and 164.7±21.8 mg/dL to 160.0±26.4 mg/dL. There were a significant decreases of serum total and LDL-cholesterol (respectively p=0.01 and p=0.004 among subjects receiving PS after a six weeks observation period (respectively 233.5±24.6 mg/dL to 211.2±30.3 mg/dL and 176.9±24.7 mg/dL to 154.5±24.3 mg/dL. There was a significant difference in the LDL-lowering effects (p=0.024 among the PS-group after a six weeks (22.4±27.9 mg/dL as compared to the control group (4.7±17.2 mg/dL. No significant changes were found on serum HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both groups. Although there was no significant difference found in daily nutrients intake between the-2 groups, however, significant reductions in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference were found only in the PS group (p=0.000; 0.000; 0.003, respectively. It is concluded that the lowering of total and LDL-cholesterol in those receiving life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g PS daily for six

  10. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  11. Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

    Se estudia la microestructura y distribución de los glóbulos de grasa de quesos blancos turcos bajos en grasa. Quesos con reducida y baja cantidad en grasa fueron fabricados conteniendo entre el 1,5% y 0,75% de grasa de leche, respectivamente, y con cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas, en una planta de lácteos. Las cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas y el suero de los quesos se analizaron para determinar la distribución de los glóbulos de grasa y también se analizaron las características de la microestructura de muestras de queso. De acuerdo con los resultados, la homogeneización de la crema reduce el tamaño de los glóbulos de grasa, mostrando un gran número de partículas de grasa dispersa en la matriz de caseína que mejoró la lubricación de la microestructura del queso. De acuerdo con las micrografías de la grasa que no se elimina, estas exhiben

  12. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  13. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets improve wound healing and increase protein levels in surgically stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirgiotis, J G; Hennessey, P J; Black, C T; Andrassy, R J

    1991-08-01

    The specific effects of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on wound healing, nutrition status, or immune function are controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effects of fatty acid supplementation on wound healing and nitrogen retention in a surgically stressed rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 250 g) were placed into three isocaloric, isonitrogenous feeding groups (controls [standard Vivonex]; 30% safflower oil [omega 6]; or 30% fish oil [omega 3]) for 8 days prior to receiving subcutaneous vascular graft wound cylinders in their dorsal midline. Nitrogen balance was monitored daily. Wounds healed for 10 days, animals were then euthanized, serum was drawn, and wound cylinders were harvested for analyses. The low-fat, high-carbohydrate control group had higher serum albumin levels at 10 days than either fatty acid-supplemented group (3.5 +/- 0.4 g/dL v 2.9 +/- 0.3 g/dL and 2.7 +/- 0.2 g/dL, omega 3 and omega 6, respectively; both P less than .05) and had better nitrogen balance (8.6 +/- 0.8 mg N/d v -2.6 +/- 0.9 mg N/d and 0.8 +/- 1.2 mg N/d, omega 3 and omega 6, respectively; both P less than .05). They also had better healed wounds at 10 days (450 +/- 290 micrograms 5-hydroxyproline [OHP]/cm of wound cylinder v 150 +/- 40 micrograms OHP/cm and 145 +/- 90 micrograms OHP/cm, omega 3 and omega 6, respectively). Surgically stressed rats had higher protein levels, better nitrogen balance, and improved wound healing when fed a diet high in carbohydrates and low in fat. PMID:1919985

  14. o-ZrWl.6Mo0.408: A Novel Orthorhombic Intermediate Phase Formed During the Synthesis of the Negative Thermal Expansion Cubic ZrWl.6Mo0.4O8 Material by the Precursor Dehydration Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新华; 黄令; 刘鹏辉; 马辉

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of the precursor dehydration route was revealed for the synthesis of NTE c-ZrW1.6Mo0.4O8. The hydrate precursor was dehydrated at 473 K and transformed to a NTE cubic compound above 800 K. A novel intermediate phase o-ZrWl.6Mo0.4O8 occurs between the temperature range of 573-800 K. The XRD pattern of novel intermediate was refined with the structural model of LT-ZrMo2O8 by using Rietveld method.The residuals are Rwp=7.80% and Rp=5.79%. The space group is Pmn21 and the lattice parameters are α=0.5917(4)nm, b=0.7273(4) nm, c =0.9148(6) nm, and Z=2.

  15. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks Frank M; Vollmer William M; Svetkey Laura P

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat) or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pr...

  16. Postprandial de novo lipogenesis and metabolic changes induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat meal in lean and overweight men

    OpenAIRE

    I. Marques-Lopes; D. Ansorena; Astiasaran, I. (Iciar); L. Forga; J. A. Martinez

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjustments of carbohydrate intake and oxidation occur in both normal-weight and overweight individuals. Nevertheless, the contribution of carbohydrates to the accumulation of fat through either reduction of fat oxidation or stimulation of fat synthesis in obesity remains poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the postprandial metabolic changes and the fractional hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat...

  17. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Mauriz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS treatment options are primarily limited to immunomodulatory therapies in MS non-progressive forms. Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control disease progression. Therefore, dietary intervention may help to improve wellness and ameliorate symptoms of MS patients. Objectives: To assess the effect of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of institutionalized patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Methods: A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study involving 9 participants, 5 of them assigned to the intervention group (low-fat diet and antioxidant supplementation and the other 4 to the placebo group (low-fat diet. The effect of the dietary intervention, involving diet modification and antioxidant supplementation, was examined for 42 days by measuring anthropometric, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in blood at baseline (day 0, intermediate (day 15 and end (day 42 stages of the treatment. Results: The intervention group obtained C reactive protein levels significantly lower than those observed in the corresponding placebo group at the end of the study. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and interleukine IL-6 values also diminished after dietary intervention in the intervention group. Catalase activity increased significantly in the intervention group prior antioxidant supplementation. No significant differences were observed in other oxida-tive stress markers. Conclusions: The results suggest that diet and dietary supplements are involved in cell metabolism modulation and MS-related inflammatory processes. Consequently, low fat diets and antioxidant supplements may be used as complementary therapies for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  18. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauriz; A. Laliena; Vallejo, D.; M. J. Tuñón; J. M. Rodríguez-López; R. Rodríguez-Pérez; M. C. García-Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment options are primarily limited to immunomodulatory therapies in MS non-progressive forms. Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control disease progression. Therefore, dietary intervention may help to improve wellness and ameliorate symptoms of MS patients. Objectives: To assess the effect of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of institutionalized pat...

  19. The Effect of Strict Adherence to a High-Fiber, High-Fruit and -Vegetable, and Low-Fat Eating Pattern on Adenoma Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Leah B. Sansbury; Wanke, Kay; Albert, Paul S.; Kahle, Lisa; Schatzkin, Arthur; Lanza, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in dietary intake are thought to account for substantial variation in cancer incidence. However, there has been a consistent lack of effect for low-fat, high-fiber dietary interventions and risk of colorectal cancer. These inconsistencies may reflect the multistage process of cancer as well as the range and timing of dietary change. Another potential reason for the lack of effect is poor dietary adherence among participants in these trials. The authors examined the effe...

  20. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  1. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  2. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies.

  3. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  4. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  5. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki KC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kevin C Maki,1 Tia M Rains,1 Arianne L Schild,1 Mary R Dicklin,1 Keigan M Park,2 Andrea L Lawless,1 Kathleen M Kelley1 1Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA; 2Dairy Research Institute/National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL, USA Objective: This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index, and plasma lipids. Methods: Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2 with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results: Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg, premeal (2.35 versus 2.20 or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30 RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8 or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2 augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14 during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002. Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses

  6. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products.

  7. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products. PMID:27478213

  8. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein

    Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.

  9. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiova...

  10. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Todd L. Richards; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  11. D and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium in packaged low-fat ready-to-eat turkey bologna subjected to a surface pasteurization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, K; Han, I Y; Acton, J C; Sheldon, B W; Dawson, P L

    2003-08-01

    The D-values of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium at various surface pasteurization temperatures were determined for low-fat turkey bologna. Four cm2 meat squares were sterilized by irradiation prior to inoculation with 0.1 mL of a 10(8) cfu/mL culture, aseptically packaged in a linear low-density polyethylene pouch, and vacuum-sealed. Thermal treatments were administered by submerging packages in a heated water bath maintained at various set temperatures. At an 85 degrees C water bath temperature, no L. monocytogenes cells were detected (10(2)) up to 10 min of heating. No S. Typhimurium cells (pasteurization process.

  12. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-chun Zhu; Jia Lin; Qian Wang; Hui Liu; Li Qiu; Ding-zhi Fang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein...

  13. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Li, Jin-Zhang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (...

  14. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichi Ohtomo; Yuko Izuhara; Masaomi Nangaku; Takashi Dan; Sadayoshi Ito; Charles van Ypersele de Strihou; Toshio Miyata

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poor...

  15. Supramolecular assembly based on a heteropolyanion: Synthesis and crystal structure of Na3(H2O)6[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Samar K Das

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of a polyoxometalate compound Na3(H2O)6 [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O (1) have been described. Compound 1 exhibits three-dimensional network structure in the solid state, which is assembled by Anderson-type heteropolyanions, [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$_n^{3n-}$, as building blocks sharing sodium cations. 1 possesses ``sinuous" channels occupied by supramolecular water dimers as guests. Anderson anions, sodium-coordinated water and crystal water are additionally involved in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network in the crystal of 1.

  16. Structure and Tensile Properties of 32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N Austenitic Cryogenic Steel%32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N奥氏体低温钢的组织和拉伸性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付瑞东; 任一宾; 郑炀曾

    2001-01-01

    用材料试验机、SEM、TEM和X-射线分析研究了32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N奥氏体钢的组织和从室温到77K的拉伸性能。结果表明:随着温度的降低,屈服强度(σ0.2)和抗拉强度(σb)显著上升,延伸率(δ5)和断面收缩率(Ψ)略有减少;77K温度变形前后均为单相奥氏体组织,韧窝断口占主导并混有少量准解理小刻面的韧性断裂特征。%The tensile properties from 293K to 77K and structure ofaustenitic cryogenic steel 32Mn-7Cr-0.6Mo-0.3N by tensile test, SEM, TEM and X-ray analysis have been studied. The results showed that with the temperature decreasing, the yield and tensile strength increased appreciably, and the elongation and reduction of area decreased slightly. The structure of steel was single austenitic phase in deforming at 77K, and the fracture at 77K was tough feature with minor quasi-cleavage plane.

  17. Small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements provided to women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 mo of age increase the mean attained length of 18-mo-old children in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood stunting usually begins in utero and continues after birth; therefore, its reduction must involve actions across different stages of early life. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) provided during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy on attained size by 18 mo of age. Design: In this partially double-blind, individually randomized trial, 1320 women at ≤20 wk of gestation received standard iron and folic acid (IFA group), multiple micronutrients (MMN group), or SQ-LNS (LNS group) daily until delivery, and then placebo, MMNs, or SQ-LNS, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum; infants in the LNS group received SQ-LNS formulated for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age (endline). The primary outcome was child length by 18 mo of age. Results: At endline, data were available for 85% of 1228 infants enrolled; overall mean length and length-for-age z score (LAZ) were 79.3 cm and −0.83, respectively, and 12% of the children were stunted (LAZ supplement provided at enrollment, stunting prevalences were 8.9% compared with 15.1% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Provision of SQ-LNSs to women from pregnancy to 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 to 18 mo of age may increase the child’s attained length by age 18 mo in similar settings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866. PMID:27534634

  18. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG, ethyl ester (EE, free fatty acid (FFA and phospholipid (PL forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA, DHA bound triglyceride (DHA-TG, DHA bound ethyl ester (DHA-EE and DHA bound phospholipid (DHA-PL for 1 week, with dietary fat levels at 5% and 22.5%. Serum and hepatic lipid concentrations were analyzed, as well as the fatty acid composition of liver and brain. Result At low fat level, serum total cholesterol (TC level in mice fed diets with DHA-FFA, DHA-EE and DHA-PL were significantly lower than that in the control group (P P  0.05, DHA-EE (P  0.05 and DHA-PL (P P P P P P  Conclusion The present study suggested that not only total dietary fat content but also the molecular forms of omega-3 fatty acids contributed to lipid metabolism in mice. DHA-PL showed effective bioactivity in decreasing hepatic and serum TC, TG levels and increasing omega-3 concentration in liver and brain.

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (p<0.05). These results indicate that a relatively low electric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk. PMID:26877640

  20. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  1. The effects of cereal additives in low-fat sausages and meatballs. Part 2: Rye bran, oat bran and barley fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Godard, Ophélie; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Tornberg, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Rye bran, oat bran and barley fibre have been compared as additives in low-fat sausages and meatballs. The water/protein ratio and starch content were constant to allow direct comparisons. Oat bran was the best alternative in low-fat sausages due to its gelling ability upon heating. These sausages exhibited low process (0.9%) and frying losses (10.9%), and high values of firmness (11.0 N) and sensory acceptance. The sausages containing barley fibre, with the highest amount of soluble β-glucan, had high losses (3.8% and 19.6%) and the lowest firmness (4.6 N). Rye bran was suitable in meatballs, probably due to its particulate nature, which is more acceptable in this type of meat product, where the gelling properties are not as important as in sausages. There was no significant difference between the firmness of meatballs containing rye bran (6.1 N) and the reference (7.5 N), after pan-frying. Meatballs with oat bran or barley fibre were less firm (3.6 N and 2.0 N).

  2. Preparation on the low-fat ice cream of pumpkin%南瓜低脂冰淇淋的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马川兰; 崔惠玲

    2012-01-01

    Fresh mellow pumpkin was chosen as the raw material of producing low-fat ice cream, while part milk fat was replaced by artificial butter. At the same time, with the sensory quality and expansion rate as evaluation targets, the best formula of the healthy low- fat ice cream was obtained by the orthogonal experiment method: which was the whole milk powder 12%, the pumpkin pulp 20%, CMC 0.15%, xanthan gum 0.10%, artificial butter 3.5%, the white sugar 13%.%选取新鲜成熟南瓜为原料,以人造奶油代替部分乳脂,依据感官质量及膨胀率作为评价指标,通过正交实验获得南瓜保健冰淇淋的最佳配方为:全脂乳粉12%,南瓜浆20%,CMC0.15%,黄原胶0.10%,人造奶油3.5%,白砂糖13%。

  3. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 [69 to 304] mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress

  4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes by H4SiW6Mo6O40/SiO2 Sensitized by H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available H4SiW6Mo6O40/SiO2 was sensitized by H2O2 solution that significantly improved its catalytic activity under simulated natural light. Degradation of basic fuchsin was used as a probe reaction to explore the influencing factors on the photodegradation reaction. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: initial concentration of basic fuchsin 8 mg/L, pH 2.5, catalyst dosage 4 g/L, and light irradiation time 4 h. Under these conditions, the degradation rate of basic fuchsin is 98%. The reaction of photocatalysis for basic fuchsin can be expressed as the first-order kinetic model. After being used continuously for four times, the catalyst kept the inherent photocatalytic activity for degradation of dyes. The photodegradation of malachite green, methyl orange, methylene blue, and rhodamine B were also tested, and the degradation rate of dyes can reach 90%–98%.

  5. Effects of Withdrawal Rate and Temperature Gradient on the Microstructure Evolution in Directionally Solidified NiAl-36Cr-6Mo Hypereutectic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhao; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Wang, Lei; Qin, Ling; Fu, Heng-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    The effects of withdrawal rate and temperature gradient on the microstructure and growth interface morphology in directionally solidified Ni-29Al-36Cr-6Mo(at.%) hypereutectic alloy were investigated. Under the temperature gradient of 250 K/cm, well-aligned eutectic microstructure with lamellar morphology was obtained at the withdrawal rate of 6 μm/s. When the withdrawal rate was 10 μm/s, the microstructure changed to Cr(Mo) dendrites + eutectic lamellae. With the increasing withdrawal rate, the interdendritic eutectic growth interface changed from planar to cellular, the number of primary Cr(Mo) dendrites became greater, and the microstructure was refined. When the temperature gradient increased to 600 K/cm, the coupled eutectic growth zone of NiAl-Cr(Mo) alloy was expanded; a well-aligned eutectic microstructure could be obtained at higher rate of 10 μm/s. Furthermore, the planar/cellular transition rate of the interdendritic eutectic growth interface increased. Even at the same withdrawal rate, the number of primary Cr(Mo) dendrites was less and the microstructure was finer under the temperature gradient of 600 K/cm.

  6. Effects of surface friction treatment on the in vitro release of constituent metals from the biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo-0.16N alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Yunping; Hou, Yuhang; Bian, Huakang; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Due to the ignorance by many researchers on the influence of starting microstructure on the metal release of biomedical materials in human body after implant, in this study, the effect of surface friction treatment on the in vitro release of the constituent elements of the biomedical Co-29Cr-6Mo-0.16N (CCM) alloy is investigated for the first time by immersion test in lactic acid solution combined with electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-EOS). The results indicate that friction treatment on the as-annealed CCM alloy sample surface leads to a planar strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) on sample surface; this greatly accelerates the release of all the constituent elements and, in particular, that of Co as indicated by the ICP-EOS analysis. This increase can be ascribed to a localized deformation that occurred over the entire sample surface, with the dislocation density being high within the SIMTed phase and low in the alloy matrix. PMID:27127052

  7. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; Pobese mice restores liver iron storage. PMID:27632915

  8. Development of a low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan with health claims: impact on the quality, functionality and shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Deborah S; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; do Nascimento, Bárbara M S; Monteiro, Maria J; Madruga, Marta S; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2015-08-01

    A low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan was developed with the objective of obtaining a new functional meat product with improved properties and health claims promoting cholesterol reduction. Sausages were formulated with chitosan (2%, w/w) and different fat levels (5%, 12.5% and 20%, w/w). The results indicated that incorporation of 2% chitosan into produced pork sausages with health claims of reduction of cholesterol is technologically feasible. In addition, the chitosan reduced the microbial growth, revealing interesting fat and water absorption capacities, reduced lipid oxidation, provided greater stability in terms of colorimetric parameters and promoted positive firmer texture and gumminess. The reduction of fat content to levels of 5% was positively achieved with the incorporation of chitosan. Sensorial analysis showed that panelists did not detect any significant difference in taste and any unfavorable effect on the sausage appearance as a consequence of chitosan addition and variation of fat.

  9. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks Frank M

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  10. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (PLSAT diet (PLSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  11. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanescu Monica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol, in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland, for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05. The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions.

  12. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186

  13. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.

  14. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  15. 大米糖浆在低脂冰淇淋中的应用研究%Processing low fat ice cream with rice syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝惠玲; 杜淑霞; 徐丽

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology and formula of low fat ice cream was studied in the paper. The optimum processing conditions and formula were determined through mono factor as well as orthogonal experiments. The experiment results showed that the optimum conditions and formula were as follows: substitute 6% rice syrup (solid content) for butter; emulsifying-thickener formula: 0.2% monoglyceride ester, 0.1% guar gum, 0.08% xanthan gum and 0.1% CMC-Na; aging temperature is 0-2℃ with 6-8 h. The low fat ice cream obtained had good delatation and melting-resistance. The sensory evaluation score close to high fat ice cream.%通过单因素及正交试验确定了制作低脂冰淇淋较佳配方及工艺,试验结果表明,以6%大米糖浆(固形物计)替代奶油;添加的乳化增稠剂:单甘酯0.2%、瓜尔豆胶0.1%、黄原胶0.08%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.1%;采用的老化工艺:温度0~2℃,时间6~8h。制得的低脂冰淇淋膨胀率、抗融性好,感官评分接近高脂冰淇淋。

  16. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Mehrabani; Amin Salehi-Abargouei; Mehdi Asemi; Sepideh Mehrabani; Awat Feizi; Seyyed Morteza Safavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appetite lowering characteristics of dairy have attracted scientists to look for its effect on energy intake particularly among children. In the present study, we tried to assess the effect of low-fat milk on total and short-term energy intake among obese boys in a randomized three-way cross-over clinical trial. Methods: A total of 34 obese 10-12-year-old boys were randomized to consume three beverages (low-fat milk, apple juice, or water) with a fixed energy breakfast for two...

  17. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Si4+ and Pr4+ doped Y6 MoO12 compounds: environmentally benign inorganic pigments with high NIR reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Much interest has attended roofing materials with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, so that interiors stay cool, thereby reducing the demand for air conditioned buildings. The heat producing region of the infrared radiations ranges from 700-1100 nm. Replacing conventional pigments with 'cool pigments' that absorb less NIR radiation can provide coatings similar in color to that of conventional roofing materials, but with higher solar reflectance. NIR reflective pigments have been used in the military, construction, plastics and ink industries. Complex inorganic pigments based on mixed metal oxides (eg., chromium green, cobalt blue, cadmium stannate, lead chromate, cadmium yellow and chrome titanate yellow), which have been used in camouflage, absorb visible light but reflect the NIR portion of incident radiation. However, many of these pigments are toxic and there is a need to develop novel colored, NIR-reflecting inorganic pigments that are less hazardous to the environment. In this work, a series of NIR reflective colored pigments of formula Y6-xMxMoO12+δ (where M Si4+ or Pr4+ and x ranges from 0 to 1.0) were synthesized by traditional solid-state route and applied to asbestos cement roofing material so as to evaluate their use as 'cool pigments'. The phase purity of the calcined pigment samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectance of the powdered pigment samples were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer. The Lab color coordinates were evaluated by CIE 1976 color scale. Replacing Si4+ for Y3+ in Y6MoO12 changed the color from light-yellow to dark-yellow and the band gap decreased from 2.60 to 2.45 eV due to O2p-Mo4d charge transfer transitions. In contrast, replacing Pr4+ for Y3+ changed the color from light yellow to dark brown and the band gap shifted from 2.60 to 1.90 eV. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of an additional 4f1 electron energy level of Pr4+ between the valence

  18. Effect of high magnetic field on carbide precipitation in W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel during low-temperature tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yan [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Research Inst.; Li, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Tong, Lu; Zhao, Xiang [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2016-04-15

    The effect of a high magnetic field on carbide precipitation in W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel during low-temperature tempering was investigated. The applied high magnetic field promoted the precipitation of M{sub 6}C-type carbides at boundaries and in the grain interior, but maximum spheroidization and refinement occurred for those carbides precipitated at boundaries. Compared with M{sub 6}C-type carbides, the effect of high magnetic field on the precipitation behavior of MC-type carbides is much weaker. The high magnetic field hindered M{sub 2}C-type carbide precipitation by affecting the Gibbs free energy and increased the microhardness of W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel at low tempering temperature.

  19. Nutritional regulation of cholesterol synthesis and apolipoprotein B kinetics: studies in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and normal subjects treated with a high carbohydrate, low fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacpoole, P W; von Bergmann, K; Kilgore, L L; Zech, L A; Fisher, W R

    1991-11-01

    High carbohydrate, low fat diets decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) mass in normal subjects and in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). To investigate the mechanisms for these effects, four normal, four FH heterozygous, and one FH homozygous subjects were studied on a basal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat) diet and during continuous nasogastric infusion of Vivonex (90% carbohydrate, 1% fat). For the entire group, the mean changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides were -90, -95, -14 (all P less than 0.01) and +114 (P less than 0.02) mg/dl, respectively. Fecal sterol balance measurements demonstrated a 24% decrease in whole body cholesterol synthesis in normals, from 8.4 +/- 4.4 (mean +/- SD) to 6.4 +/- 1.3 mg/kg per day and in FH subjects, a 58% decrease, from 11.4 +/- 5.6 to 4.8 +/- 1.7 mg/kg per day (both P less than 0.05). ApoB kinetic studies were performed using a [3H]leucine tracer in two normals and three FH heterozygotes on both basal and Vivonex regimens, and the results were analyzed by compartmental modeling using the SAAM program. Total apoB production was not altered in a consistent manner by carbohydrate feeding. ApoB secretion, however, was shifted from the production of small VLDL/IDL-like particles to large VLDL by Vivonex, with an accompanying increase in intrahepatic assemblage time before secretion. In the two normal subjects, Vivonex induced an increase in apoB loss as VLDL/IDL; however, in the FH patients no such loss occurred. A decrease (P less than 0.05) in the residence time of LDL-apoB occurred for all subjects and was the primary determinant of the fall in plasma LDL concentration, since LDL-apoB transport did not change consistently. Thus, in FH patients, a high carbohydrate, low fat diet results in suppression of cholesterol synthesis and a fall in plasma LDL concentration due to an increased plasma clearance rate for

  20. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  1. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-03-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture.

  2. Study on preparing nutritious low-fat bread%低脂型营养面包的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤莲; 于晶

    2015-01-01

    To prepare nutritious low-fat bread by wheat bran fat substitute taking the place of fat in formula, applied single factor and orthogonal test method to analyzed sensory and physical characteristics of finial products.The optimal formula and process were:60% fat simulation ( grease) , 45%water, 12%sugar, fermentation time of 3 h.%采用小麦麸皮脂肪模拟品部分代替面包配方中的油脂制备营养低脂型面包,应用单因素和正交试验方法,通过对面包成品进行感官及物理特性的分析,确定最佳制作配方及工艺:脂肪模拟品添加量60%(占油脂)、水添加量45%、糖添加量12%、发酵时间3 h.

  3. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n=27 consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d with the control group (n=29 receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  4. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  5. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-chun Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008 and Apo A-I (p = 0.005 after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  6. Associations of lipoprotein lipase gene rs326 with changes of lipid profiles after a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-chun; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Li; Fang, Ding-zhi

    2014-04-23

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  7. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; Pfat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage.

