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Sample records for 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat low-fat

  1. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  2. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  3. Effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolisms in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Norimitsu; Miyashita, Akira; Tsuru, Tomomitsu; Hikida, Shigeki; Mizote, Hiroyoshi

    2004-04-01

    The beneficial effects of high-monounsaturated fat (high-MUFA) diets on diabetic patients have been reported, whereas studies concerning the effects on animals have been few. Although experiments on animals should be useful in elucidating underlying mechanisms, it is not clear even whether there are benefits of a high-MUFA diet in animals. This study examined the short-term effects of a high-MUFA diet on normal and genetically diabetic mice. The high-MUFA diet supplied 38% of the total calories as fat (26% from MUFA), while a regular diet was 13% fat (3% from MUFA). Normal C5 7BL/6J and diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed either the regular or the high-MUFA diet for 1 wk. Serum glucose and lipid levels were then measured. In normal mice, hepatic triglyceride production was also compared between the two dietary groups using the Triton WR1339 method. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the diabetic mice. After 1 wk of feeding to normal mice, the high-MUFA diet was seen to lower serum triglyceride levels and reduce hepatic triglyceride production in comparison with the regular diet; it is suggested that the lowering of triglyceride consists of mechanisms including reduced hepatic triglyceride production. When diabetic mice were fed the high-MUFA diet with a controlled caloric intake, the serum glucose levels lowered without an accompanying deterioration in lipid metabolism and the impaired glucose tolerance was ameliorated. This study demonstrates that a high-MUFA diet can lower serum triglyceride levels in normal mice and improve disorders of glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

  4. 富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对糖耐量异常患者糖脂代谢的影响%Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文俊; 项松英; 沈飞霞; 王毅; 陈雄; 谷雪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)肠内营养(EN)制剂对糖耐量异常(IGT)患者糖脂代谢的影响。方法:62例IGT患者随机分为试验餐组(n=32)和普通餐组(n=30)。试验餐组服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂(雅培益力佳SR)替代早餐,普通餐组服用等热量的纯牛奶+淡馒头,所有患者分别于干预前和干预4周后检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、餐后2 h胰岛素(PINS)以及血脂系列,就各项指标进行组内前后比较和组间比较。结果:试验餐组干预4周后体质量以及PPG、PINS、血清甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-c)均低于干预前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);干预后,试验餐组PPG、PINS、TG、TC和LDL-c均低于普通餐组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂有利于降低单纯IGT患者PPG和PINS水平,并改善脂质代谢。%Objective: To investigate the effects of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods:Sixty-two patients with impaired glucose tolerance from out-patient clinic were randomized to experimental meal group (Abbott Glucerna SR,n=32) and common breakfast group (isocaloric normal oral diet,n=30), the fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour postprandial insulin, serum lipid pro-ifle were examined before and after 4-week intervention, and the parameters were compared within groups and between groups.Results: The 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, postprandial serum insulin, serum triglycer-ide, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol signiifcantly decreased in experimental meal group (P<0.05 orP<0.01), when compared with that of

  5. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  6. A New Family of Ce6MoO15 as Fast Oxide Ion Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jing; Meng Jian; Bo Qibing; Che Ping; Wang Jingping; Liu Jianfen; Lu Minfeng; Zhang Deping; Fang Daqing; Cao Xueqiang

    2004-01-01

    A novel solid solution Ce6MoO15 was achieved. Their structure and oxide ionic conductivity were studied.Based on Ce6MoO15, rare earth element substitution on cerium site shows that all resulting oxides enhance the conductivity further, and have high oxide-ion conductivity, which may be a kind of promising material for SOFCs.

  7. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter; Pennings, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break analysis

  8. Possibilities to develop low-fat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufeanu Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has proved a relationship between high fat consumption and rise in obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases and high blood pressure. Therefore is recommended the moderate consumption of fat, such that the total fat does not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Our body needs fats because are providers of calories, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and also they are necessary ingredients of the foods. The development of products with low-fat content can be considerate a challenge because the lipids offers aroma, texture, appearance, flavour and mouth feel, qualities that customers want in food products. A fat reduction can be achieved by using different fat replacers to ensure the functionality of the replaced fat. Functional components of fat replacers can have a significant role in promotion of wellbeing, in treating and preventing diseases. Thus, fat replacers should be recognized as safe and healthy, which have sensorial and functional properties. This paper reviews the fat replacers used to obtain foods as meat-based or dairy products. Some ways to obtain healthier meat products by reducing saturated fats content consist in the utilization of unsaturated vegetable oils, vegetable products, fibre. The utilization of fibre in products such bolognas, sausages or hamburgers, can improve the texture profile, binding properties and the characteristics regarding the cooking process. A fat reduction in dairy products can be achieved by replacing it with starches, polysaccharides, gums or fibres from cereal, vegetables and fruits. In acidified milk products, fibres have benefits as: low syneresis, sensory characteristics accepted by consumers, improvement of texture and rheological properties. In cheeses production, the fat reduction can be realised by replacing it with carbohydrate or protein-based replacers in order to obtain a final product with proper characteristics.

  9. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  10. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the United ... Survey How frequently do children and adolescents drink milk? During the preceding 30 days, girls reported daily ...

  11. A low-fat diet improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Viggers, L;

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes.......To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes....

  12. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped.......6%) groups than in the control group (2.6 +/- 0.5%) (P fasting insulin decreased by 2.6 +/- 3.5 pmol/L, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance by 0.17 +/- 0.13, and the ratio of LDL to HDL by 0.33 +/- 0.13; in the LF group, these variables increased by 4.3 +/- 3...

  13. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  14. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets.

  15. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  16. Investigating Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products: a segmentation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kapirti, A

    2003-05-01

    The present study aims at gaining a first insight into Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products. Although Greece, and in particular Crete, have enjoyed a great popularity in terms of the Mediterranean diet, there has been an almost complete lack of low-fat-related surveys concerning the Greek food consumer. Using this as a research trigger, the current investigation evolves around the conflict between 'sensory appeal' and 'healthiness' of low-fat products, widely described in the international literature. Other crucial factors examined are consumers' awareness, occasional use and conscious purchase of, and willingness to pay for, food products with the 'low-fat' claim. Overall, the study has the objective to segment the Greek market in terms of users' perceptions of light products and to identify a number of well-described clusters with clear-cut socio-demographic and behavioural profile. Three clusters are identified, comprised of consumers with favourable attitudes towards low-fat foods and willing to pay premiums to purchase them.

  17. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese.

  18. Inulins improve sensoric and textural properties of low-fat yoghurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, P.; Meyer, D.; Jellema, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated in detail the effects of the addition of inulins to the sensoric properties of low-fat yoghurts. Yoghurts were prepared from skimmed milk and with different concentrations of inulin (0-4%). Two types of inulin with different chain length of the polymer were used. Attrib

  19. Sensory and instrumental characterization of low-fat and non-fat cream cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janhoj, T.; Frost, M.B.; Prinz, J.; Ipsen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relationships between physical/chemical and sensory properties using a set of 20 low-fat and non-fat cream cheeses. High correlations were found between several descriptors; hand resistance (i.e., tactile firmness) was best predicted by squeezing flow viscometry (r = 0.90) and fo

  20. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  1. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  2. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-25

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected from the USDA National Nutrient Database. We found that the amount of sugar is higher in the low fat (that is, reduced calorie, light, low fat) and non-fat than 'regular' versions of tested items (Friedman P=0.00001, Wilcoxon P=0.0002 for low fat vs regular food and P=0.0003 for non-fat vs regular food). Our data support the general belief that food that is lower in fat may contain more sugar.

  3. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  4. A study of corrosion electrochemical properties of martensite-austenite steel Cr15Ni6Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihal, V.; Hubackova, J.; Kubelka, J.; Mezanec, K.

    1985-11-01

    The steel Cr15Ni6Mo (UHB 119) exhibits a very satisfactory corrosion resistance. However, its superior passivating ability depends on the heat treatment method used. The use of two-step tempering leads primarily to an improved resistance to reactivation and optimum properties are achieved when the basic matrix contains about 40% stable austenite in fine form. This structural state requires the use of tempering temperatures from 625 to 650/sup 0/C in Step 1, and 525/sup 0/C in Step 2 of tempering.

  5. Effect of Two Isocaloric Diets, Low Fat- High Calcium and Low Fat- High Fiber on Weight Reduction, Lipid Profile, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Eftekhari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Heart Disease is commonly associated with obesity, raised serum lipid levels and changes in blood pressure. The present study was designed to assess the effect of low fat- high calcium, and low fat- high fiber diets on weight reduction, lipid profile and blood pressure.Methods: The study sample consisted of 136 referred patients adult, obese men aged 53-64 years. Samples randomly were subdivided in two groups. Group 1 was advised 1600 calories, 20% fat, 1600 mg calcium rich diet and group 2 followed similar diet as for group 1 except a total daily intake of 55g fiber and 900 mg calcium per day for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDLcholesterol and TG. Anthropometric assessments included measurement of weight, height, and waist circumferences followed by calculating Body mass index. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by using sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with parametric and non-parametric methods as appropriate.Results: Data analysis revealed a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and TG in two groups, without any significant changes in HDL-cholesterol. Weight and blood pressure decreased in two groups, but the rate of reduction in blood pressure, weight and waist circumference were more significant in group 1 compared to group 2.Conclusion: An increase in dietary calcium intake, together with a Low calorie, low-fat diet can increase lipolysis in fat tissues, make greater weigh loss, ameliorate blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce the risk of coronary vascular diseases.

  6. 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention enhances the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Sanna; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    During acute exercise, the concentration of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids (ox-HDL) is reported to increase suggesting that HDL may function in decreasing the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids. However, the effect of exercise intervention on the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL is unknown. A randomized controlled trial with sedentary women (N = 161), aged 43-63, with no current use of hormone therapy, were randomized into a 6-month (mo) exercise group and a control group. During the 6-mo intervention, the concentration of ox-HDL increased in the exercise group by 5% and decreased in the control group by 2% (p = .003). Also, the ratio of ox-HDL to HDL-cholesterol increased by 5% in the exercise group and decreased by 1.5% in the control group (p = .036). The concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adiponectin did not change during the intervention. The concentration of serum triglycerides trended to decrease by 6% in the intervention group (p = .051). We found that the concentration of ox-HDL increased during the 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention, but the increase was not related to changes in the levels of CETP or adiponectin. These results, together with earlier studies, suggest that HDL has an active role in the reverse transport of lipid peroxides.

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Ca(DMF)6][Mo6Br8Cl6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi; CAI Li-Zhen; GUO Guo-Cong; LI Qiang; HUANG Jin-Shun

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of MoBr2 with CaCl2 in DMF (N, N'-dimethylformamide) gives the cluster complex [Ca(DMF)6][Mo6Br8Cl6] 1 by using standard Schlenk techniques. This cluster complex crystallizes in triclinic, space group (P1) with a = 10.329(4), b = 10.349(4), c = 12.510(5) (A), α = 103.793(5), β = 98.562(3), γ = 98.268(5)°, V = 1261.5(9)(A)3, Dc = 2.509 g/cm3, Z = 1, C18H42Br8CaCl6Mo6N6O6, Mr = 1906.28, μ = 8.236 mm-1, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073(A)and F(000) = 894. The final R = 0.0589 and wR = 0.1458 for 2759 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The structure is composed of isolated octahedral coordination cations and discrete cluster anions, and these two kinds of ions connect each other to form a 3-D framework with similar packing patterns as CsCl through weak C-H…X (X = Br, Cl) hydrogen bonds.

  8. Narrow band gap and visible light-driven photocatalysis of V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Qin, Chuanxiang; Huang, Yanlin; Wang, Yaorong; Qin, Lin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2017-02-01

    Pure and V5+-doped Bi6Mo2O15 (3Bi2O3·2MoO3) photocatalysts were synthesized through electrospinning, followed by low-temperature heat treatment. The samples developed into nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm. The crystalline phases were verified via X-ray powder diffraction measurements (XRD). The surface properties of the photocatalysts were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The UV-vis spectra showed that V doping in Bi6Mo2O15 shifted the optical absorption from the UV region to the visible-light wavelength region. The energy of the band gap of Bi6Mo2O15 was reduced by V doping in the lattices. The photocatalytic activities of the pure and V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 were tested through photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye solutions under visible light irradiation. Results showed that 20 mol% V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 achieved efficient photocatalytic ability. RhB could be degraded by V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 in 2 h. The photocatalytic activities and mechanisms were discussed according to the characteristics of the crystal structure and the results of EIS and XPS measurements.

  9. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  10. Study of Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Low Fat Salami: An Innovative Italian Meat Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Pavoni, Enrico; Bertasi, Barbara; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Losio, Marina N.; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs) leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C. PMID:27800321

  11. Retinal vessels caliber changes after strabismus surgery: results of 6mo follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Peng; Fu, Jing; Zhou, Jin-Qiong; Wang, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of strabismus surgery on retinal vessels calibers with digital color fundus photographs. METHODS Two hundred consecutive strabismus patients underwent surgery, and 118 patients (female/male, 55/63) who finished 6-month follow-up were finally included in this study. Optic disc-centered digital color fundus photographs of both eyes of all patients were taken prior to surgery and 6mo post surgery. The retinal vascular caliber of 116 operated eyes were measured using the computer program IVAN. The operated eyes were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical methods, recession of one muscle, one muscle recession and one muscle folding, one muscle resection and one muscle recession. The effect of number of altered muscles on retinal vessels was analyzed using statistic software SPSS 16.0. RESULTS The mean age was 12.4±8.6y. Averaged central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) of all patients was 120.31±23.02 µm preoperatively, and 122.87±15.93 µm six months after surgery. Averaged central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) was 171.11±31.73 µm preoperatively and 175.02±21.00 µm postoperatively. There was no significant difference of averaged CRAE (P=0.22) or CRVE (P=0.19) before and after operation. Averaged arteriole to venule ratio (AVR) was 0.71±0.07 before surgery and 0.70±0.07 after surgery. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative retinal vessels calibers among different surgical groups did not show significant differences. Also, there was no advantage of rectus muscle folding to muscle resection. CONCLUSION Up to 6mo after strabismus surgery, the retinal vascular calibers were not altered. No more than two muscles in one surgery are safe for retinal perfusion. PMID:27672600

  12. Evaluation of low-fat sausage containing desinewed lamb and konjac gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, W N; Keeton, J T

    2004-10-01

    Ground (GR) or desinewed (DS) lamb trimmings were combined with a konjac flour (KF) gel (0%, 10% or 20%) to produce a low-fat (8%) cured sausage. Physiochemical, sensory and shelf-life analyses were performed to determine the efficacy of the fat mimetic. Desinewing reduced collagen content (2.3 mg/g tissue) and cook yield (0.6%) when compared to GR trimmings. Grinding increased aerobic plate counts (APCs) ∼0.4log(10)/cm(2) more than DS, but APCs were not affected by inclusion of KF. Sausages with 20% KF lowered cook yield ∼1% and slightly reduced sensory panel and texture profile analysis texture values. KF gel incorporated at 10% had similar properties to a control low-fat desinewed lamb sausage, while KF at 20% could reduce "toughening" in low-fat sausage products. Use of konjac gel as a fat mimetic could reduce total caloric energy by replacing a portion of the meat in a sausage formulation.

  13. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-12-01

    Spaccarotella, KJ and Andzel, WD. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3456-3460, 2011-Drinking chocolate milk between exercise sessions may improve recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low fat chocolate milk vs. a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CE) on recovery between preseason practice sessions among 5 male and 8 female Division III soccer players. The study used a randomized crossover design: between morning and afternoon practices, athletes received either an amount of chocolate milk that provided 1 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight or an equal volume of CE (mean volume of 615 ± 101 ml). After their afternoon practice, they completed a shuttle run to fatigue. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired rank-sign test (for shuttle run time) and the paired samples t-test (for dietary intake). No significant differences in run time were reported for the group. For the men only, there was a trend of increased time to fatigue with chocolate milk compared with the CE (exact p = 0.03). Low fat chocolate milk may therefore be as good as a CE at promoting recovery between training sessions during preseason.

  14. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely.

  15. The Cost-Effectiveness of 1% Or Less Media Campaigns Promoting Low-Fat Milk Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo G. Wootan, DSc,

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four strategies using components of 1% Or Less to promote population-based behavior change. 1% Or Less is a mass-media campaign that encourages switching from high-fat (whole or 2% to low-fat (1% or skim milk. Using a quasi-experimental design, campaigns were previously conducted in four West Virginia communities using different combinations of 1 paid advertising, 2 media relations, and 3 community-based educational activities. Telephone surveys and supermarket milk sales data were used to measure the campaigns’ effectiveness. Methods Using data from the previously completed studies, we analyzed the cost of each campaign. We then calculated the cost per person exposed to the campaign and cost per person who switched from high- to low-fat milk. Results The combination of paid advertising and media relations was the most cost-effective campaign, with a cost of $0.57 per person to elicit a switch from high- to low-fat milk, and the combination of media relations and community-based educational activities was the least cost-effective campaign, with a cost of $11.85 per person to elicit a switch. Conclusion Population-based campaigns using a combination of paid advertising and media relations strategies can be a cost-effective way to promote a behavior change in a community.

  16. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  17. The availability of low-fat milk in an inner-city Latino community: implications for nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, H; Basch, C E; Zybert, P; Lantigua, R; Shea, S

    1995-12-01

    Substitution of low-fat for whole milk is an important strategy for reducing saturated fat consumption, but intake of whole milk remains high among Latinos. To assess whether this is related to the unavailability of low-fat milk, we surveyed 251 grocery stores (bodegas) and 25 supermarkets in a predominantly low-income, urban Latino community. Low-fat milk was available in 73% of bodegas and 96% of supermarkets, but it constituted only 15% of total milk volume in bodegas and 37% of that volume in supermarkets. Since lack of availability was not a major obstacle to increasing low-fat milk consumption, public health nutrition campaigns should focus on increasing consumer demand.

  18. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high...

  19. Ultrasonically assisted turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, R.; Maurotto, A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Titanium alloys are widely used in the aerospace and offshore industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratio sustained at elevated temperatures, their fracture-resistance features and exceptionally good corrosion-resistance properties. However, poor thermal conductivity and high chemical affinity of these alloys to tool materials severely impair their machinability. As a result the machining processes of titanium alloys are typically characterized by low cutting feeds and speeds making production of components uneconomical. Recently, a non-conventional hybrid machining technique, namely, ultrasonically assisted turning has been shown to significantly improve the machinability of intractable alloys with a concomitant improvement in material removal rates, thus improving machining economics. In the current work, a 3D finite element model of turning of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo is developed in the commercial software, MSC Marc/Mentat. A constitutive behaviour of the workpiece material under large deformations and elevated temperatures is adequately represented by a Johnson-Cook material model. For validation of the developed numerical model, experimental tests were carried out. The numerical and experimental results were found to be in good agreement.

  20. A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, P K; Lin, S.; Heidenreich, P

    2016-01-01

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected f...

  1. Properties of low-fat ultra-filtered cheeses produced with probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miočinović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that in certain numbers may confer a health benefit on the host. Nowadays, there are many dairy products on the market, especially fermented milks, with probiotics, and their popularity is rising. The aim of this article was to investigate the viability of commercial probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI®L10 i Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI®B94, DSM, Netherland as well as their influence on the changes of composition, pH, proteolysis, microbiological status and sensory properties of low-fat ultra-filtered (UF cheeses within 2 months of ripening. Low-fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream, without (control cheese A and with adjunct probiotic culture (cheese B. The compositional parameters (milk fat, proteins and dry-matter content, pH, proteolysis parameters (water soluble nitrogen, nitrogen soluble in 5% PTA, urea and SDS PAG electrophoresis, as well as the numbers of starters and probiotic bacteria, were determined during ripening. In addition, sensory evaluations of cheeses were performed throughout the ripening time. A significant influence of probiotic strains on the composition, pH and primary proteolysis of cheese during ripening was not found. The counts of commercial probiotic bacteria were maintained at high levels (>107 cfug-1 during the overall ripening period, as a prerequisite of their therapeutic effects. The adjunct probiotic cultures enhanced the rate of secondary proteolysis, which was shown by the significantly higher levels of PTAN/TN of experimental compared to the control cheeses. The sensory evaluation showed that the overall aroma of low-fat cheeses was remarkably improved by the addition of the probiotic cultures used. Based on the results it can be concluded that the low-fat UF cheeses differ in good dietetic and functional properties as well as very acceptable

  2. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  3. Chronic interstitial fibrosis in the rat kidney induced by long-term (6-mo) exposure to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert J; Leader, John P; Bedford, Jennifer J; Gobe, Glenda; Davis, Gerard; Vos, Frederiek E; deJong, Sylvia; Schollum, John B W

    2013-02-01

    There is a lack of suitable animal models that replicate the slowly progressive chronic interstitial fibrosis that is characteristic of many human chronic nephropathies. We describe a chronic long-term (6-mo) model of lithium-induced renal fibrosis, with minimal active inflammation, which mimics chronic kidney interstitial fibrosis seen in the human kidney. Rats received lithium via their chow (60 mmol lithium/kg food) daily for 6 mo. No animals died during the exposure. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was established by 3 wk and persisted for the 6 mo. Following metabolic studies, the animals were killed at 1, 3, and 6 mo and the kidneys were processed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Progressive interstitial fibrosis, characterized by increasing numbers of myofibroblasts, enhanced transforming growth factor-β(1) expression and interstitial collagen deposition, and a minimal inflammatory cellular response was evident. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of injury in this model will provide a greater understanding of chronic interstitial fibrosis and allow the development of intervention strategies to prevent injury.

  4. Cubic Yb3+-activated Y6MoO12 micro-powder - optical material operating in NIR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieza, M.; Guzik, M.; Tomaszewicz, E.; Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G.

    2017-01-01

    We present Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 solid solutions as a very promising NIR emitting phosphor with some hope to obtain them in the nearest future in the form of transparent ceramics due to their cubic structure. The samples are crystallizing in the cubic system with the space group Fm-3m. To perform a full structural and spectroscopic analysis on the well crystallized samples they were obtained in the uniform micro-crystal forms. The ternary Y6MoO12 and Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 solid solutions containing a large concentration range of activator (0.1, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 mol%) have been prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method using the Yb2O3/Y2O3/MoO3 mixtures annealed in the air in the temperature range of 550-1550 °C for 6 h. As-obtained samples were systematically characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis-NIR reflectance. Furthermore, to check the thermal stability of these molybdates the thermogravimetric analysis have been performed. Finally, the luminescent properties of Yb3+ ions activated Y6MoO12 microcrystals were investigated by using the high resolution absorption and emission techniques including the site selective spectroscopy at room and low temperatures. Basing on the absorption and emission spectra the Yb3+ electronic energy levels diagram has been proposed for the main site. The concentration quenching mechanism of Yb3+ ion in this host lattice was also discussed. Obtained results have demonstrated that Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 microcrystals exhibited good luminescent properties and possess many advantages compared to other compounds based on molybdates and might have potential applications in the laser technology.

  5. Textural properties of low-fat set-type yoghurt depending on mTG addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Darnay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine how 0.5-2 U/g non-inactivated mTG affects the pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation. Furthermore we wished to examine how the enzyme addition could change protein structure, gel strength and sensory characteristics by healthy low-fat set-type yoghurt product. Therefore commercial mTG enzyme preparation was added in different concentrations (0.5-2.0 U/g, in 0.5 U/g steps to 1.5 % bovine milk simultaneously with DVS starter culture. Our study revealed that enzyme dosage (0.5-2 U/g protein had no impact on pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation when manufacturing low-fat (1.5 % set-type yoghurt. The addition of mTG contributed to 38 % more whey retention with incorporation of β-casein, and caused 44 % higher gel strength up to a level of 1 U/g protein.

  6. Monitoring the Chemical and Microbiological Changes During Ripening of Iranian Probiotic Low-Fat White Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this experiment was to manufacture an Iranianlow fat probiotic cheese. Approach: Iranian white brine cheeses (4 trials were made by varyingprocesses, i.e., lowering the fat content and use of probiotic adjunct culture on separate days. All types of cheeses were ripened at 13°C for 2 weeks and at 6°C to the end of ripering period. Cheeses were analyzed for the compositional, microbiological, color and sensory characteristics and also lipolysis and organic acid profile. The Cheese of each trial was sampled at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days during ripening. Results: Decreasing the fat level resulted in significant increases (p0.05 between the concentration of L. acidophilus of cheese groups when the fat content of samples was reduced. The rate and extent of lipolysis in the full-fat cheese was higher than in the low-fat control cheese (pConclusion: Therefore the results of this study showed that the Iranian probotic low fat cheese is a functional food. It has better flavor and odor than normal cheese and can be used in many cases like as heart disease and obesity.

  7. Die Forging Process of W6Mo5Cr4V2 Blank of Gear shaping Cutter%W6Mo5Cr4V2插齿刀毛坯的胎模锻造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯澍

    2009-01-01

    高速钢具有很高的耐热性能,在高温下强度高,变形抗力大,增加了锻造成形的难度.目前,国内齿轮切削刀具大多采用W6MoSCr4V2高速钢材料制成,材料锻造主要以改善刀具毛坯碳化偏析程度为主.本文通过实验研究,提出了在保证W6MoSCr4.V2高速钢合格碳化物等级的前提下对刀具毛坯进行胎模锻造成形的方法.

  8. Chemical composition of water buffalo milk and its low-fat symbiotic yogurt development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water buffalos are the second most widely available milk source in countries around the world. While typical average milk compositions are readily available, information on seasonal variation in chemical composition of buffalo milk is limited -especially in the Northeastern region of the United States. Data collected in this study can be useful for the manufacture of a wide variety of specialty dairy products such as symbiotic buffalo milk yogurt. To analyze functionality, symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt prototypes (plain and blueberry were developed using a commercial starter containing probiotics. Methods: During a one-year cycle, physicochemical and mineral contents of buffalo milk were analyzed. Prototype yogurts were manufactured commercially and samples of the yogurt prototypes were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties and for the survivability of probiotics during ten weeks of storage.Results: Average contents of total solids, fat, lactose, crude protein, ash, specific gravity, and conjugated linoleic acid in the milk ranged from 16.39-18.48%, 6.57-7.97%, 4.49-4.73%, 4.59-5.37%, 0.91-0.92%, 1.0317-1.0380%, and 4.4-7.6 mg/g fat, respectively. The average mineral contents of calcium, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in the milk were 1798.89, 1216.76, 843.72, 337.20 and 7.48 mg/kg, respectively, and remained steady throughout the year. The symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurts evaluated in this study contained higher amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and calcium than similar yogurts manufactured with cows’ milk. During refrigerated storage, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was viable (>1×106CFU/g for the first two weeks, while Bifidobacterium spp.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:86-106 and Lactobacillus casei remained viable during the entire ten weeks. Reducing the acidity and enhancing the flavor of the yogurts could improve the overall acceptability

  9. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  10. Optimization of processing parameters and ingredients for development of low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kumar, A; Kumbhar, B K; Dar, B N

    2015-02-01

    Increasing demand of low calorie and high fibre containing products give impetus to dairy industry for development of a well palatable low calorie dairy products like paneer. The objective of the present study was to develop low-fat fibre-supplemented paneer. The ingredients were chosen for low-fat fibre- supplemented paneer to reduce the cost and calorie content besides providing the functional benefits. Optimization of ingredients was carried out in terms of independent variables viz wheat bran (0.4-0.8 %), maltodextrin (1-5 %), coagulation temperature (60-80 °C) and amount of citric acid solution (150-210 ml). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to design the experiments and to select the optimum levels of ingredients. Paneer was made by using different levels of ingredients by coagulating hot milk using citric acid solution followed by pressing and dipping in chilled water for texturization. These parameters were evaluated in terms of physico-chemical parameters viz water activity, pH and acidity. Instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) of paneer during optimization trials was done using TAXT 2i Texture Analyzer. The textural responses namely hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were measured via Texture Analyzer. The sensory properties namely flavor, appearance, body and texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability of paneer samples were evaluated by a semi-trained panel of judges using 9-point hedonic scale. Full second order polynomial was developed to predict each response. All the textural and sensory responses were statistically analysed.

  11. Low-fat mozzarella as influenced by microbial exopolysaccharides, preacidification, and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisu, B; Shah, N P

    2005-06-01

    Low-fat Mozzarella cheeses containing 6% fat were made by preacidification of milk, preacidification combined with exopolysaccharide- (EPS-) producing starter, used independently or as a coculture with non-EPS starter, and preacidification combined with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and EPS. The impact of these treatments on moisture retention, changes in texture profile analysis, cheese melt, stretch, and on pizza bake performance were investigated over 45 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Preacidified cheeses without EPS (control) had the lowest moisture content (53.75%). These cheeses were hardest and exhibited greatest springiness and chewiness. The meltability and stretchability of these cheeses increased most during the first 28 d of storage. The moisture content in cheeses increased to 55.08, 54.79, and 55.82% with EPS starter (containing 41.18 mg/g of EPS), coculturing (containing 28.61 mg/g of EPS), and WPC (containing 44.23 mg/g of EPS), respectively. Exopolysaccharide reduced hardness, springiness, and chewiness of low-fat cheeses made with preacidified milk in general and such cheeses exhibited an increase in cohesiveness and meltability. Although stretch distance was similar in all cheeses, those containing EPS were softer than the control. Cocultured cheeses exhibited the greatest meltability. Cheeses containing WPC were softest in general; however, hardness remained unchanged over 45 d. Cheeses made with WPC had the least increase in meltability over time. Incorporation of WPC did not reduce surface scorching or increase shred fusion of cheese shreds during pizza baking; however, there was an improvement in these properties between d 7 and 45. Coating of the cheese shreds with oil was necessary for adequate browning, melt, and flow characteristics in all cheese types.

  12. Preparation and luminescence properties of La6MoO12:Eu3+/PVA nanofibers by Pechini/electrospinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanxiang; Gu, Mingbo; Huang, Yanlin; Dai, Lixing; Chen, Guoqiang; Shi, Liang; Qiao, Xuebin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2011-11-01

    The 20% concentration Eu3+-based red-emitting phosphor, nano-sized La6MoO12:Eu3+ was prepared by the Pechini method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and decay curves were used to characterize the resulting samples. The phosphor can be efficiently excited by near UV light and exhibits an intense red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0 --> 7F2 at 615 nm. When the phosphor was mixed into poly(vinyl alcohol) aqueous solution, the fluorescent nanofibers could be prepared by electrospinning process. It was suggested that the La6MoO12:Eu3+ phosphor would be a promising red component for solid-state lighting devices based on InGaN or GaN light-emitting diodes.

  13. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on Basket-like {Ca⊂P6Mo18O73} Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-hua; Gong, Li-hong; Wang, Chun-mei; Wang, Chun-xiao; Sun, Di; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2015-07-20

    Four basket-like organic-inorganic hybrids, formulated as [{Cu(II)(H2O)2}{Ca4(H2O)4(HO0.5)3(en)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo4(V)Mo14(VI)O73}]·7H2O (1), (H4bth)[{Fe(II)(H2O)}{Ca⊂P6Mo18(VI)O73}]·4H2O (2), (H2bih)3[{Cu(II)(H2O)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo2(V)Mo16(VI)O73}]·2H2O (3), (H2bib)3[{Fe(II)(H2O)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo2(V) Mo16(VI)O73}]·4H2O (4), (bth = 1,6-bis(triazole)hexane; bih = 1,6-bis(imidazol)hexane; bib = 1,4-bis(imidazole)butane) have been hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized. Compounds 1-4 contain polyoxoanion [Ca⊂P6Mon(V)Mo18-n(VI)O73]((6+n)-) (n = 0, 2, or 4) (abbreviated as {P6Mo18O73}) as a basic building block, which is composed of a "basket body" {P2Mo14} unit and a "handle"-liked {P4Mo4} fragment encasing an alkaline-earth metal Ca(2+) cation in the cage. Compound 1 exhibits an infrequent 2D layer structure linked by the Cu(H2O)2 linker and an uncommon tetranuclear calcium complex, while compound 2 is 8-connected 2-D layers connected by binuclear {Fe2(H2O)3} segaments, which are observed for the first time as 2-D basket-like assemblies. Compounds 3 and 4 are similar 1D Z-typed chains bonded by M(H2O)2 units (M = Cu for 3 and Fe for 4). The optical band gaps of 1-4 reveal their semiconductive natures. They exhibit universal highly efficient degradation ability for typical dyes such as methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B under UV light. The lifetime and catalysis mechanism of the catalysts have been investigated. The compounds also show good bifunctional electrocatalytic behavior for oxidation of amino acids and reduction of NO2(-).

  14. A new method for the production of low-fat Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Irma; Drake, MaryAnne; Nelson, Brandon; Barbano, David M

    2013-08-01

    Our objective was to develop an alternative process to produce low-fat Cheddar cheese (LFCC) by combining reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFCC) made by a fat-removal process with micellar casein concentrate (MCC) to try to achieve the texture and flavor characteristics of full-fat Cheddar cheese (FFCC). The production of LFCC was replicated 3 times. The MCC was produced by ultrafiltration of skim milk, followed by 3 stages of microfiltration, and the final MCC was spray dried. The LFCC was formulated to achieve 6% fat, 28% protein, and 1.2% salt by a combination of RFCC, MCC powder, salt, and water. The 6% fat target was selected to comply with the FDA standard for a low-fat label claim. The pH of the LFCC mixture was adjusted to 5.3 by lactic acid. Rennet was added to the LFCC mixture, followed by pressing and packaging. Chemical and sensory data were analyzed by ANOVA using the Proc GLM of SAS to determine if any differences in chemical composition and sensory properties were present among different cheeses. Descriptive sensory scores were used to construct a principal component analysis biplot to visualize flavor profile differences among cheeses. The LFCC had 83% less fat, 32% less sodium, and higher protein and moisture content than FFCC. When the cheese texture was evaluated in the context of a filled-gel model consisting of matrix and filler (100% minus percentage of matrix) the LFCC had lower filler volume than FFCC, yet the LFCC had a softer texture than FFCC. The LFCC contained some of the original FFCC cheese matrix that had been disrupted by the fat-removal process, and this original FFCC matrix was embedded in the new LFCC matrix formed by the action of rennet on casein from the continuous phase of hydrated MCC. Thus, the texture of the LFCC was desirable and was softer than the FFCC it was made from, whereas commercial RFCC (50 and 75% fat reduction) were firmer than the FFCC. The sulfur flavor in LFCC was closer to FFCC than commercial RFCC. The LFCC had

  15. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Flowers; A.K. Groen; A.T. Oler; M.P. Keller; Y. Choi; K.L. Schueler; O.C. Richards; H. Lan; M. Miyazaki; F. Kuipers; C.M. Kendziorski; J.M. Ntambi; A.D. Attie

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprot

  16. Low-fat, high calorie parenteral nutrition (PN), reverses liver affection in long term PN dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Hørby Jørgensen, Marianne; Husby, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen...

  17. Effect of aging on the rheology of full fat and low fat Cheddar-like caprine cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of aging full fat (FF) and low fat (LF) caprine milk cheeses were characterized to determine the changes in the cheese matrix during storage. Six batches of high moisture, Cheddar-like cheese were manufactured from whole or skim caprine milk and were aged at 4 deg C for u...

  18. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, part 3: Fortified UHT low-fat milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying

  19. Low-fat, light, and reduced in calories : Do these claims really lead to an increase in consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecent experimental research has shown that light, low-fat and other claims that signal low calorie content can increase consumption and hence can be counter-effective. In this article we use detailed data from the Dutch National Food Consumption survey to determine the extent to which t

  20. Adherence to a low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diet differs by insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; Otten, J J; Hekler, E B; Gardner, C D

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows diminished weight loss success in insulin-resistant (IR) women assigned to a low-fat (LF) diet compared to those assigned to a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. These secondary analyses examined the relationship between insulin-resistance status and dietary adherence to either a LF-diet or LC-diet among 81 free-living, overweight/obese women [age = 41.9 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI) = 32.6 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)]. This study found differential adherence by insulin-resistance status only to a LF-diet, not a LC-diet. IR participants were less likely to adhere and lose weight on a LF-diet compared to insulin-sensitive (IS) participants assigned to the same diet. There were no significant differences between IR and IS participants assigned to LC-diet in relative adherence or weight loss. These results suggest that insulin resistance status may affect dietary adherence to weight loss diets, resulting in higher recidivism and diminished weight loss success of IR participants advised to follow LF-diets for weight loss.

  1. A New Orthorhombic Phase of ZrW1.6Mo0.4O8 at Ambient Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanocrystallite δ′-ZrW1.6Mo0.4O8 was prepared in the precursor route synthesis. The characterization by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) showed it crystallized in a orthorhombic crystal system with a=0.896 9(7) nm, b=0.701 1(8) nm, c=0.596(1) nm. The possible space group is Pnnm (58) or Pnn2 (34). The compound crystallizes in a metastable phase during the synthesis process depending on temperature and crystallization time.

  2. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  3. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by selective laser melting process for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaichi, Atsushi; Suyalatu; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Joko, Natsuka; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Migita, Satoshi; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2013-05-01

    The selective laser melting (SLM) process was applied to a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy, and its microstructure, mechanical properties, and metal elution were investigated to determine whether the fabrication process is suitable for dental applications. The microstructure was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a tensile test. Dense builds were obtained when the input energy of the laser scan was higher than 400 J mm⁻³, whereas porous builds were formed when the input energy was lower than 150 J mm⁻³. The microstructure obtained was unique with fine cellular dendrites in the elongated grains parallel to the building direction. The γ phase was dominant in the build and its preferential orientation was confirmed along the building direction, which was clearly observed for the builds fabricated at lower input energy. Although the mechanical anisotropy was confirmed in the SLM builds due to the unique microstructure, the yield strength, UTS, and elongation were higher than those of the as-cast alloy and satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO22764. Metal elution from the SLM build was smaller than that of the as-cast alloy, and thus, the SLM process for the Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy is a promising candidate for fabricating dental devices.

  4. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Phinney, Stephen D; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Puglisi, Michael J; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Doug M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D

    2009-04-01

    We recently proposed that the biological markers improved by carbohydrate restriction were precisely those that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and that the common thread was regulation of insulin as a control element. We specifically tested the idea with a 12-week study comparing two hypocaloric diets (approximately 1,500 kcal): a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = 12:59:28) and a low-fat diet (LFD) (56:24:20) in 40 subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. Despite a threefold higher intake of dietary saturated fat during the CRD, saturated fatty acids in TAG and cholesteryl ester were significantly decreased, as was palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), an endogenous marker of lipogenesis, compared to subjects consuming the LFD. Serum retinol binding protein 4 has been linked to insulin-resistant states, and only the CRD decreased this marker (-20%). The findings provide support for unifying the disparate markers of MetS and for the proposed intimate connection with dietary carbohydrate. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.

  5. Effects of inulin and oligofructose on the rheological characteristics and probiotic culture survival in low-fat probiotic ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin, A S; Erişir, D

    2008-05-01

    The effects of supplementation of oligofructose or inulin on the rheological characteristics and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in low-fat ice cream stored at -18 degrees C for 90 d were studied. Addition of oligofructose or inulin to ice cream mix significantly increased apparent viscosity and overrun and developed the melting properties in ice cream during storage (P ice cream containing inulin (P ice cream mix (P ice cream with oligofructose during storage.

  6. Effect of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intervention on change in mammographic density over menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J; Greenberg, Carolyn V; Kriukov, Valentina; Minkin, Salomon; Jenkins, David J A; Yaffe, Martin; Hislop, Gregory; Boyd, Norman F

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that a low-fat dietary intervention for 2 years in women with extensive mammographic density decreased mammographic density to a greater extent than in the control group. Post-hoc analysis indicated that this effect was strongest in women who became postmenopausal during the follow-up period. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this potentially important finding could be confirmed in a new and larger group of subjects with a longer follow-up time. Participants in a low-fat dietary intervention trial who were premenopausal at entry and became postmenopausal during follow-up were examined. Total breast, dense, and non-dense area and percent density were measured in baseline and postmenopause mammograms using a computer-assisted method. Total breast and non dense area increased more in the control group compared to the intervention group (for breast area 2.6 and 0.2 cm(2), respectively; P=0.05, and for non-dense area 10.9 and 8.1 cm(2), respectively; P=0.06). Dense area decreased to a similar degree in both groups (-8.2 and -8.0 cm(2), respectively; P=0.84). Percent density decreased to a slightly greater degree in the control compared to intervention group (-9.4 and -7.8%, respectively, P=0.11). There were no significant differences between study groups after adjustment for weight change. Menopause reduced density to a similar extent in the low-fat diet and control groups. If a low-fat diet reduces breast cancer risk, the effect is unlikely to be through changes in mammographic density at menopause.

  7. Effects of Encapsulated Fish Oil by Polymerized Whey Protein on the Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Low-Fat Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Diru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five types of polymerized whey protein (PWP1, PWP2, PWP3, PWP4 and PWP5 containing different amounts of fish oil were added to low-fat yogurt as fat replacers. The texture, apparent viscosity, and sensory properties of the yogurts were analyzed in comparison with full-fat ( 3.0%, w/w, fat and low-fat (1.5%, w/w; and 1.2%, w/w milk yogurt controls. The majority (~85% of the particle size distribution was in the range of 1106±158 nm. Thermal property analysis indicated PWP was thermally stable between 50°C and 90°C. Yogurts formulated with 12% of PWP4 and 14% of PWP5 demonstrated higher firmness, springiness and adhesiveness (P<0.05, and lower cohesiveness (P<0.05 than the low-fat milk yogurt controls. There was no fat separation and they had less fishy smell. Yogurts incorporated with 12% of PWP4 had comparable sensory and textural characteristics to the full- -fat milk yogurt control.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk on lipid profile in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ching-Lung; Ho, Daniel Ka-Chun; Sing, Chor-Wing; Tsoi, Man-Fung; Cheng, Vincent Ka-Fai; Lee, Grace Koon-Yee; Ho, Yuk-Nam; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Phytosterols found naturally in plants are known to reduce cholesterol absorption in the gut. The traditional southern Chinese diet typically contains many vegetables and not much meat, and there is high prevalence of lactose intolerance in Chinese; we therefore aimed to test if phytosterols-enriched milk is effective in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol in Chinese. Two hundred and twenty-one participants (41 men and 180 women; age 24–79) without cholesterol-lowering drugs or diabetes mellitus were randomized to daily intake of phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk which contained 1.5 g phytosterols per day (N = 110) or a conventional low-fat milk (N = 111) for three weeks. Fasting bloods were taken before and at the end of the study for the measurement of lipid and glucose profile. Physical examination was also performed. Comparing treatment with control, treatment group had significant decrease in serum LDL-cholesterol level (9.5 ± 2.0%; p < 0.0001). Phytosterols intake also decreased total cholesterol (P < 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01). Consumption of a phytosterols-enriched low-fat milk led to a significant fall in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure in Chinese. This can be recommended as part of a healthy diet for people. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02541201; Date of registration: 26 Aug 2015). PMID:28117400

  9. Effect of casein to whey protein ratios on the protein interactions and coagulation properties of low-fat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt.

  10. Low-fat Gouda cheese made from bovine milk-olive oil emulsion: physicochemical and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, Imène; Bornaz, Salwa; Baccouche, Aroua; Sahli, Ali; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of milk-fat replacement on Gouda cheeses composition, lipolysis and sensory characteristics. A Gouda cheese-like product was prepared from the substitution of milk fat with emulsified olive oil. For comparison, the low-fat variant without fat replacers and the full-fat cheese were also studied. Milk samples are initially pasteurized at 72 °C for 3 s, cooled to 35 °C, and added with 0.016 g L(-1) of lactic ferments and 0.30 mL L(-1) of microbial rennet. Total solids content was lower in cheeses containing fat replacers than in full and low-fat control cheeses due to the higher water-binding capacity of fat replacers. Free fatty acids rates were the highest in the case of reduced fat cheese-like product. The full-fat cheese showed a significantly higher overall impression score than all low-fat products.

  11. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  12. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2007-02-01

    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  13. 高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养剂用于2型糖尿病%High-monounsaturated-fat Formula for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Enteral Nutrition Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施万英; 徐甲芬; 蔺淑贤; 安丽; 刘莉

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨含高单不饱和脂肪酸的特殊类型肠内营养制剂(Glucerna)对2型糖尿病患者血糖、血脂等方面的影响.方法将60例行肠内营养支持的2型糖尿病患者随机分为对照组和研究组,采用间歇喂饲法,分别经鼻胃管重力滴注两种不同的肠内营养制剂(Nutrison和Glucerna),并于营养支持前、支持后第7、14天测定两组患者的空腹血糖(FBG)、餐后2小时血糖(2hBG)、糖化血红蛋白(GHb)、血清甘油三酯(TG)、胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)等指标.结果研究结束时,对照组FBG[(7.57±2.12)mmol/L]和2hBG[(10.48±2.36)mmol/L]比研究前略有升高,但差异不显著(P>0.05),GHb[(7.47±1.22)%]无明显改变(P>0.05).研究组FBG和2hBG在营养支持后第7天已出现下降,到研究结束时分别降至(6.41±1.98)mmol/L和(9.20±2.38)mmol/L,明显低于研究前和对照组(P<0.05);GHb[(7.05±0.78)%]与研究前和对照组相比虽有所下降,但差异不显著(P>0.05).整个研究期内两组患者血脂水平无明显变化(P>0.05).结论高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂能够降低2型糖尿病患者的血糖水平,尤其是餐后血糖水平,在临床上比标准配方更适合糖尿病患者.

  14. Localized Corrosion Behavior of 6% Mo Super Austenitic & 316L Stainless Steels in Low pH 3% NaCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M.A.Gad; H.G.Salem; A.M. Nasreldin; H.Sabry; A.A.El-Sayed

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques were applied to study the crevice corrosion resistance of two types of stainless steel alloys namely, conventional 316L and 6% Mo super austenitic in acidified 3% NaCl solution at room temperature.Potentiodynamic results showed that 6% Mo alloy possessed a remarkable resistance to crevice corrosion compared with 316L alloy when they are tested in the same solution. The breakdown potential at which passivity broke down for 316L alloy was 0.00 mV (SCE). The corresponding value for 6% Mo alloy could not reach up to the potential value of 700 mV (SCE). 316L alloy suffered extremely from crevice corrosion at room temperature (about 25℃), which indicates that the critical crevice corrosion temperature, below which crevice corrosion does not occur, was lower than the test temperature. For 6% Mo alloy, the critical crevice corrosion temperature was higher than the testing temperature. Electrochemical parameters indicated that 6% Mo alloy exhibited higher crevice corrosion resistance than 316L alloy.

  15. Study on the Tribological Properties and Composition of W6Mo5Cr4V2 High Speed Steel Implanted by Boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhi-hai; XIONG Wan-quan; ZHANG Ping; TAN Jun; ZAHO Jun-jun

    2004-01-01

    Boron atoms were implanted into W6Mo5Cr4V2 high-speed steel (HSS) in CC-60 ion implantation machine to improve its tribological properties. The influence of boron implantation dose on the microhardness, friction coefficient and wear resistance of HSS were investigated. The experiment results showed that the implantation of boron can improve the tribological properties of W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel greatly. Then the phase and composition of implanted layer were analyzed by XRD and XPS. The analysisresult revealed that the interface between the implantation layer and substrate appeared to be mixed.With the increase of boron dose, the compound of δ-WB, CrB, BFe3 are the main additive phases, which supposed to be the main reason to improve the tribological properties of W6Mo5Cr4V2 steel.

  16. Comparative evaluation of yogurt and low-fat cheddar cheese as delivery media for probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M D; McMahon, D J; Broadbent, J R

    2008-09-01

    This study used Lactobacillus casei 334e, an erythromycin-resistant derivative of ATCC 334, as a model to evaluate viability and acid resistance of probiotic L. casei in low-fat Cheddar cheese and yogurt. Cheese and yogurt were made by standard methods and the probiotic L. casei adjunct was added at approximately 10(7) CFU/g with the starter cultures. Low-fat cheese and yogurt samples were stored at 8 and 2 degrees C, respectively, and numbers of the L. casei adjunct were periodically determined by plating on MRS agar that contained 5 microg/mL of erythromycin. L. casei 334e counts in cheese and yogurt remained at 10(7) CFU/g over 3 mo and 3 wk, respectively, indicating good survival in both products. Acid challenge studies in 8.7 mM phosphoric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C showed numbers of L. casei 334e in yogurt dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to less than 10(1) CFU/g after 30 min, while counts in cheese samples dropped from 10(7) CFU/g to about 10(5) after 30 min, and remained near 10(4) CFU/g after 120 min. As a whole, these data showed that low-fat Cheddar cheese is a viable delivery food for probiotic L. casei because it allowed for good survival during storage and helped protect cells against the very low pH that will be encountered during stomach transit.

  17. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Merino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first line of treatment for hypertriglyceridemic (HTG includes a well-balanced diet, although the association of dietary components with triglyceride (TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic patients is not fully understood. Objective: To describe the main dietary patterns in a cohort of hypertriglyceridaemic patients and to evaluate the association between dietary components and TG levels. Methods: This multicentre cross-sectional study included subjects (n = 1.394 with HTG (TG > 2.25 mmol/L visiting lipid units affiliated with the Spanish Atherosclerosis Society. A validated 14-item food questionnaire was performed to assess diet. Clinical, anthropometry and biochemical parameters were also obtained. Results: Two dietary patterns were defined a posteriori by cluster analysis. Patients following the "prudent dietary pattern" (predominantly fish, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy and legumes had lower TG levels than those with the "western dietary pattern" (predominantly red and processed meat products, alcohol, cakes and pastries and sugar (3.51 ± 2.41 vs. 3.96 ± 3.61 mmol/L, P = 0.002. In a multivariant test, low-fat dairy products (B: -0.089; 95% IC: -16.1, -3.1, P = 0.004 and alcohol intake (B: 0.070; 95% IC: 1.1, 13.1, P = 0.022 were significantly associated with TG concentrations independently of potential confounders. Conclusions: Mediterranean dietary pattern including low-fat dairy products and abstaining from alcohol intake is highly associated with lower TG concentration in hypertriglyceridaemic patients even under lipid-lowering treatment. The reinforcement in nutritional counselling mainly in these food groups should be done and further specifically studies about the direct association of these and other dietary groups should be carried out to the development of more effective nutritional recommendations.

  18. An unusual chain constructed from heteropolyanions and isopolyanions: [{Cu(2,2'-bipy)} 6(Mo 6O 22)][SiMo 12O 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Pang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Da-Peng; Kong, Qing-Jiao; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Yao, Feng; Tang, Qun; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Chen, Ya-Guang

    2010-02-01

    A new compound based on transition metal complexes modified heteropolyanions and isopolyanions: [{Cu(2,2'-bipy)} 6(Mo 6O 22)][SiMo 12O 40] ( 1) (2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In compound 1, each of the [Mo 6O 22] 8- clusters is surrounded by six {Cu(2,2'-bipy)} 2+ fragments forming [{Cu(2,2'-bipy)} 6(Mo 6O 22)] 4+ cations which further alternately link the [SiMo 12O 40] 4- anions to result in an unusual 1D chain.

  19. Short communication: low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, J M; Lim, S-Y; Powers, J R; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine flavor binding of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a real food system. Fresh Washington State University (WSU, Pullman) WPC, produced by ultrafiltration of separated Cheddar cheese whey, was treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Commercial WPC 35 powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU WPC (8.23%). Six batches of low-fat ice cream were produced: A) HHP-treated WSU WPC without diacetyl; B) and E) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added before HHP; C) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added after HHP; D) untreated WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl; and F) untreated commercial WPC 35 with 2 mg/L of diacetyl. The solution of WSU WPC or commercial WPC 35 contributed 10% to the mix formulation. Ice creams were produced by using standard ice cream ingredients and processes. Low-fat ice creams containing HHP-treated WSU WPC and untreated WSU WPC were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 50 untrained panelists in 2 sessions on 2 different days. The headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography analysis revealed that ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU WPC had almost 3 times the concentration of diacetyl compared with ice cream containing untreated WSU WPC at d 1 of storage. However, diacetyl was not detected in ice creams after 14 d of storage. Eighty percent of panelists were able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated WSU WPC with and without diacetyl, confirming panelists' ability to detect diacetyl. However, panelists were not able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated and HHP-treated WSU WPC with diacetyl. These results show that WPC diacetyl-binding properties were not enhanced by 300-MPa HHP treatment for 15 min, indicating that HHP may not be suitable for such applications.

  20. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  1. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis with low fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation in child with fontan physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, K; Witte, M H; Samson, R; Teodori, M; Carpenter, J B; Lowe, M C; Morgan, W; Hardin, C; Brown, M; Naughton, Y; Sinha, S; Barber, B J

    2012-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare condition characterized by the formation and expectoration of long, branching bronchial casts that develop in the tracheobronchial tree and cause airway obstruction. Plastic bronchitis has become increasingly recognized as a feared complication of the Fontan operation with a mortality of up to 50%. We report an 11 year old boy who developed severe plastic bronchitis following Fontan repair and the successful long-term control of cast formation utilizing a low-fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation.

  2. Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D; Nigg, Claudio R

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the "health halo" associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling.

  3. Solid Solution Nitriding Technology of 15Cr-7.5Mn-2.6Mo Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Rui-dong; ZHAO Pin; WANG Chun-Yu; QIU Liang; ZHENG Yang-zeng

    2004-01-01

    Solid solution nitriding technologies of 15Cr-7.5Mn-2.6Mo duplex stainless steel were investigated by using of orthogonal tests. The results show that the best technology would be the processes of 1050℃× 2h + 1150℃× 3h +1050℃× 2h + 1150℃× 4h under pure N2 with PN2=0.15MPa. The high nitrogen austenitic case with the depth of1.62mm can be obtained. Orthogonal tests show that the type of atmosphere has the most notable effect on solid solution nitriding process; the pressure in the furnace and the nitriding processes has a notable effect. X-ray diffraction analyses results indicate that the main phases in the cases of the solution-nitrided samples cooled in the furnace are high nitrogen austenite, CrN, Fe3O4 and nitrogen containing ferrite. In the other samples experienced solid solution nitriding and solution treatment the obtained phase in the cases is high nitrogen austenite only. The results show that solid solution nitriding is a process that nitrogen absolutely diffuses in the austenite. The diffusing activation energy in the conditions of PN2 = 0.15MPa and 1050℃~ 1200℃ is 186.6K J/mol.

  4. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles.

  5. A high-fiber, low-fat diet improves periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ugi, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Sadae; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakao, Keiko; Uesaki, Syoko; Shigeta, Yasutami; Imanaka, Hiromichi; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Sekine, Osamu; Makino, Taketoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; King, George L; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease is related to aging, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus, and systemic inflammation. However, there remains limited evidence about causality from intervention studies. An effective diet for prevention of periodontal disease has not been well established. The current study was an intervention study examining the effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet on periodontal disease markers in high-risk subjects. Forty-seven volunteers were interviewed for recruitment into the study. Twenty-one volunteers with a body mass index of at least 25.0 kg/m(2) or with impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. After a 2- to 3-week run-in period, subjects were provided with a test meal consisting of high fiber and low fat (30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight) 3 times a day for 8 weeks and followed by a regular diet for 24 weeks. Four hundred twenty-five teeth from 17 subjects were analyzed. Periodontal disease markers assessed as probing depth (2.28 vs 2.21 vs 2.13 mm; P diet for 8 weeks effectively improved periodontal disease markers as well as metabolic profiles, at least in part, by effects other than the reduction of total energy intake.

  6. Development of Low-fat Hazelnut Protein Beverage%低脂榛仁蛋白饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯峰; 胡伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective] Using protein in hazelnut meal to develop low-fat hazelnut protein beverage, the aim was to improve utilization rate of ha-zelnut.[Method] With hazelnut meal as main raw material, dried skimmed milk, sugar as auxiliary materials, low-fat hazelnut protein beverage was produced.Through single factor experiment and orthogonal test, the product formula was optimized.[Result] By the sensory evaluation, it was defined that the optimum conditions were:hazelnut powder 11.00%, defatted milk powder 4.00%, sugar 4.00%, SE 0.07%.The opti-mum composite stabilizer was composed of XG and CMC-Na with a ratio of 2∶1, the total amount of that was 0.09%( m/V) .Under the above conditions, the beverage color was milky white with uniform state.[Conclusion] The obtained low-fat hazelnut protein beverage has unique aroma and moderate sweetness, the sensory evaluation is high and the market prospect is good.%[目的]利用榛仁粕中的蛋白质加工低脂榛仁蛋白饮料,提高榛子的利用率。[方法]以榛仁粕为主要原料,脱脂奶粉、白砂糖等为辅料,制成低脂榛仁蛋白饮料。通过单因素和正交试验,优化产品配方。[结果]通过感官评定最终确定低脂榛仁蛋白饮料在榛仁粕11.00%、白砂糖4.00%、脱脂奶粉4.00%、蔗糖酯0.07%、最佳稳定剂黄原胶与CMC-Na质量比2∶1、总用量0.09%(m/V)条件下,饮品色泽呈乳白色,状态均匀。[结论]制得的低脂榛仁蛋白饮料具有榛仁独特的香气并且甜度适中,感官评价较高,市场前景较好。

  7. Physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat cupuaçu and açaí nectar: characterization and changes during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneide Taumaturgo Macambira Braga FERNANDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat açaí and cupuaçu nectar, as well as changes in these parameters during storage. Nectars were prepared with açaí pulp previously defatted by centrifugation on a pilot scale. The study consisted of two steps. In the first step, the physicochemical characteristics, instrumental color, and sensory acceptance of the nectar prepared with low-fat açaí pulp were evaluated and compared with those of nectar prepared with full-fat açaí pulp. In the second step, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanin content, instrumental color, and sensory acceptance of the low-fat açaí and cupuaçu nectar were evaluated for 6 months of storage at 25°C in the absence of light. The use of low-fat açaí pulp resulted in nectars with good overall acceptance, but with lower scores for color acceptance than those of the full-fat nectar. The low-fat nectar remained stable with respect to acidity, pH, and soluble solid content during storage for up to 180 days. However, there was degradation of anthocyanins, which had a negative impact on the product color and sensory acceptance over time. Under the conditions evaluated, the estimated product shelf life is up to 120 days.

  8. Effect of the ripening time under vacuum and packaging film permeability on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaros, N G; Katsanidis, E; Bloukas, J G

    2009-12-01

    The effect of vacuum ripening of low-fat fermented sausages packaged in films with different permeabilities on their microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics was studied. High-fat control sausages were produced with 30% initial fat and low-fat sausages with 10% initial fat. The low-fat sausages were separated into: (a) non-packaged (control) and (b) packaged under vacuum on 7th, 12th and 17th day of processing, remaining under vacuum during the ripening period for 21, 16 and 11days, respectively, in three different oxygen (100, 38 and⩽5cm(3)/m(2)/24h/1atm) and water vapour (4.5, sausages, increased (p0.05) on the redness, compared to the control sausages. Packaging low-fat fermented sausages under vacuum for the last 11days of ripening in packaging film with high permeability increased (p0.05) hardness and overall acceptability as the high-fat control sausages. A ripening time of 11days and the medium packaging film permeability were the most appropriate conditions for the vacuum packaging of low-fat fermented sausages.

  9. Effect of exopolysaccharides on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities and textural and rheological properties of low-fat yogurt during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandran, L; Shah, N P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of using exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain of Streptococcus thermophilus on the viability of yogurt starters, their proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities, and on the textural and rheological properties of the low-fat yogurt during storage at 4 degrees C for 28 d. The use of an EPS-producing strain of S. thermophilus did not have influence on pH, lactic acid content, or the angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibition activity of low-fat yogurt. However, EPS showed a protective effect on the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Presence of EPS reduced the firmness, spontaneous whey separation, yield stress, and hysteresis loop area but not the consistency and flow behavior index of low-fat yogurt.

  10. Differences in the effect of bolus weight on flavor release into the breath between low-fat and high-fat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linforth, Rob S T; Blissett, Annie; Taylor, Andrew J

    2005-09-07

    The maximum intensity of flavor release increased as the weight of food introduced into the mouth (the bolus) was increased for a range of different foods. The relationship was not directly proportional (1:1) but followed a power law function. Low-fat (foods showed a different relationship than high-fat (> or = 5 g/100 g) foods, but all low-fat and all high-fat foods were broadly similar irrespective of food type or flavor molecule chemistry. For low-fat foods the intensity of flavor release increased with increasing bolus weight to a greater extent than high-fat foods. This may be associated with the capacity of fat to selectively adhere to the surfaces of the oral cavity, thereby changing the effective surface area for the release of lipophilic flavors.

  11. Ion release and surface oxide composition of AISI 316L, Co–28Cr–6Mo, and Ti–6Al–4V alloys immersed in human serum albumin solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Shima, E-mail: shimak80@gmail.com; Alfantazi, Akram M.

    2014-07-01

    The long-term weight loss, ion release, and surface composition of 316L, Co–28Cr–6Mo and Ti–6Al–4V alloys were investigated in a simulated body environment. The samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions with various human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations for 8, 14, and 22 weeks. The specimens initially lost weight up to 14 weeks and then slightly gained weight. The analysis of the released ions was performed by induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results revealed that the precipitation of the dissolved Fe and Co could cause the weight gain of the 316L and Co–28Cr–6Mo alloys. The surface chemistry of the specimens was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analysis of Co–28Cr–6Mo alloy showed that the interaction of Mo with HSA is different from Mo with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This was also observed for Na adsorption into the oxide layer of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the presence of HSA and BSA. - Highlights: • Long-term study of weight loss, ion release, and surface composition in HSA solution • Comparison between HSA and BSA as protein simulators in PBS solutions • The most ions released from 316L and Co–28Cr–6Mo were Fe and Co. • The oxide composition of 316L contained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MoO{sub 2}, and MoO{sub 3} in only HSA solutions.

  12. Ion release and surface oxide composition of AISI 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo, and Ti-6Al-4V alloys immersed in human serum albumin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shima; Alfantazi, Akram M

    2014-07-01

    The long-term weight loss, ion release, and surface composition of 316L, Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were investigated in a simulated body environment. The samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions with various human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations for 8, 14, and 22 weeks. The specimens initially lost weight up to 14 weeks and then slightly gained weight. The analysis of the released ions was performed by induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results revealed that the precipitation of the dissolved Fe and Co could cause the weight gain of the 316L and Co-28Cr-6Mo alloys. The surface chemistry of the specimens was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analysis of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy showed that the interaction of Mo with HSA is different from Mo with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This was also observed for Na adsorption into the oxide layer of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the presence of HSA and BSA.

  13. 脂肪替代品在低脂肉制品中的研究进展%Research progress in fat replacement of low fat meat production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 周雅琳; 赵欣; 邹妍; 陶兵兵; 赵国华

    2013-01-01

    Due to decreased fat intake and prevented slow disease,low-fat meat production became hot topics which attracted by increasing researchers in recent years.In this article,on the basis of studies of low fat meat production,the lasted progress in constituents,texture characteristic,antioxidatant stability and sensory quality of low fat sausage added three type fat replacements was reviewed.Meanwhile,referential formations and its future prospect in the low fat meat production were provided in this work.%由于低脂肉制品可有效降低脂肪的摄入,且能预防高脂膳食所引起的各种慢性疾病,相关研究领域逐渐成为近年来的研究热点.本文基于国内外低脂肉制品的发展现状,从脂肪替代物、脂肪模拟物和复合型脂肪替代物三个方面综述了各自对低脂肉制品组成成分、组织结构、抗氧化性及感官评价等指标影响的最新研究进展,并就肉制品中脂肪替代物的发展方向进行了展望.

  14. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  15. Effect of carrageenan level and packaging during ripening on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages produced with olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, D A; Koutsimanis, G E; Bloukas, J G

    2008-05-01

    Eight low-fat fermented sausages were produced with partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil. The total fat content of the sausages was 10% of which 8% was animal fat and 2% was olive oil. The sausages were produced with two types of carrageenan (ι- and κ-) in four levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). ι-Carrageenan had a better effect (psausages, as well as, on sensory attributes. Low-fat fermented sausages with κ-carrageenan had the same (p>0.05) firmness as high-fat commercial sausages (control). The carrageenan level of 3% negatively affected the firmness of the sausages. In a 2nd experiment, a high-fat control (30% total fat) and three low-fat fermented sausages (10% total fat) with olive oil were produced with three levels of ι-carrageenan (0%, 1% and 2%). Low-fat sausages were vacuum packed for the last two weeks of ripening. ι-Carrageenan added at levels up to 2% had a positive effect (pfermented sausages. The application of vacuum packaging over last two weeks of ripening improved the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the sausages and resulted in sensory attributes equal to or better than the high-fat controls.

  16. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  17. Comparison and improvement of chemical and physical characteristics of low- fat ground beef and buffalo meat patties at frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uriyapongson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of chemical and physical properties of beef and buffalo meat, and eight treatments of their ground meat patties was undertaken. Low-fat patties from both meat were prepared using two types of starches; corn and modified tapioca starch as binding ingredients in the ground meat, and methylcellulose (MC in the batter for patty coating. The patties were stored at -18ºC for 1, 15, 30 and 45 days, then deep fried and analyzed for color, % decrease in diameter and % gain in height, % oil absorption and texture. The results suggested that MC improved outside and inside color of patties (p≤0.05. There was no significant difference of cooking yield between beef and buffalo meat patties. Addition of modified starches and MC provided less % decrease in diameter after frying for frozen buffalo meat patties. Modified starch significantly improved % oil absorption in frozen beef and buffalo patties. Modified starch and MC gave both beef and buffalo meat patties more stable in hardness, chewiness and gumminess during the frozen storage. MC improved texture quality of frozen buffalo meat patties. Fried meat patties had high calories at 15 days of frozen storage.

  18. Development of a stable low-fat yogurt gel using functionality of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) husk gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjevardi, Zhaleh Sadat; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mousavi, Mohammad

    2015-07-10

    Psyllium husk gum (PHG) as an ideal fat replacer was utilized to improve the production of an industrial low-fat yogurt gel. The combined effects of critical structural components (PHG concentration (0.072-0.128%) and fat content (0.29-1.71%)) on the textural (firmness and syneresis), rheological (viscosity), and chemical (pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)) attributes of developed set-yogurts were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-order polynomial equations with high R(2) demonstrated a good agreement between experimental and predicted data. The optimal formulation for achieving optimal pH (4.39) and TTA (81% lactic acid), maximizing firmness (0.172 N) and viscosity (6.40 Pa s) and minimizing whey separation (36.21 mL/100g) was 0.12% PHG and 0.63% fat. Sensory characterization also revealed that the yogurts manufactured at optimal point had more aroma, texture and overall acceptability than the control yogurts.

  19. Determination of mTG Activity in Low-Fat Semi-Hard Cheese Using Fluorescent Labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnay, Lívia

    2017-03-01

    A method to directly determine enzyme activity in cheese has not been published yet despite the fact that mTG mediated gel strength or hardness modification may be unpredictable and unfavorable during ripening and/or storage. The present study was performed to determine enzyme activity of semi-fat semi-hard Hungarian Trappist cheese. The widely known hydroxamate method was not suitable to even detect enzyme treatment, because of the disturbing effect of milk proteins. However incorporation of a dansylated glutamine dipeptide into milk protein contributed to monitoring the enzyme activity. The fluorescent measurement reflected mTG activity by increasing fluorescence intensity at 532 nm in a 5-min continuously running assay. The presented dipeptide assay allows the determination of enzyme activity after 2 min measurement by the manufacturing stage: cutting and up-heating. This assay can be used to monitor mTG activity during manufacture of low-fat semi-hard cheese type, in case if it was produced according to general recommendation of enzyme preparation providers (enzyme dosage: 0.1%, v/w). According to the preliminary calibration this assay can define mTG activity in the range of 0.05-0.3 U/g.

  20. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Matthew T; Groen, Albert K; Oler, Angie Tebon; Keller, Mark P; Choi, Younjeong; Schueler, Kathryn L; Richards, Oliver C; Lan, Hong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuipers, Folkert; Kendziorski, Christina M; Ntambi, James M; Attie, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprotein X. The rate of LDL clearance was decreased in VLF SCD1(-/-) mice relative to VLF SCD1(+/+) mice, indicating that reduced apoB-containing lipoprotein clearance contributed to the hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, HDL-cholesterol was dramatically reduced in these mice. The presence of increased plasma bile acids, bilirubin, and aminotransferases in the VLF SCD1(-/-) mice is indicative of cholestasis. Supplementation of the VLF diet with MUFA- and PUFA-rich canola oil, but not saturated fat-rich hydrogenated coconut oil, prevented these plasma phenotypes. However, dietary oleate was not as effective as canola oil in reducing LDL-cholesterol, signifying a role for dietary PUFA deficiency in the development of this phenotype. These results indicate that the lack of SCD1 results in an increased requirement for dietary unsaturated fat to compensate for impaired MUFA synthesis and to prevent hypercholesterolemia and hepatic dysfunction. Therefore, endogenous MUFA synthesis is essential during dietary unsaturated fat insufficiency and influences the dietary requirement of PUFA.

  1. Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream

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    Karaman, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

    Se estudia la microestructura y distribución de los glóbulos de grasa de quesos blancos turcos bajos en grasa. Quesos con reducida y baja cantidad en grasa fueron fabricados conteniendo entre el 1,5% y 0,75% de grasa de leche, respectivamente, y con cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas, en una planta de lácteos. Las cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas y el suero de los quesos se analizaron para determinar la distribución de los glóbulos de grasa y también se analizaron las características de la microestructura de muestras de queso. De acuerdo con los resultados, la homogeneización de la crema reduce el tamaño de los glóbulos de grasa, mostrando un gran número de partículas de grasa dispersa en la matriz de caseína que mejoró la lubricación de la microestructura del queso. De acuerdo con las micrografías de la grasa que no se elimina, estas exhiben

  2. The effects of phytosterol in low fat milk on serum lipid levels among mild-moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

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    Sri Sukmaniah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important risk factors for CHD is dyslipidemia, among others hypercholesterolemia or high LDL-cholesterol. Plant-sterols or phytosterols (PS are among dietary factors known to lower blood cholesterol as part of therapeutic life-style changes diet. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of PS properly solubilized in a-partly vegetable oil-filled low fat milk, on serum lipid levels in mild-moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized, two-arm parallel control group trial was conducted at Department of Nutrition-University of Indonesia in Jakarta from June to November 2006. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive dietary life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g phytosterol/day in low-fat milk (PS-group or control group receiving the counseling alone for six weeks period. There were no significant changes of serum total and LDL-cholesterol of control group after a six week of dietary counseling (respectively 218.3 ± 18.6 mg/dL to 219.6 ± 24.3 mg/dL and 164.7±21.8 mg/dL to 160.0±26.4 mg/dL. There were a significant decreases of serum total and LDL-cholesterol (respectively p=0.01 and p=0.004 among subjects receiving PS after a six weeks observation period (respectively 233.5±24.6 mg/dL to 211.2±30.3 mg/dL and 176.9±24.7 mg/dL to 154.5±24.3 mg/dL. There was a significant difference in the LDL-lowering effects (p=0.024 among the PS-group after a six weeks (22.4±27.9 mg/dL as compared to the control group (4.7±17.2 mg/dL. No significant changes were found on serum HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both groups. Although there was no significant difference found in daily nutrients intake between the-2 groups, however, significant reductions in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference were found only in the PS group (p=0.000; 0.000; 0.003, respectively. It is concluded that the lowering of total and LDL-cholesterol in those receiving life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g PS daily for six

  3. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

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    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  4. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  5. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Bibus, Doug M; Kraemer, William J; Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome. We tested whether these components of metabolic syndrome, like dyslipidemia and glycemia, are responsive to carbohydrate restriction. Overweight men and women with atherogenic dyslipidemia consumed ad libitum diets very low in carbohydrate (VLCKD) (1504 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 12:59:28) or low in fat (LFD) (1478 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 56:24:20) for 12 weeks. In comparison to the LFD, the VLCKD resulted in an increased proportion of serum total n-6 PUFA, mainly attributed to a marked increase in arachidonate (20:4n-6), while its biosynthetic metabolic intermediates were decreased. The n-6/n-3 and arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio also increased sharply. Total saturated fatty acids and 16:1n-7 were consistently decreased following the VLCKD. Both diets significantly decreased the concentration of several serum inflammatory markers, but there was an overall greater anti-inflammatory effect associated with the VLCKD, as evidenced by greater decreases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, I-CAM, and PAI-1. Increased 20:4n-6 and the ratios of 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 and n-6/n-3 are commonly viewed as pro-inflammatory, but unexpectedly were consistently inversely associated with responses in inflammatory proteins. In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet.

  6. Optimization of the griddling process of kpejigaou (a traditional low fat nutritious cowpea food) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonsou, E; Sakyi-Dawson, E; Saalia, F; Sefa-Dedeh, S; Abbey, L D

    2010-08-01

    Kpejigaou is a griddled cowpea paste product eaten mainly in West Africa. As its processing does not involve the use of fat, it has the potential of meeting consumers' demand for healthy, low fat nutritious foods. Product texture is considered an important quality index by kpejigaou consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum processing conditions of kpejigaou with respect to its textural properties. The study followed a 2 × 3 design with two processing variables each at three levels as follows: griddling temperature (130, 200, 270 °C) and time (5, 7.5 and 10 min). Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was done on freshly processed samples. The data were fitted into multiple regression models from which the optimum griddling conditions for kpejigaou were determined. Kpejigaou processed at the optimum conditions was evaluated by untrained consumers for acceptability. Traditionally processed kpejigaou served as the control. The TPA results showed that hardness, chewiness and modulus of deformability were significantly affected by griddling conditions. Adjusted R(2) for the models for hardness, chewiness and modulus of deformability were 96%, 97% and 78%, respectively. Using response surface methodology, the optimum griddling conditions for kpejigaou (for acceptable textural properties) were determined to be 170 °C for 5-6 min. The texture of optimized kpejigaou was very much liked for its higher degree of sponginess as compared to the control. It also had acceptable sensory attributes of color, taste and flavor. These findings provide the basis for the development of a process for mass production and quality assurance of kpejigaou.

  7. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents

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    Elba Mauriz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS treatment options are primarily limited to immunomodulatory therapies in MS non-progressive forms. Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control disease progression. Therefore, dietary intervention may help to improve wellness and ameliorate symptoms of MS patients. Objectives: To assess the effect of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of institutionalized patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Methods: A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study involving 9 participants, 5 of them assigned to the intervention group (low-fat diet and antioxidant supplementation and the other 4 to the placebo group (low-fat diet. The effect of the dietary intervention, involving diet modification and antioxidant supplementation, was examined for 42 days by measuring anthropometric, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in blood at baseline (day 0, intermediate (day 15 and end (day 42 stages of the treatment. Results: The intervention group obtained C reactive protein levels significantly lower than those observed in the corresponding placebo group at the end of the study. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and interleukine IL-6 values also diminished after dietary intervention in the intervention group. Catalase activity increased significantly in the intervention group prior antioxidant supplementation. No significant differences were observed in other oxida-tive stress markers. Conclusions: The results suggest that diet and dietary supplements are involved in cell metabolism modulation and MS-related inflammatory processes. Consequently, low fat diets and antioxidant supplements may be used as complementary therapies for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  8. The Comparative Effect of Carrot and Lemon Fiber as a Fat Replacer on Physico-chemical, Textural, and Organoleptic Quality of Low-fat Beef Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncu, Eda Demirok; Kolsarıcı, Nuray; Çiçek, Neslihan; Öztürk, Görsen Salman; Akoğlu, Ilker T; Arıcı, Yeliz Kaşko

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the usability of lemon fiber (LF-2%, 4%, 6%) and carrot fiber (CF-2%, 4%, 6%) to produce low-fat beef hamburgers. To that end, a certain amount of fat was replaced with each fiber. The proximate composition, pH value, cholesterol content, cooking characteristics, color, texture profile, and sensory properties of low-fat beef hamburgers were investigated. LF increased moisture content and cooking yield due to its better water binding properties, while CF caused higher fat and cholesterol contents owing to its higher fat absorption capacity (p<0.05). LF resulted in a lighter, redder, and more yellow color (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness parameters decreased when the usage level of both fibers increased (p<0.05). However, more tender, gummy, springy, and smoother hamburgers were produced by the addition of CF in comparison with LF (p<0.05). Moreover, hamburgers including CF were rated with higher sensory scores (p<0.05). In conclusion, LF demonstrated better technological results in terms of cooking yield, shrinkage, moisture retention, and fat retention. However it is suggested that CF produces better low-fat hamburgers since up to 2% CF presented sensory and textural properties similar to those of regular hamburgers.