  8. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host’s health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003447. PMID:27100182

  9. Improvements in vascular health by a low-fat diet, but not a high-fat diet, are mediated by changes in adipocyte biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempel Monica C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-fat (LF and high-fat (HF weight loss diets improve brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD in obese individuals, although results are conflicting. Moreover, the role that adipose tissue plays in mediating these diet-related effects are unknown. Objective This study examined how modulations in FMD by HF and LF diets relate to changes in adipocyte parameters. Design Obese subjects (n = 17 were randomized to a HF diet (60% kcal as fat or a LF diet (25% kcal as fat for 6 weeks. Both groups were restricted by 25% of energy needs. Results Body weight decreased (P 0.05 in both groups (HF: -6.6 ± 0.5 kg, LF: -4.7 ± 0.6 kg. Fat mass and waist circumference were reduced (P 0.05 in the LF group only (-4.4 ± 0.3 kg; -3.6 ± 0.8 cm, respectively. FMD improved (P 0.05 in the LF group (7.4 ± 0.8% to 9.8 ± 0.8; 32% increase and was impaired in the HF group (8.5 ± 0.6% to 6.9 ± 0.7; 19% reduction. Increases in plasma adiponectin (P 0.05, 16 ± 5%, and decreases in resistin (P 0.05, -26 ± 11%, were shown by the LF diet only. Greater decreases in leptin were observed with LF (-48 ± 9% versus HF (-28 ± 12% (P 0.05, diet × time. Increased FMD by the LF diet was associated with increased adiponectin, and decreased fat mass, waist circumference, leptin, and resistin. Conclusion Beneficial modulations in vascular health by LF diets may be mediated by improvements in adipocyte parameters.

  10. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  11. Effects of lipoprotein lipase gene variations, a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and gender on serum lipid profiles in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Gong, Renrong; Lin, Jia; Li, Ronghui; Xiao, Liying; Duan, Wei; Fang, Dingzhi

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbohydrate low-fat (HC/LF) diet and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms have separately been found to be associated with triacylglycerol (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study sought to test the effects of LPL polymorphisms and an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profile of Chinese with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) consuming a diet with less fat and more carbohydrates. Fifty-six healthy subjects (22.89 ± 1.80 years) were given a control diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrates for 7 days, followed by an HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days; there were no changes in the fatty acid composition or restrictions on total energy. Serum lipid profiles at baseline, before and after the HC/LF diet, and LPL polymorphisms were analyzed. After 6 days of the HC/LF diet, TG and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index were found to increase only in females with S447S. No decrease in HDL-C was noted. In subjects with Hind III polymorphism, increased TG was found in all females but not in males. Increased HDL-C, together with apolipoprotein (apo) AI, was found in male H- carriers but not in males with H+/H+ and females. In conclusion, LPL Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms modified the effects of an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profiles of a young Chinese population in different ways. Effective strategies for dietary interventions targeted at younger populations should take into account the interplay between genetic polymorphisms, diet, and gender.

  12. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions.

  13. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B (ThB) catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of straight chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs. Up to now, the ability of ThB to interfere with lipid metabolism was studied in mice fed a laboratory chow enriched or not with the synthetic agonist Wy14,643, a pharmacological activator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARα. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether ThB could play a role in obesity and lipid metabolism when mice are chronically fed a synthetic High Fat Diet (HFD) or a Low Fat Diet (LFD) as a control diet. To investigate this possibility, wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for Thb (Thb(-/-)) were subjected to either a synthetic LFD or a HFD for 25 weeks, and their responses were compared. First, when fed a normal regulatory laboratory chow, Thb(-/-) mice displayed growth retardation as well as a severe reduction in the plasma level of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), suggesting alterations in the GH/IGF-1 pathway. When fed the synthetic diets, the corrected energy intake to body mass was significantly higher in Thb(-/-) mice, yet those mice were protected from HFD-induced adiposity. Importantly, Thb(-/-) mice also suffered from hypoglycemia, exhibited reduction in liver glycogen stores and circulating insulin levels under the LFD and the HFD. Thb deficiency was also associated with higher levels of plasma HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) cholesterol and increased liver content of cholesterol under both the LFD and the HFD. As shown by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, a surrogate marker for cholesterol biosynthesis, whole body cholesterol de novo synthesis was increased in Thb(-/-) mice. By comparing liver RNA from WT mice and Thb(-/-) mice using oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR, a coordinated decrease in the expression of critical cholesterol synthesizing genes and an increased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp17a1, Akr1d1) were

  14. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  15. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  16. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  17. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  18. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  19. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months...... with respect to glucose metabolism, whereas the CTR diet resembling the typical Western diet, high in SFA, sugar and high glycaemic carbohydrates, indicated associations to lowering of insulin sensitivity. Lower levels of appetite regulatory peptides along with increased appetite scores following an 8-week LED......: MUFA, moderate-fat (35-45 energy percentage (E%) fat), high in MUFA with low glycaemic index; LF, low fat (20-30 E% fat) or CTR, control (35 E% fat). A meal test study was performed in a subgroup, before and after the 6-month dietary intervention, with forty-two subjects completing both meal tests...

  20. Effects on nutrient intake of a family-based intervention to promote increased consumption of low-fat starchy foods through education, cooking skills and personalised goal setting: the Family Food and Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Peter J; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2012-06-01

    Reducing the prevalence of fat-rich, energy-dense diets is a public health priority. The present parallel-designed randomised study compared three interventions aimed to increase intakes of low-fat starchy foods and to reduce fat intakes among 589 individuals from 169 families in the Family Food and Health Project (FFHP). Intervention A was education only, intervention B provided 'cook and eat' sessions only, whereas intervention C included personalised goal setting, 'cook and eat' and education. Diet was assessed at baseline (T0) and at 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2) and 18 months (T3) post-intervention. Retention rates were 75 % at T1, 63 % at T2 and 40 % at T3. ANCOVA (baseline intake as covariate) was assessed between intervention differences at T1, T2 and T3. At T1, individuals in intervention C consumed less fat (P = 0·02) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·001), starch (P = 0·04) vitamin C (P = 0·002) and NSP (P = 0·01) than those in intervention A. Whereas similar dietary intakes were reported across interventions at T2, participants in intervention C had less energy-dense diets that contained more NSP and vitamin C at T3 than intervention A (P fat (P = 0·01) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·02) at T2 than the least socially deprived (n 240). These data demonstrate the importance of personalised goal setting to translate knowledge and practical cooking skills into healthier food choices, suggesting that low-fat starchy food-focused interventions may be effective in reducing fat intake.

  1. Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight type 2 diabete mellitus%富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对超重的2型糖尿病病人血糖和血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡颂文; 韩婷; 韩玉麒; 李伟; 张月华; 张玉兰; 沈颖; 陆婷

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)型肠内营养(EN)制剂对超重的2型糖尿病病人血糖和血脂的影响. 方法:纳入研究2型糖尿病的病人60例,随机分为研究组和对照组.两组病人均给予综合性干预措施,如饮食、锻炼、健康生活方式等指导.研究组病人早餐服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂,对照组服用等热量的普通膳食,服用4周后进行血糖、血脂、体重指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀脂肪比率等指标的监测. 结果:4周后,研究组病人餐后2h血糖(2hPBG)、血清三酰甘油(TG)明显降低,与对照组比有显著性差异(P<0.05).研究组病人空腹血糖(FBG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1C)、血清总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、BMI、腰围、腰臀脂肪比率等均略低于对照组,但无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA型EN制剂能有效控制超重的2型糖尿病病人的餐后血糖和血脂水平.

  2. 全脂和低脂模拟干酪的流变及质构特性研究%Rheological and textural properties of full-fat and low-fat cheese analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贺; 徐学明; 过世东

    2007-01-01

    The textural properties of the cheese analogues with different fat contents were measured by using TA. XT2i Texture Analyser and the steady state and dynamic rheological parameters of the same samples were measured by using AR1000 rheometer to compare the rheological and textural properties of full-fat and low-fat cheese analogues. As the fat content of cheese analogues decreased, all the Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) parameters except springiness and cohesiveness decreased. The steady state flow analysis showed that all cheese samples exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudo-plastic behavior at all temperatures including 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60℃. Shear stress versus shear rate data was successfully fitted to the Power-law model. The dynamic analysis showed that the full-fat products manifested a more solid-like form. All the samples' rheological parameters were dependent on the oscillatory frequency. The results showed that full-fat and low-fat sampls were significantly different through texture and rheology analysis. The study of rheological and textural properties was evaluable for technology and quality control of cheese products.%分别通过TA.XT2i质构分析仪和AR1000流变仪对全脂和低脂模拟干酪进行全质构分析以及稳态及动态流变分析.结果表明,降低脂肪含量,全质构分析数据除了弹性及内聚性以外全部显著下降.稳态流变结果显示,模拟干酪在不同温度下均表现出非牛顿假塑性流体特性.采用power-law模型可以很好地对其数据进行拟合.动态流变分析表明,相对于低脂样品来说,高脂干酪更具有固态特性.黏弹性参数如弹性模量、黏性模量、复合黏度均与振荡频率有关.从流变和质构的角度来看,低脂和高酯干酪有明显区别.因而对干酪样品的流变和质构特性进行分析对于改善其加工工艺及品质保证是非常有意义的.

  3. Application on mimetic fat with mung bean starch as matrix in low-fat clyster%绿豆淀粉模拟脂肪在低脂灌肠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛迪锐; 岳云蛟

    2011-01-01

    Fat pork, mung starch mimetic fat. Starch, and water were used as the raw material of low-fat clyster . Through orthogonal experiment, the effectors on products quality were discussed, such as the ratio of mung bean starch mimetic fat to fat pork, the additive a-■nounts of water and starch. The results was showed: As a benchmark in the adding amount of meat,the best formula is starch 15%, water 18%, salt 2. 5%, simulated fat to the pork fat 40%. Fat pork ratio 3 : 7. Compared to the non-simulated fat sausage, the cooking loss of the low-fat clyster decreased, adhesion increased, water retention rate increased, fst content reduced. Freeze-thaw stability has increased, which avoids sausage retrogradation and increases the storage stability of the products.%以肥瘦猪肉、绿豆淀粉模拟脂肪、水、淀粉等为原料研制低脂灌肠,通过正交试验,分别讨论绿豆淀粉模拟脂肪占猪肥臊的比例、水和淀粉的添加量对产品品质的影响.结果表明,低脂灌肠的最佳配方:以肉的添加量为基准,淀粉的添加量为15%、水为18%、盐为2.5%、模拟脂肪添加量为猪肥膘的40%、肥瘦猪肉比例为3;7,所得到的灌肠与未添加模拟脂肪的灌肠相比较,其蒸煮损失减少,黏着性增加,保水率增加,脂肪含量减少,冻融稳定性有所提高,使得灌肠不易发生回生,增加了产品的储藏稳定性.

  4. 采用METHOCEL MXTM技术开发低脂肪香肠和肉制品%Creating low-fat sausage and meat products with METHOCEL MXTM fat replacement technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜正勇; Linda Bellekom-Allen; Mathias Frahm; Marina Kuntsevich

    2009-01-01

    As consumers aim to reduce the fat content of their diets,the foods targeted for reduction often include meat products,such as sausages and frankfurters because their inherently high fat contents and the lack of eating quality of the low fat alternatives make this the only acceptable option.Methocel MXTMFat Replacement Technology enables the formulation of low-fat meat products that combine the desired texture and succulent,juicy mouthfeel associated with full-fat products with a significant reduction in fat content.This technology,through the creation of a structured emulsion,allows the use of lower quantities of healthy liquid oils in place of saturated fat or hydrogenated oils.The emulsion system can be created by combining Methocel MXTMwith cold water and liquid oil.The oil content used can vary from 2 to 60 percent.One example provides an overview of how a sausage formulation with 10 percent fat content can be created,which is a significant reduction from the control sausages with 27 percent fat content.%由于消费者希望降低对脂肪特别是动物脂肪的摄取,诸如香肠类的肉制品已经逐步从消费者的日常饮食中降低使用量.METHOCELTMMX的脂肪替代技术可以使低脂肪的肉制品保持如全脂肉制品一样的优异的风味,提供良好的质构和柔嫩多汁的口感.这项技术使用健康的植物油来替代饱和脂肪酸或氢化植物油,形成形如"矩阵"的乳状液.将METHOCEL MXTM,冷水和植物油结合制成这个乳状液系统,植物油的含量可以是2%60%.本文中描述了一个用METHOCELTMMX的脂肪替代技术制作的10%脂肪含量的香肠,在保持良好质量的前提下,降低脂肪含量27%.

  5. A novel organic–inorganic hybrid based on Anderson-type polyoxometalate: H(C5N5H5)2(C5N5H6)2[Al(OH6)Mo6O18].10H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Safa Thabet; Brahim Ayed; Amor Haddad

    2014-10-01

    A new organic–inorganic hybrid compound, H(C5N5H5)2(C5N5H6)2[Al(OH6)Mo6O18].10H2O, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR, UV–Vis spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group -1, with = 8.033(5) Å, = 9.960(4) Å, = 16.797(7) Å, = 73.43(3)°, = 87.85(1)°, = 81.47(1)° and = 1. The crystal structure can be described by infinite polyanions [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]3- organized in layers parallel to the -direction alternating with organic cations associated in ribbons spreading along the -direction. Multiple hydrogen bonds originating from amine, hydroxyl groups and water molecules connect different components of the lattice.

  6. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  7. Study on Low Fat No Sugar and Adding Prebiotics Ice Cream%添加复合益生元的低脂无糖冰淇淋的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军飞

    2011-01-01

    采用甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、低聚果糖代替蔗糖,采用聚葡萄糖代替部分脂肪,制成低脂无糖冰淇淋,达到预防心血管等疾病的特殊生理功效。通过单因素试验对不同影响因素进行了考察,运用正交试验找出最佳应用配方,结果表明,最佳配方如下:甜蜜素0.03%,阿斯巴甜0.012%,聚葡萄糖2%,低聚果糖0.21%。%Low fat no sugar ice cream was prepared by replacing fat with polydextrose and replacing sucrose with molasses, aspartame and fructo oligosaccharide. We studied the different influencing factors during the process through single factor tests, then the orthogonal experiments were used to find the most suitable formula. The results indicated the optimal formula were: molasses 0.03%, aspartame 0.012%, fructo oligosaccharide 2% and polydextrose 0.21%.

  8. Molho cremoso à base de extrato de soja: estabilidade, propriedades reológicas, valor nutricional e aceitabilidade do consumidor Soy - based low fat emulsion: stability, rheology, nutritional value and consumer acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Carvalho Pereira Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Na preparação de molhos de salada substitutos da maionese, para reduzir a quantidade de ovos e de óleo são utilizados emulsificantes e espessantes associados ou não à proteína de soja. Neste trabalho, o extrato de soja integral homogeneizado foi utilizado como base para a preparação de emulsão cremosa para substituir a maionese. O extrato de soja foi elaborado com teor de sólidos totais de 6 a 12%, após cozimento em água com bicarbonato, trituração e homogeneização a alta pressão. A emulsão preparada com diversas proporções de extrato de soja e óleos de soja e girassol foi também submetida à homogeneização a alta pressão variando de 1000 a 4000 psi. Na formulação do molho cremoso foram utilizados: açúcar, sal, ácido cítrico e diferentes hidrocolóides como estabilizantes. Os produtos foram avaliados quanto às características nutricionais, sensoriais, reológicas e de estabilidade. As condições mais favoráveis quanto à estabilidade e comportamento reológico para obtenção de molho cremoso foram atingidas quando se utilizou extrato de soja com 10% de sólidos, pressão de homogeneização de 3000 psi e relação extrato:óleo de 70:30, condição que apresentou redução de calorias de até 60%, em relação à maionese. Não foi observada diferença significativa (p The salad dressing preparation, which replaces for replacing the mayonnaise, uses utilizes emulsifiers and thickeners related or not to the soy protein in order to reduce the egg and oil quantity. In the The present work, used homogenized whole soymilk was used to prepare a creamy low-fat emulsion to replace traditional mayonnaise. The whole soymilk was elaborated with 6-12% of solids after cooking with bicarbonate, grinding and homogenizing it under high pressure. The emulsion was prepared with several proportions of soymilk and sunflower and soybean oils and was also submitted to high-pressure homogenization, under high pressure, which varied

  9. Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise and high-protein/reduced-carbohydrate and -fat diets have each been shown separately, or in combination with an energy-restricted diet to improve body composition and health in sedentary, overweight (BMI > 25 adults. The current study, instead, examined the physiological response to 10 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (EX versus exercise + minimal nutrition intervention designed to alter the macronutrient profile, in the absence of energy restriction, using a commercially available high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement (EXFS; versus control (CON. Methods Thirty-eight previously sedentary, overweight subjects (female = 19; male = 19 were randomly assigned to either CON (n = 10, EX (n = 14 or EXFS (n = 14. EX and EXFS participated in supervised resistance and endurance training (2× and 3×/wk, respectively; EXFS consumed 1 shake/d (weeks 1 and 2 and 2 shakes/d (weeks 3–10. Results EXFS significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate and fat intake (-14.4%, -27.2% and -26.7%, respectively; p p p p p p 2max improved in both exercise groups (EX = +5.0% and EXFS = +7.9%; p 2max (+6.2%; p = 0.001. Time-to-exhaustion during treadmill testing increased in EX (+9.8% but was significantly less (p p p Conclusion Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, provision of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate and -fat, nutrient-dense food supplement significantly, 1 modified ad libitum macronutrient and energy intake (behavior effect, 2 improved physiological adaptations to exercise (metabolic advantage, and 3 reduced the variability of individual responses for fat mass, muscle mass and time-to-exhaustion – all three variables improving in 100% of EXFS subjects.

  10. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  11. 血浆蛋白乳化物在低脂乳化肠中的应用%Concentrated emulsion stabilized with plasma protein as pork backfat substitute in low-fat emulsified sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟锋; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with plasma protein was used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat emulsified sausages. Composition ( proximate analysis and fatty acid profile), sensory analysis and technological( processing loss and WHC,colour and texture) properties of emulsified sausages were analyzed as affected by the different percentage of fat replacer(25% ,50% ,75% ,100% ).The moisture,protein,ash content of emulsified sausages became larger and fat content became smaller with the increasing of replacing level. Emulsified sausages produced with higher content emulsions had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA), MUFA and higher levels of PUFA.Sausages formulated with emulsions(50% ,75% ,100% replacers) had higher L*, a* ,b* values than the control(p <0.05).Compared to control sample,emulsified sausages with the fat replacing level of 25% , 50% and 75% had higher hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, resilience and lower adhesiveness values( p <0.05).Emulsified sausages with the fat replacing level of 25% ,50% and 75% had similar sensory characteristics with the control. Emulsified sausages had unpleased flavor when all pork backfat was replaced by the emulsions and it was not accepted by customers.%血浆蛋白、大豆油和水经斩拌可形成高浓度乳化物 . 以该乳化物作为脂肪替代品加工乳化肠,研究了不同脂肪替代率(25%、50%、75%、100%)下乳化肠的感官品质、化学组成、脂肪酸组成、持水能力、颜色和质构特性.结果表明:随脂肪替代率增大,乳化肠水分、蛋白质、灰分含量逐渐升高,脂肪含量逐渐降低;饱和脂肪酸、单不饱和脂肪酸含量逐渐降低,多不饱和脂肪酸含量逐渐升高;持水能力逐渐下降;50%、75%及100%替代组乳化肠L*,a*,b*值显著高于对照组(p<0.05);在质构特性上,25%、50%和75%替代组乳化肠硬度、弹性、粘聚性、咀嚼性、回复

  12. UN ACERCAMIENTO AL DISEÑO DE LOS PRODUCTOS CARNICOS BAJOS EN GRASA PARTE I. PRODUCTOS DE PICADO GRUESO AN APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF LOW FAT MEAT PRODUCTS. PART I. COARSE MINCED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Miriam Echeverri Palacio

    2004-06-01

    distintos tratamientos. El análisis de textura demostró que sustituciones de grasa del 25 al 75% con fibra, presentaron en general atributos texturales semejantes a la hamburguesa testigo con 20% de grasa. Se encontraron correlaciones bajas entre las medidas sensoriales y de textura debido a diferencias sustanciales en el tratamiento térmico, tamaño y temperatura, en que las muestras se entregaron para cada análisis.In this study, a formulation and elaboration of a low fat hamburger is presented, using substitutes of this, that besides lowering the caloric content of the product also maintain flavour and texture properties similar to high fat foods. By means of preliminary trials, a standard hamburger with 20% fat was established. Nine replacements with 50% of that fat content of the control were evaluated, and by means of sensorial analysis collagen and fiber were selected as the two substitutes that offered the greatest similarity to the previously established standard hamburger. Later, an experimental model was designed in which the fat content in the formulations were substituted with percentages of 25, 50 and 75%, conducting five replicas for treatment, in which the following properties were measured: Physical-chemical (pH and CRA, bromatologicals (protein, fat and humidity, sensorial (flavour, softness and juiciness and physical texture (hardness, coherence, adhesiveness, elasticity, gumminess, and chewability. All of the data obtained were analysed with an Analysis of Variance within and among treatments, correlations among answers to the sensorial analyses and those of texture and statistical analyses by means of the contour answer technique, finding with this the fat substitution and replacement percentage that most resembled the parameters of the standard. The judges in the sensorial analysis found that hamburgers with 15% fat presented flavour and juiciness characteristics similar to the standard hamburger independent of the fat substitute used; lower

  13. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having Mediterranean diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  14. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study.

  15. 骨钙素对高糖低脂饮食引起的糖尿病新西兰兔胰腺的影响%Influence of Osteocalcin on the Pancreas of Diabetic Rats Caused by High Glycemic/Low Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 刘亚林; 朱琳; 陈志刚; 彭耀金

    2012-01-01

    目的:基于一贯性高血糖症能导致胰岛素抵抗的假说,我们研究了高糖低脂饮食导致的非胰岛素依赖糖尿病大鼠的生理功能和组织学改变.方法:取正常新西兰兔24只,随机分为正常组、糖尿病(DM)组、糖尿病骨钙素干预(DM+OCGY)组.采用高唐低脂饮食喂养新西兰兔,建立非胰岛素依赖糖尿病模型.建立模型后,DM+OCGY组腹腔注射骨钙素(2.5 mg/kg·d),DM组腹腔注射相等量生理盐水.一个月后处死新西兰兔.用HE染色方法检测新西兰兔胰腺形态改变.结果:高糖低脂饮食能有效引起新西兰兔血糖的升高,尿糖阳性,HE染色表明胰腺细胞发生相应改变,DM+OCGY组空腹血糖的浓度明显降低,能逆转胰腺的相关改变.结论:高糖低脂饮食能诱导非胰岛素依赖糖尿病的发生,骨钙素对非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病血糖浓度有一定的调节作用.%Objective: Based on the hypothesis that consistent hyperglycemia can result in insulin resistance, we explored the induction of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) using diet of high glycemic/low fat index and compared the effects on the physiology and histology of the rats. Methods: The 24 normal New Zealand rats were randomly divided into three groups, the normal group, the diabetes mellitus group(DM) and the osteocalcin treated diabetes mellitus group(DM+OCGY). After the non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model were established by using diet of high glycemic/low fat, DM+OCGY group were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of osteocalcin 2.5mg/kg·d, and the DM group were intraperitoneally injected with equal normal saline. The rats were sacrificed one month later. HE staining method was used to detect the pancreas changes of the rats. Results: The high glycemic/low fat diet could cause the increase of blood sugar level of New Zealand rat. The glycosuria presented to be positive, and the HE staining results showed there were corresponding

  16. 添加胡萝卜、燕麦及葵花籽油替代猪背膘对低脂乳化肠品质的影响%Effect of adding carrots, oats sunflower oil on the quality of and replacing pork back fat with low-fat Emulsion-type sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 杜萍; 黄蔡伦; 王鹏; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2012-01-01

    研究了添加胡萝卜、燕麦及用葵花籽油替代部分猪背膘对低脂乳化肠(脂肪添加量7%)质构特性、持水特性、色泽及感官品质的影响。单因素实验结果表明,添加胡萝1、10%、燕麦1%及葵花籽油替代动物脂肪50%可较好的改善低脂乳化肠的品质,乳化肠硬度、咀嚼性及弹性与对照组C(脂肪添加量20%)相比差异不显著(p〉0.05),持水特性及色泽也得到明显改善(p〈0.05).产品的感官评分与对照组C相比更令人满意。在单因素实验的基础上采用两因素(胡萝卜添加量、植物油替代率)三水平设计,进一步优化配方,结果表明,添加胡萝卜12.5%、燕麦1%及用葵花籽油替代猪背膘45%为最优配方,按照此配方生产出的低脂乳化肠恢复到对照组C的质构特性,产品的弹性及感官品质甚至优于对照组C..%The effect of adding carrots,oats and replacing pork back fat with sunflower oil on the textural properties, water-holding characteristics, color and sensory quality of low-fat (7% fat) Emulsion-type sausage were researched. The single factor experiment result showed that,adding 10% carrots,1% oats and 50% sunflower oil instead of animal fat could improve the quality of low-fat sausage well,there were not significant differences(p〉0.05) between the low-fat sausages and high-fat formula C(20% fat) on hardness,chewiness and flexibility,the water-holding characteristics were improved as well,the color and sensory quality of the products were more satisfactory compared with C. In order to optimize the formulation further,conduct two factors (carrot,vegetable oil) and three level completely random experiment based on the single factor experiment,the result showed that,adding 12.5% carrots, 1% oats and 45% sunflower oil instead of animal fats was the best formula,the low-fat Emulsion-type sausage produced by it,the textural properties reverted to

  17. Cinética de las Características Físicas de Mantecadas Bajas en Grasa Almacenada en dos tipos de Material de Empaque durante su Vida de Anaquel Kinetics of the Physical Characteristics of Low Fat Muffins Stored in two types of Packing Material during its Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzayhri Gallardo-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la vida de anaquel de mantecadas bajas en grasa y se ha comparado los resultados con los obtenidos para mantecadas con contenido completo de grasa (testigo. Las mantecadas bajas en grasa y las testigo se almacenaron bajo tres condiciones: sin material de empaque, en caja de poliestireno y en bolsa de polipropileno, durante un período de 168 horas, bajo las mismas condiciones de temperatura y de humedad relativa (Tamb = 23º C, HR = 46%. Las variables evaluadas fueron: el peso, el contenido de humedad y el volumen y se obtuvo las curvas de cinética para cada unas de las variables de respuesta. El producto se mantuvo fresco durante 24 h sin material de empaque, 96 h en cajas de poliestireno y 168 h en bolsas de polipropileno, estos resultados fueron corroborados a través de las curvas de cinética obtenidas. La vida de anaquel de las mantecadas empacadas bajas en grasa resultó igual a las de las mantecadas testigo, bajo las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento.The storage life of low fat muffins have been studied and results compared to those obtained for whole muffins, with total fat content (standard. The low fat muffins and the standard ones were stored under three conditions: without packing materials, in polystyrene boxes, and in polypropylene bags at the same temperature and relative humidity (T amb= 23ºC, HR = 46%. The following response variables were evaluated during the storage period: weight, water content and volume of the muffins and the kinetics of such variables was evaluated. Results showed that muffins maintained their freshness during 24 hours without packing material, 96 h in polystyrene boxes and 168 h in polypropylene bags. These results were also observed by the kinetic curves of the response variables. The storage live of the muffins with low and standard fat content were the same under the same storage conditions and packing material.