  9. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  10. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  11. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  12. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies.

  13. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers.

  14. Dietary linoleic acid elevates the endocannabinoids 2-AG and anandamide and promotes weight gain in mice fed a low fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvheim, Anita Røyneberg; Torstensen, Bente E; Lin, Yu Hong; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Lock, Erik-Jan; Madsen, Lise; Frøyland, Livar; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) has increased dramatically during the 20th century and is associated with greater prevalence of obesity. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulation of energy balance and a sustained hyperactivity of the endocannabinoid system may contribute to obesity. Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is the precursor for 2-AG and anandamide (AEA), and we sought to determine if low fat diets (LFD) could be made obesogenic by increasing the endocannabinoid precursor pool of ARA, causing excessive endocannabinoid signaling leading to weight gain and a metabolic profile associated with obesity. Mice (C57BL/6j, 6 weeks of age) were fed 1 en% LNA and 8 en% LNA in low fat (12.5 en%) and medium fat diets (MFD, 35 en%) for 16 weeks. We found that increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% in LFD and MFD significantly increased ARA in phospholipids (ARA-PL), elevated 2-AG and AEA in liver, elevated plasma leptin, and resulted in larger adipocytes and more macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. In LFD, dietary LNA of 8 en% increased feed efficiency and caused greater weight gain than in an isocaloric reduction to 1 en% LNA. Increasing dietary LNA from 1 to 8 en% elevates liver endocannabinoid levels and increases the risk of developing obesity. Thus a high dietary content of LNA (8 en%) increases the adipogenic properties of a low fat diet.

  15. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein

    Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.

  16. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products.

  17. D and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium in packaged low-fat ready-to-eat turkey bologna subjected to a surface pasteurization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, K; Han, I Y; Acton, J C; Sheldon, B W; Dawson, P L

    2003-08-01

    The D-values of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium at various surface pasteurization temperatures were determined for low-fat turkey bologna. Four cm2 meat squares were sterilized by irradiation prior to inoculation with 0.1 mL of a 10(8) cfu/mL culture, aseptically packaged in a linear low-density polyethylene pouch, and vacuum-sealed. Thermal treatments were administered by submerging packages in a heated water bath maintained at various set temperatures. At an 85 degrees C water bath temperature, no L. monocytogenes cells were detected (10(2)) up to 10 min of heating. No S. Typhimurium cells (pasteurization process.

  18. The Eat Smart Study: A randomised controlled trial of a reduced carbohydrate versus a low fat diet for weight loss in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truby Helen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recognition of obesity in young people as a key health issue, there is limited evidence to inform health professionals regarding the most appropriate treatment options. The Eat Smart study aims to contribute to the knowledge base of effective dietary strategies for the clinical management of the obese adolescent and examine the cardiometablic effects of a reduced carbohydrate diet versus a low fat diet. Methods and design Eat Smart is a randomised controlled trial and aims to recruit 100 adolescents over a 2 1/2 year period. Families will be invited to participate following referral by their health professional who has recommended weight management. Participants will be overweight as defined by a body mass index (BMI greater than the 90th percentile, using CDC 2000 growth charts. An accredited 6-week psychological life skills program 'FRIENDS for Life', which is designed to provide behaviour change and coping skills will be undertaken prior to volunteers being randomised to group. The intervention arms include a structured reduced carbohydrate or a structured low fat dietary program based on an individualised energy prescription. The intervention will involve a series of dietetic appointments over 24 weeks. The control group will commence the dietary program of their choice after a 12 week period. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome measure will be change in BMI z-score. A range of secondary outcome measures including body composition, lipid fractions, inflammatory markers, social and psychological measures will be measured. Discussion The chronic and difficult nature of treating the obese adolescent is increasingly recognised by clinicians and has highlighted the need for research aimed at providing effective intervention strategies, particularly for use in the tertiary setting. A structured reduced carbohydrate approach may provide a dietary pattern that some

  19. Supramolecular assembly based on a heteropolyanion: Synthesis and crystal structure of Na3(H2O)6[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Samar K Das

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of a polyoxometalate compound Na3(H2O)6 [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O (1) have been described. Compound 1 exhibits three-dimensional network structure in the solid state, which is assembled by Anderson-type heteropolyanions, [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$_n^{3n-}$, as building blocks sharing sodium cations. 1 possesses ``sinuous" channels occupied by supramolecular water dimers as guests. Anderson anions, sodium-coordinated water and crystal water are additionally involved in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network in the crystal of 1.

  20. Small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements provided to women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 mo of age increase the mean attained length of 18-mo-old children in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood stunting usually begins in utero and continues after birth; therefore, its reduction must involve actions across different stages of early life. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) provided during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy on attained size by 18 mo of age. Design: In this partially double-blind, individually randomized trial, 1320 women at ≤20 wk of gestation received standard iron and folic acid (IFA group), multiple micronutrients (MMN group), or SQ-LNS (LNS group) daily until delivery, and then placebo, MMNs, or SQ-LNS, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum; infants in the LNS group received SQ-LNS formulated for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age (endline). The primary outcome was child length by 18 mo of age. Results: At endline, data were available for 85% of 1228 infants enrolled; overall mean length and length-for-age z score (LAZ) were 79.3 cm and −0.83, respectively, and 12% of the children were stunted (LAZ supplement provided at enrollment, stunting prevalences were 8.9% compared with 15.1% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Provision of SQ-LNSs to women from pregnancy to 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 to 18 mo of age may increase the child’s attained length by age 18 mo in similar settings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866. PMID:27534634

  1. Effects of switching from whole to low-fat/fat-free milk in public schools - New York city, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    In 2005, the New York City (NYC) Department of Education (DOE) began reviewing its public school food policies to determine whether changes could help address the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in NYC. DOE determined that reducing consumption of whole milk and increasing consumption of fat-free or low-fat milk could help decrease students' fat and calorie intake while maintaining calcium consumption. However, milk industry advocates and others expressed concern that phasing out whole milk might decrease overall student demand for milk. Nevertheless, during 2005-2006, DOE removed whole milk from cafeterias in all public schools serving the city's approximately 1.1 million schoolchildren. To assess the effects of the switch on milk consumption, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) analyzed system-wide school milk purchasing data. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that DOE school milk purchases per student per year increased 1.3% in fiscal year 2009 compared with 2004 purchases. By removing whole milk and switching from low-fat to fat-free chocolate milk, NYC public school milk-drinking students were served an estimated 5,960 fewer calories and 619 fewer grams of fat in 2009 than they were in 2004. Other school systems can use these results to guide changes to their own school food policies.

  2. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  3. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora.

  4. Preparation on the low-fat ice cream of pumpkin%南瓜低脂冰淇淋的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马川兰; 崔惠玲

    2012-01-01

    Fresh mellow pumpkin was chosen as the raw material of producing low-fat ice cream, while part milk fat was replaced by artificial butter. At the same time, with the sensory quality and expansion rate as evaluation targets, the best formula of the healthy low- fat ice cream was obtained by the orthogonal experiment method: which was the whole milk powder 12%, the pumpkin pulp 20%, CMC 0.15%, xanthan gum 0.10%, artificial butter 3.5%, the white sugar 13%.%选取新鲜成熟南瓜为原料,以人造奶油代替部分乳脂,依据感官质量及膨胀率作为评价指标,通过正交实验获得南瓜保健冰淇淋的最佳配方为:全脂乳粉12%,南瓜浆20%,CMC0.15%,黄原胶0.10%,人造奶油3.5%,白砂糖13%。

  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (pelectric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes by H4SiW6Mo6O40/SiO2 Sensitized by H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available H4SiW6Mo6O40/SiO2 was sensitized by H2O2 solution that significantly improved its catalytic activity under simulated natural light. Degradation of basic fuchsin was used as a probe reaction to explore the influencing factors on the photodegradation reaction. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: initial concentration of basic fuchsin 8 mg/L, pH 2.5, catalyst dosage 4 g/L, and light irradiation time 4 h. Under these conditions, the degradation rate of basic fuchsin is 98%. The reaction of photocatalysis for basic fuchsin can be expressed as the first-order kinetic model. After being used continuously for four times, the catalyst kept the inherent photocatalytic activity for degradation of dyes. The photodegradation of malachite green, methyl orange, methylene blue, and rhodamine B were also tested, and the degradation rate of dyes can reach 90%–98%.

  7. Microstructure and oxidation resistance of SiB6-MoSi2 composite coating%SiB 6-MoSi 2复合涂层显微结构及抗氧化性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑锋; 张永亮; 曹丽云; 李翠艳; 欧阳海波; 郝巍; 张博烨

    2014-01-01

    A SiB6-MoSi2 anti-oxidation coating was prepared on SiC pre-coated C/C compos-ites by pluse arc discharge deposition .The phase compositions ,microstructures and anti-oxi-dation properties of the as-prepared multi-coatings were characterized by XRD ,SEM and iso-thermal oxidation test .The influence of phase composition on the microstructure was investi-gated .Results show that the dense and homogeneous of the SiB6-MoSi2 coating was achieved when the phase composition m[MoSi2 ]/m[SiB6 ]=1∶4 .The as-prepared coatings exhibit ex-cellent anti-oxidation property ,which could effectively protect C/C composites from oxida-tion at 1 773 K in air for 166 h with a weight loss of 2 .12 % .The anti-oxidation capability decrease of the coating is attributed to the generation of oxidation holes and microcracks w hich due to the volatilization of borosilicate glass layer and the escape of the gas phase (CO and CO2 ) .%采用脉冲电弧放电法在SiC-C/C复合材料表面制备硼化硅和硅化钼的复相(SiB6-M oSi2)抗氧化涂层.借助X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜对复合涂层的晶相组成、显微结构和抗氧化性能进行了表征与测试.研究了不同晶相组成(m[MoSi2]/m[SiB6]= Cp)对SiB6-MoSi2涂层显微结构的影响.结果表明:当晶相组成 m[M oSi2]/m[SiB6]=1∶4时,制备的涂层致密均匀,在1773 K氧化156 h后失重仅为2.12%,复合涂层氧化失效是由于长时间氧化后涂层挥发变薄,不能及时有效的愈合气相(CO和CO2)的逸出产生的氧化孔洞等缺陷导致的.

  8. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Asemi, Mehdi; Mehrabani, Sepideh; Feizi, Awat; Safavi, Seyyed Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appetite lowering characteristics of dairy have attracted scientists to look for its effect on energy intake particularly among children. In the present study, we tried to assess the effect of low-fat milk on total and short-term energy intake among obese boys in a randomized three-way cross-over clinical trial. Methods: A total of 34 obese 10-12-year-old boys were randomized to consume three beverages (low-fat milk, apple juice, or water) with a fixed energy breakfast for two consecutive days, 1 week apart. Ad libitum lunch was provided for subjects 5 h later. The energy intake from breakfast till lunch and total energy intake on intervention days, and 2 days after intervention were compared. Generalized linear model repeated measures procedure in which test beverages were considered as repeated factors. Results: Energy intake from breakfast till lunch was lower when low-fat milk consumption was included in the breakfast compared with water and apple juice (adjusted mean ± standard error: Low-fat milk = 1484.33 ± 15.30 Kcal, apple juice = 1543.39 ± 20.70 Kcal, water = 1606.6 ± 19.94 Kcal; P 0.05). Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined. PMID:25538836

  9. Development of a low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan with health claims: impact on the quality, functionality and shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Deborah S; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; do Nascimento, Bárbara M S; Monteiro, Maria J; Madruga, Marta S; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2015-08-01

    A low fat fresh pork sausage based on chitosan was developed with the objective of obtaining a new functional meat product with improved properties and health claims promoting cholesterol reduction. Sausages were formulated with chitosan (2%, w/w) and different fat levels (5%, 12.5% and 20%, w/w). The results indicated that incorporation of 2% chitosan into produced pork sausages with health claims of reduction of cholesterol is technologically feasible. In addition, the chitosan reduced the microbial growth, revealing interesting fat and water absorption capacities, reduced lipid oxidation, provided greater stability in terms of colorimetric parameters and promoted positive firmer texture and gumminess. The reduction of fat content to levels of 5% was positively achieved with the incorporation of chitosan. Sensorial analysis showed that panelists did not detect any significant difference in taste and any unfavorable effect on the sausage appearance as a consequence of chitosan addition and variation of fat.

  10. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks Frank M

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pressure with lower sodium intake for both diet groups. Although some critics would argue otherwise, these findings provide important new evidence for the value of the DASH diet and sodium reduction in controlling blood pressure.

  11. Detection of flavor compounds in low-fat Monascus fermented sausage%红曲低脂香肠风味成分的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文豪; 邬应龙

    2011-01-01

    The flavor compounds of low-fat monascus fermented sausage were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 26 kinds of flavor compounds were detected. Aldehydes, esters, alcohols and ketones were the major components. Because of low level in fat, kinds of flavor compounds were relatively lower, but it had delicious flavor.%采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱-质谱(SDE-GC-MS)联用分析技术,对红曲低脂香肠的风味物质进行测定,共检测出26种挥发性风味物质,主要为醛类、酯类、醇类、酮类等.由于脂肪含量较低,因此其风味物质的种类相对较少,但仍不失其应有的风味.

  12. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.

  13. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  14. 大米糖浆在低脂冰淇淋中的应用研究%Processing low fat ice cream with rice syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝惠玲; 杜淑霞; 徐丽

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology and formula of low fat ice cream was studied in the paper. The optimum processing conditions and formula were determined through mono factor as well as orthogonal experiments. The experiment results showed that the optimum conditions and formula were as follows: substitute 6% rice syrup (solid content) for butter; emulsifying-thickener formula: 0.2% monoglyceride ester, 0.1% guar gum, 0.08% xanthan gum and 0.1% CMC-Na; aging temperature is 0-2℃ with 6-8 h. The low fat ice cream obtained had good delatation and melting-resistance. The sensory evaluation score close to high fat ice cream.%通过单因素及正交试验确定了制作低脂冰淇淋较佳配方及工艺,试验结果表明,以6%大米糖浆(固形物计)替代奶油;添加的乳化增稠剂:单甘酯0.2%、瓜尔豆胶0.1%、黄原胶0.08%、羧甲基纤维素钠0.1%;采用的老化工艺:温度0~2℃,时间6~8h。制得的低脂冰淇淋膨胀率、抗融性好,感官评分接近高脂冰淇淋。

  15. Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanescu Monica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our work was to compare two methods, both based on direct transmethylation with different reagents, BF3/MeOH (boron trifluoride in methanol or HCl/MeOH (hydrochloride acid in methanol, in acid catalysis, without prior extraction, to find the fast, non-expensive but enough precise method for 9 principal fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arahidic and behenic acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content (forage from grassland, for nutrition and agrochemical studies. Results Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05. The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters. Conclusion The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions.

  16. Comparison of the effect of low-glycemic index versus low-Fat diet on the body weight and plasma lipid profile in obeses women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mazloom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 15 Jun, 2008; Accepted 14 Feb, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The rate of carbohydrate absorption after a meal, as quantified by glycemic index, has an effect on postprandial hormonal and metabolic response.The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of low-glycemic index diet, versus low-fat diet on the body weight, BMI, WHR (waist/hip ratio and plasma lipid profile of obese patients.Materials and methods: A randomized controlled trial compared the effect of two dietary treatments (low glycemic index & low fat in 46 adults, ages 18 to 55 years old, BMI >27, who proceeded to Motahary Clinic in Shiraz, Iran. Body weight, BMI, WHR (waist/hip ratio, fast and post-prandial Plasma lipid profile (Triacylglycerol, total Cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C concentration level of obese women were measured at the beginning and end of 6 weeks.Results: Changes in Body weight, BMI, WHR (waist/hip ratio and Plasma lipid profile (Triacylglycerol, total Cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C concentration were significant in both dietary groups. But no significant differences were observed in any parameter measured between two groups, except for the post-prandial HDL-C in which significant difference were observed.Conclusion: From these findings, it can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain can utilize Organ phosphorus pesticides as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Utilization of these compounds by soil microorganisms is a crucial phenomenon by which these compounds are removed from the environment, thus, preventing environmental pollution.Both diets can equally be effective in decreasing the body weight and Plasma lipid profile.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68:40-47 (Persian

  17. Effect of high magnetic field on carbide precipitation in W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel during low-temperature tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yan [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Research Inst.; Li, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Tong, Lu; Zhao, Xiang [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China). Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2016-04-15

    The effect of a high magnetic field on carbide precipitation in W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel during low-temperature tempering was investigated. The applied high magnetic field promoted the precipitation of M{sub 6}C-type carbides at boundaries and in the grain interior, but maximum spheroidization and refinement occurred for those carbides precipitated at boundaries. Compared with M{sub 6}C-type carbides, the effect of high magnetic field on the precipitation behavior of MC-type carbides is much weaker. The high magnetic field hindered M{sub 2}C-type carbide precipitation by affecting the Gibbs free energy and increased the microhardness of W{sub 6}Mo{sub 5}Cr{sub 4}V{sub 3} high-speed steel at low tempering temperature.

  18. Use of microparticulated whey protein concentrate, exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus, and adjunct cultures for making low-fat Italian Caciotta-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, R; De Pasquale, I; De Angelis, M; Buchin, S; Rizzello, C G; Gobbetti, M

    2014-01-01

    Low-fat Caciotta-type cheeses were manufactured with partially skim milk (fat content of ~0.3%) alone (LFC); with the supplementation of 0.5% (wt/vol) microparticulated whey protein concentrate (MWPC) (LFC-MWPC); with MWPC and exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus ST446 (LFC-MWPC-EPS); and with MWPC, EPS-producing strain ST446, and Lactobacillus plantarum LP and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRA as adjunct cultures (LFC-MWPC-EPS-A). The non-EPS-producing isogenic variant Streptococcus thermophilus ST042 was used for making full-fat Caciotta-type cheese (FFC), LFC, and LFC-MWPC. Cheeses were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, biochemical, texture, volatile components (purge and trap, and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sensory analyses. Compared with FFC and LFC (51.6 ± 0.7 to 53.0 ± 0.9%), the other cheese variants retained higher levels of moisture (60.5 ± 1.1 to 67.5 ± 0.5%). The MWPC mainly contributed to moisture retention. Overall, all LFC had approximately one-fourth (22.6 ± 0.8%) of the fat of FFC. Hardness of cheeses slightly varied over 7d of ripening. Microbial EPS positively affected cheese texture, and the texture of LFC without MWPC or microbial EPS was excessively firm. Free amino acids were at the highest levels in LFC treatments (2,705.8 ± 122 to 3,070.4 ± 123 mg/kg) due to the addition of MWPC and the peptidase activity of adjunct cultures. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, sulfur compounds, and short- to medium-chain carboxylic acids differentiated LFC variants and FFC. The sensory attributes pleasant to taste, intensity of flavor, overall acceptability, and pleasant to chew variously described LFC-MWPC-EPS and LFC-MWPC-EPS-A. Based on the technology options used, low-fat Caciotta-type cheese (especially ripened for 14 d) has promising features to be further exploited as a suitable alternative to the full-fat variant.

  19. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Herreman, L.; Palm, I.F.; Hegeman, M.A.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions ha

  20. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  1. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

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    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n=27 consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d with the control group (n=29 receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  2. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-03-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture.

  3. Associations of lipoprotein lipase gene rs326 with changes of lipid profiles after a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet in healthy Chinese Han youth.

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    Zhu, Xing-chun; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Li; Fang, Ding-zhi

    2014-04-23

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  4. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

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    Xing-chun Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008 and Apo A-I (p = 0.005 after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  5. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix.

  6. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  7. Application of Konjac Gel in Low-Fat Meat Products%魔芋胶在低脂肉制品中的应用研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雯; 李宏梁

    2015-01-01

    综述魔芋胶的结构和特性及其在低脂肉制品中的应用研究现状,重点介绍近几年魔芋精粉、魔芋复配胶、魔芋油脂复配物、脱乙酰改性魔芋胶、接枝共聚葡甘聚糖衍生物分别在发酵干香肠、西式灌肠、新鲜羊肉香肠、肉丸、禽肉重组火腿中的配方、产品特性等研究概况.%The structure, characteristics of konjac gel, and its application research status in low-fat meat products were summarized. Formulations, product characteristics and the like of konjac flour, complex konjac gel, konjac and oil compound, deacetylation modified konjac gel, graft copolymerization glucomannan derivative in dry fermented sausages, western-style sausages, fresh merguez sausages, meatballs, recombinant poultry hams were introduced in detail.

  8. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; Pfat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage.

  9. Effects of lipoprotein lipase gene variations, a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and gender on serum lipid profiles in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Gong, Renrong; Lin, Jia; Li, Ronghui; Xiao, Liying; Duan, Wei; Fang, Dingzhi

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbohydrate low-fat (HC/LF) diet and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms have separately been found to be associated with triacylglycerol (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study sought to test the effects of LPL polymorphisms and an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profile of Chinese with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) consuming a diet with less fat and more carbohydrates. Fifty-six healthy subjects (22.89 ± 1.80 years) were given a control diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrates for 7 days, followed by an HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days; there were no changes in the fatty acid composition or restrictions on total energy. Serum lipid profiles at baseline, before and after the HC/LF diet, and LPL polymorphisms were analyzed. After 6 days of the HC/LF diet, TG and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index were found to increase only in females with S447S. No decrease in HDL-C was noted. In subjects with Hind III polymorphism, increased TG was found in all females but not in males. Increased HDL-C, together with apolipoprotein (apo) AI, was found in male H- carriers but not in males with H+/H+ and females. In conclusion, LPL Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms modified the effects of an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profiles of a young Chinese population in different ways. Effective strategies for dietary interventions targeted at younger populations should take into account the interplay between genetic polymorphisms, diet, and gender.

  10. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol.

  11. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  12. Highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk by field-enhanced sample injection-based CE in bubble cell capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Gasilova, Natalia; Qiao, Liang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Girault, Hubert H

    2014-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics with a broad activity spectrum against mycoplasma, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria. Due to the extensive use of fluoroquinolones in farming and veterinary science, there is a constant need in the analytical methods able to efficiently monitor their residues in food products of animal origin, regulated by Commission Regulation (European Union) no. 37/2010. Herein, field-enhanced sample injection for sample stacking prior the CZE separation was developed inside a bubble cell capillary for highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in bovine milk. Ethylenediamine was proposed as the main component of BGE for the antibiotics separation. The effect of BGE composition, injection parameters, and water plug length on the field-enhanced sample injection-based CE with UV detection was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, described field-enhanced sample injection-based CE-UV analysis of fluoroquinolones provides LODs varying from 0.4 to 1.3 ng/mL. These LOD values are much lower (from 460 to 1500 times) than those obtained by a conventional CE in a standard capillary without bubble cell. The developed method was finally applied for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk from a Swiss supermarket. Sample recovery values from 93.6 to 106.0% for different fluoroquinolones, and LODs from 0.7 to 2.5 μg/kg, were achieved. Moreover, the proposed ethylenediamine-based BGE as volatile and compatible with MS system, enabled the coupling of the field-enhanced sample injection-based CE with a recently introduced electrostatic spray ionization MS via an iontophoretic fraction collection interface for qualitative fluoroquinolones identification.

  13. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways.

  14. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence.

  15. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B (ThB) catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of straight chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs. Up to now, the ability of ThB to interfere with lipid metabolism was studied in mice fed a laboratory chow enriched or not with the synthetic agonist Wy14,643, a pharmacological activator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARα. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether ThB could play a role in obesity and lipid metabolism when mice are chronically fed a synthetic High Fat Diet (HFD) or a Low Fat Diet (LFD) as a control diet. To investigate this possibility, wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for Thb (Thb(-/-)) were subjected to either a synthetic LFD or a HFD for 25 weeks, and their responses were compared. First, when fed a normal regulatory laboratory chow, Thb(-/-) mice displayed growth retardation as well as a severe reduction in the plasma level of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), suggesting alterations in the GH/IGF-1 pathway. When fed the synthetic diets, the corrected energy intake to body mass was significantly higher in Thb(-/-) mice, yet those mice were protected from HFD-induced adiposity. Importantly, Thb(-/-) mice also suffered from hypoglycemia, exhibited reduction in liver glycogen stores and circulating insulin levels under the LFD and the HFD. Thb deficiency was also associated with higher levels of plasma HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) cholesterol and increased liver content of cholesterol under both the LFD and the HFD. As shown by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, a surrogate marker for cholesterol biosynthesis, whole body cholesterol de novo synthesis was increased in Thb(-/-) mice. By comparing liver RNA from WT mice and Thb(-/-) mice using oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR, a coordinated decrease in the expression of critical cholesterol synthesizing genes and an increased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp17a1, Akr1d1) were

  16. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

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    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  17. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

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    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  18. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  19. Differences in home food availability of high- and low-fat foods after a behavioral weight control program are regional not racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Delia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, if any, have examined the impact of a weight control program on the home food environment in a diverse sample of adults. Understanding and changing the availability of certain foods in the home and food storage practices may be important for creating healthier home food environments and supporting effective weight management. Methods Overweight adults (n = 90; 27% African American enrolled in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program in Vermont and Arkansas. Participants were weighed and completed measures of household food availability and food storage practices at baseline and post-treatment. We examined baseline differences and changes in high-fat food availability, low-fat food availability and the storage of foods in easily visible locations, overall and by race (African American or white participants and region (Arkansas or Vermont. Results At post-treatment, the sample as a whole reported storing significantly fewer foods in visible locations around the house (-0.5 ± 2.3 foods, with no significant group differences. Both Arkansas African Americans (-1.8 ± 2.4 foods and Arkansas white participants (-1.8 ± 2.6 foods reported significantly greater reductions in the mean number of high-fat food items available in their homes post-treatment compared to Vermont white participants (-0.5 ± 1.3 foods, likely reflecting fewer high-fat foods reported in Vermont households at baseline. Arkansas African Americans lost significantly less weight (-3.6 ± 4.1 kg than Vermont white participants (-8.3 ± 6.8 kg, while Arkansas white participants did not differ significantly from either group in weight loss (-6.2 ± 6.0 kg. However, home food environment changes were not associated with weight changes in this study. Conclusions Understanding the home food environment and how best to measure it may be useful for both obesity treatment and understanding patterns of obesity prevalence and health disparity.

  20. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  1. 凝乳工艺对功能性低脂干酪中活菌数的影响%Effects of curd process on viable count of functional low-fat cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉红; 郝慧敏

    2012-01-01

    The viable count is an important indexes of functional low-fat cheese. This paper curd process low-fat cheese to functional The viable count was studied, aims to control curd process parameters and make cheese the viable count reach final functional food standards. Through to the single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment research and analysis, and the results show that: the curd enzyme adding amount of 0.01%, curd 35 °C temperature, pH value of 6.2 curd, CaCl2 adding amount of 0.03%, cheese living bacterium number all can reach 107 mL"1, accord with functional low-fat cheese living bacterium number of requirement, and can obtain a relatively ideal experimental results.%活菌数是功能性低脂干酪的重要指标,本文就凝乳工艺过程对功能性低脂干酪活菌数的影响进行了研究,旨在通过控制凝乳工艺过程参数而使干酪最终活菌数达到功能性食品的标准.通过对单因素实验和正交实验研究与分析,结果表明:凝乳酶添加量0.01%,凝乳温度35℃,凝乳pH值为6.2,CaCl2添加量0.03%,干酪活菌数均能达到107 mL-1,符合功能性低脂干酪的活菌数要求,能够获得较为理想的实验效果.

  2. Problematic intake of high-sugar/low-fat and high glycemic index foods by bariatric patients is associated with development of post-surgical new onset substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Lauren; Ivezaj, Valentina; Saules, Karen K

    2014-08-01

    Bariatric or weight loss surgery (WLS) patients are overrepresented in substance abuse treatment, constituting about 3% of admissions; about 2/3 of such patients deny problematic substance use prior to WLS. It is important to advance our understanding of the emergence of substance use disorders (SUDs) - particularly the New Onset variant - after WLS. Burgeoning research with both animal models and humans suggests that "food addiction" may play a role in certain forms of obesity, with particular risk conferred by foods high in sugar but low in fat. Therefore, we hypothesized that WLS patients who reported pre-WLS problems with High-Sugar/Low-Fat foods and those high on the glycemic index (GI) would be those most likely to evidence New Onset SUDs after surgery. Secondary data analyses were conducted using a de-identified database from 154 bariatric surgery patients (88% female, Mage=48.7 yrs, SD=10.8, Mtime since surgery=2.7 yrs, SD=2.2 yrs). Participants who endorsed pre-surgical problems with High-Sugar/Low-Fat foods and High GI foods were at greater risk for New Onset SUD in the post-surgical period. These findings remained significant after controlling for other predictors of post-surgical SUD. Our findings provide evidence for the possibility of addiction transfer among certain bariatric patients.

  3. 玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物低脂再制干酪的研究%Research of low-fat processed cheeses made from corn starch based fat substitute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫波

    2012-01-01

    研究了玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物在低脂再制干酪中应用的关键影响因素,并对低脂再制干酪的融化性、硬度和感官指标进行了评定.在单因素试验的基础上,运用响应面分析法,建立了玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物低脂再制干酪的因素影响模型,确定了最佳工艺条件为:玉米淀粉基脂肪替代物添加量4.1%,水分质量分数51%,pH值5.9,在此条件下产品感官可接受性较高.%The objective of present study was to investigate the key influence factors in the application of corn starch based fat substitute in low -fat processed cheeses, and melting property, hardness and sensory acceptability were evaluated. On the basis of single -factor test, the mathematical model of the factors on the low-fat processed cheeses made from Corn starch based fat substitute was established. The optimum process conditions were as follows: die addition amount of corn starch based fat substitute 4.1 %, moisture content 51 % and pH value 5.9. The sensory acceptability of the product was higher under this condition.

  4. Effects of Curd Process on Viable Count of Functional Low-Fat Cheese%凝乳工艺对功能性低脂干酪中活菌数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗红生

    2012-01-01

    The viable count was the most important target of functional low-fat cheese.It great effected by cheese processing program,and the aim was to get a standard viable count in cheese by controlling the processing parameters.The single-factor tests,the orthogonal test,the range and the variance analysis were used.The result showed that: the rennet addition 0.01%,the curd temperature 35 ℃,the curd pH 6.2,the CaCl2 addition 0.03%,the viable count in cheese was achieve 107 CFU/mL,this consequence could consistent with the standard of functional low-fat cheese.%活菌数是功能性低脂干酪的重要指标,就凝乳工艺过程对功能性低脂干酪活菌数的影响进行了研究,旨在通过控制凝乳工艺过程参数而使干酪最终活菌数达到功能性食品的标准。通过对单因素试验和正交试验研究与分析,结果表明:凝乳酶添加量0.01%,凝乳温度35℃,凝乳pH 6.2,CaCl2添加量0.03%,干酪活菌数均能达到107CFU/mL,符合功能性低脂干酪的活菌数要求,能够获得较为理想的试验效果。

  5. Effects on nutrient intake of a family-based intervention to promote increased consumption of low-fat starchy foods through education, cooking skills and personalised goal setting: the Family Food and Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Peter J; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2012-06-01

    Reducing the prevalence of fat-rich, energy-dense diets is a public health priority. The present parallel-designed randomised study compared three interventions aimed to increase intakes of low-fat starchy foods and to reduce fat intakes among 589 individuals from 169 families in the Family Food and Health Project (FFHP). Intervention A was education only, intervention B provided 'cook and eat' sessions only, whereas intervention C included personalised goal setting, 'cook and eat' and education. Diet was assessed at baseline (T0) and at 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2) and 18 months (T3) post-intervention. Retention rates were 75 % at T1, 63 % at T2 and 40 % at T3. ANCOVA (baseline intake as covariate) was assessed between intervention differences at T1, T2 and T3. At T1, individuals in intervention C consumed less fat (P = 0·02) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·001), starch (P = 0·04) vitamin C (P = 0·002) and NSP (P = 0·01) than those in intervention A. Whereas similar dietary intakes were reported across interventions at T2, participants in intervention C had less energy-dense diets that contained more NSP and vitamin C at T3 than intervention A (P fat (P = 0·01) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·02) at T2 than the least socially deprived (n 240). These data demonstrate the importance of personalised goal setting to translate knowledge and practical cooking skills into healthier food choices, suggesting that low-fat starchy food-focused interventions may be effective in reducing fat intake.

  6. Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight type 2 diabete mellitus%富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对超重的2型糖尿病病人血糖和血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡颂文; 韩婷; 韩玉麒; 李伟; 张月华; 张玉兰; 沈颖; 陆婷

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)型肠内营养(EN)制剂对超重的2型糖尿病病人血糖和血脂的影响. 方法:纳入研究2型糖尿病的病人60例,随机分为研究组和对照组.两组病人均给予综合性干预措施,如饮食、锻炼、健康生活方式等指导.研究组病人早餐服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂,对照组服用等热量的普通膳食,服用4周后进行血糖、血脂、体重指数(BMI)、腰围、腰臀脂肪比率等指标的监测. 结果:4周后,研究组病人餐后2h血糖(2hPBG)、血清三酰甘油(TG)明显降低,与对照组比有显著性差异(P<0.05).研究组病人空腹血糖(FBG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1C)、血清总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、BMI、腰围、腰臀脂肪比率等均略低于对照组,但无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA型EN制剂能有效控制超重的2型糖尿病病人的餐后血糖和血脂水平.

  7. Application on mimetic fat with mung bean starch as matrix in low-fat clyster%绿豆淀粉模拟脂肪在低脂灌肠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛迪锐; 岳云蛟

    2011-01-01

    Fat pork, mung starch mimetic fat. Starch, and water were used as the raw material of low-fat clyster . Through orthogonal experiment, the effectors on products quality were discussed, such as the ratio of mung bean starch mimetic fat to fat pork, the additive a-■nounts of water and starch. The results was showed: As a benchmark in the adding amount of meat,the best formula is starch 15%, water 18%, salt 2. 5%, simulated fat to the pork fat 40%. Fat pork ratio 3 : 7. Compared to the non-simulated fat sausage, the cooking loss of the low-fat clyster decreased, adhesion increased, water retention rate increased, fst content reduced. Freeze-thaw stability has increased, which avoids sausage retrogradation and increases the storage stability of the products.%以肥瘦猪肉、绿豆淀粉模拟脂肪、水、淀粉等为原料研制低脂灌肠,通过正交试验,分别讨论绿豆淀粉模拟脂肪占猪肥臊的比例、水和淀粉的添加量对产品品质的影响.结果表明,低脂灌肠的最佳配方:以肉的添加量为基准,淀粉的添加量为15%、水为18%、盐为2.5%、模拟脂肪添加量为猪肥膘的40%、肥瘦猪肉比例为3;7,所得到的灌肠与未添加模拟脂肪的灌肠相比较,其蒸煮损失减少,黏着性增加,保水率增加,脂肪含量减少,冻融稳定性有所提高,使得灌肠不易发生回生,增加了产品的储藏稳定性.

  8. 采用METHOCEL MXTM技术开发低脂肪香肠和肉制品%Creating low-fat sausage and meat products with METHOCEL MXTM fat replacement technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜正勇; Linda Bellekom-Allen; Mathias Frahm; Marina Kuntsevich

    2009-01-01

    As consumers aim to reduce the fat content of their diets,the foods targeted for reduction often include meat products,such as sausages and frankfurters because their inherently high fat contents and the lack of eating quality of the low fat alternatives make this the only acceptable option.Methocel MXTMFat Replacement Technology enables the formulation of low-fat meat products that combine the desired texture and succulent,juicy mouthfeel associated with full-fat products with a significant reduction in fat content.This technology,through the creation of a structured emulsion,allows the use of lower quantities of healthy liquid oils in place of saturated fat or hydrogenated oils.The emulsion system can be created by combining Methocel MXTMwith cold water and liquid oil.The oil content used can vary from 2 to 60 percent.One example provides an overview of how a sausage formulation with 10 percent fat content can be created,which is a significant reduction from the control sausages with 27 percent fat content.%由于消费者希望降低对脂肪特别是动物脂肪的摄取,诸如香肠类的肉制品已经逐步从消费者的日常饮食中降低使用量.METHOCELTMMX的脂肪替代技术可以使低脂肪的肉制品保持如全脂肉制品一样的优异的风味,提供良好的质构和柔嫩多汁的口感.这项技术使用健康的植物油来替代饱和脂肪酸或氢化植物油,形成形如"矩阵"的乳状液.将METHOCEL MXTM,冷水和植物油结合制成这个乳状液系统,植物油的含量可以是2%60%.本文中描述了一个用METHOCELTMMX的脂肪替代技术制作的10%脂肪含量的香肠,在保持良好质量的前提下,降低脂肪含量27%.

  9. A novel organic–inorganic hybrid based on Anderson-type polyoxometalate: H(C5N5H5)2(C5N5H6)2[Al(OH6)Mo6O18].10H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Safa Thabet; Brahim Ayed; Amor Haddad

    2014-10-01

    A new organic–inorganic hybrid compound, H(C5N5H5)2(C5N5H6)2[Al(OH6)Mo6O18].10H2O, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR, UV–Vis spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group -1, with = 8.033(5) Å, = 9.960(4) Å, = 16.797(7) Å, = 73.43(3)°, = 87.85(1)°, = 81.47(1)° and = 1. The crystal structure can be described by infinite polyanions [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]3- organized in layers parallel to the -direction alternating with organic cations associated in ribbons spreading along the -direction. Multiple hydrogen bonds originating from amine, hydroxyl groups and water molecules connect different components of the lattice.

  10. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  11. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Morris, E Matthew; Kearney, Monica L; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Thyfault, John P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ∼27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p hepatic TAG secretion rate was ∼39% lower (p Hepatic TAG content was ∼2-fold higher (p profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression.

  12. Study on Low Fat No Sugar and Adding Prebiotics Ice Cream%添加复合益生元的低脂无糖冰淇淋的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军飞

    2011-01-01

    采用甜蜜素、阿斯巴甜、低聚果糖代替蔗糖,采用聚葡萄糖代替部分脂肪,制成低脂无糖冰淇淋,达到预防心血管等疾病的特殊生理功效。通过单因素试验对不同影响因素进行了考察,运用正交试验找出最佳应用配方,结果表明,最佳配方如下:甜蜜素0.03%,阿斯巴甜0.012%,聚葡萄糖2%,低聚果糖0.21%。%Low fat no sugar ice cream was prepared by replacing fat with polydextrose and replacing sucrose with molasses, aspartame and fructo oligosaccharide. We studied the different influencing factors during the process through single factor tests, then the orthogonal experiments were used to find the most suitable formula. The results indicated the optimal formula were: molasses 0.03%, aspartame 0.012%, fructo oligosaccharide 2% and polydextrose 0.21%.

  13. Molho cremoso à base de extrato de soja: estabilidade, propriedades reológicas, valor nutricional e aceitabilidade do consumidor Soy - based low fat emulsion: stability, rheology, nutritional value and consumer acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Carvalho Pereira Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Na preparação de molhos de salada substitutos da maionese, para reduzir a quantidade de ovos e de óleo são utilizados emulsificantes e espessantes associados ou não à proteína de soja. Neste trabalho, o extrato de soja integral homogeneizado foi utilizado como base para a preparação de emulsão cremosa para substituir a maionese. O extrato de soja foi elaborado com teor de sólidos totais de 6 a 12%, após cozimento em água com bicarbonato, trituração e homogeneização a alta pressão. A emulsão preparada com diversas proporções de extrato de soja e óleos de soja e girassol foi também submetida à homogeneização a alta pressão variando de 1000 a 4000 psi. Na formulação do molho cremoso foram utilizados: açúcar, sal, ácido cítrico e diferentes hidrocolóides como estabilizantes. Os produtos foram avaliados quanto às características nutricionais, sensoriais, reológicas e de estabilidade. As condições mais favoráveis quanto à estabilidade e comportamento reológico para obtenção de molho cremoso foram atingidas quando se utilizou extrato de soja com 10% de sólidos, pressão de homogeneização de 3000 psi e relação extrato:óleo de 70:30, condição que apresentou redução de calorias de até 60%, em relação à maionese. Não foi observada diferença significativa (p The salad dressing preparation, which replaces for replacing the mayonnaise, uses utilizes emulsifiers and thickeners related or not to the soy protein in order to reduce the egg and oil quantity. In the The present work, used homogenized whole soymilk was used to prepare a creamy low-fat emulsion to replace traditional mayonnaise. The whole soymilk was elaborated with 6-12% of solids after cooking with bicarbonate, grinding and homogenizing it under high pressure. The emulsion was prepared with several proportions of soymilk and sunflower and soybean oils and was also submitted to high-pressure homogenization, under high pressure, which varied

  14. Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise and high-protein/reduced-carbohydrate and -fat diets have each been shown separately, or in combination with an energy-restricted diet to improve body composition and health in sedentary, overweight (BMI > 25 adults. The current study, instead, examined the physiological response to 10 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (EX versus exercise + minimal nutrition intervention designed to alter the macronutrient profile, in the absence of energy restriction, using a commercially available high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement (EXFS; versus control (CON. Methods Thirty-eight previously sedentary, overweight subjects (female = 19; male = 19 were randomly assigned to either CON (n = 10, EX (n = 14 or EXFS (n = 14. EX and EXFS participated in supervised resistance and endurance training (2× and 3×/wk, respectively; EXFS consumed 1 shake/d (weeks 1 and 2 and 2 shakes/d (weeks 3–10. Results EXFS significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate and fat intake (-14.4%, -27.2% and -26.7%, respectively; p p p p p p 2max improved in both exercise groups (EX = +5.0% and EXFS = +7.9%; p 2max (+6.2%; p = 0.001. Time-to-exhaustion during treadmill testing increased in EX (+9.8% but was significantly less (p p p Conclusion Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, provision of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate and -fat, nutrient-dense food supplement significantly, 1 modified ad libitum macronutrient and energy intake (behavior effect, 2 improved physiological adaptations to exercise (metabolic advantage, and 3 reduced the variability of individual responses for fat mass, muscle mass and time-to-exhaustion – all three variables improving in 100% of EXFS subjects.

  15. Increased insulin binding to adipocytes and monocytes and increased insulin sensitivity of glucose transport and metabolism in adipocytes from non-insulin-dependent diabetics after a low-fat/high-starch/high-fiber diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjøllund, E; Pedersen, O; Richelsen, B; Beck-Nielsen, H; Sørensen, N S

    1983-11-01

    Nine non-insulin-dependent diabetics were studied before and after 3 weeks on an isoenergetic high-fiber/high-starch/low-fat diet (alternative diet), and nine non-insulin-dependent diabetics were studied on their usual diet. In the group that ate the alternative diet, the intake of fiber and starch increased 120% and 53%, whereas fat intake decreased 31%. Diabetes control improved as demonstrated by decreased fasting plasma glucose (P less than 0.05) and 24-hour urinary glucose excretion (P less than 0.05). The in vivo insulin action increased (KIVITT increased, P less than 0.05) with no change in fasting serum insulin levels. In fat cells obtained from patients in the alternative-diet group, insulin receptor binding increased (P less than 0.05) after the change of diet. Insulin binding to purified monocytes (more than 95% monocytes) also increased (P less than 0.05), whereas no change was found in insulin binding to erythrocytes. When lipogenesis was studied at a tracer glucose concentration at which glucose transport seems to be rate limiting, insulin sensitivity increased (P less than 0.02). This is the predicted consequence of increased receptor binding. Moreover, when CO2 production and lipogenesis were studied at a higher glucose concentration, where steps beyond transport seem to be rate limiting for glucose metabolism, increased insulin sensitivity was also observed. In contrast, no change was found in maximal insulin responsiveness. Fat and blood cells from the patients who continued on their usual diet showed no changes of the mentioned quantities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Adipose tissue metabolism and inflammation are differently affected by weight loss in obese mice due to either a high-fat diet restriction or change to a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Keijer, Jaap; Herreman, Laure; Palm, Inge; Hegeman, Maria A; Swarts, Hans J M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-05-01

    Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.

  17. Effect of High- versus Low-Fat Meal on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels after a Single Oral Dose of Vitamin D: A Single-Blind, Parallel, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Viegas Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Vitamin D3 is liposoluble, so dietary fat could increase its oral absorption. Our aim was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] after the oral intake of cholecalciferol with a high- or low-fat meal. Methods. In a single-blind, parallel clinical trial, 32 healthy physicians were divided into two groups. In the same day, they ingested 50,000 IU (1.25 mg of vitamin D3 with food: group 1 (G1: lipids: 25.6 g and group 2 (G2 lipids: 1.7 g. Serum 25(OHD (0, 7, and 14 days, and parathyroid hormone (PTH, and calcium (0 and 14 days were measured. Results. Baseline mean serum 25(OHD levels were 42.7±19.0 nmol/L in G1 and 36.4±19.0 nmol/L in G2 (P=0.38. After cholecalciferol, mean serum 25(OHD was higher in G1 (P<0.001: 7 days: G1 = 46.2 (38.4–53.9 nmol/L and G2 = 33.7 (25.4–40.1 nmol/L; 14 days: G1 = 53.7 (45.2–62.1 nmol/L and G2 = 33.7 (25.2–42.2 nmol/L. Serum PTH and 25(OHD were negatively correlated before and after the intake of vitamin D3, respectively, r=-0.42 (P=0.02 and r=-0.52 (P=0.003. Conclusions. A high-fat meal increased the absorption of vitamin D3, as measured by serum 25(OHD.

  18. 血浆蛋白乳化物在低脂乳化肠中的应用%Concentrated emulsion stabilized with plasma protein as pork backfat substitute in low-fat emulsified sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟锋; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with plasma protein was used as pork backfat replacers in low-fat emulsified sausages. Composition ( proximate analysis and fatty acid profile), sensory analysis and technological( processing loss and WHC,colour and texture) properties of emulsified sausages were analyzed as affected by the different percentage of fat replacer(25% ,50% ,75% ,100% ).The moisture,protein,ash content of emulsified sausages became larger and fat content became smaller with the increasing of replacing level. Emulsified sausages produced with higher content emulsions had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA), MUFA and higher levels of PUFA.Sausages formulated with emulsions(50% ,75% ,100% replacers) had higher L*, a* ,b* values than the control(p <0.05).Compared to control sample,emulsified sausages with the fat replacing level of 25% , 50% and 75% had higher hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, resilience and lower adhesiveness values( p <0.05).Emulsified sausages with the fat replacing level of 25% ,50% and 75% had similar sensory characteristics with the control. Emulsified sausages had unpleased flavor when all pork backfat was replaced by the emulsions and it was not accepted by customers.%血浆蛋白、大豆油和水经斩拌可形成高浓度乳化物 . 以该乳化物作为脂肪替代品加工乳化肠,研究了不同脂肪替代率(25%、50%、75%、100%)下乳化肠的感官品质、化学组成、脂肪酸组成、持水能力、颜色和质构特性.结果表明:随脂肪替代率增大,乳化肠水分、蛋白质、灰分含量逐渐升高,脂肪含量逐渐降低;饱和脂肪酸、单不饱和脂肪酸含量逐渐降低,多不饱和脂肪酸含量逐渐升高;持水能力逐渐下降;50%、75%及100%替代组乳化肠L*,a*,b*值显著高于对照组(p<0.05);在质构特性上,25%、50%和75%替代组乳化肠硬度、弹性、粘聚性、咀嚼性、回复

  19. H3PW6M o6O40/TiO2-SiO2光催化降解有机污染物的研究%Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes with H3 PW6 Mo6 O40/TiO2-SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨水金; 彭放; 周国辉; 陈慧媛

    2016-01-01

    文章在甲基橙初始浓度为5mg/L ,溶液pH为3.0,氙灯模拟自然光条件下,研究光催化剂H3 PW6 Mo6 O40/TiO2‐SiO2对有机污染物的降解率.研究发现催化剂的用量为0.9 g/L ,光降解3.5 h ,甲基橙的降解率可以达到98.0%;H3 PW6 M o6 O40/T iO2‐SiO2对甲基紫、孔雀石绿、亚甲基蓝、罗丹明B和甲基红均具有较高的光催化活性,降解率达93.2%~98.0%.%In order to remove aquatic organic dye contaminants utilizing the inexpensive and inexhausti‐ble solar energy ,the Keggin‐type H3 PW6 Mo6 O40 was loaded by the specific surface area TiO2‐SiO2 with the impregnation method .The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by H3 PW6 Mo6 O40/TiO2‐SiO2 under simulated natural light irradiation was investigated .At the same time ,the influences of the initial methyl orange concentration ,the solution pH and the catalyst dosage on the photocatalytic degradation ratio of methyl orange were also examined .The results demonstratiod that initial concentration of methyl orange was 5 mg/L ,and the catalyst dosage was 0 .9 g/L ,while the pH was 3 .0 .The degradation ratio of the methyl orange could reach to 98 .0% after the light irradiation time of 3 .5 hours .The reaction of photoca‐talysis for methyl orange was the first‐order kinetic model .The photodegradation of methyl viole ,mala‐chitegreen oxalate ,methylene blue ,fuchsin basic and methyl red were also tested ,and the degradation ratio of dyes could achieve 93 .2% ~98 .0% .

  20. UN ACERCAMIENTO AL DISEÑO DE LOS PRODUCTOS CARNICOS BAJOS EN GRASA PARTE I. PRODUCTOS DE PICADO GRUESO AN APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF LOW FAT MEAT PRODUCTS. PART I. COARSE MINCED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Miriam Echeverri Palacio

    2004-06-01

    distintos tratamientos. El análisis de textura demostró que sustituciones de grasa del 25 al 75% con fibra, presentaron en general atributos texturales semejantes a la hamburguesa testigo con 20% de grasa. Se encontraron correlaciones bajas entre las medidas sensoriales y de textura debido a diferencias sustanciales en el tratamiento térmico, tamaño y temperatura, en que las muestras se entregaron para cada análisis.In this study, a formulation and elaboration of a low fat hamburger is presented, using substitutes of this, that besides lowering the caloric content of the product also maintain flavour and texture properties similar to high fat foods. By means of preliminary trials, a standard hamburger with 20% fat was established. Nine replacements with 50% of that fat content of the control were evaluated, and by means of sensorial analysis collagen and fiber were selected as the two substitutes that offered the greatest similarity to the previously established standard hamburger. Later, an experimental model was designed in which the fat content in the formulations were substituted with percentages of 25, 50 and 75%, conducting five replicas for treatment, in which the following properties were measured: Physical-chemical (pH and CRA, bromatologicals (protein, fat and humidity, sensorial (flavour, softness and juiciness and physical texture (hardness, coherence, adhesiveness, elasticity, gumminess, and chewability. All of the data obtained were analysed with an Analysis of Variance within and among treatments, correlations among answers to the sensorial analyses and those of texture and statistical analyses by means of the contour answer technique, finding with this the fat substitution and replacement percentage that most resembled the parameters of the standard. The judges in the sensorial analysis found that hamburgers with 15% fat presented flavour and juiciness characteristics similar to the standard hamburger independent of the fat substitute used; lower

  1. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study.

  2. 添加胡萝卜、燕麦及葵花籽油替代猪背膘对低脂乳化肠品质的影响%Effect of adding carrots, oats sunflower oil on the quality of and replacing pork back fat with low-fat Emulsion-type sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 杜萍; 黄蔡伦; 王鹏; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2012-01-01

    研究了添加胡萝卜、燕麦及用葵花籽油替代部分猪背膘对低脂乳化肠(脂肪添加量7%)质构特性、持水特性、色泽及感官品质的影响。单因素实验结果表明,添加胡萝1、10%、燕麦1%及葵花籽油替代动物脂肪50%可较好的改善低脂乳化肠的品质,乳化肠硬度、咀嚼性及弹性与对照组C(脂肪添加量20%)相比差异不显著(p〉0.05),持水特性及色泽也得到明显改善(p〈0.05).产品的感官评分与对照组C相比更令人满意。在单因素实验的基础上采用两因素(胡萝卜添加量、植物油替代率)三水平设计,进一步优化配方,结果表明,添加胡萝卜12.5%、燕麦1%及用葵花籽油替代猪背膘45%为最优配方,按照此配方生产出的低脂乳化肠恢复到对照组C的质构特性,产品的弹性及感官品质甚至优于对照组C..%The effect of adding carrots,oats and replacing pork back fat with sunflower oil on the textural properties, water-holding characteristics, color and sensory quality of low-fat (7% fat) Emulsion-type sausage were researched. The single factor experiment result showed that,adding 10% carrots,1% oats and 50% sunflower oil instead of animal fat could improve the quality of low-fat sausage well,there were not significant differences(p〉0.05) between the low-fat sausages and high-fat formula C(20% fat) on hardness,chewiness and flexibility,the water-holding characteristics were improved as well,the color and sensory quality of the products were more satisfactory compared with C. In order to optimize the formulation further,conduct two factors (carrot,vegetable oil) and three level completely random experiment based on the single factor experiment,the result showed that,adding 12.5% carrots, 1% oats and 45% sunflower oil instead of animal fats was the best formula,the low-fat Emulsion-type sausage produced by it,the textural properties reverted to

  3. 骨钙素对高糖低脂饮食引起的糖尿病新西兰兔胰腺的影响%Influence of Osteocalcin on the Pancreas of Diabetic Rats Caused by High Glycemic/Low Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 刘亚林; 朱琳; 陈志刚; 彭耀金

    2012-01-01

    目的:基于一贯性高血糖症能导致胰岛素抵抗的假说,我们研究了高糖低脂饮食导致的非胰岛素依赖糖尿病大鼠的生理功能和组织学改变.方法:取正常新西兰兔24只,随机分为正常组、糖尿病(DM)组、糖尿病骨钙素干预(DM+OCGY)组.采用高唐低脂饮食喂养新西兰兔,建立非胰岛素依赖糖尿病模型.建立模型后,DM+OCGY组腹腔注射骨钙素(2.5 mg/kg·d),DM组腹腔注射相等量生理盐水.一个月后处死新西兰兔.用HE染色方法检测新西兰兔胰腺形态改变.结果:高糖低脂饮食能有效引起新西兰兔血糖的升高,尿糖阳性,HE染色表明胰腺细胞发生相应改变,DM+OCGY组空腹血糖的浓度明显降低,能逆转胰腺的相关改变.结论:高糖低脂饮食能诱导非胰岛素依赖糖尿病的发生,骨钙素对非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病血糖浓度有一定的调节作用.%Objective: Based on the hypothesis that consistent hyperglycemia can result in insulin resistance, we explored the induction of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) using diet of high glycemic/low fat index and compared the effects on the physiology and histology of the rats. Methods: The 24 normal New Zealand rats were randomly divided into three groups, the normal group, the diabetes mellitus group(DM) and the osteocalcin treated diabetes mellitus group(DM+OCGY). After the non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model were established by using diet of high glycemic/low fat, DM+OCGY group were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of osteocalcin 2.5mg/kg·d, and the DM group were intraperitoneally injected with equal normal saline. The rats were sacrificed one month later. HE staining method was used to detect the pancreas changes of the rats. Results: The high glycemic/low fat diet could cause the increase of blood sugar level of New Zealand rat. The glycosuria presented to be positive, and the HE staining results showed there were corresponding

  4. A novel organic–inorganic hybrid with Anderson type polyanions as building blocks: (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[Al(OH){sub 6}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 18}]·6H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thabet, Safa, E-mail: safathabet@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de matériaux et cristallochimie, Département de chimie, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et Technologier, Avenue El Mourouj, 5111 Mahdia (Tunisia); Ayed, Brahim, E-mail: brahimayed@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de matériaux et cristallochimie, Département de chimie, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et Technologier, Avenue El Mourouj, 5111 Mahdia (Tunisia); Haddad, Amor [Laboratoire de matériaux et cristallochimie, Département de chimie, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et Technologier, Avenue El Mourouj, 5111 Mahdia (Tunisia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of a novel inorganic–organic hybrid compound based on Anderson polyoxomolybdates. ► Characterization by X-ray diffraction, IR and UV–Vis spectroscopies of the new compound. ► Potential applications in catalysis, biochemical analysis and electrical conductivity of the organic–inorganic compound. -- Abstract: A new organic–inorganic hybrid compound based on Anderson polyoxomolybdates, (C{sub 6}H{sub 10}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}Na(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[Al(OH){sub 6}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 18}]·6H{sub 2}O (1) have been isolated by the conventional solution method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, ultraviolet spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group P−1, with a = 94.635(1) Å, b = 10.958(1) Å, c = 11.602(1) Å, α = 67.525(1)°, β = 71.049(1)°, γ = 70.124(1)° and Z = 1. The crystal structures of the compounds exhibit three-dimensional supramolecular assembly based on the extensive hydrogen bonding interactions between organic cations, sodium cations, water molecules and Anderson polyoxoanions. The infrared spectrum fully confirms the X-ray crystal structure and the UV spectrum of the title compound exhibits an absorption peak at 210 nm.

  5. Effects of A Low-Carbohydrate Diet and A Low-Fat Diet on Weight and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetics Mellitus%低碳水化合物饮食和低脂肪饮食对2型糖尿病患者体质量及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱华; 孙丽珍; 崔静稳; 张宪静

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较低碳水化合物饮食和低脂肪饮食1年对2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者体质量及血糖的影响.方法 采用随机对照的方法,将90例超重T2DM患者随机分为低碳水化合物饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(A组)和低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(B组),各45例.A组患者给予低碳水化合物饮食+双胍类药物治疗;B组患者给予低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗.分别在治疗前及治疗3、6、12个月检测两组患者的体质量、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血压和血脂.结果 两组患者治疗前后体质量及高密度脂蛋白(HDL)水平变化比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);而两组患者血压及血清总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、三酰甘油(TG)、HbA1c水平变化比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者体质量明显下降及HbA1c的减少主要发生在治疗的前3个月,A组、B组体质量平均下降1.8 kg/月和1.0 kg/月,HbA1c均下降0.6%;但在1年里两组患者体质量减轻均为3.4 kg.结论 对于超重的T2DM患者,1年的低碳水化合物饮食及低脂肪饮食对HbA1c的影响类似,血压未受影响;但低碳水化合物饮食者体质量下降较低脂肪饮食者快,且较后者能显著提高HDL水平.%Objective To compare the effects of a 1 - year intervention with a low - carbohydrate and a low - fat diet on weight and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The randomized controlled clinical trial was taken to assign 90 0verweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to the low - carbohydrate diet ( A ) group and low - fat diet ( B ) group, with 45 patients in each. The patients in the group A were given a low - carbohydrate diet and biguanides; while those in the group B were given a low - fat diet and biguanides. The body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbA1c ), blood pressure and lipids were detected before treatment and 3 , 6. and 12 months after the treatment. Results Before and after the

  6. Nestle: A marketing plan for a healthy low fat yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Filipa de Sena Campas

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics For a company who aims to be the “world’s leading nutrition, health and wellness company”, Nestlé reveals a surprising weak presence in the health segment in the Portuguese yogurt market. Today consumers are looking for products aligned with a healthy lifestyle while maintaining taste and pleasure. Nutraceutical food industry is ...

  7. Effects of low-fat diet on body mass, blood lipids and sugar control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus%低脂肪饮食对肥胖2型糖尿病患者体质量、血脂及血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱华; 尚艳菲; 辛波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low-fat diet on body mass,blood lipids and sugar in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM). Methods 120 obese patients with T2DM were randomized to the two groups, research groups60 obese patients with T2MD got routine treatment of low-fat associated with biguanides diet,control group:60 obese patients with T2MD were advised on the treatment of the routine diabetic diet. Outcome measures of body mass, HbA1 c, blood pressure and blood lipids were obtained before and after treatment. Results After one year of treatment,body mass and HbA, c in research group reduced by (6. 6± 1. 4) kg and (2.8±0. 3) % ,and those in control group reduced by (3. 4±1. 2) kg,(l. 0±0. 2)%( P <0. 05). Before treatment.TC and LDL-C in research group were (4.44±0. 82) mmol/L and (2. 56±0. 61) mmol/L,and those in control group were (4. 38±0. 84) mmoI/L and (2. 54± 0. 70) mmol/L. After treatment.TC and LDL-C in research group were (3.90±0. 73) mmol/L,(2. 04±0.62) mmol/L,and those in control group were (4. 26 ± 0. 72) mmol/L, (2. 48 ± 0. 65) mmol/L, and two groups showed statistical significance after treatment P <0. 05). Conclusion Low-fat diet can improve body mass, HbA,c,TC and LDL-C of T2DM patients and curative effect is better than the conventional control group, and it is an effective way in the treatment of obese patients with T2DM.%目的 观察低脂肪饮食对肥胖2型糖尿病患者体质量、血脂和血糖的影响.方法 120例肥胖2型糖尿病患者随机分配至低脂肪饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(实验组)和常规糖尿病饮食+双胍类药物治疗组(对照组),各60倒.在治疗前及治疗1年后检测两组患者的体质量(BM)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血压和血脂.结果 治疗1年后,实验组与对照组BM分别下降(6.6±1.4)kg和(3.4±1.2)kg,HbA1c分别下降(2.8±0.3)%和(1.0±0.2)%(P<0.05);实验组治疗前总胆固醇(TC)为(4.44±0.82) mmol/L、低密度

  8. 水油乳化剂替代猪背脂法兰克福香肠的品质及感官研究%Pork back fat substituted by oil-in-water emulsifier as ingredient influencing quality and sensory of low-fat frankfurters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於慧利; 徐宝才; 李景军; 刘元法; 蒋将

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the changes of color, texture and sensory of the low-fat Frankfurters, in terms of fatty acid composition and different kinds of non meat ingredient. A healthy mixture of vegetable oil (olive oil, sunflower oil and canola oil) were emulsified by a variety of non-meat protein (sodium caseinate, soy protein isolate, and microbial transglutaminase) to substitute pork back fat. As expected, frankfurters with plant oil combinations had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA, 19. 3%), similar levels of MUFA and higher content of PUFA than control frankfurters (all pork fat), higher (P<0. 05) hardness, springiness and chewiness values, and all products were judged as acceptable. Overall, vegetable oil and non-meat protein in Frankfurt as a fat replacer could facilate textural and antioxidant properties, as well as the nutrient value.%将橄榄油、葵花籽油和芥花油混合,用不同的非肉蛋白体系(酪蛋白酸钠、大豆分离蛋白和微生物转谷氨酰胺酶)乳化后,将该水油乳化剂替代猪背脂改良法兰克福香肠的品质.以脂肪酸组成、色泽、质构和感官评定为评价指标,研究其与含猪背脂的法兰克福香肠的脂肪酸组成和品质.结果表明:改良后的法兰克福香肠,饱和脂肪酸含量降低(1 9.3%),单不饱和脂肪酸变化很小,而多不饱和脂肪酸含量增加较显著(P<0.05),香肠的硬度、弹性和咀嚼性得到增加,产品的感官评定值达到了5.6,在消费者可接受范围内.可见添加健康植物油及蛋白体系可以提高香肠的质构、抗氧化性以及营养价值.

  9. 低脂高糖膳食对不同体质量指数的健康青年生理生化指标的影响%Effects of a Low-fat and High-carbohydrate Diet on the Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Healthy Youth with Different Body Mass Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永燕; 龚仁蓉; 张荣荣; 张珍; 李元昊; 胡敏珊; 李蓉晖; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨低脂高糖(low-fat and high-carbohydrate,LF-HC)膳食对不同体质量指数(BMI)的健康青年生理指标及糖脂代谢指标的影响.方法 给予7名超重青年[BMI=(27.82±1.64)kg/m2]和49名年龄匹配的正常对照[BMI=(20.06±2.41)kg/m2]7 d平衡膳食和6 d LF-HC膳食.平衡膳食含31.1%脂肪和54.1%碳水化合物,LF-HC膳食含14.8%脂肪和70.1%碳水化合物.于膳食干预的第1d、第8d和第14d清晨进行体检,测量各项生理指标;同时抽取12 h空腹静脉血,制备血L清并测定糖脂代谢相关指标,计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 基础值时,正常组体质量(P=0.000)、BMI(P=0.000)、腰臀比(P=0.000)、收缩压(P=0.001)、舒张压(P=0.016)和甘油三酯(TG)(P=0.006)均低于超重组;高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)高于超重组(P=0.005).LF-HC膳食后,总胆固醇(TC)(P<0.05)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均降低,胰岛素(P<0.05)和HOMA-IR(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均升高;TG仅在正常组升高(P=0.000);HDL-C仅在超重组升高(P=0.018).结论 在健康青年中,LF-HC膳食对血清TG和HDL-C的影响与体质量指数有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of a low-fat and high-carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet on the physiological and biochemical indexes in healthy youth with different body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven overweight participants [BMI= (27. 82+1. 64) kg/m2 ] and 49 age-matched controls CBMI= (20. 06 ± 2. 41) kg/ m2] were given a washout diet for 7 d, followed by a LF-HC diet for 6 d. The washout diet contained 31. 1% fat and 54. 1% carbohydrate, and the LF-HC diet contained 14. 8% fat and 70. 1% carbohydrate of total energy. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on the mornings of the first, eighth and fourteenth days. Serum samples were prepared from twelve-hour fasting venous blood. Biochemical indexes including lipids, glucose and insulin were measured with routine methods. The

  10. No Decrease of HDL Cholesterol after 6 Days of Low Fat and High Carbohydrate Diets in a Young Chinese Han Pop-ulation%中国汉族青年低脂高糖膳食6天后的血清高密度脂蛋白、胆固醇水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正科; 汤慧; 龚仁蓉; 林佳; 甘禅芬; 黄鑫; 李蓉辉; 方定志

    2008-01-01

    More studies are needed on the hyperyriacylglycerolemic effects of low fat and high carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet in young population, especially Chinese who generally have a diet containing lower fat and higher carbohydrate. To test them in a young Chinese Han population, 56 healthy subjects (22.89±1.80) years were given regular diet of 31% fat and 54% carbohy-drate for 7 days, followed by LF-HC diet of 15% fat and 70% carbohydrate for 6 days, without total energy restriction. After the LF-HC diet, the male experienced an increase of high density lipoprutein (HDL) cholesterol and decreases of weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol (P < 0.05). The female experienced in-creased serum triacylglycerol and insulin, and decreased TC and LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05). When BMI was taken into account,all the subjects with low, medium, or high BMI experienced decreases of TC and LDL cholesterol although some changes were not significant. No significant decrease of HDL cholesterol was found, while significantly increased HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (apo A- Ⅰ) were found in the male subjects with low or high BMI (P < 0.05). Significant increase of triacylglycerol was observed only in the female subjects with low or medium BMI. In conclusion, subjects with different BMI and gender have different triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol responses to LF-HC diets, and significant increase of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A- Ⅰ were observed in some young male subjects.%目的 探讨低脂高糖膳食对中国汉族青年血脂及载脂蛋白的影响.方法 我室招募健康在校大学生自愿者56名((22.89±1.80)岁],于7 d平衡膳食后给予低脂高糖膳食6 d,分别在第1 d、8 d、14 d清晨收集受试者人类学指标并抽取空腹静脉血,测定血清甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、血糖(GLU)、 胰岛

  11. 脂联素基因45T/G多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响%Effects of Adiponectin Gene SNP45T/G on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉佳; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 杜娟; 黄鑫

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脂联素基因(APM1)45T/G多态性与健康中国汉族青年血脂比值的关系及其对高糖低脂(high carbohydrate and low fat,HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂比值变化的影响.方法 56名健康青年志愿者[(22.89±1.80)岁],给予7 d平衡膳食和6 d HC/LF膳食.在第1 d、第8 d、第14 d清晨取空腹12 h静脉血,测定血脂,计算甘油三酯(TG)/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、log(TG/HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)/HDLC、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C比值,提取血基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分析APM145T/G多态性.结果 无论是整体还是按性别分组,TT基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间血脂比值基础值均无明显差异.男性G等位基因携带者HC/LF膳食后TC/HDL-C高于TT基因型受试者(P<0.05);与膳食前相比,TT基因型受试者HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C均降低(P<0.05),G等位基因携带者仅TC/HDL-C降低(P<0.01).在女性,无论HC/LF膳食前还是HC/LF膳食后,G等位基因携带者TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)均低于TT基因型个体(P<0.05);与膳食前相比,TT基因型受试者HC/LF膳食后TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)升高(P<0.05)、TC/HDL-C降低(P<0.001),G等位基因携带者LDL-C/HDL-C(P<0.05)和TC/HDL-C(P<0.01)降低,而TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)无显著变化.结论 APM145T/G G等位基因能抑制HC/LF膳食诱导的健康青年女性TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)升高并使LDL-C/HDL-C降低,但可能使男性的LDL-C/HDL-C降低消失、TC/HDL-C升高.

  12. 植物甾醇酯奶粉对高胆固醇血症患者血脂水平的影响%Low fat milk powder containing esterified plant sterols improves the blood lipid profile of adults with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建琴; 赵虎; 陈艳秋; 肖菲; 徐丹凤; 谢华; 王彦; 陈敏; 常锡峰; 潘逸茹; 刘渊; 薛惠君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of plant sterol esters ( PSE ) mixed in low fat milk powder (2.5 g of PSE/day) on plasma cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects during a 6-week intervention period.Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 59 subjects (19 males, mean age ( 60.28 ±6.98 ) years ) with primary hypercholesterolemia ( fasting LDL cholesterol between 3.4-6.0 mmol/L) were randomly divided into two groups ( treatment group , 2.5 g of plant sterol esters a day, n=30) and placebo group (n=29).Blood samples were collected at week 0, 3 and 6.The primary outcome was change in plasma LDL-cholesterol ( LDL-C).Secondary outcomes were changes in total cholesterol ( TC) , HDL cholesterol ( HDL-C) , triglycerides ( TG) , anthropometry and blood biochemistry.Results LDL-C significantly reduction from baseline ( 4.18 ±0.54 ) mmol/L to ( 3.44 ±0.61 ) mmol/L (-17.7%, P0.05 ) at week 3 and ( 5.43 ±0.77 ) mmol/L ( -13.8%, P <0.05 ) at week 6 in treatment group, from (6.20 ±0.76)mmol/L at week 0 to (5.70 ±0.76) mmol/L (-8.06%, P<0.05) at week 3 and (5.84 ±0.75) mmol/L ( -5.81%, P<0.05) at week 6 in placebo group.PSE-enriched milk did not affect plasma HDL-C level and TG level at both week 3 and week 6.After normalization to the placebo group , the treatment group showed significant reduction in LDL-C and total cholesteron after 6 weeks.The observed difference of reduction was 7.69% ( -0.33 mmol/L, P <0.05 ) for LDL-C and 8.00%(-0.51 mmol/L, P<0.05) for TC between the two groups.There were no significant changes in safety parameters , including blood biochemistry tests during the study period.Conclusion Plant sterol ester enriched milk powder is effective in reducing LDL-C among Chinese hypercholesterolemic subjects at a dosage recommended by EFSA.%目的:观察添加植物甾醇酯的低脂奶粉能否有效降低中老年高胆固醇血症患者的血清低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C )的水平。方法采用随

  13. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...