  18. Effects of A Low-Carbohydrate Diet and A Low-Fat Diet on Weight and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetics Mellitus%低碳水化合物饮食和低脂肪饮食对2型糖尿病患者体质量及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱华; 孙丽珍; 崔静稳; 张宪静

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较低碳水化合物饮食和低脂肪饮食1年对2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者体质量及血糖的影响.方法 采用随机对照的方法,将90例超重T2DM患者随机分为低碳水化合物饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(A组)和低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(B组),各45例.A组患者给予低碳水化合物饮食+双胍类药物治疗;B组患者给予低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗.分别在治疗前及治疗3、6、12个月检测两组患者的体质量、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血压和血脂.结果 两组患者治疗前后体质量及高密度脂蛋白(HDL)水平变化比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);而两组患者血压及血清总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、三酰甘油(TG)、HbA1c水平变化比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者体质量明显下降及HbA1c的减少主要发生在治疗的前3个月,A组、B组体质量平均下降1.8 kg/月和1.0 kg/月,HbA1c均下降0.6%;但在1年里两组患者体质量减轻均为3.4 kg.结论 对于超重的T2DM患者,1年的低碳水化合物饮食及低脂肪饮食对HbA1c的影响类似,血压未受影响;但低碳水化合物饮食者体质量下降较低脂肪饮食者快,且较后者能显著提高HDL水平.%Objective To compare the effects of a 1 - year intervention with a low - carbohydrate and a low - fat diet on weight and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The randomized controlled clinical trial was taken to assign 90 0verweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to the low - carbohydrate diet ( A ) group and low - fat diet ( B ) group, with 45 patients in each. The patients in the group A were given a low - carbohydrate diet and biguanides; while those in the group B were given a low - fat diet and biguanides. The body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbA1c ), blood pressure and lipids were detected before treatment and 3 , 6. and 12 months after the treatment. Results Before and after the

  19. Effects of low-fat diet on body mass, blood lipids and sugar control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%低脂肪饮食对肥胖2型糖尿病患者体质量、血脂及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱华; 尚艳菲; 辛波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low-fat diet on body mass,blood lipids and sugar in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). Methods 120 obese patients with T2DM were randomized to the two groups, research groups60 obese patients with T2MD got routine treatment of low-fat associated with biguanides diet,control group:60 obese patients with T2MD were advised on the treatment of the routine diabetic diet. Outcome measures of body mass, HbA1 c, blood pressure and blood lipids were obtained before and after treatment. Results After one year of treatment,body mass and HbA, c in research group reduced by (6. 6± 1. 4) kg and (2.8±0. 3) % ,and those in control group reduced by (3. 4±1. 2) kg,(l. 0±0. 2)%( P <0. 05). Before treatment.TC and LDL-C in research group were (4.44±0. 82) mmol/L and (2. 56±0. 61) mmol/L,and those in control group were (4. 38±0. 84) mmoI/L and (2. 54± 0. 70) mmol/L. After treatment.TC and LDL-C in research group were (3.90±0. 73) mmol/L,(2. 04±0.62) mmol/L,and those in control group were (4. 26 ± 0. 72) mmol/L, (2. 48 ± 0. 65) mmol/L, and two groups showed statistical significance after treatment P <0. 05). Conclusion Low-fat diet can improve body mass, HbA,c,TC and LDL-C of T2DM patients and curative effect is better than the conventional control group, and it is an effective way in the treatment of obese patients with T2DM.%目的 观察低脂肪饮食对肥胖2型糖尿病患者体质量、血脂和血糖的影响.方法 120例肥胖2型糖尿病患者随机分配至低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(实验组)和常规糖尿病饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(对照组),各60倒.在治疗前及治疗1年后检测两组患者的体质量(BM)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血压和血脂.结果 治疗1年后,实验组与对照组BM分别下降(6.6±1.4)kg和(3.4±1.2)kg,HbA1c分别下降(2.8±0.3)%和(1.0±0.2)%(P<0.05);实验组治疗前总胆固醇(TC)为(4.44±0.82) mmol/L、低密度

  20. 水油乳化剂替代猪背脂法兰克福香肠的品质及感官研究%Pork back fat substituted by oil-in-water emulsifier as ingredient influencing quality and sensory of low-fat frankfurters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於慧利; 徐宝才; 李景军; 刘元法; 蒋将

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the changes of color, texture and sensory of the low-fat Frankfurters, in terms of fatty acid composition and different kinds of non meat ingredient. A healthy mixture of vegetable oil (olive oil, sunflower oil and canola oil) were emulsified by a variety of non-meat protein (sodium caseinate, soy protein isolate, and microbial transglutaminase) to substitute pork back fat. As expected, frankfurters with plant oil combinations had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA, 19. 3%), similar levels of MUFA and higher content of PUFA than control frankfurters (all pork fat), higher (P<0. 05) hardness, springiness and chewiness values, and all products were judged as acceptable. Overall, vegetable oil and non-meat protein in Frankfurt as a fat replacer could facilate textural and antioxidant properties, as well as the nutrient value.%将橄榄油、葵花籽油和芥花油混合,用不同的非肉蛋白体系(酪蛋白酸钠、大豆分离蛋白和微生物转谷氨酰胺酶)乳化后,将该水油乳化剂替代猪背脂改良法兰克福香肠的品质.以脂肪酸组成、色泽、质构和感官评定为评价指标,研究其与含猪背脂的法兰克福香肠的脂肪酸组成和品质.结果表明:改良后的法兰克福香肠,饱和脂肪酸含量降低(1 9.3%),单不饱和脂肪酸变化很小,而多不饱和脂肪酸含量增加较显著(P<0.05),香肠的硬度、弹性和咀嚼性得到增加,产品的感官评定值达到了5.6,在消费者可接受范围内.可见添加健康植物油及蛋白体系可以提高香肠的质构、抗氧化性以及营养价值.

  1. 低脂高糖膳食对不同体质量指数的健康青年生理生化指标的影响%Effects of a Low-fat and High-carbohydrate Diet on the Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Healthy Youth with Different Body Mass Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永燕; 龚仁蓉; 张荣荣; 张珍; 李元昊; 胡敏珊; 李蓉晖; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨低脂高糖(low-fat and high-carbohydrate,LF-HC)膳食对不同体质量指数(BMI)的健康青年生理指标及糖脂代谢指标的影响.方法 给予7名超重青年[BMI=(27.82±1.64)kg/m2]和49名年龄匹配的正常对照[BMI=(20.06±2.41)kg/m2]7 d平衡膳食和6 d LF-HC膳食.平衡膳食含31.1%脂肪和54.1%碳水化合物,LF-HC膳食含14.8%脂肪和70.1%碳水化合物.于膳食干预的第1d、第8d和第14d清晨进行体检,测量各项生理指标;同时抽取12 h空腹静脉血,制备血L清并测定糖脂代谢相关指标,计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 基础值时,正常组体质量(P=0.000)、BMI(P=0.000)、腰臀比(P=0.000)、收缩压(P=0.001)、舒张压(P=0.016)和甘油三酯(TG)(P=0.006)均低于超重组;高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)高于超重组(P=0.005).LF-HC膳食后,总胆固醇(TC)(P<0.05)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均降低,胰岛素(P<0.05)和HOMA-IR(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均升高;TG仅在正常组升高(P=0.000);HDL-C仅在超重组升高(P=0.018).结论 在健康青年中,LF-HC膳食对血清TG和HDL-C的影响与体质量指数有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of a low-fat and high-carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet on the physiological and biochemical indexes in healthy youth with different body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven overweight participants [BMI= (27. 82+1. 64) kg/m2 ] and 49 age-matched controls CBMI= (20. 06 ± 2. 41) kg/ m2] were given a washout diet for 7 d, followed by a LF-HC diet for 6 d. The washout diet contained 31. 1% fat and 54. 1% carbohydrate, and the LF-HC diet contained 14. 8% fat and 70. 1% carbohydrate of total energy. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on the mornings of the first, eighth and fourteenth days. Serum samples were prepared from twelve-hour fasting venous blood. Biochemical indexes including lipids, glucose and insulin were measured with routine methods. The

  2. 脂联素基因45T/G多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响%Effects of Adiponectin Gene SNP45T/G on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉佳; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 杜娟; 黄鑫

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脂联素基因(APM1)45T/G多态性与健康中国汉族青年血脂比值的关系及其对高糖低脂(high carbohydrate and low fat,HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂比值变化的影响.方法 56名健康青年志愿者[(22.89±1.80)岁],给予7 d平衡膳食和6 d HC/LF膳食.在第1 d、第8 d、第14 d清晨取空腹12 h静脉血,测定血脂,计算甘油三酯(TG)/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、log(TG/HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)/HDLC、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C比值,提取血基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分析APM145T/G多态性.结果 无论是整体还是按性别分组,TT基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间血脂比值基础值均无明显差异.男性G等位基因携带者HC/LF膳食后TC/HDL-C高于TT基因型受试者(P<0.05);与膳食前相比,TT基因型受试者HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C均降低(P<0.05),G等位基因携带者仅TC/HDL-C降低(P<0.01).在女性,无论HC/LF膳食前还是HC/LF膳食后,G等位基因携带者TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)均低于TT基因型个体(P<0.05);与膳食前相比,TT基因型受试者HC/LF膳食后TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)升高(P<0.05)、TC/HDL-C降低(P<0.001),G等位基因携带者LDL-C/HDL-C(P<0.05)和TC/HDL-C(P<0.01)降低,而TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)无显著变化.结论 APM145T/G G等位基因能抑制HC/LF膳食诱导的健康青年女性TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)升高并使LDL-C/HDL-C降低,但可能使男性的LDL-C/HDL-C降低消失、TC/HDL-C升高.

  3. No Decrease of HDL Cholesterol after 6 Days of Low Fat and High Carbohydrate Diets in a Young Chinese Han Pop-ulation%中国汉族青年低脂高糖膳食6天后的血清高密度脂蛋白、胆固醇水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正科; 汤慧; 龚仁蓉; 林佳; 甘禅芬; 黄鑫; 李蓉辉; 方定志

    2008-01-01

    More studies are needed on the hyperyriacylglycerolemic effects of low fat and high carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet in young population, especially Chinese who generally have a diet containing lower fat and higher carbohydrate. To test them in a young Chinese Han population, 56 healthy subjects (22.89±1.80) years were given regular diet of 31% fat and 54% carbohy-drate for 7 days, followed by LF-HC diet of 15% fat and 70% carbohydrate for 6 days, without total energy restriction. After the LF-HC diet, the male experienced an increase of high density lipoprutein (HDL) cholesterol and decreases of weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol (P < 0.05). The female experienced in-creased serum triacylglycerol and insulin, and decreased TC and LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05). When BMI was taken into account,all the subjects with low, medium, or high BMI experienced decreases of TC and LDL cholesterol although some changes were not significant. No significant decrease of HDL cholesterol was found, while significantly increased HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (apo A- Ⅰ) were found in the male subjects with low or high BMI (P < 0.05). Significant increase of triacylglycerol was observed only in the female subjects with low or medium BMI. In conclusion, subjects with different BMI and gender have different triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol responses to LF-HC diets, and significant increase of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A- Ⅰ were observed in some young male subjects.%目的 探讨低脂高糖膳食对中国汉族青年血脂及载脂蛋白的影响.方法 我室招募健康在校大学生自愿者56名((22.89±1.80)岁],于7 d平衡膳食后给予低脂高糖膳食6 d,分别在第1 d、8 d、14 d清晨收集受试者人类学指标并抽取空腹静脉血,测定血清甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、血糖(GLU)、 胰岛

  4. 植物甾醇酯奶粉对高胆固醇血症患者血脂水平的影响%Low fat milk powder containing esterified plant sterols improves the blood lipid profile of adults with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建琴; 赵虎; 陈艳秋; 肖菲; 徐丹凤; 谢华; 王彦; 陈敏; 常锡峰; 潘逸茹; 刘渊; 薛惠君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of plant sterol esters ( PSE ) mixed in low fat milk powder (2.5 g of PSE/day) on plasma cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects during a 6-week intervention period.Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 59 subjects (19 males, mean age ( 60.28 ±6.98 ) years ) with primary hypercholesterolemia ( fasting LDL cholesterol between 3.4-6.0 mmol/L) were randomly divided into two groups ( treatment group , 2.5 g of plant sterol esters a day, n=30) and placebo group (n=29).Blood samples were collected at week 0, 3 and 6.The primary outcome was change in plasma LDL-cholesterol ( LDL-C).Secondary outcomes were changes in total cholesterol ( TC) , HDL cholesterol ( HDL-C) , triglycerides ( TG) , anthropometry and blood biochemistry.Results LDL-C significantly reduction from baseline ( 4.18 ±0.54 ) mmol/L to ( 3.44 ±0.61 ) mmol/L (-17.7%, P0.05 ) at week 3 and ( 5.43 ±0.77 ) mmol/L ( -13.8%, P <0.05 ) at week 6 in treatment group, from (6.20 ±0.76)mmol/L at week 0 to (5.70 ±0.76) mmol/L (-8.06%, P<0.05) at week 3 and (5.84 ±0.75) mmol/L ( -5.81%, P<0.05) at week 6 in placebo group.PSE-enriched milk did not affect plasma HDL-C level and TG level at both week 3 and week 6.After normalization to the placebo group , the treatment group showed significant reduction in LDL-C and total cholesteron after 6 weeks.The observed difference of reduction was 7.69% ( -0.33 mmol/L, P <0.05 ) for LDL-C and 8.00%(-0.51 mmol/L, P<0.05) for TC between the two groups.There were no significant changes in safety parameters , including blood biochemistry tests during the study period.Conclusion Plant sterol ester enriched milk powder is effective in reducing LDL-C among Chinese hypercholesterolemic subjects at a dosage recommended by EFSA.%目的:观察添加植物甾醇酯的低脂奶粉能否有效降低中老年高胆固醇血症患者的血清低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C )的水平。方法采用随

  5. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...

  6. Effects of the 54G/C polymorphism of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c on changes of serum lipid ratios induced by high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in healthy youth%固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c基因54G/C多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年人血脂比值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 杜娟; 汤慧; 黄鑫; 甘婵芬

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 54G/C polymorphism of sterol regulatory elementbinding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c)on serum lipid ratios and their response to high-carbohydrate/low-fat(HC/LF) diet in healthy youth. Methods After a regular diet for 7 days of wash-out, 56 healthy youth (22.89±1.80 yrs) were given HC/LF diet for 6 days. The regular diet contained 54% carbohydrate, 15%protein, and 31% fat of the total energy. The HC/LF diet contained 70% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 15% fat of the total energy. The serum lipids and glucose were measured on the 1st, 8th and 14th days.The ratios of TG/HDL-C, log (TG/HDL-C), TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. The 54G/C polymorphism of SREBP-1c gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Results No significant difference was found in lipid ratios and glucose at baseline and after regular diet in subjects with different genotypes in either the whole studied population or in males or females only. However, after HC/LF diet, LDL-C/HDL-C was significantly lower in females carrying the C allele than those of GG homozygotes (P< 0.05).Compared with those before HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly decreased in all the subjects (P<0.05). When gender was taken into account, significant increase of TG/HDL-C and log(TG/HDL-C) was found only in females with GG genotype (P<0.05). All the subjects experienced significant decrease of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C regardless of their genders and genotypes (P<0.05). Conclusion The 54G/C polymorphism of SREBP-1c gene can influence the response of TG/HDL-C and log(TG/HDL-C) to HC/LF diet in females. The C allele may be a protective factor to prevent the increase of TG induced by HC/LF diet in females.%目的 探讨固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c(sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c,SREBP-1c)基因54G/C多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂(high-carbohydrate/low-fat,HC/LF)膳食诱导的变化中的作用.方法 对56

  7. The Role of CD14 Promoter-159 C-> T Polymorphism on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by Highcarbohydrate/Low-fat Diets in Healthy Chinese Han Youth%脂多糖受体CD14基因启动子-159位点C/T基因多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the tole of CD14 promoter - 159 C-> T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interaction on the ratios with a high-earbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in a young and healthy Chinese Han population. Methods After a washout diet for seven daye, fifty six healthy young subjects (22. 89± 1. 80 years) were given the HC/LF diet for six days. Twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples were collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The serum lipid profiles and the CD14-159 C->T polymorphism were analyzed. The ratios of triglyceride/high density lipoproteln-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c), log (TG/HDL-c), total cholesterol/high density llpoproteincholesterol (TC/HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c/HDL-c) were calculated. Results The male carriers of the C allele had significantly higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher TC/HDL-c at baseline and after the washout diet, and higher LDL- c/HDL-c only after the washout diet. The female subjects with the TT genotype had higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers of the C allele at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher LDL-c/HDL-c at baseline and after the HC/LF diet, and higher TC/HDL-c only after the washout diet. Compared with that before the HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-c was significantly decreased after the HC/LF diet regardless of gender and the genotype of the CD14-159 polymorphism. LDL-c/HDL-c was significantly decreased in both the male and female carriers of the C allele. TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) were significantly increased only in the female carriers of the C allele. Conclusion In the subjects with C allele, the HC/LF diet is a minor factor and its effects on the lipid ratios can be masked by the effects of the C allele at CD14-159. The interaction between the HC/LF diet and the C

  8. β2肾上腺素受体基因Gln27Glu变异对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值变化的影响%Effects of the β2-adrenergic Receptor Gln27Glu Variation on Changes of Serum Lipid and Apolipoprotein Ratios Induced by A High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet in Healthy Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧国进; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 张珍; 李元昊; 姜喆; 樊梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨β2肾上腺素受体基因(β2AR) Gln27Glu多态性对健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值的影响及在高糖低脂(HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂及载脂蛋白比值变化中的作用.方法 56例健康志愿者,给予7d平衡膳食和6 d HC/LF膳食,于第1d、第8d及第14 d取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂和载脂蛋白(apo) AI、B100水平,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDL-C)、log(TG/H DL-C)、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C、低密度脂蛋白胆同醇(LDL-C)/HDL-C、apoAI/apoB100值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分析β2AR Gln27Glu位点多态性.结果 血脂及载脂蛋白比值的基础值及平衡膳食后,无论是受试人群整体还是将男女分组分析,CC基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间均无明显差异.HC/LF膳食后,在整体受试人群中,G等位基因携带者log(TG/HDL-C)高于CC基因型受试者(P=0.038);男女分组分析发现CC基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间血脂及载脂蛋白比值无明显差异.与HC/LF膳食前相比,在受试人群整体,HC/LF膳食后apoAI/apoB100在CC基因型受试者升高(P=0.021),LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C在CC基因型和G等位基因携带者中均下降(P<0.05).按性别分组后,男性受试者HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/H DL-C在CC基因型及G等位基因携带者均降低(P<0.05);女性CC基因型和G等位基因携带者HC/LF膳食后TG/HDL-C、log( TG/HDL-C)均升高(P<0.05),TC/HDL-C均降低(P<0.05),但LDL-C/HDL-C仅在CC基因型中降低(P=0.037).结论 β2AR基因Gln27Glu多态性G等位基因能够在健康青年女性抑制HC/LF膳食诱导的LDL-C/HDL-C降低.%Objective To investigate the effects of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein ratios and its interaction with high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet on the ratios in healthy youth. Methods After on a washout diet for seven days, fifty six healthy young subjects were given the

  9. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  10. 低热能饼干的研制%Development of Low Sugar Low Fat Biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琳; 吴士云; 刘春平

    2003-01-01

    本文介绍了以面粉为主要原料,辅以豆渣纤维、脂肪、蜂蜜、甜蜜素等主要原料制作低热能饼干的生产工艺,并对影响饼干品质的主要因素进行了研究,得出了低热能饼干的最佳配方为:豆渣纤维、油脂、甜蜜素、蜂蜜的添加比例分别为6%、5%、1%、5%;该饼干具有口感松脆、香甜且低能、高膳食纤维、低脂肪的特点.

  11. Properties of low-fat ultra-filtered cheeses produced with probiotic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Miočinović Jelena; Radulović Zorica; Paunović Dušanka; Miloradović Zorana; Trpković G.; Radovanović Mira; Puđa P.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that in certain numbers may confer a health benefit on the host. Nowadays, there are many dairy products on the market, especially fermented milks, with probiotics, and their popularity is rising. The aim of this article was to investigate the viability of commercial probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI®L10 i Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI®B94, DSM, Netherland) as well as their influence on the changes of comp...

  12. Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.D.; Valinger, D.; Vegvari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC)

  13. Protein Supplementation with Low Fat Meat after Resistance Training: Effects on Body Composition and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Negro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat, providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0 and at the end (week 8 of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; Δ: −1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05 and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; Δ: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01. No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled.

  14. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Vital and Health Statistics Reports Series 6. Cognition and Survey Measurement Series 10. Data From the ... non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and "other," which includes Asian and multiracial. The "other" category is included in ...

  15. Effect of rice fat mimics on texture and microstructure of low-fat yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dan; KONG Baohua; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    This paper made a research on a new kind of rice fat mimics, which was obtained from rice powder hydrolyzed by a -amylase. Through the comparison between the yoghurt added with diverse proportions of above mentioned rice fat mimics and the reduced-fat yoghurt without any fat mimics as well as full-fat ones, the effect of the rice fat mimics in different proportions was examined upon the composition, the microstructure, the texture and the sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yoghurt. The results showed that the yoghurts added with rice fat mimics exhibited similar organoleptic attribute, textual characteristics and acceptability compared to those of full-fat controls(P>0.05), but with lower fat content and looser microstructures.

  16. Direct Quantification of Carotenoids in Low Fat Baby Foods Via Laser Photoacoustics and Colorimetric Index *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Ajtony, Zs.; Bicanic, D.; Valinger, D.; Végvári, Gy.

    2014-12-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC) and by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) at 473 nm. The latter requires a minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of TCC. Results were verified versus UV-Vis spectrophotometry (SP) as the reference technique. It was shown that RC and LPAS (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results for *, = 0.9925 and = 0.9972, respectively. Other color indices do not show a correlation with TCC. When determining the TCC in baby foods containing tomatoes, it is necessary to select a different analytical wavelength to compensate for the effect of lycopene's presence in the test samples.

  17. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, David M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. Ramzi;

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge.......Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge....

  18. Effect of early vitamin A supplementation on cell-mediated immunity in infants younger than 6 mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Alvarez, J O; Wahed, M A; Islam, M A; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    One hundred twenty infants were randomly assigned to receive either 15 mg vitamin A or placebo with each of three DPT/OPV (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus/oral polio vaccine) immunizations at monthly intervals. Sixty-two received vitamin A and 58 received placebo. One month after the third supplementation dose, the response to the delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity test [multitest cell-mediated immunity (CMI) skin evaluation] for tetanus, diphtheria, and tuberculin (purified protein derivative, PPD) was the same in the vitamin A and placebo infants. The number of anergic infants was 17 (27%) and 19 (33%) in the vitamin A and placebo groups, respectively. The number of positive tests among well-nourished infants was significantly higher than that in malnourished infants irrespective of supplementation (P 0.7 mumol/L) after supplementation, the vitamin A-supplemented infants had a significantly higher proportion of positive CMI tests than the placebo infants (chi-square test: 8.99, P = 0.008). Among the infants with low serum retinol concentrations ( 0.7 mumol/L) at the time of the CMI test. CMI was consistently better in well-nourished infants irrespective of supplementation. PMID:8988926

  19. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sc......AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...

  20. The T Allele of the ACAT-2 734 C/T Polymorphism is Associated with the Changes of TG/HDLC, log (TG/HDLC) and LDLC/HDLC Induced by High-carbohydrate/ Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Women%酰基辅酶A:胆固醇酰基转移酶2基因734位点T等位基因与高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年女性TG/HDLC、log( TG/HDLC)及LDLC/HDLC改变相关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the acyl-coenzyme A-' cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) 734 C/T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interactions on the ratios with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat ( HC/LF) diet in a young healthy Chinese population. Methods After a washout diet for seven days, fifty six young healthy subjects were given the HC/LF diet for six days. The serum lipid profiles were analyzed using the twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The ratios of TG/HDLC, log (TG/HDLC) , TC/HDLC and LDLC/HDLC were calculated. The ACAT-2 734 C/T polymorphism was analyzed by restriction fragments patterns after amplified by polymerase chain reactions. Results At baseline, the female carriers of the T allele had significantly lower log (TG/HDLC) than the female subjects with the CC genotype. The male subjects%目的 探讨酰基辅酶A:胆固醇酰基转移酶2(ACAT-2)基因734位点C/T多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂膳食诱导的血脂比值变化中的作用.方法 给予56名健康青年志愿者7天平衡膳食和6天高糖低脂膳食,于第1天、第8天以及第14天清晨抽取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDLC)、log(TrG/HDLC)、总胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TC/HDLC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDLC/HDLC)比值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应限制性酶切法分析ACAT-2基因734位点多态性.结果 女性T等位基因携带者log( TG/HDLC)显著低于CC纯合子受试者,男性CC纯合子受试者TC/HDLC显著高于女性CC纯合子受试者,男性T等位基因携带者log(TG/HDLC)显著高于女性.高糖低脂膳食前,男性T等位基因携带者TG/HDLC、log(TG/HDLC)显著高于女性.与高糖低脂膳食前相比,高糖低脂膳食后男性TC/HDLC、LDLC/HDLC显著降低,不受基因型影响.女性CC纯合子受试者

  1. Low fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, the nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in normal individuals are not well-defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the ...

  2. Investigation on characteristics of low-fat Mozzarella cheese%低脂Mozzarella干酪的品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文旭娟; 赵征

    2009-01-01

    通过设定不同脂肪质量分数,研究了低脂Mozzarella干酪的蛋白水解、TPA质构、功能特性和微观结构.结果表明,低脂Moz-zareUa干酪的各个指标较全脂Mozzarella干酪均有所降低.其中, 脱脂Mozzarella干酪的品质明显降低,接受性差;中脂Mozzarella干酪品质接近于全脂Mozzarella干酪,部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪介于脱脂和中脂Mozzarella干酪之间,也有一定的可接受性.

  3. Storage stability of low-fat sodium reduced fresh merguez sausage prepared with olive oil in konjac gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Mehdi; Herrero, Ana M; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2013-08-01

    This paper evaluates the nutritional values and stability during refrigerated storage of fresh beef merguez sausage as affected by a reformulation process which modified the fat content both by reducing fat (replacing beef fat with konjac gel) and incorporating olive oil (replacing beef fat with olive oil stabilized in a konjac matrix) and by reducing sodium content, replacing sodium chloride with a salt mixture (containing potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride). A preservative (sodium metabisulphite) was also used to extend the shelf-life of the product. The fat was reduced by 32 to 80% and sodium by over 36%. The reformulation did not negatively affect the sensory evaluation. Low microbiota growth rate and biogenic amines were attributed mainly to the presence of sodium metabisulphite. This preservative could be used in the reformulation to enhance safety and/or extend the shelf-life of this type of product.

  4. Avocado Low-Fat Spreads Producing%油梨低脂涂抹物的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志国; 李枚秋

    2002-01-01

    通过各种乳化剂、增稠剂、稳定剂种类及量的复配实验表明,涂抹性能与屈服应力有显著负相关.回归方程分析表明,0.47%复合乳化剂(HLB=6.92)、0.57%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)、0.13%琼脂(Agar)能使制品有较好的涂抹性能,加入0.3%黄原胶,可以提高制品的热稳定性.

  5. Study of Low-Fat Peanut Protein Milk%低脂花生蛋白乳的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳敏; 王风玲

    2010-01-01

    本文研究了用水剂法部分脱脂花生蛋白乳的工艺及工艺条件,比较了3种工艺参数的提油效率,分别为27.6%、46.4%和67.5%的花生乳的风味.研究表明:提油效率在46.4%(提油率19.7%以下)时花生乳的风味变化不显著.

  6. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Plana, Nuria; Bea, Ana María; Ascaso, Juan; Lahoz, Carlos; Aranda, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Una dieta cardiosaludable constituye el tratamiento de primera línea en la hipertrigliceridemia (HTG) aunque la asociación de los diferentes componentes de ésta con la concentración de triglicéridos (TG) en pacientes con HTG no está completamente establecida. Objetivo: Estudiar los patrones dietéticos en una cohorte de pacientes hipertrigliceridémicos y evaluar la asociación entres los diferentes componentes de la dieta y la concentración de TG. Métodos: El estudio, multicéntrico y transversal, incluyó sujetos (n = 1.394) diagnosticados de HTG (TG ≥?2,25 mmol/L) que fueron remitidos a diferentes Unidades de Lípidos pertenecientes a la Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Se realizó una valoración dietética mediante un cuestionario validado de 14 items además de la obtención de otras variables clínicas, antropométricas y bioquímicas. Resultados: Se definieron dos patrones dietéticos mediante análisis tipo cluster. Aquellos pacientes que seguían una “dieta cardiosaludable” (en la que predominaba el consumo de pescado, fruta, verduras, lácteos desnatados y legumbres) presentaron menores niveles de TG que aquellos que mantenían una “dieta no cardiosaludable” (con consumo de carne roja, productos cárnicos procesados, alcohol, bollería y azúcar predominantemente) (3,51 ± 2,41 vs. 3,96 ± 3,61 mmol/L, P = 0,002). El análisis multivariante determinó que el consumo de lácteos desnatados (B: - 0,089; 95% IC: -16,1, -3,1, P = 0,004) y el de alcohol (B: 0,070; 95% IC: 1,1, 13,1, P = 0,022) se asoció significativa, e independientemente de otros factores de confusión, con la concentración de TG. Conclusiones: Un patrón dietético típicamente mediterráneo incluyendo lácteos desnatados y un bajo consumo de alcohol se relaciona con menores concentraciones de TG en pacientes hipertrigliceridémicos, incluso en aquellos con tratamiento hipolipemiante. Queda patente así la importancia y necesidad del refuerzo del consejo dietético en esta población además de futuros estudios que analicen directamente la asociación de éstos y otros grupos de alimentos que permitan el desarrollo y la consecución de recomendaciones nutricionales más efectivas.

  7. Explaining the effects of a 1-year intervention promoting a low fat diet in adolescent girls: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Lea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is important to investigate how interventions work, no formal mediation analyses have been conducted to explain behavioral outcomes in school-based fat intake interventions in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine mediation effects of changes in psychosocial determinants of dietary fat intake (attitude, social support, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on changes in fat intake in adolescent girls. Methods Data from a 1-year prospective intervention study were used. A random sample of 804 adolescent girls was included in the study. Girls in the intervention group (n = 415 were exposed to a multi-component school-based intervention program, combining environmental changes with a computer tailored fat intake intervention and parental support. Fat intake and psychosocial determinants of fat intake were measured with validated self-administered questionnaires. To assess mediating effects, a product-of-coefficient test, appropriate for cluster randomized controlled trials, was used. Results None of the examined psychosocial factors showed a reliable mediating effect on changes in fat intake. The single-mediator model revealed a statistically significant suppression effect of perceived barriers on changes in fat intake (p = 0.011. In the multiple-mediator model, this effect was no longer significant, which was most likely due to changes in perceived barriers being moderately related to changes in self-efficacy (-0.30 and attitude (-0.25. The overall mediated-suppressed effect of the examined psychosocial factors was virtually zero (total mediated effect = 0.001; SE = 7.22; p = 0.992. Conclusion Given the lack of intervention effects on attitudes, social support, self-efficacy and perceived benefits and barriers, it is suggested that future interventions should focus on the identification of effective strategies for changing these theoretical mediators in the desired direction. Alternatively, it could be argued that these constructs need not be targeted in interventions aimed at adolescents, as they may not be responsible for the intervention effects on fat intake. To draw any conclusions regarding mediators of fat-intake change in adolescent' girls and regarding optimal future intervention strategies, more systematic research on the mediating properties of psychosocial variables is needed.

  8. INVESTIGATION ON CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW-FAT MOZZARELLA CHEESE%低脂Mozzarella干酪品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文旭娟; 李永青; 赵征

    2009-01-01

    通过设定不同脂肪含量,研究低脂Mozzarella干酪的蛋白水解、TPA质构、功能特性和微观结构.结果表明,低脂Mozzarella干酪的各个指标较全脂Mozzarella干酪均有所降低.其中,脱脂Mozzarella干酪的品质明显降低,接受性差;中脂Mozzarella干酪品质接近于全脂Mozzarella干酪,部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪介于脱脂和中脂Mozzarella干酪之间,具有可接受性.

  9. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D;

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusion: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  10. Effects of low-fat and high-fat meals on steady-state pharmacokinetics of lapatinib in patients with advanced solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, Lot A; Koch, Kevin M; Mergui-Roelvink, Marja; Matthys, Gemma M; Ma, Wen Wee; Robidoux, Andre; Stephenson, Joe J; Chu, Quincy S C; Orford, Keith W; Cartee, Leanne; Botbyl, Jeff; Arya, Nikita; Schellens, Jan H M

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To quantify the effect of food on the systemic exposure of lapatinib at steady state when administered 1 h before and after meals, and to observe the safety and tolerability of lapatinib under these conditions in patients with advanced solid tumours. METHODS: This was a three-treatment, randomi

  11. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriz, Elba; Laliena, A; Vallejo, D; Tuñón, M J; Rodríguez-López, J M; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; García-Fernández, M C

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las posibilidades de tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple (EM) se encuentran limitadas principalmente a terapias con inmumoduladores en las formas no progresivas de EM. Los estudios de intervención nutricional sugieren que la dieta puede considerarse como un tratamiento alternativo para controlar la progresión de la enfermedad. Por esta razón, las intervenciones en la dieta pueden ayudar a mejorar el bienestar y mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes con EM. Objetivos: Valorar el efecto de una dieta pobre en grasas con suplementación de antioxidantes en los marcadores bioquímicos de pacientes institucionalizados que presentan formas progresivas de EM. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo aleatorizado controlado por placebo con 9 participantes, 5 de los cuales se asignan al grupo de intervención (dieta baja en grasas y suplementación antioxidante) y los 4 restantes al grupo placebo (dieta baja en grasas). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención dietética que supone modificación de la dieta e introducción de antioxidantes durante 42 días mediante valoraciones de parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos y marcadores del estrés oxidativo en sangre y orina en las etapas inicial (día 0), intermedia (día 15) y final (día 42) del tratamiento. Resultados: Se obtuvieron niveles de proteína C reactiva significativamente inferiores en el grupo de intervención con respecto al grupo placebo al final del estudio. Los marcadores de estrés oxidativo e inflamación: isoprostanos 8-iso-PGF2e interleucina IL-6 también disminuyeron en el grupo de intervención después de la intervención dietética. La actividad de la enzima catalasa aumentó de forma significativa en el grupo de intervención antes de la suplementación con antioxidantes. No se observaron diferencias significativas en otros marcadores de estrés oxidativo. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la dieta y los suplementos dietéticos están involucrados en la modulación del metabolismo celular y los procesos de inflamación de la EM. En consecuencia, las dietas bajas en grasas y los suplementos antioxidantes podrían ser utilizados como terapias alternativas en el tratamiento de la EM.

  12. Effects of feeding diets containing different fat supplements to swine on the visual properties and storage stability of low-fat sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Ahmed, P O; Shackelford, S D; Haydon, K D; Reagan, J O

    1993-01-01

    Sixty barrows and gilts were assigned to one of five dietary treatments consisting of a control diet of corn and soybean meal and four similar test diets that contained a 10% replacement of either animal fat, safflower oil, sunflower oil or canola oil, to determine the effects of high levels of oleic acid in the diet of swine on the storage stability of fresh pork sausage. Pork trim from each treatment was used to formulate sausage that contained two fat levels (25% and 35%), and two levels of added water (3% and 11%). Thiobarbituric acid values did not differ between the control, safflower oil or sunflower oil treatments and all treatments were acceptable after 10 weeks of storage. Microbial numbers increased with the level of added water and during time in storage (up to 3 weeks). Visual evaluation showed that the control was the most red and least discolored, while the canola oil treatment was the least red and the most discolored. Results from the present study suggest that a 105 replacement of a typical corn/soybean meal diet to swine with safflower or sunflower oil did not alter the storage-stability of fresh pork sausage.

  13. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in Low-fatted Milk by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Rhim, Seong-Ryul; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and specific PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus in foods was developed to reduce the detection time and to increase sensitivity. Multiplex PCR developed in this study produced only actA, fliC, hbl, invA, ileS amplicons, but did not produce any non-specific amplicon. The primer sets successfully amplified the target genes in the multiplex PCR without any non-specific or additional bands on the other strains. The multiplex PCR assays also amplified some target genes from five pathogens, and multiplex amplification was obtained from as little as 1 pg of DNA. According to the results from the sensitivity evaluation, the multiplex PCR developed in this study detected 10 cells/mL of the pathogens inoculated in milk samples, respectively. The results suggested that multiplex PCR was an effective assay demonstrating high specificity for the simultaneous detection of five target pathogens in food system. PMID:26761507

  15. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Sirjani; Foroogh Azam Taleban; Azita Hekmatdoost; Zohreh Amiri; Michael Pellizzon; Mehdi Hedayati; Katayoon Bidad; Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti; Zahra Pourpak

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/ osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflamm...

  16. Highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk by field-enhanced sample injection based CE in bubble cell capillary

    OpenAIRE

    DENG, YAN; Gasilova, Natalia; Qiao, Liang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Girault, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics with a broad activity spectrum against mycoplasma, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Due to the extensive use of fluoroquinolones in farming and veterinary science, there is a constant need in the analytical methods able to efficiently monitor their residues in food products of animal origin, regulated by Commission Regulation (European Union) no. 37/2010. Herein, field-enhanced sample injection for sample stacking prior the CZE se...

  17. Nisin延长低脂再制干酪保质期的应用%Application of Nisin in extending the shelf-life of low fat cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖

    2010-01-01

    Nisin已广泛应用于食品保质期的研究中,本试验研究在贮存过程中,Nisin对低脂再制干酪细菌、肠杆菌、霉菌和酵母菌的抑菌效果及pH的变化.在低脂再制干酪样品中,空白样品贮藏到5个月时,样品变质不可食用,添加0.2%、0.3% Nisin的样品到6个月时,细菌总数、肠杆菌、酪霉菌和酵母菌合格,而添加0.2% Nisin、0.3% Nisin抑菌效果差异不显著,因此添加0.2% Nisin为宜.随着贮藏期时间的增加,pH显著增加.

  18. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  19. 低脂低糖曲奇饼的研制%Development of low-fat and low-sugar cookies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊; 谢浩鹏

    2016-01-01

    以蔗糖酯和菊粉混合物代替部分油脂,以甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇混合物代替部分白砂糖,以降低曲奇本身的油脂量和糖量。研究结果表明,当面粉100 g,白砂糖15 g,黄油48 g,油脂替代物12 g,蔗糖替代物7 g,得到的曲奇饼干质量最佳,口感和风味与传统曲奇接近,其中油脂替代物中菊粉和蔗糖酯的混合物比例为4∶6,蔗糖替代物中甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇的混合物比例为1∶30。%In this paper,using the mixture of sucrose ester and inulin to replace part of fat, stevioside and erythritol to replace part of sugar, in order to reduce the amount of fat and sugar in the cookies. The results show: it will get the best quality of cookies when 100 g flour adding 15 g sugar,48 g butter,12 g fat substitutes,7g sucrose substitutes,the taste and flavor of cookies are close to the traditional one. The ratio of the inulin and sucrose ester is 4∶6 in the fat substitutes , the ratio of stevioside and erythritol is 1∶30 in the sucrose substitutes.

  20. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  1. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J;

    1999-01-01

    -reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...

  2. Application of Bacterial Cellulose to Low-Fat Sausage%细菌纤维素在低脂肉肠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛璐; 杨谦; 李晓东

    2005-01-01

    本研究使用醋杆菌Acetobacter xylinumC5,利用大豆乳清发酵得到的细菌纤维素作为脂肪模拟物和乳化剂,应用到肉肠的加工当中.实验证明,细菌纤维素可以部分,甚至完全替代肉肠中的肥肉.含有大豆乳清细菌纤维素的肉肠,在外观、风味、口感等方面与普通肉肠没有明显差别.将卡拉胶与细菌纤维素配合使用,可以赋予肉肠更良好的口感和组织状态.添加细菌纤维素的肉肠的热量减少了28%~56%.

  3. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets decrease primary bile acid synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Bandsma, RHJ; Stellaard, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat content influences bile salt metabolism, but quantitative data from controlled studies in humans are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the effect of dietary fat content on the metabolism of primary bile salts. Design: The effects of eucaloric extr

  4. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter.

  5. Effects of High and Low Fat Dairy Food on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyne R Benatar; Karishma Sidhu; Stewart, Ralph A H

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Clear guidelines on the health effects of dairy food are important given the high prevalence of obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and increasing global consumption of dairy food. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of increased dairy food on cardio metabolic risk factors. DATA SOURCES: Searches were performed until April 2013 using MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google,Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of ...

  6. A novel process for preparing low-fat peanuts: Optimization of the oil extraction yield with limited structural and organoleptic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Joelle; Fawaz, Nada; Afif, Charbel; Louka, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to extract the maximum amount of oil from peanuts without causing major damage and preserving their organoleptic quality after defatting. Accordingly, a successful, healthy, eco-friendly and economic defatting process for peanuts was implemented using mechanical oil expression, which was optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology. The results demonstrated that maximum extraction yields were obtained at a low initial moisture content (5-7% d.b.). Defatting and deformation ratios were mostly affected by the pressure and water content with high correlation coefficients (98.4% and 97.5%, respectively), and overall acceptability decreased following higher oil extraction yields. It was concluded that the optimum values for the product moisture content, pressure, and pressing duration were 5% d.b., 9.7 MPa and 4 min, respectively, with a defatting ratio of 70.6%. This resulted in an insignificant irreversible deformation ratio (<1%) and an overall acceptability of 7.6 over 10.

  7. Beneficial effect of CLOCK gene polymorphism rs1801260 in combination with low-fat diet on insulin metabolism in the patients with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation at the Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) locus has been associated with lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, it has been suggested that the disruption of the circadian system may play a causal ro...

  8. Does social support really help to eat a low-fat diet? : Main effects and gender differences of received social support within the Health Action Process Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Urte; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Knoll, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most theories of health-behavior change focus exclusively on individual self-regulation without taking social factors, such as social support, into account. This study's first aim was to systematically test the added value of received instrumental and emotional social support within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in the context of dietary change. In the social support literature, gender effects emerge with regard to the effectiveness of social support. Thus, a second ai...

  9. 微波/磷钨钼酸催化下的无溶剂合成查尔酮%Synthesis of Chalcones Catalyzed with H3PW6Mo6O4O without Solvent under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文斌; 朱荣鑫; 赵菲; 王小燕; 金永生

    2011-01-01

    首次报道了一种采用微波及二氧化钛负载的磷钨钼酸在无溶剂条件下催化合成查尔酮的方法,反应收率达到文献报道水平.该反应条件温和,反应时间短,易与产品分离、对环境污染小.

  10. Effect of hydrolysis whey protein on quality of low-fat Mozzarella cheese%改性乳清蛋白对低脂Mozzarella干酪品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐乙文; 刘会平; 李艳霞

    2010-01-01

    将自制脂肪替代品-改性乳清蛋白加入到经标准化的牛奶中,采用无盐渍新工艺方法代替传统方法制作低脂Mozzarella干酪,通过干酪品质测定,确定改性乳清蛋白的最适添加量以及对低脂Mozzarella干酪品质的影响.结果表明:脂肪替代品的最适添加量为1.5%.与全脂组相比.虽然低脂组在风味上存在-定差距.但可满足人们追求健康的现实需要,并且脂肪替代品的加入可增加干酪的亮度值.降低黄度值,对褐变性影响不大,但结构比较致密.

  11. Effects of Irradiation on Volatile Compounds of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese During Ripening%辐照对低脂Mozzarella干酪成熟过程中挥发性风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲; 郝教敏; 杨华; 朱迎春; 杨珍平

    2014-01-01

    采取0、1、3、5 kGy不同剂量辐照低脂Mozzarella干酪,研究不同剂量辐照对其成熟过程中的理化指标和挥发性风味化合物的影响.结果表明:辐照对低脂Mozzarella干酪成熟过程中脂肪的含量、pH值4.6 SN、12% TCA SN有显著的影响(P<0.05),对其它理化指标的影响均不显著(P<0.05).不同成熟期内,不同剂量辐照处理后对低脂Mozzarella干酪中挥发性风味化合物的影响不同,辐照对低脂Mozzarella干酪中的酮类、酸类、醇类、酚类、酯类的种类和含量影响较大,5kGy辐照后的影响大于其它辐照剂量处理的,对其它挥发性化合物的影响较小,不同辐照剂量与挥发性化合物形成之间没有特定的影响规律.

  12. 脂肪质量分数对低脂Mozzarella干酪微观结构的影响%Influence of fat contents on microstructure of low-fat Mozzarella cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文旭娟; 孟德勇; 李永青; 赵征

    2009-01-01

    使用扫描电子显微镜观察了不同脂肪质量分数低脂Mozzarella干酪成熟0 d及30 d的微观结构.结果表明,以全脂Mozzarella干酪为对照,成熟0 d时,脱脂及部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪蛋白结构致密,中脂Mozzarella干酪网络结构较明显,且有一定数量的孔洞;成熟30 d时,脱脂Mozzarella干酪变化较小,部分脱脂Mozzarella干酪仅光滑度提高,中脂Mozzarella干酪则接近于全脂Mozzarella干酪.

  13. Effect of hydrophilic colloid on thermal stability of low fat meat emulsion products%亲水胶体对低脂肉糜加热稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲; 周萍

    2008-01-01

    研究了四种亲水胶体对低脂肉糜加热稳定性的影响.结果表明:四种亲水胶体的最佳配比为大豆分离蛋白2.0%,魔芋精粉2.0%,黄原胶0.5%,卡拉胶0.4%,按此最佳配比添加于肉糜中,在80℃下,加热1.5 h,加热稳定性好.感官品质佳.

  14. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkis Karin S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD, such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA, greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3 years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX, which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04. In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women.

  15. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  16. 豌豆、大豆蛋白适度改性在低脂植脂奶油中的应用%Application of moderate modified pea protein and soybean protein in low-fat whipped cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 蒋将; 刘元法

    2013-01-01

    研究了酸、碱处理豌豆、大豆蛋白的添加对植脂奶油乳状液的表观黏度、搅打后奶油脂肪部分聚集率、搅打起泡率、泡沫稳定性以及流变性质、感官品质的影响.结果表明:豌豆、大豆蛋白适度改性有利于其乳化性、起泡性的提高.酸处理的大豆蛋白和碱处理的豌豆蛋白替代部分脂肪,可增加界面膜的黏弹性,一定程度促进脂肪球的部分聚集,提高泡沫的稳定性,并获得较好的流变性质、感官品质.考虑到风味因素的影响,最终选择用碱处理豌豆蛋白替代2%脂肪制作低脂植脂奶油,其搅打起泡率为351.9%,泡沫稳定性为90 min,屈服应力为130.3 Pa,脂肪部分聚集率为80.3%.

  17. 稳定剂和乳化剂对低脂冰淇淋品质的影响%Influence of Stabilizer and Emulsifier on Quality of Low Fat Ice Cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁博; 许时婴; 冯忆梅

    2003-01-01

    实验研究了一种稳定剂和两种乳化剂对低脂冰淇淋品质的影响.通过测定冰淇淋浆料的流变性质和脂肪失稳能力,以及冰淇淋的膨胀率和抗融化性,得出在低脂冰淇淋中稳定剂的添加量最佳质量分数为0.45%,由单甘酯和吐温80复配乳化剂的添加量最佳质量分数为0.1%.

  18. Study on production process of low-fat chicory dietary fiber set yogurt%低脂菊苣膳食纤维凝固型酸奶的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云月英; 韩铖铖; 王文龙

    2011-01-01

    以菊苣膳食纤维和脱脂乳粉为原料,通过乳酸菌发酵生产一种低脂凝固型酸奶.通过单因素试验和均匀设计试验,初步确定最佳发酵工艺条件为:菊苣膳食纤维2.08%,脱脂乳粉12.7%,蔗糖7.06%,发酵剂接种量为0.8 g/L,发酵温度为42.8℃,发酵时间为7.5 h.%A low-fit set yoghurt was prepared with mixture of chicory dietary fiber and skimmed milk powder and by fermentation with Lac-tobacillus starter. The optimum fermentation conditions were determined by single factor and uniform design, which were as follows: chicory dietary fiber 2.08%, skimmed milk powder 12.7%, sugar 7.06%, Lactobacillus starter inoculum by 5%, fermentation under 42.8 ℃ for 7.5 h.

  19. Technological and sensory quality of restructured low-fat cooked ham containing liquid whey Características tecnológicas e sensoriais de apresuntados com baixo teor de gordura elaborados com soro de leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Pereira Dutra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid whey to replace water (at 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% in a restructured cooked ham formulation was studied and several technological and sensory quality properties were determined. The test results showed no statistically significant differences (P 0.05 less reddish (a* value reduction and more grayish and yellowish (lesser C* and higher h values with higher whey additions. A lower (P 0.05. These results suggest that up to 38% natural fresh liquid whey can be added to a restructured cooked ham formulation with similar results to products cured with a conventional formulation.As propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais de apresuntados elaborados com soro de leite em substituição à água de formulação (0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% foram avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos testes de perda de peso (cozimento, refrigeração, reaquecimento e ciclo de congelamento e na textura objetiva (teste TPA. No entanto, para a cor objetiva (CIELAB, as amostras se apresentaram (P 0,05 afetada. Esses resultados sugerem que até 38% de soro de leite natural e fresco pode ser adicionado a uma formulação de apresuntado com resultados similares aos produtos curados com uma formulação convencional.