  14. Effects of the 54G/C polymorphism of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c on changes of serum lipid ratios induced by high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in healthy youth%固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c基因54G/C多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年人血脂比值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 杜娟; 汤慧; 黄鑫; 甘婵芬

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 54G/C polymorphism of sterol regulatory elementbinding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c)on serum lipid ratios and their response to high-carbohydrate/low-fat(HC/LF) diet in healthy youth. Methods After a regular diet for 7 days of wash-out, 56 healthy youth (22.89±1.80 yrs) were given HC/LF diet for 6 days. The regular diet contained 54% carbohydrate, 15%protein, and 31% fat of the total energy. The HC/LF diet contained 70% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 15% fat of the total energy. The serum lipids and glucose were measured on the 1st, 8th and 14th days.The ratios of TG/HDL-C, log (TG/HDL-C), TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. The 54G/C polymorphism of SREBP-1c gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Results No significant difference was found in lipid ratios and glucose at baseline and after regular diet in subjects with different genotypes in either the whole studied population or in males or females only. However, after HC/LF diet, LDL-C/HDL-C was significantly lower in females carrying the C allele than those of GG homozygotes (P< 0.05).Compared with those before HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly decreased in all the subjects (P<0.05). When gender was taken into account, significant increase of TG/HDL-C and log(TG/HDL-C) was found only in females with GG genotype (P<0.05). All the subjects experienced significant decrease of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C regardless of their genders and genotypes (P<0.05). Conclusion The 54G/C polymorphism of SREBP-1c gene can influence the response of TG/HDL-C and log(TG/HDL-C) to HC/LF diet in females. The C allele may be a protective factor to prevent the increase of TG induced by HC/LF diet in females.%目的 探讨固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c(sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c,SREBP-1c)基因54G/C多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂(high-carbohydrate/low-fat,HC/LF)膳食诱导的变化中的作用.方法 对56

  15. The Role of CD14 Promoter-159 C-> T Polymorphism on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by Highcarbohydrate/Low-fat Diets in Healthy Chinese Han Youth%脂多糖受体CD14基因启动子-159位点C/T基因多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the tole of CD14 promoter - 159 C-> T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interaction on the ratios with a high-earbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in a young and healthy Chinese Han population. Methods After a washout diet for seven daye, fifty six healthy young subjects (22. 89± 1. 80 years) were given the HC/LF diet for six days. Twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples were collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The serum lipid profiles and the CD14-159 C->T polymorphism were analyzed. The ratios of triglyceride/high density lipoproteln-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c), log (TG/HDL-c), total cholesterol/high density llpoproteincholesterol (TC/HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c/HDL-c) were calculated. Results The male carriers of the C allele had significantly higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher TC/HDL-c at baseline and after the washout diet, and higher LDL- c/HDL-c only after the washout diet. The female subjects with the TT genotype had higher TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) than the female carriers of the C allele at baseline, after the washout diet and after the HC/LF diet, higher LDL-c/HDL-c at baseline and after the HC/LF diet, and higher TC/HDL-c only after the washout diet. Compared with that before the HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-c was significantly decreased after the HC/LF diet regardless of gender and the genotype of the CD14-159 polymorphism. LDL-c/HDL-c was significantly decreased in both the male and female carriers of the C allele. TG/HDL-c and log (TG/HDL-c) were significantly increased only in the female carriers of the C allele. Conclusion In the subjects with C allele, the HC/LF diet is a minor factor and its effects on the lipid ratios can be masked by the effects of the C allele at CD14-159. The interaction between the HC/LF diet and the C

  16. β2肾上腺素受体基因Gln27Glu变异对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值变化的影响%Effects of the β2-adrenergic Receptor Gln27Glu Variation on Changes of Serum Lipid and Apolipoprotein Ratios Induced by A High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet in Healthy Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧国进; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 张珍; 李元昊; 姜喆; 樊梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨β2肾上腺素受体基因(β2AR) Gln27Glu多态性对健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值的影响及在高糖低脂(HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂及载脂蛋白比值变化中的作用.方法 56例健康志愿者,给予7d平衡膳食和6 d HC/LF膳食,于第1d、第8d及第14 d取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂和载脂蛋白(apo) AI、B100水平,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDL-C)、log(TG/H DL-C)、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C、低密度脂蛋白胆同醇(LDL-C)/HDL-C、apoAI/apoB100值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分析β2AR Gln27Glu位点多态性.结果 血脂及载脂蛋白比值的基础值及平衡膳食后,无论是受试人群整体还是将男女分组分析,CC基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间均无明显差异.HC/LF膳食后,在整体受试人群中,G等位基因携带者log(TG/HDL-C)高于CC基因型受试者(P=0.038);男女分组分析发现CC基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间血脂及载脂蛋白比值无明显差异.与HC/LF膳食前相比,在受试人群整体,HC/LF膳食后apoAI/apoB100在CC基因型受试者升高(P=0.021),LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C在CC基因型和G等位基因携带者中均下降(P<0.05).按性别分组后,男性受试者HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/H DL-C在CC基因型及G等位基因携带者均降低(P<0.05);女性CC基因型和G等位基因携带者HC/LF膳食后TG/HDL-C、log( TG/HDL-C)均升高(P<0.05),TC/HDL-C均降低(P<0.05),但LDL-C/HDL-C仅在CC基因型中降低(P=0.037).结论 β2AR基因Gln27Glu多态性G等位基因能够在健康青年女性抑制HC/LF膳食诱导的LDL-C/HDL-C降低.%Objective To investigate the effects of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein ratios and its interaction with high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet on the ratios in healthy youth. Methods After on a washout diet for seven days, fifty six healthy young subjects were given the

  17. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  18. Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.D.; Valinger, D.; Vegvari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC)

  19. [SHORT TERM EFFECTS ON LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCAEMIA OF A LOW-FAT VEGETARIAN DIET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Laura; Portolés, Olga; Sorlí, José Vicente; Corella, Dolores

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: en estudios observacionales, las dietas vegetarianas se han asociado con menor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y un perfil lipídico más favorable en las personas que siguen estas dietas a largo plazo pero sus efectos a corto plazo son menos conocidos. Objetivo: analizar el efecto a corto plazo en población mediterránea previamente no vegetariana de una dieta vegetariana baja en grasas sobre el perfil lipídico y la glucemia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención nutricional en 159 voluntarios (42 hombres y 117 mujeres) administrando un patrón de dieta completa lacto-vegetariana baja en grasa (20%). Se proporcionó un menú diario completo en condiciones de régimen de internado estricto durante 15 días. Se realizaron extracciones de sangre en ayunas antes y después de la intervención dietética y se determinó el colesterol total, C-HDL, C-LDL, triglicéridos y glucemia. Se emplearon modelos multivariantes de medidas repetidas. Resultados: tras la intervención dietética se detectaron reducciones estadísticamente significativas en el colesterol total (-17,54 ± 37,14 mg/dl), C-LDL (-9,33 ± 34,29 mg/ dl), C-HDL (-5,32 ± 12,16 mg/dl), y triglicéridos (-18,92 ± 50,50 mg/dl) que permanecieron tras ajustar por edad y sexo. También se produjeron cambios significativos de peso. El ajuste adicional por los cambios en el índice de masa corporal (IMC) restó significación a la disminución de los triglicéridos (P = 0.067). Conclusión: la dieta lacto-vegetariana baja en grasa a corto plazo produce descensos favorables y significativos de colesterol total, C-LDL (independientes de la pérdida de peso) y triglicéridos (mediados por la pérdida de peso). También produjo un descenso esperable de C-HDL al ser reducida en grasa.

  20. 1% low-fat milk has perks!: An evaluation of a social marketing intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jaye Finnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM, the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention. Results show the monthly market share of 1% milk sales changed from 10.0% to 11.5%, a 15% increase. Evaluating the volume sold, the monthly mean number of gallons of 1% milk sold increased from 890.5 gal (SD = 769.8 per supermarket from before the intervention to 1070.7 gal (SD = 922.5 following the intervention (t(79 = 9.4, p = 0.000. Moreover, average weekly sales of 1% milk were stable prior to the intervention (b = −0.2 gal/week, 95% CI [−0.6 gal/week, 0.3 gal/week]. During each additional week of the intervention, 1% milk sales increased by an average of 4.1 gal in all supermarkets (95% CI [3.5 gal/week, 4.6 gal/week]. Three months later, albeit attenuated, a significant increase in 1% milk sales remained. In the comparison market, no change in the market share of 1% milk occurred. Paid advertising, using the principles of social marketing, can be effective in changing an entrenched and habitual nutrition habit.

  1. Protein Supplementation with Low Fat Meat after Resistance Training: Effects on Body Composition and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Negro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat, providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0 and at the end (week 8 of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; Δ: −1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05 and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; Δ: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01. No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled.

  2. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and car

  3. Effect of rice fat mimics on texture and microstructure of low-fat yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dan; KONG Baohua; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    This paper made a research on a new kind of rice fat mimics, which was obtained from rice powder hydrolyzed by a -amylase. Through the comparison between the yoghurt added with diverse proportions of above mentioned rice fat mimics and the reduced-fat yoghurt without any fat mimics as well as full-fat ones, the effect of the rice fat mimics in different proportions was examined upon the composition, the microstructure, the texture and the sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yoghurt. The results showed that the yoghurts added with rice fat mimics exhibited similar organoleptic attribute, textual characteristics and acceptability compared to those of full-fat controls(P>0.05), but with lower fat content and looser microstructures.

  4. The use of cashew apple residue as source of fiber in low fat hamburgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Xerez Pinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to produce hamburgers with partial substitution of the meat with cashew apple residue powder. The powder residue was obtained after the extraction of the pulp and dehydration in stove with air circulation. Three formulations of hamburgers with increasing concentration of the residue as well as a control sample were prepared. The formulated products with cashew apple residue powder presented lower humidity and proteins and 35% lipid reduction. However, there was an increase in carbohydrates and pH with the addition of the powder from the cashew apple residue. Some formulations showed an improvement of the final product yield. The total dietary fiber value was between 0 and 7.66%, with higher content of insoluble dietary fiber. The addition of up to 10.70% of the residue did not cause significant sensory changes in the flavor of the samples. The production of hamburgers with a partial substitution of cow meat with the cashew apple residue could be a feasible option since it resulted in product with high nutritional quality that is rich or have high dietary fiber content and is low in fat.

  5. 1% low-fat milk has perks!: An evaluation of a social marketing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Karla Jaye; John, Robert; Thompson, David M

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk) were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM), the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention. Results show the monthly market share of 1% milk sales changed from 10.0% to 11.5%, a 15% increase. Evaluating the volume sold, the monthly mean number of gallons of 1% milk sold increased from 890.5 gal (SD = 769.8) per supermarket from before the intervention to 1070.7 gal (SD = 922.5) following the intervention (t(79) = 9.4, p = 0.000). Moreover, average weekly sales of 1% milk were stable prior to the intervention (b = - 0.2 gal/week, 95% CI [- 0.6 gal/week, 0.3 gal/week]). During each additional week of the intervention, 1% milk sales increased by an average of 4.1 gal in all supermarkets (95% CI [3.5 gal/week, 4.6 gal/week]). Three months later, albeit attenuated, a significant increase in 1% milk sales remained. In the comparison market, no change in the market share of 1% milk occurred. Paid advertising, using the principles of social marketing, can be effective in changing an entrenched and habitual nutrition habit.

  6. Direct Quantification of Carotenoids in Low Fat Baby Foods Via Laser Photoacoustics and Colorimetric Index *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, O.; Ajtony, Zs.; Bicanic, D.; Valinger, D.; Végvári, Gy.

    2014-12-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC) and by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) at 473 nm. The latter requires a minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of TCC. Results were verified versus UV-Vis spectrophotometry (SP) as the reference technique. It was shown that RC and LPAS (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results for *, = 0.9925 and = 0.9972, respectively. Other color indices do not show a correlation with TCC. When determining the TCC in baby foods containing tomatoes, it is necessary to select a different analytical wavelength to compensate for the effect of lycopene's presence in the test samples.

  7. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...

  8. The T Allele of the ACAT-2 734 C/T Polymorphism is Associated with the Changes of TG/HDLC, log (TG/HDLC) and LDLC/HDLC Induced by High-carbohydrate/ Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Women%酰基辅酶A:胆固醇酰基转移酶2基因734位点T等位基因与高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年女性TG/HDLC、log( TG/HDLC)及LDLC/HDLC改变相关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the acyl-coenzyme A-' cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) 734 C/T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interactions on the ratios with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat ( HC/LF) diet in a young healthy Chinese population. Methods After a washout diet for seven days, fifty six young healthy subjects were given the HC/LF diet for six days. The serum lipid profiles were analyzed using the twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The ratios of TG/HDLC, log (TG/HDLC) , TC/HDLC and LDLC/HDLC were calculated. The ACAT-2 734 C/T polymorphism was analyzed by restriction fragments patterns after amplified by polymerase chain reactions. Results At baseline, the female carriers of the T allele had significantly lower log (TG/HDLC) than the female subjects with the CC genotype. The male subjects%目的 探讨酰基辅酶A:胆固醇酰基转移酶2(ACAT-2)基因734位点C/T多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂膳食诱导的血脂比值变化中的作用.方法 给予56名健康青年志愿者7天平衡膳食和6天高糖低脂膳食,于第1天、第8天以及第14天清晨抽取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDLC)、log(TrG/HDLC)、总胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TC/HDLC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDLC/HDLC)比值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应限制性酶切法分析ACAT-2基因734位点多态性.结果 女性T等位基因携带者log( TG/HDLC)显著低于CC纯合子受试者,男性CC纯合子受试者TC/HDLC显著高于女性CC纯合子受试者,男性T等位基因携带者log(TG/HDLC)显著高于女性.高糖低脂膳食前,男性T等位基因携带者TG/HDLC、log(TG/HDLC)显著高于女性.与高糖低脂膳食前相比,高糖低脂膳食后男性TC/HDLC、LDLC/HDLC显著降低,不受基因型影响.女性CC纯合子受试者

  9. Storage stability of low-fat sodium reduced fresh merguez sausage prepared with olive oil in konjac gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Mehdi; Herrero, Ana M; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2013-08-01

    This paper evaluates the nutritional values and stability during refrigerated storage of fresh beef merguez sausage as affected by a reformulation process which modified the fat content both by reducing fat (replacing beef fat with konjac gel) and incorporating olive oil (replacing beef fat with olive oil stabilized in a konjac matrix) and by reducing sodium content, replacing sodium chloride with a salt mixture (containing potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride). A preservative (sodium metabisulphite) was also used to extend the shelf-life of the product. The fat was reduced by 32 to 80% and sodium by over 36%. The reformulation did not negatively affect the sensory evaluation. Low microbiota growth rate and biogenic amines were attributed mainly to the presence of sodium metabisulphite. This preservative could be used in the reformulation to enhance safety and/or extend the shelf-life of this type of product.

  10. Study of Low-Fat Peanut Protein Milk%低脂花生蛋白乳的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳敏; 王风玲

    2010-01-01

    本文研究了用水剂法部分脱脂花生蛋白乳的工艺及工艺条件,比较了3种工艺参数的提油效率,分别为27.6%、46.4%和67.5%的花生乳的风味.研究表明:提油效率在46.4%(提油率19.7%以下)时花生乳的风味变化不显著.

  11. Low fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, the nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in normal individuals are not well-defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the ...

  12. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Plana, Nuria; Bea, Ana María; Ascaso, Juan; Lahoz, Carlos; Aranda, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Una dieta cardiosaludable constituye el tratamiento de primera línea en la hipertrigliceridemia (HTG) aunque la asociación de los diferentes componentes de ésta con la concentración de triglicéridos (TG) en pacientes con HTG no está completamente establecida. Objetivo: Estudiar los patrones dietéticos en una cohorte de pacientes hipertrigliceridémicos y evaluar la asociación entres los diferentes componentes de la dieta y la concentración de TG. Métodos: El estudio, multicéntrico y transversal, incluyó sujetos (n = 1.394) diagnosticados de HTG (TG ≥?2,25 mmol/L) que fueron remitidos a diferentes Unidades de Lípidos pertenecientes a la Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Se realizó una valoración dietética mediante un cuestionario validado de 14 items además de la obtención de otras variables clínicas, antropométricas y bioquímicas. Resultados: Se definieron dos patrones dietéticos mediante análisis tipo cluster. Aquellos pacientes que seguían una “dieta cardiosaludable” (en la que predominaba el consumo de pescado, fruta, verduras, lácteos desnatados y legumbres) presentaron menores niveles de TG que aquellos que mantenían una “dieta no cardiosaludable” (con consumo de carne roja, productos cárnicos procesados, alcohol, bollería y azúcar predominantemente) (3,51 ± 2,41 vs. 3,96 ± 3,61 mmol/L, P = 0,002). El análisis multivariante determinó que el consumo de lácteos desnatados (B: - 0,089; 95% IC: -16,1, -3,1, P = 0,004) y el de alcohol (B: 0,070; 95% IC: 1,1, 13,1, P = 0,022) se asoció significativa, e independientemente de otros factores de confusión, con la concentración de TG. Conclusiones: Un patrón dietético típicamente mediterráneo incluyendo lácteos desnatados y un bajo consumo de alcohol se relaciona con menores concentraciones de TG en pacientes hipertrigliceridémicos, incluso en aquellos con tratamiento hipolipemiante. Queda patente así la importancia y necesidad del refuerzo del consejo dietético en esta población además de futuros estudios que analicen directamente la asociación de éstos y otros grupos de alimentos que permitan el desarrollo y la consecución de recomendaciones nutricionales más efectivas.

  13. Avocado Low-Fat Spreads Producing%油梨低脂涂抹物的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志国; 李枚秋

    2002-01-01

    通过各种乳化剂、增稠剂、稳定剂种类及量的复配实验表明,涂抹性能与屈服应力有显著负相关.回归方程分析表明,0.47%复合乳化剂(HLB=6.92)、0.57%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)、0.13%琼脂(Agar)能使制品有较好的涂抹性能,加入0.3%黄原胶,可以提高制品的热稳定性.

  14. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D;

    2016-01-01

    . Conclusion: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  15. Development of a Compton camera for online ion beam range verification via prompt γ detection. Session: HK 12.6 Mo 18:30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldawood, S. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Liprandi, S.; Marinsek, T.; Bortfeldt, J.; Lang, C.; Lutter, R.; Dedes, G.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU Munich, Garching (Germany); Maier, L.; Gernhaeuser, R. [TU Munich, Garching (Germany); Kolff, H. van der; Schaart, D. [TU Delft (Netherlands); Castelhano, I. [University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    A real-time ion beam verification in hadron-therapy is playing a major role in cancer treatment evaluation. This will make the treatment interuption possible if the planned and actual ion range are mismatched. An imaging system is being developed in Garching aiming to detect prompt γ rays induced by nuclear reactions between the ion beam and biological tissue. The Compton camera prototype consists of a stack of six customized double-sided Si-strip detectors (DSSSD, 50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 128 strips/side) acting as scatterer, while the absorber is formed by a monolithic LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}) read out by a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (Hamamatsu H9500). The study of the Compton camera properties and its individual component are in progress both in the laboratory as well as at the online facilities.

  16. Nominal vs Local Shot-Peening Effects on Fatigue Lifetime in Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    surface. there is no clear rela tionship of the depth of initiation with lifetime. Furt hermore. Figure 8(b) indica tes that the retained nomina l...probabilistic description of the fa tigue response tha t integrates the nomina lly dri ven V.I" the locally con tro lled effects may provide a...faceting a nd wi ll be discussed in detail in another article. D. Nomina / l’s L~ll.·-Ljmiljllg Failure Mechani.m rs lIIula SP Typical crack initia

  17. Small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements provided to women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 mo of age increase the mean attained length of 18-mo-old children in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Okronipa, Harriet; Ashorn, Per; Peerson, Janet M.; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Ulla; Zeilani, Mamane; Vosti, Stephen; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood stunting usually begins in utero and continues after birth; therefore, its reduction must involve actions across different stages of early life. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) provided during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy on attained size by 18 mo of age. Design: In this partially double-blind, individually randomized trial, 1320 women at ≤20 wk of gestation received standard iron and folic acid (IFA...

  18. 低脂低糖曲奇饼的研制%Development of low-fat and low-sugar cookies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊; 谢浩鹏

    2016-01-01

    以蔗糖酯和菊粉混合物代替部分油脂,以甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇混合物代替部分白砂糖,以降低曲奇本身的油脂量和糖量。研究结果表明,当面粉100 g,白砂糖15 g,黄油48 g,油脂替代物12 g,蔗糖替代物7 g,得到的曲奇饼干质量最佳,口感和风味与传统曲奇接近,其中油脂替代物中菊粉和蔗糖酯的混合物比例为4∶6,蔗糖替代物中甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇的混合物比例为1∶30。%In this paper,using the mixture of sucrose ester and inulin to replace part of fat, stevioside and erythritol to replace part of sugar, in order to reduce the amount of fat and sugar in the cookies. The results show: it will get the best quality of cookies when 100 g flour adding 15 g sugar,48 g butter,12 g fat substitutes,7g sucrose substitutes,the taste and flavor of cookies are close to the traditional one. The ratio of the inulin and sucrose ester is 4∶6 in the fat substitutes , the ratio of stevioside and erythritol is 1∶30 in the sucrose substitutes.

  19. Highly sensitive detection of five typical fluoroquinolones in low-fat milk by field-enhanced sample injection based CE in bubble cell capillary

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yan; Gasilova, Natalia; Qiao, Liang; Zhou, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Xin-Xiang; Girault, Hubert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a group of synthetic antibiotics with a broad activity spectrum against mycoplasma, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Due to the extensive use of fluoroquinolones in farming and veterinary science, there is a constant need in the analytical methods able to efficiently monitor their residues in food products of animal origin, regulated by Commission Regulation (European Union) no. 37/2010. Herein, field-enhanced sample injection for sample stacking prior the CZE se...

  20. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter.

  1. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets decrease primary bile acid synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Bandsma, RHJ; Stellaard, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat content influences bile salt metabolism, but quantitative data from controlled studies in humans are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the effect of dietary fat content on the metabolism of primary bile salts. Design: The effects of eucaloric extr

  2. Nisin延长低脂再制干酪保质期的应用%Application of Nisin in extending the shelf-life of low fat cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖

    2010-01-01

    Nisin已广泛应用于食品保质期的研究中,本试验研究在贮存过程中,Nisin对低脂再制干酪细菌、肠杆菌、霉菌和酵母菌的抑菌效果及pH的变化.在低脂再制干酪样品中,空白样品贮藏到5个月时,样品变质不可食用,添加0.2%、0.3% Nisin的样品到6个月时,细菌总数、肠杆菌、酪霉菌和酵母菌合格,而添加0.2% Nisin、0.3% Nisin抑菌效果差异不显著,因此添加0.2% Nisin为宜.随着贮藏期时间的增加,pH显著增加.

  3. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurueña-Martínez, M A; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2004-11-01

    The effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 12% and 9%, substituting pork fat with olive oil and adding locust bean/xanthan gum (0.5% and 0.6%) on emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, processing yield, cook loss, texture and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated and compared with control samples. Addition of locust bean/xanthan gum produced a significant increase in hydration/binding properties, characterised by lower cook losses, increasing yield, better emulsion stability and lower jelly and fat separation. The substitution of pork fat by olive oil did not affect these parameters. Indeed, results showed that reducing fat levels together with increasing moisture and locust bean/xanthan gum addition do not affect the sensory or textural properties, but olive oil addition produces a decrease in hardness and an increase in adhesiveness, however the overall acceptability was not affected.

  4. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat......-reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...

  5. 利用麦麸纤维素稳定低脂Pickering乳液%Preparation of low-fat pickering emulsion with wheat bran cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 张坤; 翟晓利; 宋洁; 王倩; 刘碧莹; 岳悦; 贾原媛

    2016-01-01

    以农副产物麦麸为原材料,经过碱煮、漂白等工艺提取麦麸纤维素,从而制备稳定的低脂Pickering乳液.考察麦麸纤维的质量分数、pH及Zeta电位等因素对乳液的静置稳定性和乳液滴粒径分布的影响.结果表明,随麦麸纤维质量分数的增大,乳液的稳定性逐渐增强;Zeta电位绝对值随着pH的增加而增大,pH为3时乳液的稳定性最好;纤维质量分数为1.00%的乳液样品,乳液滴D(3,2)为3.5 μm;从乳液滴的粒径分布分析,乳液的失稳主要发生在储存前期(3 d),随着时间延长乳液逐渐趋于稳定.

  6. Effects of a low-fat diet with antioxidant supplementation on biochemical markers of multiple sclerosis long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriz, Elba; Laliena, A; Vallejo, D; Tuñón, M J; Rodríguez-López, J M; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; García-Fernández, M C

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las posibilidades de tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple (EM) se encuentran limitadas principalmente a terapias con inmumoduladores en las formas no progresivas de EM. Los estudios de intervención nutricional sugieren que la dieta puede considerarse como un tratamiento alternativo para controlar la progresión de la enfermedad. Por esta razón, las intervenciones en la dieta pueden ayudar a mejorar el bienestar y mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes con EM. Objetivos: Valorar el efecto de una dieta pobre en grasas con suplementación de antioxidantes en los marcadores bioquímicos de pacientes institucionalizados que presentan formas progresivas de EM. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo aleatorizado controlado por placebo con 9 participantes, 5 de los cuales se asignan al grupo de intervención (dieta baja en grasas y suplementación antioxidante) y los 4 restantes al grupo placebo (dieta baja en grasas). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención dietética que supone modificación de la dieta e introducción de antioxidantes durante 42 días mediante valoraciones de parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos y marcadores del estrés oxidativo en sangre y orina en las etapas inicial (día 0), intermedia (día 15) y final (día 42) del tratamiento. Resultados: Se obtuvieron niveles de proteína C reactiva significativamente inferiores en el grupo de intervención con respecto al grupo placebo al final del estudio. Los marcadores de estrés oxidativo e inflamación: isoprostanos 8-iso-PGF2e interleucina IL-6 también disminuyeron en el grupo de intervención después de la intervención dietética. La actividad de la enzima catalasa aumentó de forma significativa en el grupo de intervención antes de la suplementación con antioxidantes. No se observaron diferencias significativas en otros marcadores de estrés oxidativo. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la dieta y los suplementos dietéticos están involucrados en la modulación del metabolismo celular y los procesos de inflamación de la EM. En consecuencia, las dietas bajas en grasas y los suplementos antioxidantes podrían ser utilizados como terapias alternativas en el tratamiento de la EM.

  7. A novel process for preparing low-fat peanuts: Optimization of the oil extraction yield with limited structural and organoleptic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Joelle; Fawaz, Nada; Afif, Charbel; Louka, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to extract the maximum amount of oil from peanuts without causing major damage and preserving their organoleptic quality after defatting. Accordingly, a successful, healthy, eco-friendly and economic defatting process for peanuts was implemented using mechanical oil expression, which was optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology. The results demonstrated that maximum extraction yields were obtained at a low initial moisture content (5-7% d.b.). Defatting and deformation ratios were mostly affected by the pressure and water content with high correlation coefficients (98.4% and 97.5%, respectively), and overall acceptability decreased following higher oil extraction yields. It was concluded that the optimum values for the product moisture content, pressure, and pressing duration were 5% d.b., 9.7 MPa and 4 min, respectively, with a defatting ratio of 70.6%. This resulted in an insignificant irreversible deformation ratio (<1%) and an overall acceptability of 7.6 over 10.

  8. 低脂低钠肉类制品的研究进展%Recent Advances of Low-fat Sodium-reduced Processed Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红涛; 赵改名; 李苗云; 柳艳霞; 杨欢欢

    2010-01-01

    综述了脂肪、钠盐替代物的种类、特点和最新研究进展,论述了脂肪、钠盐替代品应用在低脂、低钠肉制品中对制品外观、质构、口感和风味等的影响作用,以期为低脂、低钠肉制品研究开发提供参考.

  9. Low Fat Loss Response after Medium-Term Supervised Exercise in Obese Is Associated with Exercise-Induced Increase in Food Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Finlayson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R or non-responders (NR to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  10. Low fat loss response after medium-term supervised exercise in obese is associated with exercise-induced increase in food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Blundell, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine exercise-induced changes in the reward value of food during medium-term supervised exercise in obese individuals. Subjects/Methods. The study was a 12-week supervised exercise intervention prescribed to expend 500 kcal/day, 5 d/week. 34 sedentary obese males and females were identified as responders (R) or non-responders (NR) to the intervention according to changes in body composition relative to measured energy expended during exercise. Food reward (ratings of liking and wanting, and relative preference by forced choice pairs) for an array of food images was assessed before and after an acute exercise bout. Results. 20 responders and 14 non-responders were identified. R lost 5.2 kg ± 2.4 of total fat mass and NR lost 1.7 kg ± 1.4. After acute exercise, liking for all foods increased in NR compared to no change in R. Furthermore, NR showed an increase in wanting and relative preference for high-fat sweet foods. These differences were independent of 12-weeks regular exercise and weight loss. Conclusion. Individuals who showed an immediate post-exercise increase in liking and increased wanting and preference for high-fat sweet foods displayed a smaller reduction in fat mass with exercise. For some individuals, exercise increases the reward value of food and diminishes the impact of exercise on fat loss.

  11. The Impact of a Low-Fat Diet and the Use of Fat Substitutes on Fat Preferences Among Overweight Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    PREFERENCE scored higher on the body dissatisfaction scale, fear of maturity, and perfectionism subscales than the eating disordered women used to...terminated (Hetherington, 1993). Individuals with eating disorders or obesity may have a skewed experience of pleasure from eating . That is, negative...pathology, defined by a score of greater than 10.5 on the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). In addition, participants had

  12. Effects of feeding diets containing different fat supplements to swine on the visual properties and storage stability of low-fat sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Ahmed, P O; Shackelford, S D; Haydon, K D; Reagan, J O

    1993-01-01

    Sixty barrows and gilts were assigned to one of five dietary treatments consisting of a control diet of corn and soybean meal and four similar test diets that contained a 10% replacement of either animal fat, safflower oil, sunflower oil or canola oil, to determine the effects of high levels of oleic acid in the diet of swine on the storage stability of fresh pork sausage. Pork trim from each treatment was used to formulate sausage that contained two fat levels (25% and 35%), and two levels of added water (3% and 11%). Thiobarbituric acid values did not differ between the control, safflower oil or sunflower oil treatments and all treatments were acceptable after 10 weeks of storage. Microbial numbers increased with the level of added water and during time in storage (up to 3 weeks). Visual evaluation showed that the control was the most red and least discolored, while the canola oil treatment was the least red and the most discolored. Results from the present study suggest that a 105 replacement of a typical corn/soybean meal diet to swine with safflower or sunflower oil did not alter the storage-stability of fresh pork sausage.

  13. [LOW-FAT, FERMENTED MILK ENRICHED WITH PLANT STEROLS, A STRATEGY TO REDUCE HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMA IN CHILDREN, A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-COTROLLED TRIAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld Olivares, Javier Andrés; San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Calle, Maria Elisa; Bischofberger Valdés, Cornelia; Perez Arruche, Eva; Arce Delgado, Esperanza; Ciudad, María Jose; Hernández Cabría, Marta; Collado Yurita, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: en estos últimos años, paralelamente a la epidemia de obesidad, se ha producido un aumento de las dislipemias en la población pediátrica. En estas dislipemias es posible que los triglicéridos sanguíneos también tengan un papel importante. Los esteroles vegetales se han mostrado eficaces en el tratamiento de la hipercolesterolemia, pero no de la hipertrigliceridemia. Nuestro objetivo en este estudio es determinar la eficacia de la leche enriquecida en fitoesteroles para la disminución de la hipertrigliceridemia en la población infantil. Población y método: se diseñó un ensayo clínico, controlado, aleatorizado, y doble ciego, con leche desnatada enriquecida con esteroles vegetales y leche desnatada no enriquecida. Se incluyeron 67 pacientes pediátricos. Resultados: tras la ingesta observamos diferencias en la trigliceridemia final entre la leche desnatada enriquecida con esteroles vegetales y la leche desnatada no enriquecida con esteroles. El efecto atribuible a la ingesta de la leche enriquecida con fitosteroles vegetales fue de una disminución de 5,88 mg/dl. Conclusión: concluimos que la leche enriquecida con esteroles vegetales (2,24 gr de esteroles vegetales al día) podría constituir una estrategia adecuada para el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia en pacientes pediátricos.

  14. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh)

    OpenAIRE

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-f...

  15. Beneficial effect of CLOCK gene polymorphism rs1801260 in combination with low-fat diet on insulin metabolism in the patients with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation at the Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) locus has been associated with lifestyle-related conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, it has been suggested that the disruption of the circadian system may play a causal ro...

  16. Study on production process of low-fat chicory dietary fiber set yogurt%低脂菊苣膳食纤维凝固型酸奶的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云月英; 韩铖铖; 王文龙

    2011-01-01

    以菊苣膳食纤维和脱脂乳粉为原料,通过乳酸菌发酵生产一种低脂凝固型酸奶.通过单因素试验和均匀设计试验,初步确定最佳发酵工艺条件为:菊苣膳食纤维2.08%,脱脂乳粉12.7%,蔗糖7.06%,发酵剂接种量为0.8 g/L,发酵温度为42.8℃,发酵时间为7.5 h.%A low-fit set yoghurt was prepared with mixture of chicory dietary fiber and skimmed milk powder and by fermentation with Lac-tobacillus starter. The optimum fermentation conditions were determined by single factor and uniform design, which were as follows: chicory dietary fiber 2.08%, skimmed milk powder 12.7%, sugar 7.06%, Lactobacillus starter inoculum by 5%, fermentation under 42.8 ℃ for 7.5 h.

  17. High education is associated with low fat and high fibre, beta-carotene and vitamin C - Computation of nutrient intake based on a short food frequency questionnaire in 17,265 men and women in the Tromsø Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Koster Jacobsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTEducational level has been correlated to the intake of several nutrients. In a population-based studyincluding 17,265 men and women aged 25-69 years, the intake of nutrients were calculated based on 37questions about food habits. In this paper, we present results from the dietary survey with emphasis onthe relationships between dietary habits and educational level. Compared to subjects with low formaleducation, subjects with high educational level have less fat in their diet and more dietary fibre, betacarotene,vitamin C and alcohol (p-value for linear trend is associated with healthy food habits and relatively higher alcohol consumption. There is a need forefforts in order to change the food habits of the less educated.NORSK SAMMENDRAGPersoner med lang utdanning har ofte et bedre kosthold enn personer med kortere utdanning. I denneundersøkelsen har vi estimert inntaket av en rekke næringsstoffer basert på 37 spørsmål om kostvanersom ble stilt til personer som tok del i Tromsø-IV-undersøkelsen (1994/95. Vår studie inkluderer 17 265menn og kvinner i Tromsø i alderen 25-69 år. Vi presenterer resultater fra denne kostholdsundersøkelsenmed vekt på relasjoner mellom kostvaner og utdanningslengde. Sammenlignet med personer med kortformell utdanning, har personer med lang utdanning mindre fett i kosten og høyere inntak av fiber, betakaroten,vitamin C og alkohol (p helsemessig gunstigere kosthold, men et høyere alkoholinntak, enn personer med kort utdanning.Funnene understreker behovet for målrettede tiltak for å utjevne sosiale forskjeller i kostvaner i Norge.

  18. 高糖低脂膳食对健康青年血脂比值的影响%Effects of High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet on Serum Lipid Ratios in Healthy Young Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘婵芬; 龚仁蓉; 林佳; 李正科; 汤慧; 黄鑫; 李蓉辉; 方定志

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨短期高糖低脂膳食对健康青年血脂比值甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDL-C)、log(TG/HDL-C)、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)/HDL-C的影响.方法 在校大学生自愿者56名(22.89±1.80)岁,于7 d平衡膳食后给予高糖低脂膳食6 d,分别在第1 d、8 d、14 d清晨抽取空腹静脉血,测定TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C浓度,计算TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)、TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C值.结果 高糖低脂膳食后,TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)在女性显著升高(P<0.05),男性有下降趋势,但无统计学意义.按BMI或WHR分析发现,高糖低脂膳食后 TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)在正常女性显著升高(P<0.05),而在一般肥胖或腹型肥胖女性无显著性改变;不同BMI或WHR男性高糖低脂膳食后TG/HDL-C、Iog(TG/HDL-C)无显著变化.TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C在高糖低值膳食后均显著下降(P<0.05).且不受性别、BMI、WHR 的影响.结论 高糖低脂膳食诱导的TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)改变因性别及BMI或WHR不同而不同,TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C的改变则不受其影响,对指导相应人群改变膳食结构具有重要意义.

  19. Effect of hydrophilic colloid on thermal stability of low fat meat emulsion products%亲水胶体对低脂肉糜加热稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲; 周萍

    2008-01-01

    研究了四种亲水胶体对低脂肉糜加热稳定性的影响.结果表明:四种亲水胶体的最佳配比为大豆分离蛋白2.0%,魔芋精粉2.0%,黄原胶0.5%,卡拉胶0.4%,按此最佳配比添加于肉糜中,在80℃下,加热1.5 h,加热稳定性好.感官品质佳.

  20. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months....... No difference in body weight, energy intake or appetite ratings were observed between diets. Both the LF and MUFA diets compared to CTR diet reduced postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia and lowered fasting insulin from month 0 to month 6. Following the 8-week LED period lower levels of the appetite...... regulating peptides, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2, along with increased appetite scores were seen in comparison to measurements performed after the 6-month dietary intervention. In conclusion, the two competing diets, MUFA and LF, were equally good...

  1. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkis Karin S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD, such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA, greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3 years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX, which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04. In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women.

  2. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  3. Technological and sensory quality of restructured low-fat cooked ham containing liquid whey Características tecnológicas e sensoriais de apresuntados com baixo teor de gordura elaborados com soro de leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Pereira Dutra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of liquid whey to replace water (at 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% in a restructured cooked ham formulation was studied and several technological and sensory quality properties were determined. The test results showed no statistically significant differences (P 0.05 less reddish (a* value reduction and more grayish and yellowish (lesser C* and higher h values with higher whey additions. A lower (P 0.05. These results suggest that up to 38% natural fresh liquid whey can be added to a restructured cooked ham formulation with similar results to products cured with a conventional formulation.As propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais de apresuntados elaborados com soro de leite em substituição à água de formulação (0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% foram avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos testes de perda de peso (cozimento, refrigeração, reaquecimento e ciclo de congelamento e na textura objetiva (teste TPA. No entanto, para a cor objetiva (CIELAB, as amostras se apresentaram (P 0,05 afetada. Esses resultados sugerem que até 38% de soro de leite natural e fresco pode ser adicionado a uma formulação de apresuntado com resultados similares aos produtos curados com uma formulação convencional.

  4. Effects of storage time on compositional, micro-structural, rheological and sensory properties of low fat Iranian UF-Feta cheese fortified with fish oil or fish oil powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbod, Farzad; Kalbasi, Ahmad; Moini, Sohrab; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Razavi, Hadi; Mortazavi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The fish oil (FO), and fish oil powder (FOP) at 10 % of recommended daily intake (RDI) were used to make two types of fortified feta cheeses. The physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of ripened samples at 0, 30, and 60th days of cold store (5 °C) showed that the FO samples had a faster pH reduction, higher MSNF (milk solid non-fat) increase (p < 0.05) and more pores formation. Storage (G') and loss (G") moduli for both samples decreased until the 30th day of cold storage and then increased until the end of the storage time but both of them were higher for FOP samples. The index of secondary lipid oxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of FO was lower than FOP samples. Although the polyunsaturated fatty acids of both samples were much higher than common feta cheese, their degradation in FO was less than FOP samples after storage. The sensory scores of FO were significantly higher than FOP sample (P < 0.05), and it obtained up to 70 % of overall acceptability after 30 and 60 days storage for its better hardness, texture and flavor.

  5. 富含膳食纤维的低脂肪燕麦香肠配方研究与优化%Research and formula optimization of oatmeal sausage with rich dietary fiber and low fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯凯; 张丽萍; 井雪莲

    2015-01-01

    将不同处理的燕麦辅料添加到传统香肠中,以加工一种富含膳食纤维的低脂肪燕麦香肠.研究燕麦整粒米、破碎米、粉3种添加形态及其添加量对香肠感官品质的影响,探讨了加工技术及最佳配方.以燕麦香肠的感官品质为检测指标,针对燕麦、淀粉、蛋白及脂肪的添加量进行单因素实验,并对结果进行响应面优化,最终确定燕麦香肠的配方(以100 9肉计)为:燕麦破碎米添加量15.8%、马铃薯淀粉添加量3%、大豆蛋白添加量2.2%,脂肪(猪肉肥膘)添加量13%.制得的燕麦香肠比传统香肠脂肪含量降低了15.5%,膳食纤维质量分数达2.01%.

  6. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  7. 跨理论模型对促进高血压患者低脂饮食的效果研究%Effect study for the low-fat diet promoting for patients with hypertension by trans-theoretic model based education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小芳; 薛小玲; 汪国成

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨跨理论模型(Trans-theoretic Model,TTM)在促进高血压患者进低脂饮食的效果.方法 在苏州某医院通过方便取样方法,收集125例有高脂饮食习惯或进低脂饮食未超过5年的高血压患者作为研究对象,将其随机分为干预组(63例)和对照组(62例).干预组接受基于跨理论模型的高脂饮食干预措施,对照组则接受常规饮食教育.出院后1个月、3个月、6个月,比较两组患者之间高脂饮食改变阶段、高脂膳食评价得分、血压、体重指数及血脂的差别.结果 干预组出院后1个月、3个月及6个月行为改变阶段高于对照组(P<0.01).干预组患者高脂膳食评分低于对照组(P<0.01),出院后6个月,两组患者之间血压、高密度脂蛋白差异有显著意义(P<0.05),两组患者之间体重差异无显著意义(P>0.05).结论 跨理论模型建构的健康教育,可促进高血压患者提高进低脂饮食意愿及减少高脂食物的摄入.