  20. Effects of storage time on compositional, micro-structural, rheological and sensory properties of low fat Iranian UF-Feta cheese fortified with fish oil or fish oil powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbod, Farzad; Kalbasi, Ahmad; Moini, Sohrab; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Razavi, Hadi; Mortazavi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The fish oil (FO), and fish oil powder (FOP) at 10 % of recommended daily intake (RDI) were used to make two types of fortified feta cheeses. The physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of ripened samples at 0, 30, and 60th days of cold store (5 °C) showed that the FO samples had a faster pH reduction, higher MSNF (milk solid non-fat) increase (p < 0.05) and more pores formation. Storage (G') and loss (G") moduli for both samples decreased until the 30th day of cold storage and then increased until the end of the storage time but both of them were higher for FOP samples. The index of secondary lipid oxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of FO was lower than FOP samples. Although the polyunsaturated fatty acids of both samples were much higher than common feta cheese, their degradation in FO was less than FOP samples after storage. The sensory scores of FO were significantly higher than FOP sample (P < 0.05), and it obtained up to 70 % of overall acceptability after 30 and 60 days storage for its better hardness, texture and flavor.

  1. 富含膳食纤维的低脂肪燕麦香肠配方研究与优化%Research and formula optimization of oatmeal sausage with rich dietary fiber and low fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯凯; 张丽萍; 井雪莲

    2015-01-01

    将不同处理的燕麦辅料添加到传统香肠中,以加工一种富含膳食纤维的低脂肪燕麦香肠.研究燕麦整粒米、破碎米、粉3种添加形态及其添加量对香肠感官品质的影响,探讨了加工技术及最佳配方.以燕麦香肠的感官品质为检测指标,针对燕麦、淀粉、蛋白及脂肪的添加量进行单因素实验,并对结果进行响应面优化,最终确定燕麦香肠的配方(以100 9肉计)为:燕麦破碎米添加量15.8%、马铃薯淀粉添加量3%、大豆蛋白添加量2.2%,脂肪(猪肉肥膘)添加量13%.制得的燕麦香肠比传统香肠脂肪含量降低了15.5%,膳食纤维质量分数达2.01%.

  2. Smarter snack ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mini-bagels with tomato sauce and low-fat cheese (low-fat version of a pizza) Whole grain flavored rice cakes (like caramel or apple cinnamon) Air-popped popcorn (without added butter) Veggies with low-fat or fat-free dip Low-fat cottage cheese topped with fruit or spread on whole-wheat ...

  3. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  4. 跨理论模型对促进高血压患者低脂饮食的效果研究%Effect study for the low-fat diet promoting for patients with hypertension by trans-theoretic model based education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小芳; 薛小玲; 汪国成

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨跨理论模型(Trans-theoretic Model,TTM)在促进高血压患者进低脂饮食的效果.方法 在苏州某医院通过方便取样方法,收集125例有高脂饮食习惯或进低脂饮食未超过5年的高血压患者作为研究对象,将其随机分为干预组(63例)和对照组(62例).干预组接受基于跨理论模型的高脂饮食干预措施,对照组则接受常规饮食教育.出院后1个月、3个月、6个月,比较两组患者之间高脂饮食改变阶段、高脂膳食评价得分、血压、体重指数及血脂的差别.结果 干预组出院后1个月、3个月及6个月行为改变阶段高于对照组(P<0.01).干预组患者高脂膳食评分低于对照组(P<0.01),出院后6个月,两组患者之间血压、高密度脂蛋白差异有显著意义(P<0.05),两组患者之间体重差异无显著意义(P>0.05).结论 跨理论模型建构的健康教育,可促进高血压患者提高进低脂饮食意愿及减少高脂食物的摄入.

  5. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. Connie W. Bales, ... 3 cups of low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, or other milk products; and no more ...

  6. 为糖尿病人用的肠内营养%Enteral nutrition for patients with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.Inclusion of fiber blone,in liquid formulas does not improve the glycemic response.Options for improving the metabolic response to liquid diets include the replacement of some carbohydrate with protein,MUFA or slowly digested carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.Studies conducted throughout the 1980's demonstrated that high carbohydrate liquid enteral formulas result in poor metabolic control in diabetic patients.These studies showed that reduced carbohydrate levels,increased dietary MUFA,and solid food could improve metabolic control and reduce risk factors for macrovascular disease.Garge A et al studied the effects of high carbohydrate solid food diets on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus1.The subjects were randomly assigned to receive first one diet and then the other,each for 28 days,in a metabolic ward.The high-carbohydrate diet had 25 percent of calories from fat and 60 percent from carbohydrate.The high-monounsaturated-fat diet was 50 percent fat(33 percent of the total calories were from monounsaturated fatty acids)and 35 percent carbohydrate.As compared with the high-carbohydrate diet,the high-monounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower mean plasma glucose levels and reduced insulin requirements;urinary glucose losses were higher for subjexts consuming the high-carbohydrate diet (table 1).As compared with the high carbohydrate diet,the high-monounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower levels of plasma triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;they were lower by 25 and 35 percent,respectively.The high-MUFA-fat diet also resulted in higher levels of high-density lipoprotein choleterol.Levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differsignificantly between subjects on the two diets.These investigators concluded that partial replacemtn of complex carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty acids in the diets of people with type

  7. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for lunch; and beans, salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce and low-fat mozzarella or soy cheese. Try whole-grain crackers with low-fat cheese ...

  8. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  9. Pregnancy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can build and maintain cells, tissues, and organs. Healthy food choices like fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and pastas, non-fat or low-fat milk products, and low-fat protein sources, such as lean red meat, poultry without ...

  10. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  11. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  12. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and ... like a turkey or chicken sandwich, cereal and milk, chicken noodle soup and yogurt, or pasta with ...

  14. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the bowel absorption and can lead to stone formation. The gallbladder is not stimulated to empty as ... Jenny Craig or Nutrisystem being associated with gallstone formation because low fat diets don’t stimulate the ...

  15. Understanding Side Effects of Drug Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by drug therapy. Low-fat dairy products like milk, cottage cheese and yogurt also supply a good amount of protein and calcium, along with other important vitamins and minerals. People living with cancer have different nutrition goals ...

  16. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and iron, you need a whole bunch of other vitamins and minerals that do everything from help you access energy ...

  17. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  18. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. ... protein. This usually means protein from animal origin, lean meats, fish, eggs, and you want to include ...

  19. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  20. Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will likely suggest certain lifestyle changes: Eat healthy foods: This includes whole grains, lean proteins, low-fat dairy, and plenty of fruits and vegetables. Watch portion sizes, and avoid sweets and fried ...

  1. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decrease, but their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that ... calories. Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk ...

  2. Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potatoes, and cream of wheat Applesauce Low-fat ice cream, yogurt, sherbet, and popsicles Smoothies Scrambled eggs Cool ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  3. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requirements decrease, but their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means ... foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. ...

  4. Building a Healthy Vegetarian Meal: Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to plant-based diets. Myth #1: Vegetarians and Vegans Have a Hard Time Getting Enough Protein As ... low-fat or fat-free dairy and eggs. Vegans should consume more protein than their meat- and ...

  5. Kid-Friendly Veggies and Fruits: 10 Tips for Making Healthy Food Choices More Fun for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as the crust. Have tomato sauce, low-fat cheese, and cut-up vegetables or fruits for toppings. Let kids choose their own favorites. Then pop the pizzas into the oven to warm. walnuts, or sunflower ...

  6. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that calorie for ... Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, ...

  7. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. Connie W. Bales, Ph. ... or fat-free milk, yogurt, or other milk products; and no more than the equivalent of 6 ...

  8. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... applesauce, mashed potatoes, low-fat cottage cheese, and dry toast. Eat foods that are high in potassium (bananas, potatoes, and apricots) when you have diarrhea. Eat enough protein and calories to keep your weight up.

  9. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. ... about deep colors, the deep yellow and dark green leafy vegetables. The deep color advice also applies ...

  10. Orlistat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or low-fat dairy items. Cook with less fat. Use vegetable oil spray when cooking. Salad dressings; many baked items; and prepackaged, processed, and fast foods are usually high in fat. Use the low- or nonfat versions of these ...

  11. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  12. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults burn calories being office workers, kindergarten teachers, construction workers, stay-at-home parents, and everything in ... or low-fat milk and milk products. • Including lean meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. • Cutting ...

  13. Lactose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cottage cheese, low fat, 1 cup 206 mg ice cream, vanilla, 1/2 cup 84 mg Source: Adapted ... lactose intolerance based on medical, family, and diet history, including a review of symptoms; a physical exam; ...

  14. School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat. In addition to old standbys, such as peanut butter and jelly, try pitas or wrap sandwiches stuffed ... crackers filled with low-fat cream cheese or peanut butter and jelly) peanut butter and celery sticks veggie ...

  15. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ½ cup cooked beans or lentils 1 Tbsp peanut butter Low fat dairy is also a good source ... and seeds, including almonds, hazelnuts, mixed nuts, peanuts, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, or walnuts (just watch how much ...

  16. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  17. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  18. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  19. Yağı Azaltılmış Et Ürünleri Üretim Tekniği

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU; Tömek, Sumru

    1995-01-01

    Recently food consumption patterns have changed and consumers reduce the fat and caloric content of their diets and they select food products contain less fat. The reduction of fat would be the most effective method for producing low-fat meat products. However the quality aspects of meat products are related to fat content. Production of low-fat meat products would result in substantial decrease in product palatability. Numerous non-meat ingredients are available today as fat replacement and...

  20. Recommendations of the GARIN group for managing non-critically ill patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia and artificial nutrition Recomendaciones del grupo GARIN para el manejo de pacientes no críticos con diabetes o hiperglucemia de estrés y nutrición artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: By means of this update, the GARIN working group aims to define its position regarding the treatment of patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia and artificial nutrition. In this area there are many aspects of uncertainty, especially in non-critically ill patients. Methods: Bibliographical review, and specific questions in advance were discussed and answered at a meeting in the form of conclusions. Results: We propose a definition of stress hyperglycaemia. The indications and access routes for artificial nutrition are no different in patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycaemia than in non-diabetics. The objective must be to keep pre-prandial blood glucose levels between 100 and 140 mg/dl and post-prandial levels between 140 and 180 mg/dl. Hyperglycemia can be prevented through systematic monitoring of capillary glycaemias and adequately calculate energy-protein needs. We recommend using enteral formulas designed for patients with diabetes (high monounsaturated fat to facilitate metabolic control. The best drug treatment for treating hyperglycaemia/diabetes in hospitalised patients is insulin and we make recommendations for adapt the theoretical insulin action to the nutrition infusion regimen. We also addressed recommendations for future investigation. Conclusions: This recommendations about artificial nutrition in patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia can add value to clinical work.Introducción y objetivos: En el tratamiento de los pacientes con diabetes o hiperglucemia de estrés y la nutrición artificial existen muchas áreas de incertidumbre, sobre todo en pacientes no críticos. El grupo de trabajo GARIN tiene como objetivo definir su posición en este campo. Material y métodos: Revisión bibliográfica previa y reunión presencial en la que se discutieron y contestaron preguntas específicas sobre el tema. Resultados: Proponemos una definición de hiperglucemia de estrés. Las indicaciones y las

  1. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in vanilla-flavored soy and dairy products stored at 8 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipparaju, Sireesha; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Slade, Peter J

    2004-02-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes V37 in vanilla-flavored yogurt (low-fat and nonfat) and soy milk (low-fat and Plus) stored at 8 degrees C for 31 days was investigated. Commercial samples of yogurt and soy milk were used. These samples were inoculated with either 10(4) or 10(7) CFU of L. monocytogenes per ml. Sampling was carried out every 3 to 4 days initially and was then carried out weekly, for a total storage time of 31 days. Each time a sample was collected, the pH of the sample was measured. After 31 days, low-fat plain, low-fat vanilla, and nonfat plain yogurt samples inoculated with 10(4) CFU/ml showed 2.5-log reductions in viable cell populations, and nonfat vanilla yogurt showed a 3.5-log reduction. For yogurt inoculated with 10(7) CFU/ml, reductions of 2.5 log CFU/ml were observed for plain low-fat and nonfat yogurts, and reductions of 5 log CFU/ml were observed for vanilla-flavored low-fat and nonfat yogurts. In vanilla-flavored and plain low-fat and Plus soy milk samples, cell counts increased from 10(4) and 10(7) CFU/ml to 10(9) CFU/ml at 7 and 3 days of storage, respectively, at 8 degrees C. Coagulation in soy milk samples was observed when the cell population reached 10(9) CFU/ml. In soy milk, the L. monocytogenes population did not change for up to 31 days. Vanillin had an inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes in yogurt but not in soy milk.

  2. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline. A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001 with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12. During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22, with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001 and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41. However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03, but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction. However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  3. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0; low fat control (T1; low fat with 15% inulin (T2; low fat with 30% inulin (T3; low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4; and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5. The addition of fibers increased the yield (T3 and T5; 98.96%, and the color parameters were slightly reduced (T3. Moisture (61.14% and ashes (6.96% of sausages with inulin and pectin were higher (T5, while shear force, hardness, fracturability, gumminess, and chewiness (T3 and T5 were slightly lower than those of the control. The addition of inulin (T2 increased the sensory acceptance of the sausages (5.75. Fat can be replaced with inulin and pectin in frankfurter sausages to produce healthy and functional products.

  4. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively. PMID:23572690

  5. Consumer behaviour and attitudes towards low-calorie products in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, D J

    1999-01-01

    A number of observations and conclusions can be made based on the data we have just seen: (1) There are large differences across the countries in terms of penetration of 'light' products. (2) The penetration of low-fat products is higher than that of low-sugar products. (3) Penetration of both low fat and low sugar products is higher among women than among men. (4) Penetration of both low-fat and low-sugar products is not dependent on age. (5) Consumption relates to penetration. (6) Consumer concerns about fat are greater than about sugar. (7) Consumer concerns about fat are at approximately the same level across Europe. (8) Concern about fat and sugar seems to increase with age. (9) Overweight is a problem for a third of the population across Europe. (10) Overweight is higher among men than among women. (11) Overweight increases with age.

  6. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (pbasic nitrogen (VBN) value of the low fat samples was significantly higher (pPseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  7. Healthy Option Preferences of Rural Restaurant Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2009-01-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults. PMID:19515859

  8. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup;

    2015-01-01

    with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153....... the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk...... and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean...

  9. Super austenitic stainless steels - a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for flue-gas desulphurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S. [University of Madras, Madras (India). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    1996-12-15

    Potentiodynamic anodic cyclic polarization experiments on type 316L stainless steel and 6Mo super austenitic stainless steels were carried out in simulated flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) environment in order to assess the localized corrosion resistance. The pitting corrosion resistance was higher in the case of the super austenitic stainless steel containing 6Mo and a higher amount of nitrogen. The accelerated leaching study conducted for the alloys showed that the super austenitic stainless steels have a little tendency for leaching of metal ions such as iron, chromium and nickel at different impressed potentials. This may be due to surface segregation of nitrogen as CrN, which would, in turn, enrich a chromium and molybdenum mixed oxide film and thus impede the release of metal ions. The present study indicates that the 6Mo super austenitics can be adopted as a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for FGD plants.

  10. Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression by 9-cis-β-Carotene Rich Alga Dunaliella in apoE-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Harari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Aims. The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice. Methods. In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old were allocated into 3 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%; (3 low-fat diet + β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3 high fat-diet; (4 high-fat diet + Dunaliella. Results. In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  12. Effect of Milk Fat Substitution of Rennet Milk Induced Coagulation on Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Imène Felfoul; Salwa Bornaz; Wiem Belhadj Hmida; Ali Sahli; Hamadi Attia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of milk fat substitution by (W1/O/W2) multiple emulsions based on olive oil in comparison with full and low-fat milks on milk behavior during rennet coagulation. Therefore, based on the turbidimetric and conductivimetric methods, a follow up of enzymatic coagulation is realized. Drainage of renneted gels was followed by syneresis study and cheese yield. The comparison between the coagulation aptitude of low fat milk and milk-olive oil emulsi...

  13. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  14. Empleo de surimi liofilizado en emulsiones cárnicas con bajo contenido en grasa

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Leyva Mayorga; Ramírez, J. A.; M.O. Martín Polo; H. G. Hernández; Vázquez, M

    2002-01-01

    Meat industry is highly interested in developing low-fat meat emulsions, without modifying the organoleptic and textural attributes of the final product. The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of employing freeze-dried surimi obtained from Tilapia nilotica as a functional additive in the formulation of low-fat frankfurters. Model systems of meat emulsions were obtained with two levels of fat, 10 and 20%, and three levels of freeze-dried surimi, 0, 1.5 and 3%. Changes on chemica...

  15. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, C D

    2012-01-01

    Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for severa...

  16. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhen; Li Wenjun; Mao Ting; You Jia; Zhao Feng; Qi Qibin; Shao Mengle; Li Shoufeng; Huang Ping; Liu Yong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR) and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat), low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR), high-fat diet (HC, ...

  17. Danskernes fødevareforbrug i stadig ændring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Astrup, Arne; Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe;

    2002-01-01

    (42% drinking low-fat milk in 2001 versus 28% in 1998) and the greater numbers who did not spread any kind of fat on their bread (40% versus 22% in 1995, for rye bread). Discussion: In general the observed trends point in the right direction in respect of food-based dietary guidelines and other...... recommendations. This indicates that the Danish public has been influenced by the nutritional messages and campaigns stressing fat reduction and increased intake of fruit and vegetables. An important factor in this context is the increasing availability of low-fat milk products on the Danish market. Whether...

  18. 高脂肪食および高砂糖食のラット脂肪細胞におけるインスリン結合およびインスリン作用におよぼす影響

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑, 悟

    1987-01-01

    To clarify on a cellular basis the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of the westernized diet, insulin binding, insulin stimulated 3-o-methylglucose uptake and glucose oxidation were studied in isolated adipocytes from rats fed experimental diets : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the westernized diet), low fat-high sugar diet (10% fat, 50% starch, 20% s...

  19. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study

    OpenAIRE

    S Mishra; Xu, J.; Agarwal, U; Gonzales, J; Levin, S.; Barnard, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting. Subjects/methods: Employees from 10 sites of a major US company with body mass index ⩾25 kg/m2 and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were randomized to either follow a low-fat vegan diet, with weekly group support and work cafeteria options available, or make no diet changes for 18 weeks. Dietary intake, body weight, plasma...

  20. Molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration of vicinal diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Oh, Byung Chang;

    2014-01-01

    The commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24 and other molybdenum compounds are shown to be viable substitutes for the typically employed rhenium compounds in the catalytic deoxydehydration of aliphatic diols into the corresponding alkenes. The transformation, which represents a model system for the v......The commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24 and other molybdenum compounds are shown to be viable substitutes for the typically employed rhenium compounds in the catalytic deoxydehydration of aliphatic diols into the corresponding alkenes. The transformation, which represents a model system...

  1. 木工刨刀的选材和热处理工艺分析%Material Choice and Heat Treatment Process Analysis for Wood-working Planning Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐年富

    2011-01-01

    根据刨刀的工作特点,选择W6Mo5Cr4V2高速钢作为刨刀材料,并进行合理的热处理,大大提高了其使用性能,延长了寿命.%According to the working characters of planning tool, W6Mo5Cr4V2 high speed steel was chosen as the material of planning tool and the rational heat treatment was made so as to improve the operating performance and prolong the worklife.

  2. High-fibre diet and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Lahner; Gianluca Esposito; Angelo Zullo; Cesare Hassan; Claudio Cannaviello; Maria Carla Di Paolo; Lorella Pallotta

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO investigate in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease the efficacy of symbiotics associated with a high-fibre diet on abdominal symptoms.METHODS:This study was a multicentre,6-mo randomized,controlled,parallel-group intervention with a preceding 4-wk washout period.Consecutive outpatients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease,aged 40-80 years,evaluated in 4 Gastroenterology Units,were enrolled.Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease patients were randomized to two treatment arms A or B.Treatment A (n =24 patients)received 1 symbiotic sachet Flortec(c) (Lactobacillus paracasei B21060) once daily plus high-fibre diet for 6 mo.Treatment B (n =21 patients) received high-fibre diet alone for 6 mo.The primary endpoint was regression of abdominal symptoms and change of symptom severity after 3 and 6 mo of treatment.RESULTS:In group A,the proportion of patients with abdominal pain < 24 h decreased from 100% at baseline to 35% and 25% after 3 and 6 mo,respectively (P< 0.001).In group B the proportion of patients with this symptom decreased from 90.5% at baseline to 61.9% and 38.1% after 3 and 6 mo,respectively (P =0.001).Symptom improvement became statistically significant at 3 and 6 mo in group A and B,respectively.The proportion of patients with abdominal pain >24h decreased from 60% to 20% then 5% after 3 and 6 mo,respectively in group A (P < 0.001) and from 33.3% to 9.5% at both 3 and 6 mo in group B (P =0.03).In group A the proportion of patients with abdominal bloating significantly decreased from 95% to 60% after 3 mo,and remained stable (65%) at 6-mo follow-up (P =0.005) while in group B,no significant changes in abdominal bloating was observed (P =0.11).After 6 mo of treatment,the mean visual analogic scale (VAS) values of both short-lasting abdominal pain (VAS,mean ± SD,group A:4.6 ± 2.1 vs 2.2 ± 0.8,P =0.02;group B:4.6±2.9 vs 2.0 ± 1.9,P =0.03) and abdominal bloating (VAS,mean ± SD

  3. 5 Ways to Reach (and Maintain!) a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... portions) and go for water or low-fat milk instead of soda. Eat 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day. Fruits and veggies are about more than just vitamins and minerals. They're also packed with fiber, which means ...

  4. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and minerals. Calcium and iron are two important minerals for athletes: Calcium helps build strong bones to resist breaking and stress fractures. Calcium-rich foods include low-fat dairy products like milk, yogurt, and cheese, as well as leafy green ...

  5. Holidays Are Coming! Time to Start Planning for Healthy Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gradually switch to fat-free or low-fat milk and reduce servings of soda or other sweetened beverages. Choose whole grain foods, such as whole wheat bread or whole grain cereals to get added nutrients, such as minerals and fiber. When shopping, read the Nutrition Facts ...

  6. Fun with Foodella: A Pilot Study for Determining the Efficacy of a 2nd Grade Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Elizabeth M.; Stluka, Suzanne; Wells, Karlys; Wey, Howard; Kemmer, Teresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Fun with Foodella is a nutrition and physical activity workbook designed for elementary-aged youth. The objective was to determine if the Fun with Foodella program increased participant preference for fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and physical activity. Four intervention (53 students) and four control (68 students) schools…

  7. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds ...

  8. Quercetin enhances adiponectin secretion by a PPAR-gamma independent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wein, Silvia; Behm, Norma; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed;

    2010-01-01

    To study possible insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the flavonol quercetin, rats were fed a high-fat diet (19%, w/w) with (HFQ) or without (HF) 0.03% quercetin or a flavonoid-poor low-fat (5%, w/w) maintenance diet (LF) over 4 weeks. Body weight was measured wee...

  9. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  10. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  11. Parametrial fat tissue from high fat diet-treated SKH-1 mice stimulates transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jamie J.; Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Vakil, Priyal R.; Ding, Ning; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Dong, Zigang; Conney, Allan H.; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that decreasing visceral adipose tissue by surgical removal of the parametrial fat pads inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), but not a low fat diet (LFD) indicating that the parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a HFD played a role in skin carcinogenesis.

  12. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in com...

  13. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  14. Stop the Cravings!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cravings. Yearn for potato chips? Buy a brand that's low-fat or fat-free. Desire something crunchy? Skip the chips: try fruit or a salad packed with crisp greens and veggies. Want something sweet? How about baking an apple or even roasting some veggies? Roasting brings out ...

  15. Dairy Intake and Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke – a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Struijk, E.A.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total dairy intake and dairy subtypes (high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 33,625 D

  16. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    2001-01-01

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat, d

  17. 乳化剂产品在欧美市场的应用%Application of emulsifier products in European and the US markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Emulsifier has been widely used in the European and the US food markets, undertakes the task of the valueadded additive. Many food processing can not be without emulsifier, which is used especially in low-fat,low-calorie food at which the consumers are concerned.

  18. Effects of diet history on energy metabolism and physiological parameters in C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Snaas-Alders, S.H.; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding body weight regulation is essential to fight obesity. Mouse studies, using different types of diets, showed conflicting results in terms of body weight persistence after changing from an ad libitum high-fat diet to an ad libitum low-fat diet. In this study, we questioned specifically w

  19. Absence of an inhibitory effect of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed low- or high-fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy percen

  20. The effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of flavor and texture attributes of semi-solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of texture and flavor attributes. A trained panel assessed 21 texture and flavor attributes in one high-fat and one low-fat product of two semi-solids: custard dessert and mayonnaise. The products were evaluated at 10,

  1. Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer.

  2. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D.: In order to get a lot of fiber in your diet, you need to focus on unrefined foods, so ... apples and leave the skin on for the fiber. Narrator: Include plenty of milk or dairy products in your diet as well. Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese ...

  3. META060 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in a high-fat–diet fed mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.C.M.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Darland, G.; Konda, V.; Tripp, M.L.; Bland, J.S.; Voshol, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether a reduced iso-α acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat–diet (HFD) fed mouse model. Methods: Weight gain was monitored for up to 20 wk in mice receiving a low-fat diet

  4. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  5. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, R A; Lee, J H; Truby, H; Palermo, C E; Walker, K Z

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health priority in developed countries and worldwide, and is strongly associated with increased risk and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the association between dairy food intake during adulthood and the development of elevated blood pressure (EBP), specifically comparing the association of EBP with consumption of low-fat dairy foods versus high-fat dairy foods, as well as cheese versus fluid dairy foods (milk or yogurt). Seven databases were searched and five cohort studies selected for inclusion, involving nearly 45,000 subjects and 11,500 cases of EBP. Meta-analysis of consumption of dairy foods and EBP in adults gave a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.94). Separation of high- and low-fat dairy foods, however, indicated a significant association with low-fat dairy foods only (RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.95)). Additional analyses showed no association between EBP and cheese, although fluid dairy foods were significantly associated with a reduced development in EBP (RR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98)). Little heterogeneity was observed among the data presented. This meta-analysis supports the inverse association between low-fat dairy foods and fluid dairy foods and risk of EBP. Understanding these relationships can aid in the development of public health messages involving dairy foods, and supports current recommendations.

  7. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  8. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-fat dairy products may be beneficial for health, but few studies have specifically focused on yogurt. We examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better dietary patterns, diet quality, and metabolic profile. This cross-sectional study included the adults (n=6526) participating in ...

  9. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  10. Arguments for a lower carbohydrate-higher fat diet in patients with a short small bowel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Short small bowel patients suffer from malabsorption due to a strongly reduced small bowel surface. These patients usually get a high caloric high carbohydrate-low fat diet at oral or enteral feeding. At several points our studies demonstrate that the effect of this formula is doubtful. In these pat

  11. Prognostiske markører for vaegttab ved adipositasbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A V; Buemann, B; Gluud, C N;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify prognostic metabolic markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women. Forty female obese patients underwent a dietary intervention of 36 weeks treatment with a 4.2 MJ/d low-fat high carbohydrate diet and were followed-up two and a half years after...

  12. 76 FR 20675 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Experimental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Sciences (e.g., ``Diets containing foods that are a good source of potassium and that are low in sodium may... Low Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for... labels: (1) Health claims, (2) nutrient content claims (e.g., ``Low fat''), and (3)...

  13. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  14. Successful management of congenital chyloperitoneum with fibrin glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Brice; Croaker, David; Squire, Roly

    2003-11-01

    Chylous ascites in children has been treated in a variety of ways, including a low-fat diet, medium chain triglycerides, diuretics, total parental nutrition, surgical exploration, and internal peritoneo-venous shunting. The authors describe a child with persistent congenital chyloperitoneum treated successfully with the application of fibrin glue and recommend this as an effective alternative to traditional approaches. PMID:14614734

  15. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Agriculture recommend that a person eating 2,000 calories a day should have 2 to 2½ cups of fruit; 2 to 2½ cups of vegetables; 7 to 8 ... grains; 5½ ounces of protein; the equivalent of 2 to 3 cups of low-fat or fat- ...

  16. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159217.html Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight Vegetable oils, nuts can ... groups, though less so in those on the healthy fat diets. The low-fat group had an increase of ...

  17. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects tw

  18. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  19. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and...

  20. Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, poultry, seafood l Low-fat, low-sodium cheese l Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced-sodium frozen dinners, peanut ... Canned and pickled vegetables, vegetable juice l Cottage cheese l Frozen ... chips, crackers, salted nuts l Salt and salt seasonings, like garlic salt ...

  1. INFLUENCE OF FAT AND MOISTURE CONTENT ON FOODS ON TRANSFER OF PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfer efficiencies (%) of eight pesticides from a Formica surface to 13 different foods were measured to estimate dietary exposure potential from contacts prior to consumption. the foods were categorized into four groups: 1) high fat, high moisture; 2) low fat, high moisture;...

  2. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  3. Eating out

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sauce are healthier than sauces made with cream, butter, or cheese, or pesto. Look for the word primavera, which ... medium-sized baked potato with a touch of butter or low-fat sour ... toppings such as cheese or bacon. Ask for your dressing on the ...

  4. Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro-) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of

  5. The Effect of Knowledge, Risk Factors and Intent to Modify Diet on Fat Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alice E.; Pope, Janet F.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 94 men and 116 women aged 35-55 revealed that only 18% were aware of dietary recommendations and only 23% correctly estimated their daily fat intake. Those with a history of heart disease or previous nutrition counseling were more likely to have low fat intake. A focus on eating behavior rather than fat intake recommendations was…

  6. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contain... (A) A raw fruit or vegetable Low fat as defined in § 101.62(b)(2) Low saturated fat as defined... the fruit or vegetable. 2 RA means Reference Amount Customarily Consumed per Eating Occasion (§ 101.12... statements. 101.65 Section 101.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Serve whole-grain rolls with dinner ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Offer air-popped popcorn — ...

  8. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Use whole-grain spaghetti and other ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Go easy on the ...

  9. Study Cites the Fats That Could Shorten Your Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based diet with less meat and more alternative protein sources -- such as fish, beans, eggs, and low-fat dairy foods -- can also reduce levels of unhealthy fats," Webb said. And healthy eating doesn't mean having to skimp on ...

  10. Association of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic pigs - Effects of metformin at isoenergetic feeding in a type 2-like diabetic pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Mroz, Z.; Dekker, R.A.; Corbijn, H.; Ackermans, M.; Sauerwein, H.

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)¿treated diabetic pigs to explore if the STZ-diabetic pig can be a suitable model for insulin-resistant, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pigs (40 kg) were meal-fed with a low-fat (5%) diet. Hyperinsulinemic (1, 2, and 8 mU kg¿1 mi

  11. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Autoimmune Diseases in Parents of Children with Infantile Autism: A Case--Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Nedergaard, Niels Jorgen

    2007-01-01

    This register study compared the rates and types of autoimmune disease in the parents of 111 patients (82 males, 29 females; mean age at diagnosis 5y 5mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with infantile autism (IA) with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All parents were screened through the nationwide Danish National…

  13. Complications and treatment of migrated biliary endoprostheses: A review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary stent insertion is a well-established procedure. It is especially successful in treating postoperative biliary leaks, and may prevent surgical intervention. A routine change of endoprostheses after 3 mo is a common practice but this can be prolonged to 6 mo. We reported a colonic perforation due to biliary stent dislocation and migration to the rectosigmoid colon, and reviewed the literature.

  14. Molybdenum-catalyzed conversion of diols and biomass-derived polyols to alkenes using isopropyl alcohol as reductant and solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Gorfo, Ayele Teshome;

    2015-01-01

    , but the reaction requires a homogeneous catalyst, a reductant, and a solvent, which are typically expensive, unsustainable, or inefficient. Herein, we present the use of molybdenum(VI)-based compounds, in particular the cheap and commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, as catalysts for the DODH of vicinal diols...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK102040 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102040 J033081G24 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  16. SwissProt search result: AK070240 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070240 J023047K04 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  17. SwissProt search result: AK120213 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120213 J013039G14 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  18. SwissProt search result: AK065689 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065689 J013039G17 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  19. SwissProt search result: AK100987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100987 J023145F09 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  20. SwissProt search result: AK243342 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243342 J100059N12 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  1. SwissProt search result: AK071864 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071864 J023124B03 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  2. SwissProt search result: AK072861 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072861 J023141H24 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  3. SwissProt search result: AK100964 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100964 J023142C08 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  4. SwissProt search result: AK100163 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100163 J023021D15 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  5. SwissProt search result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  6. SwissProt search result: AK100633 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100633 J023109P12 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  7. Preclinical evaluation of a two-dose vaccination schedule of recombinant Hansenula Polymorpha hepatitis B vaccine in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Deyou; Ma, Rui; Yang, Xuqin; Wang, Xi; Li, Caimei; Zhang, Sucai; Xue, Hesheng; Zhao, Kai; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The current 3-dose regimen of hepatitis B vaccination for infants requiring over 6 mo period may pose the poor rate of compliance and later protection from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of reducing the number of doses of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine.

  8. CD40 ligand is pivotal to efficient control of virus replication in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard;

    1998-01-01

    internal organs approximately 6 mo after virus inoculation. Since the impairment of immune function seems to be more pronounced in CD40L-deficient mice than in mice lacking either CD4+ cells or B cells, these results indicate that CD40L is pivotal to sustain efficient antiviral immune surveillance...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10129-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in-like 1, mR... 80 1e-13 AF196309_1( AF196309 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleriapore B ... 80 1e-13 (Q6...mo sapiens prosaposin-like 1, mR... 79 3e-13 AF196308_1( AF196308 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleria

  10. Does calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade affect platelet function and fibrinolysis to a varying degree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of isradipine and atenolol on platelet function and fibrinolytic activity were studied in 10 male patients with mild untreated hypertension. After a 2-week placebo run-in period, the volunteers were randomized to either isradipine 2.5 mg twice daily or atenolol 100 mg daily for a 6-mo...

  11. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  12. Coordination of lanthanide cation to an Anderson type polyoxometalate anion leads to isomorphous metal-oxide based one-dimensional inorganic solids: Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Tanmay Chatterjee; Samar K Das

    2014-09-01

    One-dimensional isomorphous inorganic polymers containing Anderson type heteropoly anion as a basic building unit, namely [La(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (1), [Gd(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (2), [Gd(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (3), and [Eu(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (4) have been synthesized and studied by the powdered X-ray diffraction, TGA, IR, electronic and ESR spectroscopy, and unambiguously by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Isomorphous compounds 1-4 are crystallized in orthorhombic system with 21 space group. The crystal structure analysis reveals a one-dimensional extended chain in which the Anderson type heteropolyanion, acting as the building unit, is linked by rare earth metal ions in a zig-zag fashion. In the crystal structure, all types of oxygens of the heteropolyanion, lattice waters, lanthanum coordinated waters are extensively involved in O—H…O hydrogen bonding interactions. Compounds are additionally characterized by UV-visible and ESR spectroscopy.

  13. The use of an angularis oris axial pattern flap in a dog after resection of a multilobular osteochondroma of the hard palate

    OpenAIRE

    Dicks, Naomi; Boston, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old neutered male boxer was presented for treatment of a multilobular osteochondroma of the hard palate. The mass was surgically resected and the hard palate defect was reconstructed using an angularis oris axial pattern buccal mucosal flap. No local recurrence was reported 6 mo after surgery.

  14. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  15. Adherence to exercise programs and determinants of maintenance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Paw, M.J.M.C.A.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a randomized controlled trial showing that improvement on some aspects of cognitive function was related to adherence to an exercise program, determinants of adherence and maintenance were further studied. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment were contacted 6 mo after the end of exercis

  16. Autoimmune diseases in parents of children with infantile autism: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2007-01-01

    This register study compared the rates and types of autoimmune disease in the parents of 111 patients (82 males, 29 females; mean age at diagnosis 5y 5mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with infantile autism (IA) with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All parents were...

  17. Cytological Punctures in the Diagnosis of Renal Tumours: A Study on Accuracy and Reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümmerlin, Intan P E D; Smedts, Frank; ten Kate, Fiebo J W;

    2009-01-01

    accuracy and reproducibility of FNA from renal masses. DESIGN: FNAs performed in-bench (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E] stains) from 66 consecutive renal tumours (58 malignant and 8 benign tumours) were presented twice with a 6-mo interval to five pathologists with little experience in renal cytology...

  18. Associations of Perfusate Biomarkers and Pump Parameters With Delayed Graft Function and Deceased Donor Kidney Allograft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, C R; Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Ficek, J; Abt, P L; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Lin, H; Bimali, M; Murray, P T; Rao, V; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Reese, P P

    2016-05-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly used in deceased donor kidney transplantation, but controversy exists regarding the value of perfusion biomarkers and pump parameters for assessing organ quality. We prospectively determined associations between perfusate biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], kidney injury molecule 1, IL-18 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP]) and pump parameters (resistance and flow) with outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-mo estimated GFR (eGFR). DGF occurred in 230 of 671 (34%) recipients. Only 1-h flow was inversely associated with DGF. Higher NGAL or L-FABP concentrations and increased resistance were inversely associated with 6-mo eGFR, whereas higher flow was associated with higher adjusted 6-mo eGFR. Discarded kidneys had consistently higher median resistance and lower median flow than transplanted kidneys, but median perfusate biomarker concentrations were either lower or not significantly different in discarded compared with transplanted kidneys. Notably, most recipients of transplanted kidneys with isolated "undesirable" biomarker levels or HMP parameters experienced acceptable 6-mo allograft function, suggesting these characteristics should not be used in isolation for discard decisions. Additional studies must confirm the utility of combining HMP measurements with other characteristics to assess kidney quality. PMID:26695524

  19. Drooling in cerebral palsy: hypersalivation or dysfunctional oral motor control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, C.E.; Hulst, K. van; Rotteveel, L.J.C.; Jongerius, P.H.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Roeleveld, N.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether drooling in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in general and in CP subtypes is due to hypersalivation. METHOD: Saliva was collected from 61 healthy children (30 males, mean age 9y 5mo [SD 11mo]; 31 females, mean age 9y 6mo [1y 2mo]) and 100 children with CP who drooled (5

  20. Use of the GMFCS in infants with CP : the need for reclassification at age 2 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Rosenbaum, Peter; Helders, Paul J. M.; Palisano, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) over time is described in 77 infants (41 boys, 36 girls) with cerebral palsy (CP; mean age 19.4mo [SD 1.6 mo]; 27 unilateral spastic, 42 bilateral spastic, eight dyskinetic type) and in the same children at follow-up at age 2 to

  1. Lifestyle, participation, and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Berg-Emons, van den R.J.; Meeteren, van J.; Stam, H.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe participation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to explore their relationships with lifestyle-related factors. Fifty-one individuals with a mean age of 21 years 1 month (SD 4y 6mo) years participated (26

  2. Insulin sensitivity in calves decreases substantially during the first 3 months of life and is unaffected by weaning or fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A.J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Priebe, M.G.; Vonk, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Veal calves at the age of 4 to 6 mo often experience problems with glucose homeostasis, as indicated by postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. It is not clear to what extent the ontogenetic development of calves or the feeding strategy [e.g., prolonged milk replacer (M

  3. Long-term effect of wholemeal bread on stool weight, transit time, fecal bile acids, fats, and neutral sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, M A; Elton, R A; Smith, J H

    1986-03-01

    Stool weight, fecal constituents, bile acids, fat, neutral sterols, and intestinal transit time were recorded in 28 subjects over 18 mo. During the first 12 mo the subjects ate white bread. They were studied for an initial period of 7 days, and after 6 mo (study period 1). For the first 6 mo they ate their usual intake of bread, they then increased their white bread intake by 62 g/day for 6 mo (study period 2). The subjects ate a self-selected diet throughout the 18 mo study. During the last 6 mo (study period 3) the subjects replaced white bread by the same amount of wholemeal bread as in study period 2. No increase in stool weight occurred until study period 3 when there was an increase of 20%. There developed a linear relationship between stool weight and intestinal transit time which was not found during the initial first and second study periods. A seasonal influence on serum cholesterol was not observed during the wholemeal bread period. Fecal bile acid excretion was unchanged throughout the experiment.

  4. HIV-1 drug resistance emergence among breastfeeding infants born to HIV-infected mothers during a single-arm trial of triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Zeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nevirapine and lamivudine given to mothers are transmitted to infants via breastfeeding in quantities sufficient to have biologic effects on the virus; this may lead to an increased risk of a breastfed infant's development of resistance to maternal antiretrovirals. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS, a single-arm open-label prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT trial, assessed the safety and efficacy of zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir given to HIV-infected women from 34 wk gestation through 6 mo of breastfeeding. Here, we present findings from a KiBS trial secondary analysis that evaluated the emergence of maternal ARV-associated resistance among 32 HIV-infected breastfed infants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All infants in the cohort were tested for HIV infection using DNA PCR at multiple study visits during the 24 mo of the study, and plasma RNA viral load for all HIV-PCR-positive infants was evaluated retrospectively. Specimens from mothers and infants with viral load >1,000 copies/ml were tested for HIV drug resistance mutations. Overall, 32 infants were HIV infected by 24 mo of age, and of this group, 24 (75% infants were HIV infected by 6 mo of age. Of the 24 infants infected by 6 mo, nine were born to mothers on a nelfinavir-based regimen, whereas the remaining 15 were born to mothers on a nevirapine-based regimen. All infants were also given single-dose nevirapine within 48 hours of birth. We detected genotypic resistance mutations in none of eight infants who were HIV-PCR positive by 2 wk of age (specimens from six infants were not amplifiable, for 30% (6/20 at 6 wk, 63% (14/22 positive at 14 wk, and 67% (16/24 at 6 mo post partum. Among the 16 infants with resistance mutations by 6 mo post partum, the common mutations were M184V and K103N, conferring resistance to lamivudine and nevirapine, respectively. Genotypic resistance was detected among 9/9 (100% and 7/15 (47% infected infants

  5. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactis single-strain starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J R; Brighton, C; McMahon, D J; Farkye, N Y; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-07-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese microenvironment in ways that may affect growth and enzymatic activity of starter or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Additionally, manufacture of low-fat cheeses often involves changes to processing protocols that may substantially alter cheese redox potential, salt-in-moisture content, acid content, water activity, or pH. However, the consequences of these changes on microbial ecology and metabolism remain obscure. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fat content on population dynamics of starter bacteria and NSLAB over 9 mo of aging. Duplicate vats of full fat, 50% reduced-fat, and low-fat (containing cheeses were manufactured at 3 different locations with a single-strain Lactococcus lactis starter culture using standardized procedures. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and sampled periodically for microbiological attributes. Microbiological counts indicated that initial populations of nonstarter bacteria were much lower in full-fat compared with low-fat cheeses made at all 3 sites, and starter viability also declined at a more rapid rate during ripening in full-fat compared with 50% reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of cheese bacteria showed that the NSLAB fraction of all cheeses was dominated by Lactobacillus curvatus, but a few other species of bacteria were sporadically detected. Thus, changes in fat level were correlated with populations of different bacteria, but did not appear to alter the

  6. Indomethacin administered early in the postnatal period results in reduced glomerular number in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A L; Koina, M E; Gubhaju, L; Cullen-McEwen, L A; Bertram, J F; Lynnhtun, J; Shadbolt, B; Falk, M C; Dahlstrom, J E

    2014-11-15

    Indomethacin and ibuprofen are administered to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) during active glomerulogenesis. Light and electron microscopic glomerular changes with no change in glomerular number were seen following indomethacin and ibuprofen treatment during glomerulogenesis at 14 days after birth in a neonatal rat model. This present study aimed to determine whether longstanding renal structural changes are present at 30 days and 6 mo (equivalent to human adulthood). Rat pups were administered indomethacin or ibuprofen antenatally on days 18-20 (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen) or postnatally intraperitoneally from day 1 to 3 or day 1 to 5 (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen). Control groups received no treatment or normal saline intraperitoneally. Pups were killed at 30 days of age and 6 mo of age. Tissue blocks from right kidneys were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, while total glomerular number was determined in left kidneys using unbiased stereology. Eight pups were included in each group from 14 maternal rats. At 30 days and 6 mo, there were persistent electron microscopy abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane in those receiving postnatal indomethacin and ibuprofen. There were no significant light microscopy findings at 30 days or 6 mo. At 6 mo, there were significantly fewer glomeruli in those receiving postnatal indomethacin but not ibuprofen (P = 0.003). In conclusion, indomethacin administered during glomerulogenesis appears to reduce the number of glomeruli in adulthood. Alternative options for closing a PDA should be considered including ibuprofen as well as emerging therapies such as paracetamol. PMID:25186294

  7. Multi-criteria and econometric evaluation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the multi-criteria assessment of four dairy products: “Pomursko mlejko” (Pomurje milk, “Lejko mleko” (light milk, “Fyto mleko” (Fyto milk and “Posneto mleko v prahu” (dried milk. The research was executed by using a multi-criteria methodology, DEX, which was complemented by an econometric analysis for light milk to estimate the trends in production and consumption before analyzed dairy products were implemented on the market. DEXi computer program results indicated that all analyzed milk products were ‘above average’. The econometric model was applied to examine changes in the demand for low-fat milk (light milk. Empirical results showed significant consumer re¬sponse to the increase in the prices of low-fat milk demonstrating income elasticity (1,15 unit.

  8. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets.

  9. Protein matrix involved in the lipid retention of foie gras during cooking: a multimodal hyperspectral imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Laëtitia; Vénien, Annie; Jamme, Frédéric; Fernandez, Xavier; Peyrin, Frédéric; Molette, Caroline; Dumas, Paul; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Astruc, Thierry

    2014-06-25

    Denaturation of the protein matrix during heat treatment of duck foie gras was studied in relationship to the amount of fat loss during cooking. A low fat loss group was compared with a high fat loss group by histochemistry, FT-IR, and synchrotron UV microspectroscopy combination to characterize their protein matrix at different scales. After cooking, the high fat loss group showed higher densification of its matrix, higher ultraviolet tyrosine autofluorescence, and an infrared shift of the amide I band. These results revealed a higher level of protein denaturation and aggregation during cooking in high fat loss than in low fat loss foie gras. In addition, the fluorescence and infrared responses of the raw tissue revealed differences according to the level of fat losses after cooking. These findings highlight the importance of the supramolecular state of the protein matrix in determining the fat loss of foie gras.

  10. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  11. Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

    Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

  12. Physicochemical and functional properties of micronized jincheng orange by-products (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) dietary fiber and its application as a fat replacer in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tian; Huang, Xingjian; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Lufeng

    2014-08-01

    Orange by-products from juice extraction are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to their low market value. However, orange by-products show potential as dietary fiber (DF) and fat replacers in products such as yogurt. This study assessed the benefits of using orange by-products in DF-enriched materials such as DF powders (OP) and micronized DF with ball-milling (MDF). The study also investigated the effects of adding different levels of OP and MDF on the quality of low-fat yogurt. Results show that MDF showed better physicochemical and functional properties than OP, and that 2% MDF as a fat replacer in yogurt retained most of the textural and sensory properties of full-fat yogurt. Therefore, this study showed that MDF is a promising alternative as a fat replacer in low-fat yogurt, without sacrificing good taste and other qualities of full-fat yogurt.

  13. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  14. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  15. Effects of soy-derived isoflavones and a high-fat diet on spontaneous mammary rimor development in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luijten, M.; Thomsen, A.R.; van den Berg, J.A.H.;

    2004-01-01

    /c-neu) mice. Two different exposure protocols were applied, either from 4 wk of age onward (postweaning) or during gestation and lactation (perinatal). In the postweaning exposure study, mice were fed IFs or flaxseed in a high-fat diet. In addition, flaxseed in a low-fat diet was tested. Postweaning exposure...... at necropsy in the perinatal exposure study was significantly increased in the medium- and high-IF dose groups. Comparison of both exposure scenarios revealed a strongly accelerated onset of tumor growth after perinatal high-fat diet exposure compared with the low-fat diet. This study shows that breast cancer......-modulating effects of phytoestrogens are dependent both on the background diet and on the timing of exposure in the life cycle....

  16. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

  17. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  18. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik;

    2010-01-01

    counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P......) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK......Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to...

  19. Adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen prevents obesity-induced hypertension in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gupte, Manisha; Putnam, Kelly; Thatcher, Sean; Charnigo, Richard; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low-fat or high-fat feeding in Agt(fl/fl) and adipocyte angiotensinogen-deficient mice (Agt(aP2)). Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. Basal 24-hour systolic blood pressure was not different in low fat-fed Agt(fl/fl) compared with Agt(aP2) mice (124 ± 3 versus 128 ± 3 mm Hg, respectively). In Agt(fl/fl) mice, high-fat feeding significantly increased systolic blood pressure (24 hours; 134 ± 2 mm Hg; Pobesity hypertension.

  20. Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and milk and body size at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Gamborg, M; Berentzen, T L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal vitamin-D deficiency may be associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Using two national vitamin-D fortification programs as the setting for a societal experiment, we investigated whether exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and low-fat milk...... of 7 years of 54 270 children, who were measured during the mandatory Copenhagen School Health examination, we compared children according to whether the mothers were pregnant during the fortification programs or not. The comparisons were performed for children born just before and after initiation...... overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortification of margarine and low-fat milk showed no association with body size at 7 years....

  1. A healthy Nordic diet alters the plasma lipidomic profile in adults with features of metabolic syndrome in a multicenter randomized dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula S; Kolehmainen, Marjukka;

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known. Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome....... Methods: Men and women (n = 200) with features of metabolic syndrome [mean age: 55 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 31.6] were randomly assigned to either a healthy Nordic (n = 104) or a control (n = 96) diet for 18 or 24 wk at 6 centers. Of the participants, 156 completed the study with plasma lipidomic...... measurements. The healthy Nordic diet consisted of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, berries, vegetable oils and margarines, fish, low-fat milk products, and low-fat meat. An average Nordic diet served as the control diet and included low-fiber cereal products, dairy fat-based spreads, regular-fatmilk products...

  2. Next Generation Orthopaedic Implants by Additive Manufacturing Using Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Murr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM. In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as well as bone cell ingrowth. Implications for the fabrication of patient-specific, monolithic, multifunctional orthopaedic implants using EBM are described along with microstructures and mechanical properties characteristic of both Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy prototypes, including both solid and open-cellular prototypes manufactured by additive manufacturing (AM using EBM.

  3. Effect of combining the metals of group VI supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite as catalysts for non-oxidative conversion of natural gas to petrochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.Aboul-Gheit; A.E.Awadallah

    2009-01-01

    The most prestigious catalyst applied in natural gas (methane) non-oxidative conversion to petrochemicals is 6%Mo/H-ZSM-5.Chromium,molybdenum and tungsten are the group VI metals.Hence,in this work,6%Mo/H-ZSM-5 was correlated with 3%Cr+3%Mo/H-ZSM-5 and 3%W+3%Mo/H-ZSM-5 as catalysts to examine their promoting or inhibiting effects on the various reactions taking place during methane conversion.The catalytic activities of these catalysts were tested in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor at 700℃ and a GHSV of 1500 ml·g-1 ·h-1. Characterization of the catalysts using XRD,TGA and TPD were investigated.XRD and NH3-TPD showed greater interaction between the W-phase and the Bronsted acid sites in the channels of the zeolite than between Cr-phase and the acid sites in the zeolite.