  8. Effect of Pre-Emulsified Emulsion Treated with Ultrasound on Qualities of Low-Fat Frankfurter-Style Sausages%预乳化液超声处理对低脂法兰克福香肠品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵颖颖; 邹玉峰; 王鹏; 陈林; 李可; 徐幸莲

    2014-01-01

    采用超声法制备酪蛋白酸钠-大豆油预乳化液,将其作为猪背脂替代品加工低脂法兰克福香肠。研究不同超声预乳化液替代比例(25%、50%、75%和100%)下,法兰克福香肠的化学组成、色泽(亮度、红度、黄度)、质构特性(硬度、咀嚼性、弹性、内聚性、回复性)、保水保油性(蒸煮损失、加压损失)、水分子分布状态和微观结构。随着超声预乳化液替代比例的增加,水分含量增加,脂肪含量和能量减少(P<0.05),各组之间的灰分含量差异不显著(P>0.05),蛋白质含量变化不大;L*值显著增大,a*值显著减小(P<0.05);弹性、内聚性和回复性随着替代比例的增加而增大,替代比例达到50%以上时,弹性值与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05),替代比例达到25%以上时,内聚性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),替代比例高于50%时,回复性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),硬度和咀嚼性随着替代比例的增加而减小,但均高于对照组,质构特性提高;蒸煮损失和加压损失增加,但均低于对照组(P<0.05),保水保油性改善。随着替代比例的增加,T23从57.22 ms增至64.57 ms, pT23减小而 pT24增加,但与对照组比,各处理组的可移动水含量高,自由水含量低。扫描电镜结果表明,100%超声替代组香肠中的乳化球体积小,填充均匀。超声处理可以减小预乳化液滴的体积并提高蛋白质分子对水油的吸附和保持能力,从而有效改善低脂香肠的食用品质。%Objective Pre-emulsified sodium caseinate-soybean oil emulsion prepared with pulsed ultrasound was used to replace pork back fat in frankfurter-style sausages.[Method]Effect of ultrasound pre-emulsified emulsion with different substitution rates (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) on the chemical composition, color parameters (L*, a*, b*), textural properties (hardness, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness, resilience), water- and fat-binding (WFB) capacity (cooking loss, expressing loss), water distribution and microstructure of frankfurters was performed in this study. [Result]With the increasing of substitution rate, the moisture of frankfurters became larger, fat content and energy value became smaller (P0.05). L*value increased and a*value decreased significantly (P0.05) springiness but higher resilience with the control (P<0.05). Compared with the control, sausages with the substitution rate of 50%, 75% and 100% had higher cohesiveness (P<0.05). Cooking loss and expressing loss significantly increased with the increasing of substitution rate but lower than the control (P<0.05). T23 relaxation time increased from 57.22 ms to 64.57 ms, immobile water increased and bulk water decreased. Frankfurters formulated with ultrasound emulsion had homogeneous fine three-dimensional network textural property with smaller emulsion droplet. [Conclusion]Ultrasound treatment can produce much smaller pre-emulsified emulsion droplets than conventional homogenization. Good water and fat absorption and binding capacities and eating qualities can be achieved by incorporating ultrasound pre-emulsified emulsion stabilized using sodium caseinate in frankfurter-style sausages.

  9. 钠替代及预乳化油对低钠低脂乳化肠品质的影响%Effect of sodium replacement and pre-emulsifying oil on properties of low-sodium & low-fat emulsion-type sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏朝贵; 吴菊清; 邵俊花; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2014-01-01

    用KCl和MgCl2替代1/3的NaCl(以离子强度计)来降低食盐用量,并以大豆分离蛋白、大豆油和水斩拌形成的预乳化豆油替代50%的猪背膘来降低脂肪含量.研究了钠替代及预乳化豆油对乳化肠质构特性、蒸煮损失、持水特性、色泽及感官品质的影响,以期找到一种新型健康低钠低脂乳化肠配方.结果表明,对比常钠对照组及低钠对照组,钾和预乳化豆油混合替代组及镁和预乳化豆油混合替代组乳化肠硬度、弹性、粘聚性、咀嚼性及回复性显著上升(p<0.05);蒸煮损失及加压失水率均有不同程度下降(p<0.05);L*、b*值均有不同程度上升(p<0.05),a*值显著下降(p<0.05);感官品质得到一定改善,但镁替代组由于品尝到苦涩味,可接受程度下降.

  10. Impact of exercise and dietary fatty acid composition from a high-fat diet on markers of hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Paton, C M; Wegner, F H; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A

    2011-02-01

    To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO(2)max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood samples were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs. sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition.

  11. 为糖尿病人用的肠内营养%Enteral nutrition for patients with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    abnormal glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.Inclusion of fiber blone,in liquid formulas does not improve the glycemic response.Options for improving the metabolic response to liquid diets include the replacement of some carbohydrate with protein,MUFA or slowly digested carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.Studies conducted throughout the 1980's demonstrated that high carbohydrate liquid enteral formulas result in poor metabolic control in diabetic patients.These studies showed that reduced carbohydrate levels,increased dietary MUFA,and solid food could improve metabolic control and reduce risk factors for macrovascular disease.Garge A et al studied the effects of high carbohydrate solid food diets on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus1.The subjects were randomly assigned to receive first one diet and then the other,each for 28 days,in a metabolic ward.The high-carbohydrate diet had 25 percent of calories from fat and 60 percent from carbohydrate.The high-monounsaturated-fat diet was 50 percent fat(33 percent of the total calories were from monounsaturated fatty acids)and 35 percent carbohydrate.As compared with the high-carbohydrate diet,the high-monounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower mean plasma glucose levels and reduced insulin requirements;urinary glucose losses were higher for subjexts consuming the high-carbohydrate diet (table 1).As compared with the high carbohydrate diet,the high-monounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower levels of plasma triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;they were lower by 25 and 35 percent,respectively.The high-MUFA-fat diet also resulted in higher levels of high-density lipoprotein choleterol.Levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differsignificantly between subjects on the two diets.These investigators concluded that partial replacemtn of complex carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty acids in the diets of people with type

  12. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: acceptability and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2002-01-01

    Prices of four low fat foods were reduced about 25% and prices of three high fat foods were increased about 10% to determine the impact on food purchases in a Midwestern suburban high school cafeteria to explore the impact of price on purchases. Low fat foods averaged about 13% of total sales. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate that low fat foods would probably have averaged about 9% of total sales without the reduced price.

  13. Long-term effects on haemostatic variables of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2010-01-01

    Diet is important in the prevention of CVD, and it has been suggested that a diet high in MUFA is more cardioprotective than a low-fat diet. We hypothesised that the thrombotic risk profile is improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...

  14. Formative Evaluation of a Nutritional Marketing Project in City-Center Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Andree; Renaud, Lise

    1992-01-01

    Formative evaluation of a community health project providing and promoting low-fat foods in five restaurants in Montreal (Canada) shows that restaurateurs are willing to collaborate in project implementation but not in training waiters and that the project did not cause an increase in market demand for low-fat menu offerings. (SLD)

  15. For Strong Bones...For Lifelong Health...Milk Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free milk instead of water to tomato soup. • Make a smoothie with fruit, ice, and low-fat or fat-free milk. • Try flavored low- fat or fat-free milk like chocolate or strawberry. • Have a ... string cheese. • Make a salad with dark green, leafy vegetables. • Serve ...

  16. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  17. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  18. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  19. Influence of nutrition labelling on food portion size consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mary T; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Rennie, Kirsten L; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Welch, Robert W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food portion size consumption. Normal and overweight men (n=24) and women (n=23) were served an identical lunch meal on three separate days, but the information they received prior to consuming the lunch meal was manipulated as follows: "baseline", "high fat/energy" and "low fat/energy". Food and energy intake was significantly increased in the low fat/energy condition compared with both baseline and the high fat/energy condition. An additional 3% (162 kJ) energy was consumed by subjects under the low fat/energy condition compared to baseline. No differences were observed between the baseline and high fat/energy condition. Subjects who consumed most in the low fat/energy condition were found to be mostly men, to have a higher BMI and to be overweight. Low fat/energy information can positively influence food and energy intake, suggesting that foods labelled as 'low fat' or 'low calorie' may be one factor promoting the consumption of large food portions.

  20. Application of guar-xanthan gum mixture as a partial fat replacer in meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Rather, Jahangir A; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical, oxidative, texture and microstructure properties were evaluated for low fat meat emulsions containing varying levels of guar/xanthan gum mixture (1:1 ratio) as a fat substitute. Partial replacement of fat with guar/xanthan gum resulted in higher emulsion stability and cooking yield but lower penetration force. Proximate composition revealed that high fat control had significantly higher fat and lower moisture content due to the difference in basic formulation. Colour evaluation revealed that low fat formulations containing gum mixture had significantly lower lightness and higher yellowness values than high fat control formulation. However non-significant difference was observed in redness values between low fat formulations and the high fat control. The pH values of the low fat formulations containing gum mixture were lower than the control formulations (T0 and TC). The MetMb% of the high fat emulsion formulation was higher than low fat formulations. The significant increase of TBARS value, protein carbonyl groups and loss of protein sulphydryl groups in high fat formulation reflect the more oxidative degradation of lipids and muscle proteins during the preparation of meat emulsion than low fat formulations. The SEM showed a porous matrix in the treatments containing gum mixture. Thus, the guar/xanthan gum mixture improved the physicochemical and oxidative quality of low fat meat emulsions than the control formulations.

  1. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna eDoerksen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and vegetable and low-fat consumption. Self-efficacy significantly predicted low-fat consumption. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  2. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  3. Weight and body mass index in Parkinson's disease patients after deep brain stimulation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Paul J; Maxwell, Robert E; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Kotz, Catherine M; Kotzd, Catherine M; Billington, Charles J; Billingtond, Charles J; Laseski, Maggie A; Thielen, Scott D

    2005-06-01

    A retrospective chart review characterizing changes in 17 male and 10 female Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery indicated that 6 mo before surgery, patients lost a mean of 5.1 lbs, whereas in the 6 mo after surgery, subjects gained a mean of 10.1 lbs; 22% gained more than 14 lbs. In 10 patients followed an additional 6 mo, weight gain continued. This weight gain may be associated with decreased energy expenditure due to subsidence of chronic tremor. The magnitude of gain underscores the need for proactive management of body weight in PD patients undergoing DBS.

  4. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for protecting against stress fractures — is found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and ... protein are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, and peanut butter. Carb Charge Carbohydrates ...

  5. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and ... like a turkey or chicken sandwich, cereal and milk, chicken noodle soup and yogurt, or pasta with ...

  6. Orlistat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlistat (prescription and nonprescription) is used with an individualized low-calorie, low-fat diet and exercise program to help people lose weight. Prescription orlistat is used in overweight people who may also ...

  7. Managing menopause at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be relieved by using a water-soluble vaginal lubricant during intercourse. DO NOT use petroleum jelly. Over ... Eat high calcium foods, such as cheese, leafy green vegetables, low-fat milk and other dairy, salmon, ...

  8. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and iron, you need ... whole-wheat bread) more often than their more processed counterparts like white rice and white bread. That's ...

  9. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meats, fish, and low-fat dairy. 1. Replace Saturated Fats Reduce the amount of fat in your dairy. Whole-fat dairy products are high in saturated fat. But there are healthier options. Instead of butter, ...

  10. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  11. Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... l Fresh meat, poultry, seafood l Low-fat, low-sodium cheese l Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced- ... for foods labeled: sodium free, salt free, very low sodium, low sodium, reduced or less sodium, light in ...

  12. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  13. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  14. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  15. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  16. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline. A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001 with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12. During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22, with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001 and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41. However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03, but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction. However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  17. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in vanilla-flavored soy and dairy products stored at 8 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipparaju, Sireesha; Ravishankar, Sadhana; Slade, Peter J

    2004-02-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes V37 in vanilla-flavored yogurt (low-fat and nonfat) and soy milk (low-fat and Plus) stored at 8 degrees C for 31 days was investigated. Commercial samples of yogurt and soy milk were used. These samples were inoculated with either 10(4) or 10(7) CFU of L. monocytogenes per ml. Sampling was carried out every 3 to 4 days initially and was then carried out weekly, for a total storage time of 31 days. Each time a sample was collected, the pH of the sample was measured. After 31 days, low-fat plain, low-fat vanilla, and nonfat plain yogurt samples inoculated with 10(4) CFU/ml showed 2.5-log reductions in viable cell populations, and nonfat vanilla yogurt showed a 3.5-log reduction. For yogurt inoculated with 10(7) CFU/ml, reductions of 2.5 log CFU/ml were observed for plain low-fat and nonfat yogurts, and reductions of 5 log CFU/ml were observed for vanilla-flavored low-fat and nonfat yogurts. In vanilla-flavored and plain low-fat and Plus soy milk samples, cell counts increased from 10(4) and 10(7) CFU/ml to 10(9) CFU/ml at 7 and 3 days of storage, respectively, at 8 degrees C. Coagulation in soy milk samples was observed when the cell population reached 10(9) CFU/ml. In soy milk, the L. monocytogenes population did not change for up to 31 days. Vanillin had an inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes in yogurt but not in soy milk.

  18. Recommendations of the GARIN group for managing non-critically ill patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia and artificial nutrition Recomendaciones del grupo GARIN para el manejo de pacientes no críticos con diabetes o hiperglucemia de estrés y nutrición artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: By means of this update, the GARIN working group aims to define its position regarding the treatment of patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia and artificial nutrition. In this area there are many aspects of uncertainty, especially in non-critically ill patients. Methods: Bibliographical review, and specific questions in advance were discussed and answered at a meeting in the form of conclusions. Results: We propose a definition of stress hyperglycaemia. The indications and access routes for artificial nutrition are no different in patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycaemia than in non-diabetics. The objective must be to keep pre-prandial blood glucose levels between 100 and 140 mg/dl and post-prandial levels between 140 and 180 mg/dl. Hyperglycemia can be prevented through systematic monitoring of capillary glycaemias and adequately calculate energy-protein needs. We recommend using enteral formulas designed for patients with diabetes (high monounsaturated fat to facilitate metabolic control. The best drug treatment for treating hyperglycaemia/diabetes in hospitalised patients is insulin and we make recommendations for adapt the theoretical insulin action to the nutrition infusion regimen. We also addressed recommendations for future investigation. Conclusions: This recommendations about artificial nutrition in patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycaemia can add value to clinical work.Introducción y objetivos: En el tratamiento de los pacientes con diabetes o hiperglucemia de estrés y la nutrición artificial existen muchas áreas de incertidumbre, sobre todo en pacientes no críticos. El grupo de trabajo GARIN tiene como objetivo definir su posición en este campo. Material y métodos: Revisión bibliográfica previa y reunión presencial en la que se discutieron y contestaron preguntas específicas sobre el tema. Resultados: Proponemos una definición de hiperglucemia de estrés. Las indicaciones y las

  19. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  20. Fat reduction in the formulation of frankfurter sausages using inulin and pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Méndez-Zamora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of inulin and pectin as fat substitutes on the chemical composition, texture, and sensory acceptance of frankfurter sausages. Six treatments were evaluated to test fat replacement: control (T0; low fat control (T1; low fat with 15% inulin (T2; low fat with 30% inulin (T3; low fat with 7.5% inulin and 7.5% pectin (T4; and low fat with 15% inulin and 15% pectin (T5. The addition of fibers increased the yield (T3 and T5; 98.96%, and the color parameters were slightly reduced (T3. Moisture (61.14% and ashes (6.96% of sausages with inulin and pectin were higher (T5, while shear force, hardness, fracturability, gumminess, and chewiness (T3 and T5 were slightly lower than those of the control. The addition of inulin (T2 increased the sensory acceptance of the sausages (5.75. Fat can be replaced with inulin and pectin in frankfurter sausages to produce healthy and functional products.

  1. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  2. Consumer behaviour and attitudes towards low-calorie products in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, D J

    1999-01-01

    A number of observations and conclusions can be made based on the data we have just seen: (1) There are large differences across the countries in terms of penetration of 'light' products. (2) The penetration of low-fat products is higher than that of low-sugar products. (3) Penetration of both low fat and low sugar products is higher among women than among men. (4) Penetration of both low-fat and low-sugar products is not dependent on age. (5) Consumption relates to penetration. (6) Consumer concerns about fat are greater than about sugar. (7) Consumer concerns about fat are at approximately the same level across Europe. (8) Concern about fat and sugar seems to increase with age. (9) Overweight is a problem for a third of the population across Europe. (10) Overweight is higher among men than among women. (11) Overweight increases with age.

  3. Health claims as communication tools that enhance brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2011-01-01

    strategy. Brands carrying a health claim are thus expected to have an advantage over their counterparts. In this study, we aim to investigate whether health claims, with emphasis on the low-fat claims, can act as a means to improve the performance of brands and further enhance their loyalty levels. Based......: a) fat content; b) enrichment; and c) way of processing. Then, the Dirichlet model's fit to the empirical data is examined, leading to the theoretical estimation of loyalty measures. Findings suggest that, on average, brands with a low-fat claim perform better in the market compared with their high......-fat counterparts. Moreover, in comparison with other health-related attributes the fat content attribute exhibits slightly higher loyalty, signifying the importance of the "low-fat" claim as a means of communication....

  4. Food effects on abiraterone pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kim N; Spratlin, Jennifer; Kollmannsberger, Christian; North, Scott; Pankras, Catherine; Gonzalez, Martha; Bernard, Apexa; Stieltjes, Hans; Peng, Lixian; Jiao, James; Acharya, Milin; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas W; Yu, Margaret K; Chien, Caly; Tran, Nam Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Food effect on abiraterone pharmacokinetics and safety on abiraterone acetate coadministration with low-fat or high-fat meals was examined in healthy subjects and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Healthy subjects (n = 36) were randomized to abiraterone acetate (single dose, 1000 mg) + low-fat meal, + high-fat meal, and fasted state. mCRPC patients received repeated doses (abiraterone acetate 1000 mg + 5 mg prednisone twice daily; days 1-7) in a modified fasting state followed by abiraterone acetate plus prednisone within 0.5 hours post-low-fat (n = 6) or high-fat meal (n = 18; days 8-14). In healthy subjects, geometric mean (GM) abiraterone area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased ∼5- and ∼10-fold, respectively, with low-fat and high-fat meals versus fasted state (GM [coefficient of variation], 1942 [48] and 4077 [37] ng · h/mL vs 421 [67] ng · h/mL, respectively). In mCRPC patients, abiraterone AUC was ∼2-fold higher with a high-fat meal and similar with a low-fat meal versus modified fasting state (GM [coefficient of variation]: 1992 [34] vs 973 [58] ng · h/mL and 1264 [65] vs 1185 [90] ng · h/mL, respectively). Adverse events (all grade ≤ 3) were similar, with high-fat/low-fat meals or fasted/modified fasting state. Short-term dosing with food did not alter abiraterone acetate safety.

  5. Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression by 9-cis-β-Carotene Rich Alga Dunaliella in apoE-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Harari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Aims. The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice. Methods. In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old were allocated into 3 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%; (3 low-fat diet + β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3 high fat-diet; (4 high-fat diet + Dunaliella. Results. In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

  6. Supervised preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in illegal immigrants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteelli, A; Casalini, C; Raviglione, M C; El-Hamad, I; Scolari, C; Bombana, E; Bugiani, M; Caputo, M; Scarcella, C; Carosi, G

    2000-11-01

    In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study of isoniazid-preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis infection, illegal immigrants from countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic were enrolled at two clinical sites in Northern Italy. Of 208 eligible subjects, 82 received supervised IPT at a dose of 900 mg twice weekly for 6 mo (Regimen A), 73 received unsupervised IPT 900 mg twice weekly for 6 mo (Regimen B), and 53 received unsupervised IPT 300 mg daily for 6 mo (Regimen C). Supervised IPT was delivered at either one tuberculosis clinic or one migrant clinic. The probability of completing a 26-wk regimen was 7, 26, and 41% in Regimens A, B, and C, respectively (p illegal immigrants was low. Supervised, clinic-based administration of IPT significantly reduced adherence. Alternative strategies to implement preventive therapy in illegal immigrants are clearly required.

  7. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  8. AKUMULASI LIPID HATI DAN PROFIL LIPID DARAH TIKUS Sprague Dawley YANG DIINTERVENSI MINYAK SUPER OLEIN DAN OLEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Naufal Muharam Nurdin; Rimbawan Rimbawan; Sri Anna Marliyati; Drajat Martianto; Mawar Subangkit

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to analyze the effect of olein and super olein palm oil on blood lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride) and fatty liver condition of Sprague Dawley rats. The design used was pre and post test with control group design. The intervention run for 8 weeks using 20 rats which were divided into four treatments i.e: (1) standard-low fat feed and water (negative control/KN), (2) standard-low fat feed and dried e...

  9. Weight status and depression: moderating role of fat talk between female friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Chow, Chong Man

    2014-10-01

    This study examined whether engagement in fat talk would moderate the association between weight status (body mass index) and depression between female friends. Individuals' body mass index was significantly related to their own (actor effect) and friend's (partner effect) depression. For low-fat-talk friends, higher actor's body mass index was associated with higher actor's depression, but not for high-fat-talk friends. For high-fat-talk friends, higher actor's body mass index was associated with higher partner's depression, but not for low-fat-talk friends. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. The effect of β-sitosterol on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in rats on a diet containing coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, T.; Shorland, F. B.; Dunckley, G. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Intraperitoneal injection of β-sitosterol (5mg./rat/day for 25 days) into 1-year-old male Wistar rats fed on a low-fat diet supplemented with 10% of coconut oil resulted in a lowering of cholesterol and lipid concentrations in the tissues. 2. β-Sitosterol increased the rate of biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids in the tissues, but to an even greater extent enhanced their oxidative degradation. 3. The present results are similar to those previously obtained on a low-fat diet, indicating that the presence of fat had no marked effect on the action of β-sitosterol. PMID:5891218

  11. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  12. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS IN RELATION TO SIZE OF WEANED LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was an evaluation of carcass slaughter value of fi rst farrowing gilts depending on the number of weaned piglets. The number of born and weaned piglets did not have a negative infl uence on gilt’s slaughter value. Carcasses of fi rst farrowing gilts characterised with a low fatness, large loin eye area and high lean content. Results of ham dissection of first farrowing gilts point high usefulness of this material to long maturing hams production in a view of the fact they have required weight, appropriate lean content and low fatness.

  13. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bugel, S.

    2008-01-01

    chemoattractant protein-1 were found between the lignan complex intervention period and placebo period. Conclusion: Daily consumption for 6 week of a low-fat muffin enriched with a lignan complex may reduce CRP concentrations compared to a low-fat muffin with no lignans added....... the lignan complex intervention period compared with 0.80 (0.62, 1.62) mg/L at baseline and 1.10 (0.72, 1.62) mg/L after placebo. No significant differences in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble intracellular adhesion motecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte...

  14. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...

  15. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  16. Changed mitochondrial function by pre- and/or postpartum diet alterations in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Wenche; Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin; Andersen, Jesper Løvind

    2009-01-01

    ) for the first 6 mo of life. We examined mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fibers from the lambs at 6 mo of age (adolescence) and after 24 mo of age (adulthood). The postpartum H diet for the lambs induced an approximately 30% increase (P VO(2max) and an approximately 50...... programming) became evident as a lower VO(2max) (approximately 40%, P ... rich in type I fibers was more susceptible to fetal programming. We conclude that fetal programming, seen as a reduced VO(2max) in adulthood, results from gestational undernutrition. Postnatal high-fat diet results in a pronounced RCR and VO(2max) increase in adolescence. However, these effects...

  17. 木工刨刀的选材和热处理工艺分析%Material Choice and Heat Treatment Process Analysis for Wood-working Planning Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐年富

    2011-01-01

    根据刨刀的工作特点,选择W6Mo5Cr4V2高速钢作为刨刀材料,并进行合理的热处理,大大提高了其使用性能,延长了寿命.%According to the working characters of planning tool, W6Mo5Cr4V2 high speed steel was chosen as the material of planning tool and the rational heat treatment was made so as to improve the operating performance and prolong the worklife.

  18. High-fibre diet and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Lahner; Gianluca Esposito; Angelo Zullo; Cesare Hassan; Claudio Cannaviello; Maria Carla Di Paolo; Lorella Pallotta

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO investigate in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease the efficacy of symbiotics associated with a high-fibre diet on abdominal symptoms.METHODS:This study was a multicentre,6-mo randomized,controlled,parallel-group intervention with a preceding 4-wk washout period.Consecutive outpatients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease,aged 40-80 years,evaluated in 4 Gastroenterology Units,were enrolled.Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease patients were randomized to two treatment arms A or B.Treatment A (n =24 patients)received 1 symbiotic sachet Flortec(c) (Lactobacillus paracasei B21060) once daily plus high-fibre diet for 6 mo.Treatment B (n =21 patients) received high-fibre diet alone for 6 mo.The primary endpoint was regression of abdominal symptoms and change of symptom severity after 3 and 6 mo of treatment.RESULTS:In group A,the proportion of patients with abdominal pain < 24 h decreased from 100% at baseline to 35% and 25% after 3 and 6 mo,respectively (P< 0.001).In group B the proportion of patients with this symptom decreased from 90.5% at baseline to 61.9% and 38.1% after 3 and 6 mo,respectively (P =0.001).Symptom improvement became statistically significant at 3 and 6 mo in group A and B,respectively.The proportion of patients with abdominal pain >24h decreased from 60% to 20% then 5% after 3 and 6 mo,respectively in group A (P < 0.001) and from 33.3% to 9.5% at both 3 and 6 mo in group B (P =0.03).In group A the proportion of patients with abdominal bloating significantly decreased from 95% to 60% after 3 mo,and remained stable (65%) at 6-mo follow-up (P =0.005) while in group B,no significant changes in abdominal bloating was observed (P =0.11).After 6 mo of treatment,the mean visual analogic scale (VAS) values of both short-lasting abdominal pain (VAS,mean ± SD,group A:4.6 ± 2.1 vs 2.2 ± 0.8,P =0.02;group B:4.6±2.9 vs 2.0 ± 1.9,P =0.03) and abdominal bloating (VAS,mean ± SD

  19. 10 Tips for Parents: How to Get Kids to Eat More Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers 10 suggestions to help parents encourage their children to eat more complex carbohydrates. Suggestions include microwaving baked potatoes; baking whole-grain breads; snacking on gingersnaps, fig bars, pretzels, or vegetable sticks; mixing cereal into low-fat yogurt; and making soup containing beans, rice, pasta, or potatoes. (SM)

  20. The effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of flavor and texture attributes of semi-solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effect of oral and product temperature on the perception of texture and flavor attributes. A trained panel assessed 21 texture and flavor attributes in one high-fat and one low-fat product of two semi-solids: custard dessert and mayonnaise. The products were evaluated at 10,

  1. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother–child study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria

    2014-01-01

    and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders...

  2. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  3. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  4. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    2001-01-01

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat, d

  5. Stop the Cravings!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cravings. Yearn for potato chips? Buy a brand that's low-fat or fat-free. Desire something crunchy? Skip the chips: try fruit or a salad packed with crisp greens and veggies. Want something sweet? How about baking an apple or even roasting some veggies? Roasting brings out ...

  6. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brader, L; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2013-01-01

    beneficial effects on ambulatory BP in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).Subjects/methods:In total, 37 subjects were randomized to either a healthy Nordic diet or a control diet. A healthy Nordic diet embraced whole grains, rapeseed oil, berries, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and low-fat dairy...

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, R A; Lee, J H; Truby, H; Palermo, C E; Walker, K Z

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health priority in developed countries and worldwide, and is strongly associated with increased risk and progression of cardiovascular and renal diseases. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the association between dairy food intake during adulthood and the development of elevated blood pressure (EBP), specifically comparing the association of EBP with consumption of low-fat dairy foods versus high-fat dairy foods, as well as cheese versus fluid dairy foods (milk or yogurt). Seven databases were searched and five cohort studies selected for inclusion, involving nearly 45,000 subjects and 11,500 cases of EBP. Meta-analysis of consumption of dairy foods and EBP in adults gave a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.94). Separation of high- and low-fat dairy foods, however, indicated a significant association with low-fat dairy foods only (RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.95)). Additional analyses showed no association between EBP and cheese, although fluid dairy foods were significantly associated with a reduced development in EBP (RR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98)). Little heterogeneity was observed among the data presented. This meta-analysis supports the inverse association between low-fat dairy foods and fluid dairy foods and risk of EBP. Understanding these relationships can aid in the development of public health messages involving dairy foods, and supports current recommendations.

  8. Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer.

  9. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: III. Effects on long-term reproductive and lactation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the prepubertal growth phase, 33 Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d old) were used in a 24-week randomized complete block design. Treatments included: 1) a control diet (CON) containing ground corn (15.9% of DM) and soybean products (17.9%); 2) a low-fat diet (LFDG) formulated with 21.9% fat-extrac...

  10. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in com...

  11. Protein and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of food? Drink an 8-ounce glass of milk, and you’ll log 8 grams of protein. Add a cup of yogurt for another 11 ... low-fat options, such as lean meats, skim milk or other foods with high levels of protein. Legumes, for example, can pack about 16 grams ...

  12. Association of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic pigs - Effects of metformin at isoenergetic feeding in a type 2-like diabetic pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Mroz, Z.; Dekker, R.A.; Corbijn, H.; Ackermans, M.; Sauerwein, H.

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)¿treated diabetic pigs to explore if the STZ-diabetic pig can be a suitable model for insulin-resistant, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pigs (40 kg) were meal-fed with a low-fat (5%) diet. Hyperinsulinemic (1, 2, and 8 mU kg¿1 mi

  13. Effects of diet history on energy metabolism and physiological parameters in C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; Keijer, J.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Snaas-Alders, S.H.; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, M.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding body weight regulation is essential to fight obesity. Mouse studies, using different types of diets, showed conflicting results in terms of body weight persistence after changing from an ad libitum high-fat diet to an ad libitum low-fat diet. In this study, we questioned specifically w

  14. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  15. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  16. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent...

  17. Arguments for a lower carbohydrate-higher fat diet in patients with a short small bowel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Short small bowel patients suffer from malabsorption due to a strongly reduced small bowel surface. These patients usually get a high caloric high carbohydrate-low fat diet at oral or enteral feeding. At several points our studies demonstrate that the effect of this formula is doubtful. In these pat

  18. Prognostiske markører for vaegttab ved adipositasbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A V; Buemann, B; Gluud, C N;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify prognostic metabolic markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women. Forty female obese patients underwent a dietary intervention of 36 weeks treatment with a 4.2 MJ/d low-fat high carbohydrate diet and were followed-up two and a half years after...

  19. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  20. 乳化剂产品在欧美市场的应用%Application of emulsifier products in European and the US markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Emulsifier has been widely used in the European and the US food markets, undertakes the task of the valueadded additive. Many food processing can not be without emulsifier, which is used especially in low-fat,low-calorie food at which the consumers are concerned.

  1. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a variety of vitamins and minerals. Calcium and iron are two important minerals for athletes: Calcium helps build strong bones to resist breaking and stress fractures. Calcium-rich foods include low-fat dairy products like ... as broccoli. Iron helps carry oxygen to all the different body ...

  2. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, Evert M van; Keijer, Jaap; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Brom, Charissa E van den; Kohl, Thomas; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Hoebee, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet (o

  3. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Opperhuizen, A.; Brom, van den C.E.; Kohl, T.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Hoebee, B.

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet (o

  4. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  5. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  6. Fenofibrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenofibrate is used with a low-fat diet, exercise, and sometimes with other medications to reduce the amounts of fatty substances such ... fenofibrate.Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist ... or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each ...

  7. Consumption of dairy products and associations with incident diabetes, CHD and mortality in the Whitehall II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Masset, G.; Verberne, L.D.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Brunner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the effects of different types of dairy food on the risks of type 2 diabetes, CHD and mortality. We examined whether intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and fermented dairy products were related to these outcomes in the Whitehall II prosp

  8. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  9. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  10. Absence of an inhibitory effect of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats fed low- or high-fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnkels, J.M.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Alink, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The potential inhibitory effects of a vegetables-fruit mixture on the initiation and promotion phases of azoxymethane-induced colorectal carcinogenesis were examined in rats fed low- or high-fat diets. Rats were fed low-fat diets (20 energy percent, Diets A and B) or high-fat diets (40 energy percen

  11. Low carbohydrate/high-fat diet attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, remodeling, and altered gene expression in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary fat intake on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and accompanying structural and molecular remodeling in response to hypertension are not understood. The present study compared the effects of a high-fat versus a low-fat diet on development of left ventricular hype...

  12. The nutrient density approach to healthy eating: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term 'nutrient density' for foods/beverages has been used loosely to promote the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans defined 'all vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, beans and...

  13. INFLUENCE OF FAT AND MOISTURE CONTENT ON FOODS ON TRANSFER OF PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfer efficiencies (%) of eight pesticides from a Formica surface to 13 different foods were measured to estimate dietary exposure potential from contacts prior to consumption. the foods were categorized into four groups: 1) high fat, high moisture; 2) low fat, high moisture;...

  14. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and iron, you need a whole bunch of ... protein can actually harm the body, causing dehydration, calcium loss, and even kidney ... sandwich, cereal and milk, chicken noodle soup and yogurt, or pasta with ...

  15. Healthy Bones Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if needed. Sources of Calcium Food Portion Milligrams Calcium Milk Fat free 1 cup 306 1% low fat ... dee). The vitamin that helps your body use calcium. Vitamin D is often added to milk, yogurt, some cereal and orange juice, and some ...

  16. Improving Your Health: Tips for African American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can’t digest lactose (the sugar found in milk), try these foods for calcium: dark leafy vegetables like collard greens or kale “lactose-reduced” low-fat or fat-free milk, or soy beverages with added calcium and vitamin D orange juice with calcium How ...

  17. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  18. Sensory acceptability of slow fermented sausages based on fat content and ripening time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    Low fat dry fermented sausages were manufactured using controlled ripening conditions and a slow fermented process. The effect of fat content and ripening time on the chemical, colour, texture parameters and sensory acceptability was studied. The fat reduction in slow fermented sausages produced an increase in the pH decline during the first stage of the process that was favoured by the higher water content of the low fat sausages. Fat reduction did not affect the external appearance and there was an absence of defects but lower fat content resulted in lower sausage lightness. The sausage texture in low fat sausages caused an increase in chewiness and at longer ripening times, an increase in hardness. The sensory acceptability of the fermented sausages analyzed by internal preference mapping depended on the different preference patterns of consumers. A group of consumers preferred sausages with high and medium fat content and high ripening time. The second group of consumers preferred sausages with low ripening time regardless of fat content except for the appearance, for which these consumers preferred sausages of high ripening time. Finally, the limit to produce high acceptability low fat fermented sausages was 16% fat content in the raw mixture that is half the usual content of dry fermented sausages.

  19. Gout Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Low-fat yogurt 1 cup fresh melon Caffeine-free beverage, such as herbal tea Following a gout diet can help limit uric acid production and increase its elimination. Although the diet isn't likely to lower the uric acid concentration in your blood enough to treat your gout ...

  20. Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia and augments the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Wong, Olivia; Synnott, Emma-Leigh;

    2011-01-01

    glutamine, with or without sitagliptin (SIT), on postprandial glycemia and GLP-1 concentration in 15 type 2 diabetes patients (glycated hemoglobin 6.5 ± 0.6%). Participants ingested a low-fat meal (5% fat) after receiving either water (control), 30 g l-glutamine (Gln-30), 15 g L-glutamine (Gln-15), 100 mg...

  1. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  2. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    : Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. CONCLUSIONS: Wine buyers...

  3. The Effect of Reduced Dietary Fat and Soy Supplementation on Circulating Adipocytokines in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled 2-Month Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, Malini; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Kim, Lila; Wu, Anna H

    2016-01-01

    The reduced risk of breast cancer observed in Asia has been linked with diets rich in soy foods, and observational studies suggest that regular soy food intake is related to lower circulating levels of some inflammatory markers which have been implicated in breast cancer risk. However, short-term intervention studies with soy-based diets in small numbers of women have shown few significant changes in adipocytokine levels. This 8-wk dietary intervention study in 57 healthy postmenopausal women investigated whether soy food supplementation (50 mg isoflavones or 15 g soy protein in the form of tofu) or a very low-fat diet (11.3% of total energy), similar to the traditional Asian diet, is associated with beneficial effects on serum levels of the following adipocytokines: TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, and resistin. We found no statistically significant changes in the levels of these adipocytokines in association with the very low-fat diet or soy supplementation. Only the change in TNF-α levels between the very low-fat and control diet groups had borderline statistical significance. We conclude that ingestion of a very low-fat diet or a soy food supplemented diet for 8 wk does not significantly alter important circulating adipocytokines.