  4. Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R): a performance-based measure of executive function in people with mild cerebrovascular accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, M Tracy; Giles, Gordon Muir; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M; Dromerick, Alexander W; Polatajko, Helene J; Edwards, Dorothy F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes a performance-based measure of executive function, the Multiple Errands Test-Revised (MET-R), and examines its ability to discriminate between people with mild cerebrovascular accident (mCVA) and control participants. METHOD. We compared the MET-R scores and measures of CVA outcome of 25 participants 6 mo post-mCVA and 21 matched control participants. RESULTS. Participants with mCVA showed no to minimal impairment on measures of executive function at hospital discharge but reported difficulty with community integration at 6 mo. The MET-R discriminated between participants with and without mCVA (p ≤ .002). CONCLUSION. The MET-R is a valid and reliable measure of executive functions appropriate for the evaluation of clients with mild executive function deficits who need occupational therapy to fully participate in community living. PMID:23791321

  5. The role of nitrogen in improving pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic and duplex stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of nitrogen alloyed shielding gas on weld nitrogen content and pitting corrosion resistance of super austenitic (6%Mo) and super duplex stainless steels have been studied with special emphasis on microsegregation behaviour of Cr, Mo and N. The measurements performed with the 6%Mo steel indicate that all these elements segregate interdendritically in the fully austenitic weld metal. With nitrogen addition to the shielding gas the enrichment of nitrogen to the interdendritic regions is more pronounced than to the dendrite cores due to which the pitting corrosion resistance of the dendrite cores increases only marginally. In the super duplex steel welds nitrogen enriches in austenite increasing its pitting corrosion resistance more effectively. In these welds the pitting corrosion resistance of the ferrite phase remains lower. (orig.)

  6. The role of nitrogen in improving pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic and duplex stainless steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilpas, M. [VTT Manuf. Technol. (Finland); Haenninen, H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Eng. Mater.

    1999-07-01

    The effects of nitrogen alloyed shielding gas on weld nitrogen content and pitting corrosion resistance of super austenitic (6%Mo) and super duplex stainless steels have been studied with special emphasis on microsegregation behaviour of Cr, Mo and N. The measurements performed with the 6%Mo steel indicate that all these elements segregate interdendritically in the fully austenitic weld metal. With nitrogen addition to the shielding gas the enrichment of nitrogen to the interdendritic regions is more pronounced than to the dendrite cores due to which the pitting corrosion resistance of the dendrite cores increases only marginally. In the super duplex steel welds nitrogen enriches in austenite increasing its pitting corrosion resistance more effectively. In these welds the pitting corrosion resistance of the ferrite phase remains lower. (orig.)

  7. Optical filtering and luminescence property of some molybdates prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. J., E-mail: yadav.pooja75@yahoo.in [Department of Electronics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India); Joshi, C. P. [Physics Department, RCOEM, Nagpur (India); Moharil, S. V., E-mail: svmoharil@yahoo.com [Physics Department, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India)

    2014-10-15

    As an important class of lanthanide inorganic compounds, rare earth ions doped molybdates have gained much attention due to their attractive luminescence and structural properties, supporting various promising applications as phosphor materials in the fields such as white light-emitting diodes, optical fibers, biolabel, lasers, and so on. The molybdate family has promising trivalent cation conducting properties and most of the optical properties result from electron transitions of the 4f shell, which are greatly affected by the composition and structures of rare-earth compounds. In this paper we report the molybdate CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} for red SSL and Bi{sub 1.4}Y{sub 0.6}MoO{sub 6}, Y{sub 6}MoO{sub 12} for optical filtering, prepared by one step combustion synthesis.

  8. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo....... However, children who received micronutrients had a faster gain in height over 6 mo than did those who did not receive micronutrients (height-for-age z score Δ = 0.08; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient supplementation did not modify the weight gain or clearance of lesions on CXR in children...

  9. Theater-Based Community Engagement Project for Veterans Recovering From Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuth, Sally; Pritchard, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the feasibility and acceptability of a 6-wk, interdisciplinary, occupation-based theater project for facilitating community engagement and substance use disorder (SUD) recovery in veterans. All data were collected at baseline, postintervention, and 6-wk and 6-mo follow-up intervals. Of the invited veterans, 24% consented to participate (n = 14), and 50% were retained (n = 7). Average attendance was 91%. Considerable improvements in social and occupational participation were noted at postintervention and at 6-wk follow-up but were not retained at 6 mo. No important change in self-efficacy was noted. Of the participants, 86% remained abstinent for 6 wk following the intervention. Theater provides a feasible and acceptable resource for potentially facilitating SUD recovery. Larger controlled effectiveness studies of theater are needed to examine whether robust and notable recovery outcomes in people with SUDs can be linked to participation in theater. PMID:27294989

  10. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...... centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket...... centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1...

  11. Weight loss is associated with improved endothelial dysfunction via NOX2-generated oxidative stress down-regulation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelico, Francesco; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Augelletti, Teresa; Carnevale, Roberto; Pacella, Antonio; Albanese, Fabiana; Mancini, Ilaria; Di Santo, Serena; Del Ben, Maria; Violi, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adherence to a restricted-calorie, Mediterranean-type diet improves endothelial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. A moderately low-calorie (600 calories/day negative energy balance), low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (syndrome. Participants were divided into two groups according to body weight loss > or syndrome. The coexistent decrease of NOX2 activation suggests a role for oxidative stress in eliciting artery dysfunction.

  12. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.

  13. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...

  14. Role of Sphingolipid Mediator Ceramide in Obesity and Renal Injury in Mice Fed a High-Fat DietS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Boini, Krishna M.; Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a hypothesis that excess accumulation of sphingolipid, ceramide, its metabolites, or a combination contributes to the development of obesity and associated kidney damage. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet (HFD) had significantly increased plasma total ceramide levels compared with animals fed a low-fat diet (LFD)...

  15. Accounting for Product Substitution in the Analysis of Food Taxes Targeting Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Miao; John C. Beghin; Jensen, Helen H.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. This ...

  16. The impact of educational and environmental interventions in Dutch worksite cafeterias

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhuis, I H M; van Assema, Patricia; Breukelen, Gerard van; Glanz, K; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Hein

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEnvironmental interventions as labeling of healthy foods and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet the guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias along with an educational program. The aim of the interventions was to reduce fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake. In the 'Labeling Program', low fat products were labeled. The 'Food Sup...

  17. Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions, and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Satre, Derek; Nancy P. Gordon; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between drinking patterns, medical conditions and behavioral health risks among older adults. Methods: Analyses compared survey participants (health plan members ages 65 to 90, N = 6,662) who drank moderately to those who drank over recommended limits or did not drink. Results: Over-limit drinking was associated with smoking; not trying to eat low fat foods (in men), and lower BMI (in women). Predictors of not drinking during the prior 12 months included...

  18. Bananas, a source of compounds with health properties

    OpenAIRE

    Parfait, Berthe; Aurore, Guylène

    2009-01-01

    Banana has an important place in human nutrition all over the world. It is interesting to analyse banana health preservation potentialities. The medicinal properties of banana are part of the folk medicine of all tropical countries. Bananas are used in special diets where ease of digestibility, low fat, minerals and vitamins are required. These special diets are used for babies, the elderly and patients with stomach problems, gout, and arthritis. Anti-ulcerogenic properties of banana are repo...

  19. Market Strategies in Branded Dairy Product Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Haller, Lawrence E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents the extent of cooperative penetration into branded dairy product markets and presents case study evidence on competitive strategies in the skim/low fat milk, whole milk, cottage cheese, butter, margarine, and ice cream markets. We employ data for 51 local market areas from the Information Resources, Inc. "Supermarket Review" data base for 1988 and 1989. Using national data, we identify the twenty top brands (by volume sales) and all cooperatives that market one or more br...

  20. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies, low-fat dairy products (8 studies, cheese (7 studies and yogurt (7 studies and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97 and 0.88 (0.84-0.93 for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93 and 0.91 (0.82-1.00 for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. CONCLUSION: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

  1. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Dedin FR1); Dedi Fardiaz1,3); Anton Apriyantono2); Nuri Andarwulan3)

    2006-01-01

    Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The ...

  2. Are the consensus screening criteria for a positive 12-lead ECG valid in competitive professional football (soccer) players? A genetic analysis and magnetic resonance imaging correlations

    OpenAIRE

    González Caballero, Eva; Cabrera Rodríguez, José Ángel; Machado, J C; Luna, A.; Caro, P.; Fuertes Suárez, Beatriz; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Bayona, S.; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a significant burden to individuals and society. Diet could potentially improve blood pressure and other metabolic abnormalities secondary to enhanced insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the effects of the Paleo-diet– composed of meats, fruits, vegetables and nuts and excluding high fat dairy products and refined grains –compared to a standard diet based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition guidelines (including low fat dairy products and grains) on cardiova...

  3. The Effects of Olive and Pumpkin Seed Oil on Serum Lipid Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Landeka, Irena; Đikić, Domagoj; Radišić, Iva; Teparić, Renata; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Rogić, Dunja

    2011-01-01

    Low-fat diets increase serum triacilglycerol and decrease HDL-cholesterol concentrations, thereby potentially adversely affecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study compared the CVD risk profi le of a high-MUFA diets (olive oil) and high-PUFA diets (pumpkin seed oil). The most signifi cant difference between the two groups was that the atherogenic index in groups given olive oil was significantly lower (for approximately 60 %) than atherogenic index recorded in control group...

  4. Is it possible to dissociate 'liking' and 'wanting' for foods in humans? A novel experimental procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; King, Neil; Blundell, John E

    2007-01-30

    Berridge's model (e.g. [Berridge KC. Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20:1-25.; Berridge KC, Robinson T E. Parsing reward. Trends Neurosci 2003;26:507-513.; Berridge KC. Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiol Behav 2004;81:179-209]) outlines the brain substrates thought to mediate food reward with distinct 'liking' (hedonic/affective) and 'wanting' (incentive salience/motivation) components. Understanding the dual aspects of food reward could throw light on food choice, appetite control and overconsumption. The present study reports the development of a procedure to measure these processes in humans. A computer-based paradigm was used to assess 'liking' (through pleasantness ratings) and 'wanting' (through forced-choice photographic procedure) for foods that varied in fat (high or low) and taste (savoury or sweet). 60 participants completed the program when hungry and after an ad libitum meal. Findings indicate a state (hungry-satiated)-dependent, partial dissociation between 'liking' and 'wanting' for generic food categories. In the hungry state, participants 'wanted' high-fat savoury>low-fat savoury with no corresponding difference in 'liking', and 'liked' high-fat sweet>low-fat sweet but did not differ in 'wanting' for these foods. In the satiated state, participants 'liked', but did not 'want', high-fat savoury>low-fat savoury, and 'wanted' but did not 'like' low-fat sweet>high-fat sweet. More differences in 'liking' and 'wanting' were observed when hungry than when satiated. This procedure provides the first step in proof of concept that 'liking' and 'wanting' can be dissociated in humans and can be further developed for foods varying along different dimensions. Other experimental procedures may also be devised to separate 'liking' and 'wanting'. PMID:17052736

  5. Nutrients Utilization in Obese Individuals with and without Hypertriglyceridemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Montalcini; Theodora Lamprinoudi; Attilio Morrone; Elisa Mazza; Carmine Gazzaruso; Stefano Romeo; Arturo Pujia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low fat utilization is linked to weight gain and to the presence of certain atherosclerosis markers. It is not clear whether the presence of hyperlipidemia can further affect nutrients utilization. The main objective of this study was to investigate the fasting fuel utilization of obese subjects suffering from hypertriglyceridemia, and to compare it with that of individuals that are solely obese. Method: We recruited 20 obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and 20 matched in...

  6. Mediterranean diet reduces senescence-associated stress in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ramirez, Rafael; Carracedo, Julia; Caballero, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco Miguel; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Yubero-Serrano, Elena Maria; Tinahones, Francisco; Malagon, Maria del Mar; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of the oxidative stress induced by quality and quantity of dietary fat on cellular senescence. Twenty elderly subjects consumed three diets, each for 4 weeks: a saturated fatty acid diet (SFA), a low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (CHO-ALA), and a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) enriched in monounsaturated fatty acid following a randomized crossover design. For each diet, we investigated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS), cellular apoptosis and t...

  7. Increased uncoupling protein 3 content does not affect mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.K.C.; Greenhaff, P L; Constantin-Teodosu, D.; Hultman, E; Saris, W. H. M.; Nieuwlaat, R.; Schaart, G.; Kornips, C.F.P.; P. Schrauwen

    2003-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate following intense anoxic contraction can be used as a sensitive index of in vivo mitochondrial function. We examined the effect of a diet-induced increase in uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression on postexercise PCr resynthesis in skeletal muscle. Nine healthy male volunteers undertook 20 one-legged maximal voluntary contractions with limb blood flow occluded to deplete muscle PCr stores. Exercise was performed following 7 days consumption of low-fat (L...

  8. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy ...

  9. Learning Chemistry and beyond with a Lesson Plan on Potato Crisps, Which Follows a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Lessons--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Bertram, Stefanie; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan on potato crisps for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes in Germany. The lesson plan focuses on the discussion about low-fat and low-carb diets as they are presented in everyday media such as TV or newspapers in Germany. The discussion follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to…

  10. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Laura M.; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A.; Anderson, W. H. Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J.; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Methé, Barbara A.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared ...

  11. Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Scholl

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its...

  12. Kan et nordisk kosthold forebygge utvikling av risikofaktorer for hjerte- og karsykdommer?

    OpenAIRE

    Berild, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Several studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet has a protective effect on cardiovascular risk factors. High intake of vegetables, fruits, olive oil, fish, cereals, low fat dairy products and a moderate consumption of alcohol characterize the Mediterranean diet. However, cultural differences may limit the adherence to the Mediterranea...

  13. Hypercholesterolemia Promotes an Osteoporotic Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Pelton, Kristine; Krieder, Jaclynn; Joiner, Danese; Freeman, Michael R.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    A role for hypercholesterolemia in the development of osteoporosis has been suggested in published reports. However, few studies contain direct evidence of a role for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in bone health. Using isocaloric high-fat/high-cholesterol and low-fat/no-cholesterol diets in a 4-month feeding study combined with micro computed tomography analysis, we demonstrated in two different mouse strains that mice with hypercholesterolemia lose cortical and trabecular bone in th...

  14. Understanding the implications of adopting the Atkins' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Ian

    Obesity-associated co-morbidities cost the UK at least 0.5 bn Pound a year in NHS treatment, and many adults in the UK are trying to lose weight. Dr Atkins' Diet Revolution focuses on the consumption of proteins and fats as primary calorie and energy sources, while severely restricting carbohydrates. However, this contradicts conventional advice, which advocates a low-fat diet and exercise for weight reduction.

  15. Special Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

  16. A low-carbohydrate diet may prevent end-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund Per; Nielsen Jørgen; Bygren Per

    2006-01-01

    Abstract An obese patient with type 2 diabetes whose diet was changed from the recommended high-carbohydrate, low-fat type to a low-carbohydrate diet showed a significant reduction in bodyweight, improved glycemic control and a reversal of a six year long decline of renal function. The reversal of the renal function was likely caused by both improved glycemic control and elimination of the patient's obesity. Insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes patients usually leads to weight increase which ...

  17. Diet quality, nutrient intake, weight status, and feeding environments of girls meeting or exceeding the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for total dietary fat

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Y.; Birch, L. L.

    2002-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children consume no more than 30% but no less than 20% of energy as dietary fat intake, and tills recommendation, is accompanied by suggestions that fat calories should be replaced by eating more grain products, fruits, vegetables, low fat datiy products, beans, lean meat, poultry, fish, and other protein rich foods. In comparing diets of girls meeting this AAP recommendation with girls who consumed diets higher in fat, we noted that gi...

  18. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; P. Chauhan; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed f...

  19. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    OpenAIRE

    Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Joshua Siglin; Lianjin Jin; Simone, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carboh...

  20. Goat meat quality. Effects of salting, air-drying and ageing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A; Gonçalves, I.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Goat meat is one of the most consumed meats in the World and according to Teixeira (2003) Portugal traditionally consume specially kid meat in Easter and Christmas. Goat meat is also an important part of food consumption and the main product of several traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet. As referred by Teixeira et al. (1995), consumers value low-fat, highquality products and therefore, there is an increasing potential development of the goat meat market since the demand f...

  1. The obese Göttingen minipig as a model of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Hansen, Harald S.;

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to induce obesity in the female Göttingen minipig to establish a model of the human metabolic syndrome. Nine- to ten-month-old female Göttingen minipigs received a high-fat high-energy (HFE) diet or a low-fat, low-energy (LFE) diet. The energy contents...... of the metabolic impairments seen in obese humans, and may thus serve as a model of the metabolic syndrome....

  2. Feasibility of computerized brain plasticity-based cognitive training after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Lebowitz, AB; Kristen Dams-O’Connor, PhD; Joshua B. Cantor, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the feasibility and utility of using a computerized brain plasticity-based cognitive training (BPCT) program as an intervention for community-dwelling individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In a pre-post pilot study, 10 individuals with mild to severe TBI who were 6 mo to 22 yr postinjury were asked to use a computerized BPCT intervention—designed to improve cognitive functioning through a graduated series of structured exercises—at their homes in an urb...

  3. Acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Nyska, A

    1998-06-01

    Acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (Canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in Hafez-Haim, Israel. Other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. Although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. No recurrence has been observed. PMID:9732044

  4. Germination and establishment of Tillandsia eizii (Bromeliaceae) in the canopy of an oak forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo-Aceves, T.; Wolf, J.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of repopulating the inner canopy and middle canopy of oak trees with seeds and seedlings of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia eizii. Canopy germination was 4.7 percent, considerably lower than in vitro (92%). Of the tree-germinated seedlings, only 1.5 percent survived 6 mo. In contrast, 9.3 percent of transplanted laboratory seedlings survived 15 mo. To repopulate trees, we recommend transplanting laboratory-grown seedlings, as large as practically possible, to ...

  5. Sensory Evaluation of the Hands in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Tove; Peltonen, Jari; Linder, Tove; Rautakorpi, Sanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory changes of the hand in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). Ninety-five patients (43 females, 52 males) comprising two age groups, 6 to 8 years (mean age 7y 6mo) and 12 to 14 years (mean age 13y 2mo), were included. Sixty-four had upper (cervical [C] 5-6), 19 upper and middle (C5-7), and 12 had total…

  6. Corrosion Behaviour of Annealed Cnx/Tiny Multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-dong; PAN Chun-xu; FU Qiang; ZHANG Fu-ju; ZOU Yang; ZHANG Shao-hua

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers have been investigated using potentiodynamic test in a 0.5MH2SO4 solution. The coating has been deposited on W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel by reactive magnetron sputtering and then annealed at different temperature. The annealed multilayers showed superior corrosion resistance as compared to the as-deposited coating. The corrosion model of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers has been set up.

  7. Corrosion Behaviour of Annealed Cnx/Tiny Multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuo-dong; PANChun-xu; FUQiang; ZHANGFu-ju; ZOUYang; ZHANGShao-hua

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers have been investigated using potentiodynamic test in a 0.5MH2SO4 solution. The coating has been deposited on W6MoSCr4V2 steel by reactive magnetron sputtering and then annealed at different temperature. The annealed multilayers showed superior corrosion resistance as compared to the as-deposited coating, The corrosion model of annealed CNx/TiNy multilayers has been set up.

  8. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    OpenAIRE

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes...

  9. Medical Costs of Abnormal Serum Sodium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Alisa M.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Szczech, Lynda A.; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    An abnormal serum sodium level is the most common electrolyte disorder in the United States and can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The direct medical costs of abnormal serum sodium levels are not well understood. The impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on 6-mo and 1-yr direct medical costs was examined by analyzing data from the Integrated HealthCare Information Services National Managed Care Benchmark Database. During the period analyzed, there were 1274 patients ...

  10. Binding of Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory in Williams Syndrome and Moderate Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, Christopher; Phillips, Caroline; Baddeley, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    A main aim of this study was to test the claim that individuals with Williams syndrome have selectively impaired memory for spatial as opposed to visual information. The performance of 16 individuals with Williams syndrome (six males, 10 females; mean age 18y 7mo [SD 7y 6mo], range 9y 1mo-30y 7mo) on tests of short-term memory for item and…

  11. The use of vascular access ports for blood collection in feline blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Isabelle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C.G.; Sylvestre, Anne M.; Dyson, Doris H.; Allen, Dana G.; Johnstone, Ian B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated vascular access ports for feline blood donation. Eight cats were anesthetized for conventional blood collection by jugular venipuncture at the beginning and end of the study. In-between conventional collections, vascular access ports were used for collection with or without sedation every 6 to 8 wk for 6 mo. Ports remained functional except for one catheter breakage, but intermittent occlusions occurred. Systolic blood pressure was lower during conventional collection. Behavio...

  12. A novel and an efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safari; Shiva Dehghan Khalili; Sayed Hossein Banitaba

    2010-05-01

    (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O has been used as an efficient catalyst for an improved and rapid synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by a three-component, one-pot condensation of benzil, aryl aldehydes and ammonium acetate in good yields under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation. The reactions in conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions.

  13. Sex-specific alterations in mRNA level of key lipid metabolism enzymes in skeletal muscle of overweight and obese subjects following endurance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ira J.; Huffman, Kim M.; Durheim, Michael T.; Duscha, Brian D.; Kraus, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Endurance exercise (EE) leads to beneficial alterations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in overweight and obese individuals; however, the mechanisms of these improvements are poorly understood. The primary goal of the current investigation was to test the hypothesis that long-term EE training (6 mo) leads to alterations in the mRNA abundance of key lipid metabolism enzymes in skeletal muscle of overweight and obese middle-aged women and men. A secondary aim of this study was to investigat...

  14. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff C; Deodhar K; Patkar V; Fonseca J

    1981-01-01

    Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 mo...

  15. Age-Dependent Reductions in Mitochondrial Respiration are Exacerbated by Calcium in the Female Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J. Craig; Machikas, Alexandra M.; Korzick, Donna H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality increases rapidly following menopause by poorly defined mechanisms. Since mitochondrial function and Ca2+ sensitivity are important regulators of cell death following myocardial ischemia, we sought to determine if aging and/or estrogen deficiency (ovx) increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity. Mitochondrial respiration was measured in ventricular mitochondria isolated from adult (6mo; n=26) and aged (24mo; n=25), intact or ovariectomized female rats using the ...

  16. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L; Margaret R Karagas

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's ho...

  17. Influence of microstructural modifications induced by ultrasonic impact treatment on hardening and corrosion behavior of wrought Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu N; Prokopenko, G I; Mordyuk, B N; Vasylyev, M A; Voloshko, S M; Skorodzievski, V S; Filatova, V S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, biomedical Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy is subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). XRD, TEM and SAED analyses show that the plastic deformation induced by the UIT process results in a complex microstructural formation in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The peculiar feature observed in the alloy structure by TEM is the formation of Lomer-Cottrell locks originated by simultaneous sliding of Shockley partial dislocations in intersecting planes. At the beginning of the UIT process (till the strain extent e ≈ 0.2), dislocation pile-ups are gathered in front of the Lomer-Cottrell locks stimulating the formation of a great number of chaotic stacking faults (SFs) packets (incompletely transformed martensite), which are predominant with regard to the occurrence of ε-martensite and micro-twins. The incompletely transformed martensite hinders the shear translation through the twin boundaries and suppresses grain subdivision in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy at the UIT process used. On-going deformation to e ≈ 0.4 leads to further modification of microstructure in the micron-scale γ-grains, which consists of numerous Lomer-Cottrell locks, chaotic subtraction SFs, intersected nano-twins and fine lathes of ε-martensite with average size of approx. 50-100 nm. The observed structural features (at e ≈ 0.4) allow adequately explaining noticeable increase in microhardness without any cracks/cleavages in surface layer. Enhanced corrosion resistance of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which manifests itself with less negative corrosion potential and lower corrosion and passivity currents in potentiodynamic curve, is promoted by the UIT induced oxide films and the following structural features: the CSL type of γ/ε interfacial boundaries, uniformly distributed fine carbides, and high fraction of the grains oriented with close packed (111)γ and (0002)ε planes parallel to the surface of the UIT-processed specimen. PMID:26478400

  18. Impact of Intensive Upper Limb Rehabilitation on Quality of Life: A Randomized Trial in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakzewski, Leanne; Carlon, Stacey; Shields, Nora; Ziviani, Jenny; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether constraint-induced movement therapy is more effective than bimanual training in improving the quality of life of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Sixty-three children (mean age 10y 2mo [SD 2y 6mo]; 33 males, 30 females) with CP of the spastic motor type (n = 59) or with…

  19. Next Generation Orthopaedic Implants by Additive Manufacturing Using Electron Beam Melting

    OpenAIRE

    Murr, Lawrence E; Gaytan, Sara M.; Edwin Martinez; Frank Medina; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM). In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components) of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as w...

  20. Depression bei Hochnutzern

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwich, Astrid Constance

    2012-01-01

    The amount of high utilisers of medical care suffering from depression is about 25%. Many of these patients are relatively undiagnosed or undertreated. US-american studies found intervention programmes including systematic screening, education of primary care physicians and of patients and their relatives plus instructions for antidepressive therapy to decrease the usage of medical ressources in these patients. In this randomized trial high utilizers of primary care where treated in a 6 mo...

  1. Influence of microstructural modifications induced by ultrasonic impact treatment on hardening and corrosion behavior of wrought Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu N; Prokopenko, G I; Mordyuk, B N; Vasylyev, M A; Voloshko, S M; Skorodzievski, V S; Filatova, V S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, biomedical Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy is subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). XRD, TEM and SAED analyses show that the plastic deformation induced by the UIT process results in a complex microstructural formation in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The peculiar feature observed in the alloy structure by TEM is the formation of Lomer-Cottrell locks originated by simultaneous sliding of Shockley partial dislocations in intersecting planes. At the beginning of the UIT process (till the strain extent e ≈ 0.2), dislocation pile-ups are gathered in front of the Lomer-Cottrell locks stimulating the formation of a great number of chaotic stacking faults (SFs) packets (incompletely transformed martensite), which are predominant with regard to the occurrence of ε-martensite and micro-twins. The incompletely transformed martensite hinders the shear translation through the twin boundaries and suppresses grain subdivision in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy at the UIT process used. On-going deformation to e ≈ 0.4 leads to further modification of microstructure in the micron-scale γ-grains, which consists of numerous Lomer-Cottrell locks, chaotic subtraction SFs, intersected nano-twins and fine lathes of ε-martensite with average size of approx. 50-100 nm. The observed structural features (at e ≈ 0.4) allow adequately explaining noticeable increase in microhardness without any cracks/cleavages in surface layer. Enhanced corrosion resistance of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which manifests itself with less negative corrosion potential and lower corrosion and passivity currents in potentiodynamic curve, is promoted by the UIT induced oxide films and the following structural features: the CSL type of γ/ε interfacial boundaries, uniformly distributed fine carbides, and high fraction of the grains oriented with close packed (111)γ and (0002)ε planes parallel to the surface of the UIT-processed specimen.

  2. Bupivacaine in microcapsules prolongs analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration in humans: a dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Juri L; Lillesø, Jesper; Hammer, Niels A;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the onset and duration of local analgesic effects of bupivacaine incorporated into biodegradable microcapsules (extended-duration local anesthetic; EDLA) administered as subcutaneous infiltrations in different doses in humans. In 18 volunteers, the skin on the medial calf...... concentrations were evaluated. No serious side effects were observed for up to 6 mo after administration. In conclusion, bupivacaine incorporated in microcapsules provided analgesia for 96 h after subcutaneous infiltration....

  3. Selective and sequential transarterial chemoembolization: Survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Roelle, Grit; Ladd, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Heusner, Till A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Sotiropoulos, Georgios C. [Department of General Surgery and Transplantation, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Hilgard, Philip [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Verhagen, Ruediger [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the survival time of patients with HCC following transarterial chemoembolization performed in a highly selective and sequential way. Patients and methods: 124 HCC patients (102 male, 22 female; mean age 63 ± 11 years) treated with selective and sequential chemoembolization at a single center were included. Selective chemoembolization was performed through a coaxially introduced microcatheter in a segmental or subsegmental hepatic artery. Treatment was stopped after complete stasis of the blood flow in the tumor-feeding vessel. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. Results: The median overall survival of the entire patient population was 27.2 months (mo) (±8.9 mo, 95% CI 9.8 mo, 44.6 mo). When stratified according to liver function the median survival was 46.1 mo (±9.0 mo; 95% CI 28.5 mo, 63.7 mo) for Child-Pugh A and 11.1 mo (±4.3 mo; 95% CI 2.7 mo, 19.5 mo) for Child-Pugh B (p < .001). The median survival was 46.1 mo (±16.6 mo; 95% CI 13.5 mo, 78.7 mo) for BCLC stage A, 19.7 mo (±2.6 mo; 95% CI 14.6 mo, 24.8 mo) for BCLC stage B, and 14.4 mo (±5.0 mo; 95% CI 4.5 mo, 24.3 mo) for BCLC stage C (p < .01). Conclusion: Selective and sequential chemoembolization offers long survival times in patients with HCC. Those patients with preserved liver function benefit more than patients with limited liver reserve.

  4. Migrated endoclip and stone formation after cholecystectomy: A new danger of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Endoclip migration into the common bile duct following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an extremely rare complication. Migrated endoclip into the common bile duct can cause obstruction, serve as a nidus for stone formation, and cause cholangitis. We report a case of obstructive jaundice and acute biliary pancreatitis due to choledocholithiasis caused by a migrated endoclip 6 mo after LC. The patient underwent early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction.

  5. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  6. Effect of Milk Fat Substitution of Rennet Milk Induced Coagulation on Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Felfoul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the effect of milk fat substitution by (W1/O/W2 multiple emulsions based on olive oil in comparison with full and low-fat milks on milk behavior during rennet coagulation. Therefore, based on the turbidimetric and conductivimetric methods, a follow up of enzymatic coagulation is realized. Drainage of renneted gels was followed by syneresis study and cheese yield. The comparison between the coagulation aptitude of low fat milk and milk-olive oil emulsion showed that the hydrolysis phase extended up to 35 minutes for full fat milk and up to 38 minutes for milk-olive oil emulsion. The transition phase solid/gel was shorter in the case of the whole milk. The reticulation phase was shorter in the case of milk-olive oil emulsion. The milk conductivity depended on the milk richness in fat content. Milk-olive oil emulsion showed the lowest cheese-making yield compared to its full and low-fat counterpart.

  7. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  8. A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Effect of Food Intake on Absorption of Orteronel (TAK-700) in Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Ajit; Pham, Theresa; MacLean, David B

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of orteronel, an investigational nonsteroidal, reversible selective inhibitor of 17,20-lyase. In this open-label, randomized crossover study, healthy subjects received single doses of orteronel 400 mg with a low-fat meal, a high-fat meal, and under fasting conditions in a randomized sequence. Plasma concentrations of orteronel and its primary M-I metabolite were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using mixed-effects analysis of variance model. Compared with fasting conditions, the oral bioavailability of orteronel was increased under fed conditions. The least-squares mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve after a low-fat breakfast was 135% (90% confidence interval [CI], 126%-145%) compared with fasting conditions. Similarly, after a high-fat breakfast, the corresponding value was 142% (90%CI, 132%-152%). No unexpected safety concerns were raised with orteronel 400 mg administered in the fasted state or after either a high-fat or a low-fat meal; mild adverse events were experienced by 36% of the healthy male subjects. PMID:27163497

  9. [The importance of testosterone in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempisty-Zdebik, Ewa; Zdebik, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency syndrome is being seen in increasing percentage of men with middle and old age. Besides the typical deterioration of sexual function there is predisposition to metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The similarity of the effects of testosterone substitution and the dietary treatment led the authors to a retrospective analysis of patient data treated for testosterone deficiency syndrome. Data on 341 patients aged over 45 years with metabolic syndrome and diabetes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of testosterone deficiency syndrome were divided into 5 groups: T--testosterone substitution without additional diet, T-Low-Carb--testosterone and low carbohydrate diet, T-Fat-Low--testosterone and low fat diet, Carb-Low--only low carbohydrate diet, Fat-Low--only low fat diet. We analyzed change in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbAlc, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels within 6 months from the start of observation. The best results of all investigated parameters were obtained in patients treated with testosterone and low-carbohydrate diet and in the group treated with testosterone and low-fat diet. Slightly worse results in the group received the same diets and the worst in the group treated only with testosterone. The improvement obtained in the total testosterone therapy and diet was much greater than the simple sum of the effects of both methods witch suggests the existence of synergies. PMID:22764516

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  11. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate: a 6-month randomised study in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Due, Anette;

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24......) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  12. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) assigned to a diet moderate in the amount of fat (35-45% of energy; >20% of fat as MUFA; MUFA diet, n 39), a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet, n 43) or a control diet (35 % of energy as fat, n 24) for 6 months after...... weight loss. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all diets. Food was provided free of charge. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue factor pathway...

  13. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  14. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  15. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45 % of energy; >20 % of fat as MUFA) (MUFA diet; n 39), to a low-fat (LF; 20-30 % of energy) diet (n 43), or to a control diet (35 % of energy as fat; n 24......) for 6 months after a weight loss of about 10 %. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all three diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after intervention and analysed for factor VII coagulant activity (FVII...

  16. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even;

    2016-01-01

    findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue....../sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our......Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein...

  17. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  18. Xanthan gum as a fat replacer in goshtaba-a traditional meat product of India: effects on quality and oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2015-12-01

    Goshtaba is a restructured meat product of Kashmiri wazwan prepared from meat emulsion with added fat (20 %), salt, spices and condiments and cooked in the curd. The present study was undertaken for the development of low fat goshtaba with the addition of xanthan gum as a fat replacer and was evaluated for proximate composition, pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory properties. Low fat goshtaba formulations containing xanthan gum were higher in protein and moisture contents but, lower in fat content and pH value than the high fat control (p xanthan gum (p xanthan gum (0.5-1.5 %) and was higher in low fat product containing 1.5 % xanthan gum. SEM results indicate that xanthan gum lead to formation of an additional gel network which holds more water. Sensory evaluation revealed that goshtaba product with 0.5 % xanthan gum had quality characteristics that were similar to the control product containing 20 % fat. PMID:26604383

  19. Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

    1977-02-01

    Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney.

  20. Uremia-Associated Premature Aging of T Cells Does Not Predict Infectious Complications After Renal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, B; Meijers, R W J; Klepper, M; Hesselink, D A; Baan, C C; Litjens, N H R; Betjes, M G H

    2016-08-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease have prematurely aged T cell systems. We tested whether T cell aging parameters were associated with the risk of infections after renal transplantation (RTx). We studied 188 patients over 1 year. Peripheral T cells were analyzed before and at 3 and 6 mo after RTx for frequency of recent thymic emigrants, relative telomere length and differentiation status. These parameters were related to the occurrence of opportunistic and serious infections. Overall, 84 patients developed an infection. In this group, 50 developed an opportunistic infection and 53 developed a serious infection. T cell aging parameters assessed before RTx were not associated with infection risk. The memory T cells showed a decrease within the first 3 mo in both groups (p < 0.001). The CD4(+) memory T cells increased between 3 and 6 mo within the infection group (p = 0.015). The number of CD8(+) memory T cells increased in both groups (p < 0.001) but reached baseline levels only in the infection group. In the infection group, the CD8(+) CD28(null) T cell percentage increased between 3 and 6 mo (p = 0.024), tending to be higher than at baseline (p = 0.061). These differences in post-RTx dynamics resulted from infections. Parameters of uremia-associated premature aging of peripheral T cells do not predict posttransplant infections. PMID:26914971

  1. Setting the stage for child health and development: prevention of iron deficiency in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M

    2008-12-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to be the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is particularly persistent among infants and children. The high prevalence of anemia in 6- to 9-mo-old children raises the concern that birth iron stores in some infants are inadequate to sustain growth and development through the first 6 mo of life, and postnatal factors are contributing to early depletion of iron stores and development of anemia. At the same time, there are concerns about negative effects of excess iron in infants. Maternal iron status, infant birth weight and gestational age, as well as the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth all contribute to the establishment of adequate total body iron at birth. Postnatally, feeding practices and growth rate are factors that will affect how quickly birth iron is depleted during the first 6 mo of life. Under conditions in which maternal iron status, birth weight, gestational age, and umbilical cord clamping time are optimal, and exclusive breast-feeding is practiced, infants should have adequate iron stores for the first 6-8 mo of life. Under suboptimal conditions, infants may not reach this goal and may need to be targeted for iron supplementation before 6 mo of age.

  2. Study on Drying Equipment and Technology of Traditional Fermented Rice Noodles%传统发酵米粉烘干设备及工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖勇生; 汤锋; 张良; 包珍; 江军山

    2012-01-01

    [目的]提高米粉生产效率,使米粉的生产周期不受天气限制,促进传统米粉由手工生产向规模化生产的转变.[方法]采用吊篮式低温分段烘干设备对传统发酵米粉进行烘干,以烘干后水分含量、米粉风味等为指标,通过比较不同烘干温度、烘干时间和烘干速率等参数,确定了最优烘干工艺.[结果]采用吊篮式低温分段烘干设备进行传统发酵米粉的烘干,具体烘干温度应在35 ~ 38℃自动控制,烘干速度为转速9.0 Hz,烘干时间为:第1阶段38℃,3h;第2阶段34 ℃,3h.[结论]生产的产品质量稳定,不龟裂,断条率低,具有传统发酵米粉的特殊风味.%The effect of inulin replacing fat on the quality of low-fat yogurt was studied, which will provide basis for the application of inulin in low-fat yogurt. Using traditional production process of low-fat yogurt, 0, 20% , 40% , 60% , 80% and 100% inulin were added to replace fat of yogurt. The optimum fat replacement rate of inulin in yogurt is 40% by the sensory score. The microstructure of yogurt containing inulin has uniform, loose, and a higher degree of openness by scanning electron microscope. The changes trend of various indicators ( hardness, co-hesiveness, springiness and gumminess) of inulin addition on the quality of low-fat yogurt by the texture profile analysis (TPA) texturometer was also analyzed. Taking into account sensory evaluation, the optimum fat replacement rate of inulin is 40% (the optimal dosage of inulin 2.208% ) in low-fat yogurt.

  3. Comparison scoring model of severe viral hepatitis and model of end stage liver disease for the prognosis of patients with liver failure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Pei-Ling Dong; Hui-Guo Ding

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prognosis of patients with liver failure using a scoring model of severe viral hepatitis (SMSVH) and a model of end stage liver disease (MELD)to provide a scientific basis for clinical decision of treatment.METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with liver failure due to severe viral hepatitis were investigated with SMSVH established. Patients with acute, subacute,and chronic liver failure were 40, 46 and 34, respectively.The follow-up time was 6 mo. The survival rates of patients with liver failure in 2 wk, 4 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between SMSVH and MELD was made using ROC statistic analysis.RESULTS: The survival curves of group A (at low risk,SMSVH score ≤ 4) and group B (at high risk, SMSVH score ≥ 5) were significantly different (The 4-wk, 3-mo, 6-mo survival rates were 94.59%, 54.05%, 43.24% in group A,and 51.81%, 20.48%, 12.05% in group B, respectively,P < 0.001). The survival curves of group C (SMSVH scores unchanged or increased), group D (SMSVH scores decreased by 1) and group E (SMSVH scores decreased by 2 or more) were significantly different .The survival rates of groups C, D and E were 66.15%, 100%, 100% in 2-wk; 40.0%, 91.18%, 100% in 4-wk; 0%, 58.82%,80.95% in 3-mo and 0%, 38.24%, 61.90% in 6-mo,respectively, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of SMSVH scores at baseline and after 2 wk of therapy was significantly higher than that under the ROC curve of MELD scores (0.804 and 0.934 vs 0.689, P <0.001).CONCLUSION: SMSVH is superior to MELD in the estimation of the prognosis of patients with severe viral hepatitis within 6 mo. SMSVH may be regarded as a criterion for estimation of the efficacy of medical treatment and the decision of clinical treatment.

  4. Buddy Study: Partners for better health in adolescents withtype 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether assigning young, healthyand motivated lay volunteer partners ("buddies") toadolescents with type 2 diabetes improves hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c).METHODS: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes were randomized to partnering with a "buddy" or to conventionaltreatment. During the initial screening visit,which coincided with a routine outpatient diabetesclinic visit, patients with type 2 diabetes underwenta physical examination, detailed medical history,laboratory measurement of HbA1c, and completed twoquestionnaires (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory andChildren's Depression Inventory) to assess their overallquality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms.Patients were then randomized to the intervention (thebuddy system) or conventional treatment (standardcare). All patients were scheduled to return for followupat 3- and 6-mo after their initial visit. HbA1c wasdetermined at all visits (i.e. , at screening and at the3- and 6-mo follow-up visits) and quality of life anddepressive symptoms were evaluated at the screeningvisit and were reassessed at the 6-mo visit.RESULTS: Ten adolescents, recruited from a pool ofapproximately 200 adolescents, enrolled over a twoyeartime period, leading to premature termination ofthe study. In contrast, we easily recruited motivated layvolunteers. We found no change in HbA1c from the initialto the 6-mo visit in either group, yet our small samplesize limited systematic assessment of this outcome.Participants repeatedly missed clinic appointments, failedto conduct self-glucose-monitoring and rarely broughttheir glucometers to clinic visits. Total quality of life scores(72.6 ± 6.06) at screening were similar to previouslyreported scores in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (75.7± 15.0) and lower than scores reported in normal-weight(81.2 ± 0.9), overweight (83.5 ± 1.8), and obese youthswithout diabetes (78.5 ± 1.8) or in adolescents withtype 1 diabetes

  5. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  6. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Palpacuer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853 to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication.Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA, and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1 health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications, (2 alcohol consumption outcomes, (3 biological outcomes, or (4 treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane's Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs, mean differences (MDs, or standardized mean differences (SMDs with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF; for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population defined by the EMA approval

  7. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese.

  8. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  9. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  10. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  11. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Karen W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.

  12. DHA supplemented in peptamen diet offers no advantage in pathways to amyloidosis: is it time to evaluate composite lipid diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Amtul

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA and low fat diet (low fat+DHA. Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP cleaving enzyme (BACE, the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development.

  13. Renal Denervation Normalizes Arterial Pressure With No Effect on Glucose Metabolism or Renal Inflammation in Obese Hypertensive Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Ninitha; Fiege, Jessica K; Han, Ruijun; Foss, Jason; Banek, Christopher T; Burbach, Brandon J; Razzoli, Maria; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Shimizu, Yoji; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Osborn, John W

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension often occurs in concurrence with obesity and diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as metabolic syndrome. Renal denervation (RDNx) lowers arterial pressure (AP) and improves glucose metabolism in drug-resistant hypertensive patients with high body mass index. In addition, RDNx has been shown to reduce renal inflammation in the mouse model of angiotensin II hypertension. The present study tested the hypothesis that RDNx reduces AP and renal inflammation and improves glucose metabolism in obesity-induced hypertension. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low-fat diet (10 kcal%) or a high-fat diet (45 kcal%) for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance test) were measured. In a parallel study, radiotelemeters were implanted in mice for AP measurement. High fat-fed C57BL/6J mice exhibited an inflammatory and metabolic syndrome phenotype, including increased fat mass, increased AP, and hyperglycemia compared with low-fat diet mice. RDNx, but not Sham surgery, normalized AP in high-fat diet mice (115.8±1.5 mm Hg in sham versus 96.6±6.7 mm Hg in RDNx). RDNx had no significant effect on AP in low-fat diet mice. Also, RDNx had no significant effect on glucose metabolism or renal inflammation as measured by the number of CD8, CD4, and T helper cells or levels of inflammatory cytokines in the kidneys. These results indicate that although renal nerves play a role in obesity-induced hypertension, they do not contribute to impaired glucose metabolism or renal inflammation in this model.

  14. Effect of a 1-week, eucaloric, moderately high-fat diet on peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Natalia M; Etesami, Marjan; Walker, Ryan W; Berk, Evan S; Albu, Jeanine B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a weight-maintaining, moderate (50%) high-fat diet is deleterious to insulin sensitivity in healthy premenopausal women. Design/setting/participants 23 African-American and non-Hispanic white, healthy, overweight, and obese premenopausal women recruited in New York City, USA, fed either a eucaloric, 1-week long high-fat (50% of total Kcal from fat) diet or a eucaloric, 1-week long low-fat (30% of total Kcal from fat) diet, assigned in a randomized crossover design. Main outcome measures Peripheral insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2/min) clamp measured during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, at the end of each diet period. Results Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mg kg/fat-free mass/min (µU/mL)×10−1) was not decreased after the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet (0.09±0.01 vs 0.08±0.01, p=0.09, respectively) in the combined group of African-American and white women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.6). Metabolic flexibility (change in substrate utilization, ΔNPRQ, in response to insulin during the clamp) was similarly unaltered by the diet (0.12±0.01 vs 0.11, p=0.48, for the high-fat diet vs the low-fat diet, respectively) in the combined group of women, with no significant diet by race interaction (p=0.9). African–American women had a lower insulin clearance compared with the white women, regardless of the diet (p<0.05). Conclusions We conclude that a short term (1 week), moderate (50%), eucaloric high-fat diet does not lower peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy, overweight and obese premenopausal women. PMID:26203360

  15. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  16. Relative validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Fangman, Mary T.; Couch, Sarah C.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Bell, Ronny A.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative validity and reliability of the SEARCH food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was modified from the Block Kids Questionnaire. Design Study participants completed the 85-item FFQ twice plus three 24-hour dietary recalls within one month. We estimated correlations between frequencies obtained from participants with true usual intake for food groups and nutrients, using a two-part model for episodically-consumed foods and measurement error adjustment. Setting The multi-center SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Nutrition Ancillary Study. Subjects A subgroup of 172 participants aged 10 - 24 years with type 1 diabetes. Results The mean correlations adjusted for measurement error of food groups and nutrients between FFQ and true usual intake were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively, with 57% of the food groups and 70% of the nutrients exhibiting correlations >0.35. Correlations were high for low-fat dairy (0.80), sugar-sweetened beverages (0.54), cholesterol (0.59) and saturated fat (0.51), while correlations were poor for high fiber bread and cereal (0.16) and folate (0.11). Reliability of FFQ intake based on two FFQ administrations was also reasonable with 54% of Pearson correlation coefficients ≥ 0.5. Reliability was high for low fat dairy (0.7), vegetables (0.6), carbohydrates, fiber, folate and vitamin C (all 0.5), but less than desirable for low fat poultry and high fiber bread, cereal, rice and pasta (0.2-0.3). Conclusions While there is some room for improvement, our findings suggest that the SEARCH FFQ performs quite well for the assessment of many nutrients and food groups in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24679679

  17. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  18. Effects of dietary fat types on body fatness, leptin, and ARC leptin receptor, NPY, and AgRP mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqin; Storlien, Len H; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2002-06-01

    Some, but not all, fats are obesogenic. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effects of changing type and amount of dietary fats on energy balance, fat deposition, leptin, and leptin-related neural peptides: leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), in C57Bl/6J mice. One week of feeding with a highly saturated fat diet resulted in ~50 and 20% reduction in hypothalamic arcuate NPY and AgRP mRNA levels, respectively, compared with a low-fat or an n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated high-fat (PUFA) diet without change in energy intake, fat mass, plasma leptin levels, and leptin receptor or POMC mRNA. Similar neuropeptide results were seen at 7 wk, but by then epididymal fat mass and plasma leptin levels were significantly elevated in the saturated fat group compared with low-fat controls. In contrast, fat and leptin levels were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group compared with all other groups. At 7 wk, changing the saturated fat group to n-3 PUFA for 4 wk completely reversed the hyperleptinemia and increased adiposity and neuropeptide changes induced by saturated fat. Changing to a low-fat diet was much less effective. In summary, a highly saturated fat diet induces obesity without hyperphagia. A regulatory reduction in NPY and AgRP mRNA levels is unable to effectively counteract this obesogenic drive. Equally high fat diets emphasizing PUFAs may even protect against obesity.

  19. IGF-I activity may be a key determinant of stroke risk--a cautionary lesson for vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2003-09-01

    IGF-I acts on vascular endothelium to activate nitric oxide synthase, thereby promoting vascular health; there is reason to believe that this protection is especially crucial to the cerebral vasculature, helping to ward off thrombotic strokes. IGF-I may also promote the structural integrity of cerebral arteries, thereby offering protection from hemorrhagic stroke. These considerations may help to explain why tallness is associated with low stroke risk, whereas growth hormone deficiency increases stroke risk--and why age-adjusted stroke mortality has been exceptionally high in rural Asians eating quasi-vegan diets, but has been declining steadily in Asia as diets have become progressively higher in animal products. There is good reason to suspect that low-fat vegan diets tend to down-regulate systemic IGF-I activity; this effect would be expected to increase stroke risk in vegans. Furthermore, epidemiology suggests that low serum cholesterol, and possibly also a low dietary intake of saturated fat--both characteristic of those adopting low-fat vegan diets--may also increase stroke risk. Vegans are thus well advised to adopt practical countermeasures to minimize stroke risk--the most definitive of which may be salt restriction. A high potassium intake, aerobic exercise training, whole grains, moderate alcohol consumption, low-dose aspirin, statin or policosanol therapy, green tea, and supplementation with fish oil, taurine, arginine, and B vitamins--as well as pharmacotherapy of hypertension if warranted--are other practical measures for lowering stroke risk. Although low-fat vegan diets may markedly reduce risk for coronary disease, diabetes, and many common types of cancer, an increased risk for stroke may represent an 'Achilles heel'. Nonetheless, vegans have the potential to achieve a truly exceptional 'healthspan' if they face this problem forthrightly by restricting salt intake and taking other practical measures that promote cerebrovascular health.

  20. Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Sunbul; Hakan Leblebicioglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains isolated worldwide has been classified into eight genomic groups deduced from genome comparisons and designated as genotypes A to H. We aimed to investigate prevalence of HBV genotypes and subtypes in Turkey.METHODS: A total of 88 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients from 15 hospitals throughout the country were included.Patients who were HBsAg positive in serum at least for 6 mo, who had HBV-DNA in serum and elevation of ALT levels more than two times upper limit of normal, and who had percutaneous liver biopsy within 6 mo were included. Genotyping of HBV was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The patients received subcutaneous 9 MU interferon-α 2a thrice a week for a period of 6 mo.RESULTS: Genotype D was detected in 78 of 88 (88.7%)patients, however, genotyping failed in two patients (2.3%),while no product was obtained in eight (9.0%) patients.Regarding subtypes, D2 was more prevalent (67 patients between 78% and 85.9%) followed by subtype D2+deletion (seven patients of 78 or 8.9%), subtype D1 (three patients of 78% or 3.9%) and subtype D3 (one patient of 78% or 1.3%). Thirty-three patients (37.5%) were HBeAg positive compared to 55 (62.5%) anti-HBe positive patients. The endpoint for the viral response of HBeAg positive patients was 27.2%, while it was found 52.7% in HBeAg negative patients (P<0.05). Long-term persistent viral response was 29.5% for all patients.CONCLUSION: This multi-center study indicates that the predominant genotype with CHB patients in Turkey like in other Mediterranean countries is genotype D.