  4. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; de Groot, Erik; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of brain function in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: We studied MNDs in 122 children (93 males, 29 females; mean age 8y 1mo, SD 2y 6mo) who, among a total cohort of 705 children (513 males, 192 females; mean age…

  6. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; De Groot, Erik; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of brain function in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method We studied MNDs in 122 children (93 males, 29 females; mean age 8y 1mo, SD 2y 6mo) who, among a total cohort of 7

  7. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  8. Effect of Duration of Breastfeeding on Neuropsychological Development at 10 to 12 Years of Age in a Cohort of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Tarantino, Vincenza; Chiarotti, Flavia; D'elia, Lidia; De Mei, Barbara; Romano, Mariateresa; Gesualdo, Francesco; Salmaso, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to explore the effect of duration of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development. Method: The long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopment was examined through a battery of neuropsychological tests in 1403 children (693 females, 710 males; mean age 11y 9mo [SD 6mo], range: 10y 3mo-12y 8mo) who were…

  9. Coordination of lanthanide cation to an Anderson type polyoxometalate anion leads to isomorphous metal-oxide based one-dimensional inorganic solids: Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Tanmay Chatterjee; Samar K Das

    2014-09-01

    One-dimensional isomorphous inorganic polymers containing Anderson type heteropoly anion as a basic building unit, namely [La(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (1), [Gd(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (2), [Gd(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (3), and [Eu(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (4) have been synthesized and studied by the powdered X-ray diffraction, TGA, IR, electronic and ESR spectroscopy, and unambiguously by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Isomorphous compounds 1-4 are crystallized in orthorhombic system with 21 space group. The crystal structure analysis reveals a one-dimensional extended chain in which the Anderson type heteropolyanion, acting as the building unit, is linked by rare earth metal ions in a zig-zag fashion. In the crystal structure, all types of oxygens of the heteropolyanion, lattice waters, lanthanum coordinated waters are extensively involved in O—H…O hydrogen bonding interactions. Compounds are additionally characterized by UV-visible and ESR spectroscopy.

  10. SwissProt search result: AK072861 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072861 J023141H24 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  11. SwissProt search result: AK100766 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100766 J023119K20 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  12. SwissProt search result: AK070240 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070240 J023047K04 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  13. SwissProt search result: AK240911 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240911 J065037E05 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  14. SwissProt search result: AK065400 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065400 J013020I02 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  15. SwissProt search result: AK102040 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102040 J033081G24 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  16. SwissProt search result: AK072588 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072588 J023132G16 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  17. SwissProt search result: AK071864 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071864 J023124B03 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  18. SwissProt search result: AK103336 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103336 J033126A02 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  19. SwissProt search result: AK241300 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241300 J065139M14 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  20. SwissProt search result: AK099637 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099637 J013059L23 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  1. SwissProt search result: AK243298 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243298 J100053J04 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  2. SwissProt search result: AK065689 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065689 J013039G17 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  3. SwissProt search result: AK100633 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100633 J023109P12 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  4. SwissProt search result: AK120213 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120213 J013039G14 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  5. SwissProt search result: AK100163 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100163 J023021D15 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  6. SwissProt search result: AK100964 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100964 J023142C08 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  7. SwissProt search result: AK100987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100987 J023145F09 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  8. SwissProt search result: AK068907 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068907 J023002L07 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  9. SwissProt search result: AK070050 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070050 J023040I08 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  10. SwissProt search result: AK067591 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067591 J013112H19 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  11. SwissProt search result: AK243342 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243342 J100059N12 (P11712) Cytochrome P450 2C9 (EC 1.14.13.80) ((R)-limonene 6-mo...nooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.48) ((S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase) (EC 1.14.13.49) ((S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase) (

  12. Insulin and growth hormone in lean and obese pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Martin, R J; Gahagan, J H

    1977-08-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and growth hormone (GH) were determined in fasted lean and genetically obese pigs at 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Rate of glucose clearance and plasma IRI and GH response in provocative stimulation were also measured. Fasting glucose was similar in lean and obese pigs, whereas glucose clearance rate was more rapid in lean pigs. Obese pigs were not hyperinsulinemic but had lower plasma GH than lean pigs. At 1 mo of age, both lean and obese pigs had higher plasma IRI and GH as compared to 3 and 6 mo. Glucose infusion produced increases in plasma IRI at 1, 3, and 6 mo, respectively, with the greatest increases at 6 mo. Plasma IRI peaked at the same level in both pig types at a given age; but due to a more prolonged response in obese pigs, the overall IRI response to glucose infusion was greater in obese pigs. Arginine infusion caused much smaller IRI responses than glucose, but the response of obese pigs was significantly greater than that of lean pigs. Both provocative stimuli caused increases in plasma GH. The GH response to glucose infusion in obese pigs was considerably less than in lean pigs. These observations suggest mild insulin insensitivity and a reduced GH secretory potential in the obese as compared to lean pigs.

  13. Autoimmune Diseases in Parents of Children with Infantile Autism: A Case--Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Nedergaard, Niels Jorgen

    2007-01-01

    This register study compared the rates and types of autoimmune disease in the parents of 111 patients (82 males, 29 females; mean age at diagnosis 5y 5mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with infantile autism (IA) with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All parents were screened through the nationwide Danish National…

  14. Gastric malpositioning and chronic, intermittent vomiting following prophylactic gastropexy in a 20-month-old great Dane dog

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Jessie S.; Steffey, Michele A.; Bonadio, Cecily M.; Marks, Stanley L

    2015-01-01

    A 20-month-old castrated male great Dane dog was presented for evaluation of chronic intermittent vomiting of 2 months’ duration. A prophylactic incisional gastropexy performed at 6 mo of age resulted in gastric malpositioning and subsequent partial gastric outflow tract obstruction.

  15. Differential effects of chronic overload-induced muscle hypertrophy on mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in adult and aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in adult (Y; 6 mo old; n = 16) and aged (O; 30 mo old; n = 16) male rats (Fischer 344 x Brown Norway) subjected to chronic overload-induced muscle hypertrophy of the plan...

  16. Chronic overload induced hypertrophy is associated with age-related muscle mass loss and diminished mTOR signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in young and aging rats in response to chronic muscle overload. Young (6 mo; n = 16) and older (30 mo; n = 23) male rats (F344xBN) were subjected to 4 weeks of bilateral surgical ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gastr...

  17. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  18. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  19. On the coexistence of copper-molybdenum bronzes: CuxMoO3 (0.2 < x < 0.25; typically x = 0.23) and CuyMoO3-z (0.1 < y < 0.2; typically y = 0.15) in the Cu-MoO2-O quasi-ternary system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2010-01-01

    Two copper-molybdenum bronzes: CuyMoO3-z (0.1... yields: Cu6Mo5O18, Cu and MoO2. A tentative subsolidus Cu-MoO2-O isothermal (= 25 C) phase diagram under argon is drawn from these data. Oxidation states of Cu and Mo within this system are discussed....

  20. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownmiller, C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (ORAC(FL)) were determined postprocessing after 1 d, and 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins (28% to 59%) and ORAC(FL) values (43% to 71%) in all products, with the greatest losses occurring in clarified juices and the least in nonclarified juices. Storage at 25 degrees C for 6 mo resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins, ranging from 62% in berries CW to 85% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. The ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Methods are needed to retain anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries.

  1. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10129-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in-like 1, mR... 80 1e-13 AF196309_1( AF196309 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleriapore B ... 80 1e-13 (Q6...mo sapiens prosaposin-like 1, mR... 79 3e-13 AF196308_1( AF196308 |pid:none) Naegleria fowleri naegleria

  3. Long-term effect of wholemeal bread on stool weight, transit time, fecal bile acids, fats, and neutral sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, M A; Elton, R A; Smith, J H

    1986-03-01

    Stool weight, fecal constituents, bile acids, fat, neutral sterols, and intestinal transit time were recorded in 28 subjects over 18 mo. During the first 12 mo the subjects ate white bread. They were studied for an initial period of 7 days, and after 6 mo (study period 1). For the first 6 mo they ate their usual intake of bread, they then increased their white bread intake by 62 g/day for 6 mo (study period 2). The subjects ate a self-selected diet throughout the 18 mo study. During the last 6 mo (study period 3) the subjects replaced white bread by the same amount of wholemeal bread as in study period 2. No increase in stool weight occurred until study period 3 when there was an increase of 20%. There developed a linear relationship between stool weight and intestinal transit time which was not found during the initial first and second study periods. A seasonal influence on serum cholesterol was not observed during the wholemeal bread period. Fecal bile acid excretion was unchanged throughout the experiment.

  4. Use of the GMFCS in infants with CP : the need for reclassification at age 2 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Rosenbaum, Peter; Helders, Paul J. M.; Palisano, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) over time is described in 77 infants (41 boys, 36 girls) with cerebral palsy (CP; mean age 19.4mo [SD 1.6 mo]; 27 unilateral spastic, 42 bilateral spastic, eight dyskinetic type) and in the same children at follow-up at age 2 to

  5. Lifestyle, participation, and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Berg-Emons, van den R.J.; Meeteren, van J.; Stam, H.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe participation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to explore their relationships with lifestyle-related factors. Fifty-one individuals with a mean age of 21 years 1 month (SD 4y 6mo) years participated (26

  6. Effect of a Mediterranean diet on endothelial progenitor cells and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes: Follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Gicchino, Maurizio; Caputo, Mariangela; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Background We assessed the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet on circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design This was a parallel, two-arm, single-centre trial. Methods Two hundred and fifteen men and women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were randomized to a Mediterranean diet ( n = 108) or a low-fat diet ( n = 107). The primary outcome measures were changes in the EPC count and the CIMT of the common carotid artery after the treatment period defined as the end of trial (EOT). Results At the EOT, both the CD34(+)KDR(+) and CD34(+)KDR(+)CD133(+) counts had increased with the Mediterranean diet compared with the low-fat diet ( p Mediterranean diet. Compared with the low-fat diet, the rate of regression in the CIMT was higher in the Mediterranean diet group (51 vs. 26%), whereas the rate of progression was lower (25 vs. 50%) ( p = 0.032 for both). Changes in the CIMT were inversely correlated with the changes in EPC levels (CD34(+)KDR(+), r = -0.24, p = 0.020; CD34(+)KDR(+)CD133(+), r = -0.28, p = 0.014). At the EOT, changes in levels of HbA1c, HOMA, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater with the Mediterranean diet than with the low-fat diet. Conclusion Compared with a low-fat diet, a long-term trial with Mediterranean diet was associated with an increase in circulating EPCs levels and prevention of the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  7. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactis single-strain starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J R; Brighton, C; McMahon, D J; Farkye, N Y; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-07-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese microenvironment in ways that may affect growth and enzymatic activity of starter or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Additionally, manufacture of low-fat cheeses often involves changes to processing protocols that may substantially alter cheese redox potential, salt-in-moisture content, acid content, water activity, or pH. However, the consequences of these changes on microbial ecology and metabolism remain obscure. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fat content on population dynamics of starter bacteria and NSLAB over 9 mo of aging. Duplicate vats of full fat, 50% reduced-fat, and low-fat (containing cheeses were manufactured at 3 different locations with a single-strain Lactococcus lactis starter culture using standardized procedures. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and sampled periodically for microbiological attributes. Microbiological counts indicated that initial populations of nonstarter bacteria were much lower in full-fat compared with low-fat cheeses made at all 3 sites, and starter viability also declined at a more rapid rate during ripening in full-fat compared with 50% reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of cheese bacteria showed that the NSLAB fraction of all cheeses was dominated by Lactobacillus curvatus, but a few other species of bacteria were sporadically detected. Thus, changes in fat level were correlated with populations of different bacteria, but did not appear to alter the

  8. The effects of the mediterranean diet on biomarkers of vascular wall inflammation and plaque vulnerability in subjects with high risk for cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Casas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. However, how the MD exerts its effects is not fully known. AIM: To assess the 12-month effects of two enhanced MDs compared to a low-fat diet on inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability in a subcohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study. METHODS: A total of 164 participants at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized into three diet groups: MD supplemented with 50mL/d of extra virgin olive oil (MD+EVOO or 30 g/d of nuts (MD+Nuts and a low-fat diet. Changes in classical cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability were measured after 12 months of intervention. RESULTS: Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, those receiving MD+EVOO and MD+Nuts showed a higher decrease in systolic (6mmHg and diastolic (3mmHg blood pressure (P = 0.02; both, as well as a reduction of 10% and 8% in LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.04, respectively. Patients in the MD+Nuts group showed a significant reduction of 34% in CD40 expression on monocyte surface compared to low-fat diet patients (P = 0.03. In addition, inflammatory biomarkers related to plaque instability such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were reduced by 45% and 35% and 95% and 90% in the MD+EVOO and MD+Nuts groups, respectively (P<0.05; all compared to the low-fat diet group. Likewise, sICAM and P-selectin were also reduced by 50% and 27%, respectively in the MD+EVOO group (P = 0.04 and P-selectin by 19% in MD+Nuts group (P = 0.04 compared to the low-fat diet group. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the MD is associated with an increase in serum markers of atheroma plaque stability which may explain, at least in part, the protective role of MD against ischemic heart disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN

  9. Following the World Health Organization’s Recommendation of Exclusive Breastfeeding to 6 Months of Age Does Not Impact the Growth of Rural Gambian Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Johnson, William; Sonko, Bakary; Prentice, Andrew M; Darboe, Momodou K; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 mo of life. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the benefit of EBF to age 6 mo on growth in a large sample of rural Gambian infants at high risk of undernutrition. Methods: Infants with growth monitoring from birth to 2 y of age (n = 756) from the ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development) trial were categorized as exclusively breastfed if only breast milk and no other liquids or foods were given. EBF status was entered into confounder-adjusted multilevel models to test associations with growth trajectories by using >11,000 weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) z score observations. Results: Thirty-two percent of infants were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo. The mean age of discontinuation of EBF was 5.2 mo, and growth faltering started at ∼3.5 mo of age. Some evidence for a difference in WAZ and WHZ was found between infants who were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo (EBF-6) and those who were not (nEBF-6), at 6 and 12 mo of age, with EBF-6 children having a higher mean z score. The differences in z scores between the 2 groups were small in magnitude (at 6 mo of age: 0.147 WAZ; 95% CI: −0.001, 0.293 WAZ; 0.189 WHZ; 95% CI: 0.038, 0.341 WHZ). No evidence for a difference between EBF-6 and nEBF-6 infants was observed for LAZ at any time point (6, 12, and 24 mo of age). Furthermore, a higher mean WLZ at 3 mo of age was associated with a subsequent higher mean age at discontinuation of EBF, which implied reverse causality in this setting (coefficient: 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008, 0.120). Conclusion: This study suggests that EBF to age 6 mo has limited benefit to the growth of rural Gambian infants. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN49285450. PMID:28003540

  10. Multi-criteria and econometric evaluation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the multi-criteria assessment of four dairy products: “Pomursko mlejko” (Pomurje milk, “Lejko mleko” (light milk, “Fyto mleko” (Fyto milk and “Posneto mleko v prahu” (dried milk. The research was executed by using a multi-criteria methodology, DEX, which was complemented by an econometric analysis for light milk to estimate the trends in production and consumption before analyzed dairy products were implemented on the market. DEXi computer program results indicated that all analyzed milk products were ‘above average’. The econometric model was applied to examine changes in the demand for low-fat milk (light milk. Empirical results showed significant consumer re¬sponse to the increase in the prices of low-fat milk demonstrating income elasticity (1,15 unit.

  11. The moderating effect of physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity following single fat feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Bartholomew, John B

    2012-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of consuming a high-fat meal on cardiovascular reactivity and the ability of exercise to act as a moderator between dietary fat consumption and cardiovascular reactivity. Forty healthy, college-age students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: (1) low-fat meal, no exercise; (2) low-fat meal, postprandial exercise; (3) high-fat meal, no exercise; and (4) high-fat meal, postprandial exercise. To induce stress, all participants performed a public speaking task, while heart rate and blood pressure reactivity were measured. Multilevel analyses revealed that consuming a high-fat meal led to heightened mean arterial pressure reactivity. Acute high-intensity exercise resulted in attenuated heart rate and mean arterial pressure reactivity. The results of this study offer insight into how diet and exercise may influence cardiovascular reactivity, which is a key determinant of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Konjac gel as pork backfat replacer in dry fermented sausages: processing and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Herrero, A M; Rodriguez-Salas, L; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2012-10-01

    The effect of replacing animal fat (0%, 50% and 80% of pork backfat) by an equal proportion of konjac gel, on processing and quality characteristics of reduced and low-fat dry fermented sausage was studied. Weight loss, pH, and water activity of the sausage were affected (Pfat reduction and processing time. Low lipid oxidation levels were observed during processing time irrespective of the dry sausage formulation. The fat content for normal-fat (NF), reduced-fat (RF) and low-fat (LF) sausages was 29.96%, 19.69% and 13.79%, respectively. This means an energy reduction of about 14.8% for RF and 24.5% for LF. As the fat content decreases there is an increase (P0.05) in the presence of microorganisms as a result of the reformulation. The sensory panel considered that NF and RF products had acceptable sensory characteristics.

  13. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  14. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  15. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  16. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  17. Protein matrix involved in the lipid retention of foie gras during cooking: a multimodal hyperspectral imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, Laëtitia; Vénien, Annie; Jamme, Frédéric; Fernandez, Xavier; Peyrin, Frédéric; Molette, Caroline; Dumas, Paul; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Astruc, Thierry

    2014-06-25

    Denaturation of the protein matrix during heat treatment of duck foie gras was studied in relationship to the amount of fat loss during cooking. A low fat loss group was compared with a high fat loss group by histochemistry, FT-IR, and synchrotron UV microspectroscopy combination to characterize their protein matrix at different scales. After cooking, the high fat loss group showed higher densification of its matrix, higher ultraviolet tyrosine autofluorescence, and an infrared shift of the amide I band. These results revealed a higher level of protein denaturation and aggregation during cooking in high fat loss than in low fat loss foie gras. In addition, the fluorescence and infrared responses of the raw tissue revealed differences according to the level of fat losses after cooking. These findings highlight the importance of the supramolecular state of the protein matrix in determining the fat loss of foie gras.

  18. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets.

  19. A healthy Nordic diet alters the plasma lipidomic profile in adults with features of metabolic syndrome in a multicenter randomized dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula S; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known. Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome....... Methods: Men and women (n = 200) with features of metabolic syndrome [mean age: 55 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 31.6] were randomly assigned to either a healthy Nordic (n = 104) or a control (n = 96) diet for 18 or 24 wk at 6 centers. Of the participants, 156 completed the study with plasma lipidomic...... measurements. The healthy Nordic diet consisted of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, berries, vegetable oils and margarines, fish, low-fat milk products, and low-fat meat. An average Nordic diet served as the control diet and included low-fiber cereal products, dairy fat-based spreads, regular-fatmilk products...

  20. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  1. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (psausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss.

  2. Adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen prevents obesity-induced hypertension in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gupte, Manisha; Putnam, Kelly; Thatcher, Sean; Charnigo, Richard; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low-fat or high-fat feeding in Agt(fl/fl) and adipocyte angiotensinogen-deficient mice (Agt(aP2)). Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. Basal 24-hour systolic blood pressure was not different in low fat-fed Agt(fl/fl) compared with Agt(aP2) mice (124 ± 3 versus 128 ± 3 mm Hg, respectively). In Agt(fl/fl) mice, high-fat feeding significantly increased systolic blood pressure (24 hours; 134 ± 2 mm Hg; Pobesity hypertension.

  3. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies, low-fat dairy products (8 studies, cheese (7 studies and yogurt (7 studies and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97 and 0.88 (0.84-0.93 for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93 and 0.91 (0.82-1.00 for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. CONCLUSION: A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.

  4. The obese Göttingen minipig as a model of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to induce obesity in the female Göttingen minipig to establish a model of the human metabolic syndrome. Nine- to ten-month-old female Göttingen minipigs received a high-fat high-energy (HFE) diet or a low-fat, low-energy (LFE) diet. The energy contents...... of the metabolic impairments seen in obese humans, and may thus serve as a model of the metabolic syndrome....

  5. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employes

    OpenAIRE

    Shawna eDoerksen; Edward eMcAuley

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and ...

  6. Chylous ascytes secondary to acute pancreatitis: a case report and review of literature Ascitis quilosa secundaria a pancreatitis: caso clínico y revisión de la bibliografía

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chylous ascites is an uncommon finding which is due to the presence of thoracic or intestinal lymph in the abdominal cavity. It is usually caused by a chronic disruption of the lymphatic system. The present report is one of the rare cases in the literature of chylous ascites secondary to idiopathic acute pancreatitis, which showed a complete resolution with a combination of low fat enteral nutrition with MCT and somatostatin analogs.La ascitis quilosa es un hallazgo infrecuente producido por ...

  7. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A and 1,0% fat (B. Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus and without rennet addition. After milk coagulation (about 7-9 hours, the curd was gently cut and drained overnight. Produced of skim milk cheese samples (A had approximately 23.4% total solids, 1.8% fat in total solids and yield about 24.5% (w/v, while the low fat cheese samples (B had 26.2% total solids, 16.2% fat in total solids and yield about 27.3% (w/v. The skim milk cheeses (A had higher protein and mineral matter content compared to low fat cheeses (B. All samples of probiotic fresh cheese were a like to traditional fresh cheese according to general appearance and consistency. However, they had slightly lower aroma and acidity, expecially skim milk cheese samples (A. Better sensory properties had low fat cheesesamples (B during total time of storage (14 days. Acceptability of probiotic fresh cheese was evalueted by hedonic scale from 63 consumers. Statistic shows that all samples were 100% desirable, but average score for skim milk cheese (A was some lower (x = 7.33 than average score (x = 8.11 for low fat cheese (B. Variance analysis also shows that there is significantly important difference (p= 0,05 between analysed fresh cheese samples

  8. RADIATION STERILIZATION OF COCOA POWDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    treatment on chocolate coatings, cocoa , and chocolate syrup. In all experimentation with gamma radiation, FLAVOR is the critical problem. At dosage...products of high fat content usually show marked changes in flavor. For example: cocoas , milk and bittersweet coatings, and cocoa utter. Inversely, no...off-flavors were detectable in chocolate syrups which have a low fat content. Some resistance to bloom can be achieved but at the loss of other

  9. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to ...

  10. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    and Behavior department at the Arnold School of Public Health completing his degree’s practicum requirement . Collaborative efforts begun with...Phys 2003;56(3):755-63. 8. Hebert JR, Hurley TG, Chiraboga DE, Barone J. A comparison of selected nutrient intakes derived from three diet...assessment methods used in a low-fat maintenance trial. Public Health Nutr 1998;1:207- 14. 9. Posner BM, Martin-Munley SS, Smigelski C, Cupples LA, Cobb JL

  11. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.

  12. Weight loss is associated with improved endothelial dysfunction via NOX2-generated oxidative stress down-regulation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelico, Francesco; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Augelletti, Teresa; Carnevale, Roberto; Pacella, Antonio; Albanese, Fabiana; Mancini, Ilaria; Di Santo, Serena; Del Ben, Maria; Violi, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adherence to a restricted-calorie, Mediterranean-type diet improves endothelial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. A moderately low-calorie (600 calories/day negative energy balance), low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (syndrome. Participants were divided into two groups according to body weight loss > or syndrome. The coexistent decrease of NOX2 activation suggests a role for oxidative stress in eliciting artery dysfunction.

  13. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactissingle-strain starter

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Brighton, C.; McMahon, D. J.; Farkye, N.; Johnson, M.E.; Steele, J L

    2013-01-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese ...

  14. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...

  15. An Inquiry into Differences in Patient Outcomes by Observing Dietitian and Nurse Practitioner Management of Hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Oatmeal *Chips -Pumpernickle Egg Bread -French rolls Cheese Bread #-English muffins (whole wheat) Commercial mixes containing - Sour dough bread dried...fat) Sour Cream Ice Milk Half & Half *Cheese made from skim milk Whipped Cream Low-fat cottage cheese Yogurt made from whole milk -Sapsago Cheese...Roquefort substituted -Camembert -Edam -Gouda -Ricotta -Swiss -Pasteurized Processed Cheese Non-Daily Cream Substitutes -Imitation Sour Cream -Imitation

  16. Understanding the implications of adopting the Atkins' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Ian

    Obesity-associated co-morbidities cost the UK at least 0.5 bn Pound a year in NHS treatment, and many adults in the UK are trying to lose weight. Dr Atkins' Diet Revolution focuses on the consumption of proteins and fats as primary calorie and energy sources, while severely restricting carbohydrates. However, this contradicts conventional advice, which advocates a low-fat diet and exercise for weight reduction.

  17. Learning Chemistry and beyond with a Lesson Plan on Potato Crisps, Which Follows a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Lessons--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Bertram, Stefanie; Eilks, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a chemistry lesson plan on potato crisps for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes in Germany. The lesson plan focuses on the discussion about low-fat and low-carb diets as they are presented in everyday media such as TV or newspapers in Germany. The discussion follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to…

  18. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting ...... in the absence of wasting and even in overweight children. Thus, food supplementation should be used with caution in populations where stunting is not associated with wasting and low fat stores....

  19. Endocrine and metabolic factors involved in the effect of nutrition on the production of colostrum in female sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Banchero, Georgett; Perez Clariget, Raquel; Bencini, Roberta; Lindsay, David; Milton, John; Martin, Graeme

    2006-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the physiological relationship between diet during pregnancy and colostrum production in ewes to test the hypothesis that for ewes that are in low body condition, with low fat reserves, the food supply will be the main source of energy for colostrum synthesis. To this end, we measured the amount of colostrum accumulated by ewes under two levels of nutrition. We also measured the circulating concentrations of metabolites and hormones associated with lact...

  20. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  1. Chemical composition of Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboua, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition and mineral content were determined in snail without and with shell and shell atone from Achatina fulica. This snail has high protein (above 40 %, low fat (less than 3 % and is a relatively good source of macrominerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Achatina fulica is an excellent source of iron but is poor in copper, zinc and manganese. The snail is very rich in calcium but very poor in phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

  2. How the brain represents the reward value of fat in the mouth.

    OpenAIRE

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Rolls, Edmund T.; Parris, Benjamin; De Souza, Arun

    2009-01-01

    The palatability and pleasantness of the sensory properties of foods drive food selection and intake and may contribute to overeating and obesity. Oral fat texture can make food palatable and pleasant. To analyze its neural basis, we correlated humans’ subjective reports of the pleasantness of the texture and flavor of a high- and low-fat food with a vanilla or strawberry flavor, with neural activations measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activity in the midorbitofrontal and ...

  3. Pilot Study on Folate Bioavailability from a Camembert Cheese Reveals Contradictory Findings to Recent Results from a Human Short-term Study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Different dietary sources of folate have differing bioavailabilities, which may affect their nutritional “value.” In order to examine if these differences also occur within the same food products, a short-term human pilot study was undertaken as a follow-up study to a previously published human trial to evaluate the relative native folate bioavailabilities from low-fat Camembert cheese compared to pteroylmonoglutamic acid as the reference dose. Two healthy human subjects received the test foo...

  4. Comparison of amino acid v peptide based enteral diets in active Crohn's disease: clinical and nutritional outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Royall, D; Jeejeebhoy, K. N.; Baker, J. P.; Allard, J P; Habal, F. M.; Cunnane, S. C.; Greenberg, G R

    1994-01-01

    Elemental diets are considered an effective primary treatment for active Crohn's disease. This study examined the hypothesis that improvement occurs because of the presence of amino acids or the low fat content, or both. A randomised, controlled trial was undertaken in 40 patients with active Crohn's disease to evaluate clinical and nutritional outcomes after an amino acid based diet containing 3% fat was given by a feeding tube compared with a peptide based diet containing 33% fat. After thr...

  5. Mechanical evaluation of linear friction welds in titanium alloys through indentation experiments; Evaluacion mecanica mediante tecnica de indentacion de soldaduras por friccion lineal en aleaciones de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corzo, M.; Casals, O.; Alcala, J.; Mateo, A.; Anglada, M.

    2005-07-01

    This article shows the results of a project that focuses on the characterization of the weld interface region of dissimilar joints between titanium alloys for aeronautical applications, specifically Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo with Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo. The uniaxial flow stress and hardening response of the material containing the weld were analyzed following the finite elements simulations and mathematical formulations to correlate hardness and the amount of pile-up and sinking-in phenomena around sharp indenters with uniaxial mechanical properties. This allows to accurately stablishing the influence that welding process has on the mechanical response of the parts. Tests performed on these friction-welded specimens showed that the fine grained microstructures in the welds exhibited better properties than the base materials. (Author) 12 refs.

  6. Optical filtering and luminescence property of some molybdates prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. J., E-mail: yadav.pooja75@yahoo.in [Department of Electronics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India); Joshi, C. P. [Physics Department, RCOEM, Nagpur (India); Moharil, S. V., E-mail: svmoharil@yahoo.com [Physics Department, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India)

    2014-10-15

    As an important class of lanthanide inorganic compounds, rare earth ions doped molybdates have gained much attention due to their attractive luminescence and structural properties, supporting various promising applications as phosphor materials in the fields such as white light-emitting diodes, optical fibers, biolabel, lasers, and so on. The molybdate family has promising trivalent cation conducting properties and most of the optical properties result from electron transitions of the 4f shell, which are greatly affected by the composition and structures of rare-earth compounds. In this paper we report the molybdate CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} for red SSL and Bi{sub 1.4}Y{sub 0.6}MoO{sub 6}, Y{sub 6}MoO{sub 12} for optical filtering, prepared by one step combustion synthesis.

  7. Effect of combining the metals of group VI supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite as catalysts for non-oxidative conversion of natural gas to petrochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.Aboul-Gheit; A.E.Awadallah

    2009-01-01

    The most prestigious catalyst applied in natural gas (methane) non-oxidative conversion to petrochemicals is 6%Mo/H-ZSM-5.Chromium,molybdenum and tungsten are the group VI metals.Hence,in this work,6%Mo/H-ZSM-5 was correlated with 3%Cr+3%Mo/H-ZSM-5 and 3%W+3%Mo/H-ZSM-5 as catalysts to examine their promoting or inhibiting effects on the various reactions taking place during methane conversion.The catalytic activities of these catalysts were tested in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor at 700℃ and a GHSV of 1500 ml·g-1 ·h-1. Characterization of the catalysts using XRD,TGA and TPD were investigated.XRD and NH3-TPD showed greater interaction between the W-phase and the Bronsted acid sites in the channels of the zeolite than between Cr-phase and the acid sites in the zeolite.

  8. Molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration of vicinal diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Oh, Byung Chang

    2014-01-01

    The commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24 and other molybdenum compounds are shown to be viable substitutes for the typically employed rhenium compounds in the catalytic deoxydehydration of aliphatic diols into the corresponding alkenes. The transformation, which represents a model system for the v......The commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24 and other molybdenum compounds are shown to be viable substitutes for the typically employed rhenium compounds in the catalytic deoxydehydration of aliphatic diols into the corresponding alkenes. The transformation, which represents a model system...... for the various hydroxyl groups found in biomass-derived carbohydrates, can be conducted in an inert solvent (dodecane), under solvent-free conditions, and in a solvent capable of dissolving biomass-derived polyols (1,5-pentanediol). The reaction is driven by the simultaneous oxidative deformylation of the diol...

  9. Next Generation Orthopaedic Implants by Additive Manufacturing Using Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Murr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some examples of knee and hip implant components containing porous structures and fabricated in monolithic forms utilizing electron beam melting (EBM. In addition, utilizing stiffness or relative stiffness versus relative density design plots for open-cellular structures (mesh and foam components of Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy fabricated by EBM, it is demonstrated that stiffness-compatible implants can be fabricated for optimal stress shielding for bone regimes as well as bone cell ingrowth. Implications for the fabrication of patient-specific, monolithic, multifunctional orthopaedic implants using EBM are described along with microstructures and mechanical properties characteristic of both Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy prototypes, including both solid and open-cellular prototypes manufactured by additive manufacturing (AM using EBM.

  10. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with either zinc alone, micronutrients without zinc, micronutrients in combination with zinc, or a placebo. Main outcomes were weight gain and an improvement in a chest X-ray (CXR) lesion assessed at 6 mo of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 403 children were enrolled and randomly assigned. A microbiological...... diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in 179 children (44.4%). The median (95% CI) increase in weight-for-age z score at 6 mo was not significantly different between subjects who received micronutrients [0.75 (0.66, 0.84)] and those who did not receive micronutrients [0.76 (0.67, 0.85)] and between...

  11. Relating rheology and tribology of commercial dairy colloids to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Laura; Farrell, Grace; Bryant, Michael; Morina, Ardian; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-02-22

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire. Consumers significantly discriminated the fat-free/low fat from the full fat versions (p 0.05). Full fat and fat free yoghurts had similar yielding behaviour and elastic modulus (G'), even in simulated oral conditions. However, in case of soft cream cheese, the full fat version had a moderately higher G' than the low fat counterpart. Even in presence of artificial saliva, there was slight but significant difference in viscoelasticity between the cream cheese variants depending on fat content (p 0.05). Results suggest that sensory distinction between fat-free and full fat versions, particularly in semi-solid systems could be better predicted by lubrication data as compared to bulk rheology.

  12. Effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial cell function of three ad libitum diets differing in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2011-01-01

    Diet is important for the prevention of CVD, and diets high in MUFA might be more cardioprotective than low-fat diets. We hypothesise that inflammation and endothelial cell function will be improved most favourably by a high-MUFA diet compared with a low-fat diet. This was tested in a parallel...... randomised intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28·2 (sd 4·6) years) assigned to a diet moderate in the amount of fat (35-45% of energy; >20% of fat as MUFA; MUFA diet, n 39), a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet, n 43) or a control diet (35 % of energy as fat, n 24) for 6 months after...... weight loss. Protein constituted 10-20 % of energy in all diets. Food was provided free of charge. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention and analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue factor pathway...

  13. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  14. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  15. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  16. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  17. Effect of Milk Fat Substitution of Rennet Milk Induced Coagulation on Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Felfoul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the effect of milk fat substitution by (W1/O/W2 multiple emulsions based on olive oil in comparison with full and low-fat milks on milk behavior during rennet coagulation. Therefore, based on the turbidimetric and conductivimetric methods, a follow up of enzymatic coagulation is realized. Drainage of renneted gels was followed by syneresis study and cheese yield. The comparison between the coagulation aptitude of low fat milk and milk-olive oil emulsion showed that the hydrolysis phase extended up to 35 minutes for full fat milk and up to 38 minutes for milk-olive oil emulsion. The transition phase solid/gel was shorter in the case of the whole milk. The reticulation phase was shorter in the case of milk-olive oil emulsion. The milk conductivity depended on the milk richness in fat content. Milk-olive oil emulsion showed the lowest cheese-making yield compared to its full and low-fat counterpart.

  18. Type of snack influences satiety responses in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchner-Evanson, Allison; Petrisko, Yumi; Howarth, Leslie; Nemoseck, Tricia; Kern, Mark

    2010-06-01

    The effect of different snack foods on satiety and plasma glucose and hormone responses was assessed. Nineteen fasted adult women (mean age: 39.2 + or - 0.7 years, mean BMI: 26.1 + or - 0.8 kg/m(2)) consumed test foods including dried plums, low-fat cookies, white bread and water only on separate days. The test foods (with the exception of water) provided 238 kcal and were similar in total carbohydrate, fat and protein content but differed in fiber and sugar content. Subjects rated their feelings of hunger using satiety index scales prior to snack consumption and again every 15 min for 2h following initiation of intake. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min following intake. At the end of the 120-min test period, subjects were presented with a meal to be consumed until satisfied. The satiety index AUC was greater for the dried plum trial versus the low-fat cookie trial (p hunger relative to a low-fat cookie as evidenced by lower glucose and/or satiety-regulating hormone concentrations.

  19. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  20. Hyperplasia of myocyte nuclei in long-term cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Olivetti, G; R. Ricci; Anversa, P.

    1987-01-01

    In contrast to observations made in the human heart, hyperplasia of myocyte nuclei has never been demonstrated in experimental cardiac hypertrophy. To test the hypothesis that the duration of the mechanical load more than the magnitude of ventricular hypertrophy may be the inciting stimulus for myocyte nuclei hyperplasia, constriction of the pulmonary artery was produced in rats and the hearts were examined 6 mo later. A 76% increase in right ventricular weight was measured. This hypertrophic...

  1. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    evoked a 2.7-cm (95% CI: 0.9, 5.1) smaller waist circumference and a 0.25-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.09, 0.41) lower serum LDL cholesterol compared with the LP diets at 6 mo (P waist circumference (P = 0.004), blood pressure......, increased protein intake improved cardiovascular markers in high-risk children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention....

  2. Selective and sequential transarterial chemoembolization: Survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Roelle, Grit; Ladd, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Heusner, Till A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Sotiropoulos, Georgios C. [Department of General Surgery and Transplantation, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Hilgard, Philip [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Verhagen, Ruediger [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, University at Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the survival time of patients with HCC following transarterial chemoembolization performed in a highly selective and sequential way. Patients and methods: 124 HCC patients (102 male, 22 female; mean age 63 ± 11 years) treated with selective and sequential chemoembolization at a single center were included. Selective chemoembolization was performed through a coaxially introduced microcatheter in a segmental or subsegmental hepatic artery. Treatment was stopped after complete stasis of the blood flow in the tumor-feeding vessel. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival. Results: The median overall survival of the entire patient population was 27.2 months (mo) (±8.9 mo, 95% CI 9.8 mo, 44.6 mo). When stratified according to liver function the median survival was 46.1 mo (±9.0 mo; 95% CI 28.5 mo, 63.7 mo) for Child-Pugh A and 11.1 mo (±4.3 mo; 95% CI 2.7 mo, 19.5 mo) for Child-Pugh B (p < .001). The median survival was 46.1 mo (±16.6 mo; 95% CI 13.5 mo, 78.7 mo) for BCLC stage A, 19.7 mo (±2.6 mo; 95% CI 14.6 mo, 24.8 mo) for BCLC stage B, and 14.4 mo (±5.0 mo; 95% CI 4.5 mo, 24.3 mo) for BCLC stage C (p < .01). Conclusion: Selective and sequential chemoembolization offers long survival times in patients with HCC. Those patients with preserved liver function benefit more than patients with limited liver reserve.

  3. Severe idiopathic hypocalcemia in a juvenile western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Stones, Greeley; Jalil, Tania

    2012-03-01

    A 6-mo-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated because of tetany of both hands. The gorilla had alternating periods of constipation, diarrhea, and bloating since birth. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypocalcemia was based on severe hypocalcemia, a normal vitamin D level, response to oral calcium and vitamin D therapy, and eventual resolution. Idiopathic hypocalcemia, an uncommon disease in neonatal humans, should be considered in young gorillas with persistent gastrointestinal problems or acute tetany.

  4. Impact of Intensive Upper Limb Rehabilitation on Quality of Life: A Randomized Trial in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakzewski, Leanne; Carlon, Stacey; Shields, Nora; Ziviani, Jenny; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether constraint-induced movement therapy is more effective than bimanual training in improving the quality of life of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Sixty-three children (mean age 10y 2mo [SD 2y 6mo]; 33 males, 30 females) with CP of the spastic motor type (n = 59) or with…

  5. Characterization of spontaneous air space enlargement in mice lacking microfibrillar-associated protein 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne Trommelholt; Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Hvidsten, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is localized to elastic fibers in blood vessels and the interalveolar septa of the lungs and is further present in bronchoalveolar lavage. Mfap4 has been previously suggested to be involved in elastogenesis in the lung. We tested this prediction and aim...... of lung function, which was evident at 6 mo of age, and moderate air space enlargement, with emphysema-like changes....

  6. Frozen Egg Products for Air Force Missile Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Residual 40 .1028 French toast (comm.) Scrambled eggs (comm. ) French toast ( sour dough ) Western egg &ham, dry minced onion 6 mo. Puffy omelet...on - 30 sec. off. Heat for 4 on cycles. Acceptable Ingredients Bread - Columbo: Sour French Oruweat: English muffin toasting bread Oroweat...storage of 6 months at -18*C. 2/ — Oroweat whole wheat bread. 3/ — Oroweat English Muffin toasting bread. — Columbo sour French bread. c

  7. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    OpenAIRE

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes...

  8. Postnatal ontogeny of intestinal GCPII and the RFC in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Halsted, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    In humans and pigs, hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates is carried out by intestinal brush border folate hydrolase [glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII)], whereas the transport of the monoglutamyl folate derivatives occurs via the intestinal brush border reduced folate carrier (RFC). The study objective was to measure the expression of intestinal GCPII and RFC during postnatal development of pigs and their effects on plasma and liver folate concentrations. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and plasma samples were collected from female Yorkshire pigs at birth, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 wk, and 6 mo (n=6 at each time point). GCPII mRNA transcripts and protein (normalized using beta-actin), and enzyme activity (normalized per mg mucosal protein) were highest in all segments of small intestine at birth and were undetectable in ileum after 1 wk, whereas jejunal protein and activity predominated at 6 mo. RFC mRNA transcripts were present in all segments of small intestine at birth and declined significantly throughout development to 6 mo. Conversely, RFC protein increased twofold during the first 24 h and remained constant throughout development in all segments of small intestine. Liver RFC mRNA transcripts were detected at birth but were reduced by 6 mo. Liver folate concentration increased throughout postnatal development, whereas plasma folate levels increased during the first 24 h but decreased over time, reflecting the pattern of RFC expression in small intestine. These findings show that intestinal GCPII and intestinal and hepatic RFC all exhibit ontogenic changes in the pig that are reflected in postnatal folate status.

  9. A novel and an efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safari; Shiva Dehghan Khalili; Sayed Hossein Banitaba

    2010-05-01

    (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O has been used as an efficient catalyst for an improved and rapid synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by a three-component, one-pot condensation of benzil, aryl aldehydes and ammonium acetate in good yields under solvent-free conditions using microwave irradiation. The reactions in conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions.

  10. Case report of modified Box and Blocks test with motion capture to measure prosthetic function

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline S. Hebert, MD, FRCPC; Justin Lewicke, MBA, BSc(Kin)

    2012-01-01

    This case study report demonstrates the use of motion analysis with a modification of the Box and Blocks test. The goal was to quantify observed improvements in compensatory movements and simultaneous control in a subject using different prostheses before and after targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery. This is a single case study with data collection using a body-powered prosthesis pre-TMR surgery and 6 mo postfitting with a TMR myoelectric prosthesis. The Box and Blocks test was modif...

  11. Impact of Michelangelo prosthetic hand: Findings from a crossover longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Luchetti; Andrea G. Cutti, PhD; Gennaro Verni; Rinaldo Sacchetti; Nicolino Rossi, MD

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the functional and psychosocial impact of the multigrip Michelangelo (M) prosthetic hand. Transradial myoelectric prosthesis users (6 men, median age: 47 y) participated in a crossover longitudinal study. A multifactorial assessment protocol was applied before the application of M and after 3 mo (functional assessment) and 6 mo (psychosocial assessment) of home use. Functional assessment included both practical tests (i.e., Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure [SHAP], Box ...

  12. Vi serology in screening of typhoid carriers: improved specificity by detection of Vi antibodies by counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, P. Y.; Tsang, R S

    1982-01-01

    A purified soluble Vi antigen was used in counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), passive haemagglutination (HA) and solid phase radio-immunoassay (SPRIA) for detection of serum Vi antibody. Serum Vi antibody was detected in 13 of 14 chronic typhoid carriers by both CIE and HA. SPRIA studies showed that Vi antibodies in sera of these carriers were mainly of the IgG class. Successful treatment with amoxycillin in one carrier, who initially showed a positive Vi test, resulted in a reversion in 6 mo...

  13. Influence of microstructural modifications induced by ultrasonic impact treatment on hardening and corrosion behavior of wrought Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu N; Prokopenko, G I; Mordyuk, B N; Vasylyev, M A; Voloshko, S M; Skorodzievski, V S; Filatova, V S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, biomedical Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy is subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). XRD, TEM and SAED analyses show that the plastic deformation induced by the UIT process results in a complex microstructural formation in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The peculiar feature observed in the alloy structure by TEM is the formation of Lomer-Cottrell locks originated by simultaneous sliding of Shockley partial dislocations in intersecting planes. At the beginning of the UIT process (till the strain extent e ≈ 0.2), dislocation pile-ups are gathered in front of the Lomer-Cottrell locks stimulating the formation of a great number of chaotic stacking faults (SFs) packets (incompletely transformed martensite), which are predominant with regard to the occurrence of ε-martensite and micro-twins. The incompletely transformed martensite hinders the shear translation through the twin boundaries and suppresses grain subdivision in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy at the UIT process used. On-going deformation to e ≈ 0.4 leads to further modification of microstructure in the micron-scale γ-grains, which consists of numerous Lomer-Cottrell locks, chaotic subtraction SFs, intersected nano-twins and fine lathes of ε-martensite with average size of approx. 50-100 nm. The observed structural features (at e ≈ 0.4) allow adequately explaining noticeable increase in microhardness without any cracks/cleavages in surface layer. Enhanced corrosion resistance of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which manifests itself with less negative corrosion potential and lower corrosion and passivity currents in potentiodynamic curve, is promoted by the UIT induced oxide films and the following structural features: the CSL type of γ/ε interfacial boundaries, uniformly distributed fine carbides, and high fraction of the grains oriented with close packed (111)γ and (0002)ε planes parallel to the surface of the UIT-processed specimen.

  14. Bupivacaine in microcapsules prolongs analgesia after subcutaneous infiltration in humans: a dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Juri L; Lillesø, Jesper; Hammer, Niels A;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the onset and duration of local analgesic effects of bupivacaine incorporated into biodegradable microcapsules (extended-duration local anesthetic; EDLA) administered as subcutaneous infiltrations in different doses in humans. In 18 volunteers, the skin on the medial calf...... concentrations were evaluated. No serious side effects were observed for up to 6 mo after administration. In conclusion, bupivacaine incorporated in microcapsules provided analgesia for 96 h after subcutaneous infiltration....

  15. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  16. Solubility and viscosity of herring (Clupea harengus) proteins as affected by freezing and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, M; Hlynsdottir, H; Thorkelsson, G; Sigurgisladottir, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of freezing and frozen storage at -24 degrees C on the quality of Icelandic herring fillets, focusing on protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 used for pH-aided protein isolation. The evaluation of quality was based on chemical analyses, protein degradation measurements, and changes in protein solubility and viscosity at pH 2.7 and 11 after up to 6-mo frozen storage of the herring fillets. Lipid oxidation measured as TBARS values increased significantly during the frozen storage (P frozen storage for 6 mo, where the solubility was about 10% lower after 6-mo frozen storage compared to the beginning (P frozen storage compared to initial solubility (P frozen storage (P frozen storage, compared to fresh herring fillets, but did not increase significantly with further storage (P frozen storage. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any protein cross-linking or aggregation formation, either with frozen storage or due to exposure to low pH.

  17. Actigraphy correctly predicts sleep behavior in infants who are younger than six months, when compared with polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kevin; Buckley, Pat; Adamson, T Michael; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2005-10-01

    Actigraphy has been widely used in adults and children. In infants, validation of actigraphy has typically used a comparison with behaviorally determined sleep state classification rather than polysomnography (PSG). This study validated actigraphy against PSG for determining sleep and waking states in infants who were younger than 6 mo. Twenty-two healthy infants, 13 term and 9 preterm, were studied at three different matched postconceptional ages. Actigraph data were compared with PSG recordings in 1-min epochs. Agreement rate (AR), predictive value for sleep, predictive value for wake, sensitivity. and specificity were calculated and compared between activity thresholds and across ages with two-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Thirty-two validation studies were analyzed. Overall AR with PSG of 93.7 +/- 1.3 and 91.6 +/- 1.8 were obtained at 2-4 wk and 5-6 mo, respectively, at the low activity threshold setting, whereas the auto activity threshold gave the best agreement with PSG at 2-4 mo (AR 89.3 +/- 1.3%). Sensitivity values of 96.2 +/- 1.1% at 2-4 wk, 91.2 +/- 1.5% at 2-4 mo, and 94.0 +/- 1.9% were obtained at these same settings. There was no difference across ages in AR or sensitivity. PVW and specificity values were low in this study. We conclude that actigraphy is a valid method for monitoring sleep in infants who are younger than 6 mo.

  18. Setting the stage for child health and development: prevention of iron deficiency in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M

    2008-12-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to be the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is particularly persistent among infants and children. The high prevalence of anemia in 6- to 9-mo-old children raises the concern that birth iron stores in some infants are inadequate to sustain growth and development through the first 6 mo of life, and postnatal factors are contributing to early depletion of iron stores and development of anemia. At the same time, there are concerns about negative effects of excess iron in infants. Maternal iron status, infant birth weight and gestational age, as well as the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth all contribute to the establishment of adequate total body iron at birth. Postnatally, feeding practices and growth rate are factors that will affect how quickly birth iron is depleted during the first 6 mo of life. Under conditions in which maternal iron status, birth weight, gestational age, and umbilical cord clamping time are optimal, and exclusive breast-feeding is practiced, infants should have adequate iron stores for the first 6-8 mo of life. Under suboptimal conditions, infants may not reach this goal and may need to be targeted for iron supplementation before 6 mo of age.

  19. Postnatal development of periodic breathing cycle duration in term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Skuza, Elizabeth M; Rennie, George C; Sands, Scott A; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Horne, Rosemary S C; Berger, Philip J

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies of the maturation of periodic breathing cycle duration (PCD) with postnatal age in infants have yielded conflicting results. PCD is reported to fall in term infants over the first 6 mo postnatally, whereas in preterm infants PCD is reported either not to change or to fall. Contrary to measured values, use of a theoretical respiratory control model predicts PCD should increase with postnatal age. We re-examined this issue in a longitudinal study of 17 term and 22 preterm infants. PCD decreased exponentially from birth in both groups, reaching a plateau between 4 and 6 mo of age. In preterm infants, PCD fell from a mean of 18.3 s to 9.8 s [95% confidence interval (CI) is +/- 3.2 s]. In term infants, PCD fell from 15.4 s to 10.1 s (95% CI is +/- 3.1 s). The higher PCD at birth in preterm infants, and the similar PCD value at 6 mo in the two groups, suggest a more rapid maturation of PCD in preterm infants. This study confirms that PCD declines after birth. The disagreement between our data and theoretical predictions of PCD may point to important differences between the respiratory controller of the infant and adult.

  20. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  1. Elevated systolic pressure following chronic low-level cadmiun feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, H M; Erlanger, M; Perry, E F

    1977-02-01

    Groups of 16 female Long-Evans rats received 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg cadmium/liter dringking water (parts per million (ppm)), from the time they were weaned until they were 30 mo old. Systolic pressure was measured indirectly in triplicate at 6-mo intervals. Both 2.5 and 5 ppm cadmium consistently induced significant elevations in mean systolic pressure, ranging from 13 to 33 mmHg. At 6 mo, 10 and 25 ppm cadmium also induced significant elevations, whereas at 12 mo and subsequently 1 ppm cadmium induced significant elevations. With 10 ppm cadmium or less weight gain was normal and there was no evidence of cadmium toxicity. With 25 and 50 ppm cadmium weight gain was diminished, suggesting toxicity. Five rats with each level of exposure were sacrificed every 6 mo from a second population of similarly handled rats in order to determine renal cadmium concetrations. Cadmium intakes that had induced hypertension were associated with mean renal cadmium concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mug/g kidney.

  2. Study on Drying Equipment and Technology of Traditional Fermented Rice Noodles%传统发酵米粉烘干设备及工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖勇生; 汤锋; 张良; 包珍; 江军山

    2012-01-01

    [目的]提高米粉生产效率,使米粉的生产周期不受天气限制,促进传统米粉由手工生产向规模化生产的转变.[方法]采用吊篮式低温分段烘干设备对传统发酵米粉进行烘干,以烘干后水分含量、米粉风味等为指标,通过比较不同烘干温度、烘干时间和烘干速率等参数,确定了最优烘干工艺.[结果]采用吊篮式低温分段烘干设备进行传统发酵米粉的烘干,具体烘干温度应在35 ~ 38℃自动控制,烘干速度为转速9.0 Hz,烘干时间为:第1阶段38℃,3h;第2阶段34 ℃,3h.[结论]生产的产品质量稳定,不龟裂,断条率低,具有传统发酵米粉的特殊风味.%The effect of inulin replacing fat on the quality of low-fat yogurt was studied, which will provide basis for the application of inulin in low-fat yogurt. Using traditional production process of low-fat yogurt, 0, 20% , 40% , 60% , 80% and 100% inulin were added to replace fat of yogurt. The optimum fat replacement rate of inulin in yogurt is 40% by the sensory score. The microstructure of yogurt containing inulin has uniform, loose, and a higher degree of openness by scanning electron microscope. The changes trend of various indicators ( hardness, co-hesiveness, springiness and gumminess) of inulin addition on the quality of low-fat yogurt by the texture profile analysis (TPA) texturometer was also analyzed. Taking into account sensory evaluation, the optimum fat replacement rate of inulin is 40% (the optimal dosage of inulin 2.208% ) in low-fat yogurt.

  3. Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine if dairy product consumption is detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to cardiovascular health and if the recommendation to consume reduced-fat as opposed to regular-fat dairy is evidence-based. A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studies associating dairy consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Quality of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. High-quality evidence supports favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D. High- to moderate-quality evidence supports neutral associations between the consumption of total dairy, cheese, and yogurt and CVD risk; the consumption of any form of dairy, except for fermented, and CAD risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and yogurt and stroke risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, cheese, yogurt, and fermented dairy and hypertension risk; and the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and fermented dairy and T2D risk. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of various forms of dairy products shows either favorable or neutral associations with cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes. The review also emphasizes that further research is urgently needed to compare the impact of

  4. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the “missing” fat (∼30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [13C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [13C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). The recovery of the ingested [13C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P < 0.05) after the low-fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 ± 252 and 687 ± 161 μM·h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [13C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 ± 252 and 1,134 ± 247 μM·h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY3-36. In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose delivery into the systemic circulation

  5. Influence of microstructural modifications induced by ultrasonic impact treatment on hardening and corrosion behavior of wrought Co-Cr-Mo biomedical alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Yu.N.; Prokopenko, G.I. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd. UA, -03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Mordyuk, B.N., E-mail: mordyuk@imp.kiev.ua [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd. UA, -03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Vasylyev, M.A. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd. UA, -03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voloshko, S.M. [National Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, 37 Peremohy AvenueUA-03056, Kyiv (Ukraine); Skorodzievski, V.S.; Filatova, V.S. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd. UA, -03142, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-01-01

    In this work, biomedical Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy is subjected to ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). XRD, TEM and SAED analyses show that the plastic deformation induced by the UIT process results in a complex microstructural formation in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The peculiar feature observed in the alloy structure by TEM is the formation of Lomer-Cottrell locks originated by simultaneous sliding of Shockley partial dislocations in intersecting planes. At the beginning of the UIT process (till the strain extent e ≈ 0.2), dislocation pile-ups are gathered in front of the Lomer-Cottrell locks stimulating the formation of a great number of chaotic stacking faults (SFs) packets (incompletely transformed martensite), which are predominant with regard to the occurrence of ε-martensite and micro-twins. The incompletely transformed martensite hinders the shear translation through the twin boundaries and suppresses grain subdivision in surface layer of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy at the UIT process used. On-going deformation to e ≈ 0.4 leads to further modification of microstructure in the micron-scale γ-grains, which consists of numerous Lomer-Cottrell locks, chaotic subtraction SFs, intersected nano-twins and fine lathes of ε-martensite with average size of approx. 50–100 nm. The observed structural features (at e ≈ 0.4) allow adequately explaining noticeable increase in microhardness without any cracks/cleavages in surface layer. Enhanced corrosion resistance of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which manifests itself with less negative corrosion potential and lower corrosion and passivity currents in potentiodynamic curve, is promoted by the UIT induced oxide films and the following structural features: the CSL type of γ/ε interfacial boundaries, uniformly distributed fine carbides, and high fraction of the grains oriented with close packed (111)γ and (0002)ε planes parallel to the surface of the UIT-processed specimen. - Highlights: • Modified surface layers were formed in

  6. Comparison scoring model of severe viral hepatitis and model of end stage liver disease for the prognosis of patients with liver failure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Pei-Ling Dong; Hui-Guo Ding

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prognosis of patients with liver failure using a scoring model of severe viral hepatitis (SMSVH) and a model of end stage liver disease (MELD)to provide a scientific basis for clinical decision of treatment.METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with liver failure due to severe viral hepatitis were investigated with SMSVH established. Patients with acute, subacute,and chronic liver failure were 40, 46 and 34, respectively.The follow-up time was 6 mo. The survival rates of patients with liver failure in 2 wk, 4 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between SMSVH and MELD was made using ROC statistic analysis.RESULTS: The survival curves of group A (at low risk,SMSVH score ≤ 4) and group B (at high risk, SMSVH score ≥ 5) were significantly different (The 4-wk, 3-mo, 6-mo survival rates were 94.59%, 54.05%, 43.24% in group A,and 51.81%, 20.48%, 12.05% in group B, respectively,P < 0.001). The survival curves of group C (SMSVH scores unchanged or increased), group D (SMSVH scores decreased by 1) and group E (SMSVH scores decreased by 2 or more) were significantly different .The survival rates of groups C, D and E were 66.15%, 100%, 100% in 2-wk; 40.0%, 91.18%, 100% in 4-wk; 0%, 58.82%,80.95% in 3-mo and 0%, 38.24%, 61.90% in 6-mo,respectively, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of SMSVH scores at baseline and after 2 wk of therapy was significantly higher than that under the ROC curve of MELD scores (0.804 and 0.934 vs 0.689, P <0.001).CONCLUSION: SMSVH is superior to MELD in the estimation of the prognosis of patients with severe viral hepatitis within 6 mo. SMSVH may be regarded as a criterion for estimation of the efficacy of medical treatment and the decision of clinical treatment.

  7. Buddy Study: Partners for better health in adolescents withtype 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether assigning young, healthyand motivated lay volunteer partners ("buddies") toadolescents with type 2 diabetes improves hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c).METHODS: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes were randomized to partnering with a "buddy" or to conventionaltreatment. During the initial screening visit,which coincided with a routine outpatient diabetesclinic visit, patients with type 2 diabetes underwenta physical examination, detailed medical history,laboratory measurement of HbA1c, and completed twoquestionnaires (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory andChildren's Depression Inventory) to assess their overallquality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms.Patients were then randomized to the intervention (thebuddy system) or conventional treatment (standardcare). All patients were scheduled to return for followupat 3- and 6-mo after their initial visit. HbA1c wasdetermined at all visits (i.e. , at screening and at the3- and 6-mo follow-up visits) and quality of life anddepressive symptoms were evaluated at the screeningvisit and were reassessed at the 6-mo visit.RESULTS: Ten adolescents, recruited from a pool ofapproximately 200 adolescents, enrolled over a twoyeartime period, leading to premature termination ofthe study. In contrast, we easily recruited motivated layvolunteers. We found no change in HbA1c from the initialto the 6-mo visit in either group, yet our small samplesize limited systematic assessment of this outcome.Participants repeatedly missed clinic appointments, failedto conduct self-glucose-monitoring and rarely broughttheir glucometers to clinic visits. Total quality of life scores(72.6 ± 6.06) at screening were similar to previouslyreported scores in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (75.7± 15.0) and lower than scores reported in normal-weight(81.2 ± 0.9), overweight (83.5 ± 1.8), and obese youthswithout diabetes (78.5 ± 1.8) or in adolescents withtype 1 diabetes

  8. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  9. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  10. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health.

  11. DHA supplemented in peptamen diet offers no advantage in pathways to amyloidosis: is it time to evaluate composite lipid diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Amtul

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA and low fat diet (low fat+DHA. Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP cleaving enzyme (BACE, the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development.

  12. Relative validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Fangman, Mary T.; Couch, Sarah C.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Bell, Ronny A.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative validity and reliability of the SEARCH food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was modified from the Block Kids Questionnaire. Design Study participants completed the 85-item FFQ twice plus three 24-hour dietary recalls within one month. We estimated correlations between frequencies obtained from participants with true usual intake for food groups and nutrients, using a two-part model for episodically-consumed foods and measurement error adjustment. Setting The multi-center SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Nutrition Ancillary Study. Subjects A subgroup of 172 participants aged 10 - 24 years with type 1 diabetes. Results The mean correlations adjusted for measurement error of food groups and nutrients between FFQ and true usual intake were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively, with 57% of the food groups and 70% of the nutrients exhibiting correlations >0.35. Correlations were high for low-fat dairy (0.80), sugar-sweetened beverages (0.54), cholesterol (0.59) and saturated fat (0.51), while correlations were poor for high fiber bread and cereal (0.16) and folate (0.11). Reliability of FFQ intake based on two FFQ administrations was also reasonable with 54% of Pearson correlation coefficients ≥ 0.5. Reliability was high for low fat dairy (0.7), vegetables (0.6), carbohydrates, fiber, folate and vitamin C (all 0.5), but less than desirable for low fat poultry and high fiber bread, cereal, rice and pasta (0.2-0.3). Conclusions While there is some room for improvement, our findings suggest that the SEARCH FFQ performs quite well for the assessment of many nutrients and food groups in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24679679

  13. The effects of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether an acute bout of calorie-matched aerobic and resistance exercise alters food reward in a similar manner. Thus, we examined the effects of isocaloric resistance and aerobic exercise sessions on acute food reward. Sixteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary control. The target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal/kg of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 12 repetition-maximum (equivalent to 70% of 1 repetition-maximum). A validated computer task assessed the wanting and liking for visual food cues following exercise, and following an ad libitum lunch. Decreases in the relative preference for high vs. low fat foods were noted following exercise compared to the control session, and this was independent of modality (aerobic: P = 0.04; resistance: P = 0.03). Furthermore, the explicit liking for high vs. low fat foods was lower following resistance exercise compared to the control session (P = 0.04). However, these changes in food reward were not correlated with changes in energy intake (EI) between sessions. Exercise, independent of modality, led to decreases in the relative preference for high fat relative to low fat foods. Additionally, decreases in the hedonic "liking" of high fat foods following resistance, but not aerobic, exercise may imply that modality does influence acute food hedonic responses. However, these decreases in food hedonics were not related to lower EI, thus suggesting that a dissociation may exist between food hedonics and actual EI.

  14. Adipocyte (Pro)Renin-Receptor Deficiency Induces Lipodystrophy, Liver Steatosis and Increases Blood Pressure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Hua; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Thompson, Joel; Su, Wen; Gong, Ming; Nguyen, Genevieve; Yiannikouris, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction related to obesity is overwhelmingly associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In the setting of obesity, (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is increased in adipose tissue of mice. We sought to determine the physiological consequences of adipocyte-PRR deficiency using adiponectin-Cre mice. We report a unique model of adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice (PRR(Adi/Y)) with almost no detectable white adipose tissues. As a consequence, the livers of PRR(Adi/Y) mice were enlarged and demonstrated a marked accumulation of lipids. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of PRR increased systolic blood pressure and the concentration of soluble PRR in plasma. To determine whether adipocyte-PRR was involved in the development of obesity-induced hypertension, mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Adipocyte-PRR-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Both high-fat- and low-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice had elevated insulin levels. Interestingly, adipocyte-PRR deficiency improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In response to feeding either low-fat or high-fat diets, systolic blood pressure was greater in PRR(Adi/Y) mice than in control mice. High-fat feeding elevated soluble PRR concentration in control and PRR(Adi/Y) mice. In vitro knockdown of PRR by siRNA significantly decreased mRNA abundance of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), suggesting an important role for PRR in adipogenesis. Our data indicate that adipocyte-PRR is involved in lipid homeostasis and glucose and insulin homeostasis, and that soluble PRR may be a predictor of metabolic disturbances and play a role in systolic blood pressure regulation.

  15. Addition of soluble soybean polysaccharides to dairy products as a source of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenpu; Duizer, Lisa; Corredig, Milena; Goff, H Douglas

    2010-08-01

    Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%kappa-carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%kappa-carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application: Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses.

  16. Beneficial effect of CETP gene polymorphism in combination with a Mediterranean diet influencing lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients: CORDIOPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan Francisco; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Leon-Acuña, Ana; Camargo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Martinez, Pablo

    2016-12-24

    The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene has been implicated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism. However, little is known about the impact of this gene on metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and its interaction with diet. Here, we evaluate whether the consumption of a Mediterranean diet, compared with a Low-fat diet, interacts with the rs3764261 SNP at the CETP locus to modify lipid metabolism in MetS patients. Plasma lipid concentrations and rs3764261 genotypes were determined in 424 MetS subjects participating in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937). Gene-diet interactions were analyzed after a year of dietary intervention (Mediterranean diet (35% fat, 22% MUFA) vs Low-fat diet (28% fat, 12% MUFA)). We found significant gene-diet interactions between rs3764261 SNP and the dietary pattern for HDL-C (P = 0.006) and triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.040). Specifically, after 12 months of Mediterranean diet intervention, subjects who were carriers of the minor T allele (TT + TG) displayed higher plasma HDL-C concentrations (P = 0.021) and lower triglycerides (P = 0.020) compared with those who were homozygous for the major allele (GG). In contrast, in the Low-fat intervention group, no significant differences were found between CETP genotypes after 12 months of dietary treatment. Our data support the notion that the consumption of a Mediterranean diet may play a contributing role in triggering lipid metabolism by interacting with the rs3764261 SNP at CETP gene locus in MetS patients. Due to the complex nature of gene-environment interactions, dietary adjustment in MetS patients may require a personalized approach.

  17. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  18. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  19. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese.

  20. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  1. Effects of discontinuing a high-fat diet on mitochondrial proteins and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Delin; Shuler, Jeffrey M; Raider, Kayla D; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2015-07-10

    Diet-induced obesity can increase the risk for developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial and proteasomal mechanisms are involved in both insulin resistance and PD. The goal of this study was to determine whether diet intervention could influence mitochondrial or proteasomal protein expression and vulnerability to 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion in rats' nigrostriatal system. After a 3 month high-fat diet regimen, we switched one group of rats to a low-fat diet for 3 months (HF-LF group), while the other half continued with the high-fat diet (HF group). A chow group was included as a control. Three weeks after unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, HF rats had higher fasting insulin levels and higher Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), indicating insulin resistance. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in HF-LF rats than HF rats, indicating that insulin resistance was reversed by switching to a low-fat diet. Compared to the Chow group, the HF group exhibited significantly greater DA depletion in the substantia nigra but not in the striatum. DA depletion did not differ between the HF-LF and HF group. Proteins related to mitochondrial function (such as AMPK, PGC-1α), and to proteasomal function (such as TCF11/Nrf1) were influenced by diet intervention, or by 6-OHDA lesion. Our findings suggest that switching to a low-fat diet reverses the effects of a high-fat diet on systemic insulin resistance, and mitochondrial and proteasomal function in the striatum. Conversely, they suggest that the effects of the high-fat diet on nigrostriatal vulnerability to 6-OHDA-induced DA depletion persist.

  2. Renal Denervation Normalizes Arterial Pressure With No Effect on Glucose Metabolism or Renal Inflammation in Obese Hypertensive Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Ninitha; Fiege, Jessica K; Han, Ruijun; Foss, Jason; Banek, Christopher T; Burbach, Brandon J; Razzoli, Maria; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Shimizu, Yoji; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Osborn, John W

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension often occurs in concurrence with obesity and diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as metabolic syndrome. Renal denervation (RDNx) lowers arterial pressure (AP) and improves glucose metabolism in drug-resistant hypertensive patients with high body mass index. In addition, RDNx has been shown to reduce renal inflammation in the mouse model of angiotensin II hypertension. The present study tested the hypothesis that RDNx reduces AP and renal inflammation and improves glucose metabolism in obesity-induced hypertension. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low-fat diet (10 kcal%) or a high-fat diet (45 kcal%) for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance test) were measured. In a parallel study, radiotelemeters were implanted in mice for AP measurement. High fat-fed C57BL/6J mice exhibited an inflammatory and metabolic syndrome phenotype, including increased fat mass, increased AP, and hyperglycemia compared with low-fat diet mice. RDNx, but not Sham surgery, normalized AP in high-fat diet mice (115.8±1.5 mm Hg in sham versus 96.6±6.7 mm Hg in RDNx). RDNx had no significant effect on AP in low-fat diet mice. Also, RDNx had no significant effect on glucose metabolism or renal inflammation as measured by the number of CD8, CD4, and T helper cells or levels of inflammatory cytokines in the kidneys. These results indicate that although renal nerves play a role in obesity-induced hypertension, they do not contribute to impaired glucose metabolism or renal inflammation in this model.

  3. Effects of dietary fat types on body fatness, leptin, and ARC leptin receptor, NPY, and AgRP mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqin; Storlien, Len H; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2002-06-01

    Some, but not all, fats are obesogenic. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effects of changing type and amount of dietary fats on energy balance, fat deposition, leptin, and leptin-related neural peptides: leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), in C57Bl/6J mice. One week of feeding with a highly saturated fat diet resulted in ~50 and 20% reduction in hypothalamic arcuate NPY and AgRP mRNA levels, respectively, compared with a low-fat or an n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated high-fat (PUFA) diet without change in energy intake, fat mass, plasma leptin levels, and leptin receptor or POMC mRNA. Similar neuropeptide results were seen at 7 wk, but by then epididymal fat mass and plasma leptin levels were significantly elevated in the saturated fat group compared with low-fat controls. In contrast, fat and leptin levels were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group compared with all other groups. At 7 wk, changing the saturated fat group to n-3 PUFA for 4 wk completely reversed the hyperleptinemia and increased adiposity and neuropeptide changes induced by saturated fat. Changing to a low-fat diet was much less effective. In summary, a highly saturated fat diet induces obesity without hyperphagia. A regulatory reduction in NPY and AgRP mRNA levels is unable to effectively counteract this obesogenic drive. Equally high fat diets emphasizing PUFAs may even protect against obesity.

  4. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction Signals Progression of Hepatic Steatosis Towards Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in C57Bl/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Caroline; Thissen, Uwe; Keshtkar, Shohreh; Accart, Bertrand; Stienstra, Rinke; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Roskams, Tania; Kersten, Sander; Müller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and diabetes, suggesting an important role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, we aimed to investigate the interaction between adipose tissue and liver in NAFLD and identify potential early plasma markers that predict nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS C57Bl/6 mice were chronically fed a high-fat diet to induce NAFLD and compared with mice fed a low-fat diet. Extensive histological and phenotypical analyses coupled with a time course study of plasma proteins using multiplex assay were performed. RESULTS Mice exhibited pronounced heterogeneity in liver histological scoring, leading to classification into four subgroups: low-fat low (LFL) responders displaying normal liver morphology, low-fat high (LFH) responders showing benign hepatic steatosis, high-fat low (HFL) responders displaying pre-NASH with macrovesicular lipid droplets, and high fat high (HFH) responders exhibiting overt NASH characterized by ballooning of hepatocytes, presence of Mallory bodies, and activated inflammatory cells. Compared with HFL responders, HFH mice gained weight more rapidly and exhibited adipose tissue dysfunction characterized by decreased final fat mass, enhanced macrophage infiltration and inflammation, and adipose tissue remodeling. Plasma haptoglobin, IL-1β, TIMP-1, adiponectin, and leptin were significantly changed in HFH mice. Multivariate analysis indicated that in addition to leptin, plasma CRP, haptoglobin, eotaxin, and MIP-1α early in the intervention were positively associated with liver triglycerides. Intermediate prognostic markers of liver triglycerides included IL-18, IL-1β, MIP-1γ, and MIP-2, whereas insulin, TIMP-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein 2, and myeloperoxidase emerged as late markers. CONCLUSIONS Our data support the existence of a tight relationship between adipose tissue dysfunction and NASH pathogenesis and point to several novel

  5. IGF-I activity may be a key determinant of stroke risk--a cautionary lesson for vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2003-09-01

    IGF-I acts on vascular endothelium to activate nitric oxide synthase, thereby promoting vascular health; there is reason to believe that this protection is especially crucial to the cerebral vasculature, helping to ward off thrombotic strokes. IGF-I may also promote the structural integrity of cerebral arteries, thereby offering protection from hemorrhagic stroke. These considerations may help to explain why tallness is associated with low stroke risk, whereas growth hormone deficiency increases stroke risk--and why age-adjusted stroke mortality has been exceptionally high in rural Asians eating quasi-vegan diets, but has been declining steadily in Asia as diets have become progressively higher in animal products. There is good reason to suspect that low-fat vegan diets tend to down-regulate systemic IGF-I activity; this effect would be expected to increase stroke risk in vegans. Furthermore, epidemiology suggests that low serum cholesterol, and possibly also a low dietary intake of saturated fat--both characteristic of those adopting low-fat vegan diets--may also increase stroke risk. Vegans are thus well advised to adopt practical countermeasures to minimize stroke risk--the most definitive of which may be salt restriction. A high potassium intake, aerobic exercise training, whole grains, moderate alcohol consumption, low-dose aspirin, statin or policosanol therapy, green tea, and supplementation with fish oil, taurine, arginine, and B vitamins--as well as pharmacotherapy of hypertension if warranted--are other practical measures for lowering stroke risk. Although low-fat vegan diets may markedly reduce risk for coronary disease, diabetes, and many common types of cancer, an increased risk for stroke may represent an 'Achilles heel'. Nonetheless, vegans have the potential to achieve a truly exceptional 'healthspan' if they face this problem forthrightly by restricting salt intake and taking other practical measures that promote cerebrovascular health.

  6. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  7. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Karen W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these associations would aide the design of new interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between distance to food stores and restaurants and fruit and vegetable consumption and the possible mediating role of psychosocial variables and home availability. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption of 204 Boy Scouts was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 2003. Participant addresses were geo-coded and distance to different types of food stores and restaurants calculated. Fruit and vegetable preferences, home availability and self-efficacy were measured. Regression models were run with backward deletion of non-significant environmental and psychosocial variables. Mediation tests were performed. Results Residing further away from a small food store (SFS (convenience store and drug store was associated with increased fruit and juice and low fat vegetable consumption. Residing closer to a fast food restaurant was associated with increased high fat vegetable and fruit and juice consumption. Vegetable preferences partially mediated (26% the relationship between low fat vegetable consumption and distance to the nearest SFS. Conclusion Distance to SFS and fast food restaurants were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among male adolescents. Vegetable preferences partially mediated the distance to low fat vegetable relationship. More research is needed to elucidate how environmental variables impact children's dietary intake.

  8. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Palpacuer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853 to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication.Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA, and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1 health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications, (2 alcohol consumption outcomes, (3 biological outcomes, or (4 treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane's Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs, mean differences (MDs, or standardized mean differences (SMDs with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF; for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population defined by the EMA approval

  9. Study on effect of phacoemulsification combined with goniosynechialysis on corneal endothelial cells for the treatment of angle closure glaucoma%超声乳化联合前房角分离术对伴有白内障的闭角型青光眼角膜内皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 颜华

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To observe the effect of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens ( IOL ) implantation combined with goniosynechialysis on corneal endothelial cells for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma ( PACG ) combined cataract, and to analyze the relative factors.METHODS: Ninety-five eyes of 95 patients with PACG combined cataract were documented in this study. Twenty-two patients were male, and 73 were female. The age ranged from 46 to 85y old with a mean of(66±7) y. All patients were examined for endothelial cell count ( ECC ) , intraocular pressure ( IOP ) and best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA ) 1wk, 1, 2, 3 and 6mo after operation. Meanwhile, the range of anterior chamber closure and anterior chamber depth ( ACD ) were recorded before operation and postoperative 6mo. RESULTS: The mean IOP was 36. 1±4. 3mmHg ( 28-42mmHg) preoperatively and 15. 8±3. 5mmHg ( 8-28 mmHg)(1mmHg=0. 133kPa) 6mo after operation. There was a decreasing trend in IOP after operation( t=17. 173, P CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification and IOL -implantation combined with goniosynechialysis is an effective method to treat PACG combined cataract. It can increase BCVA and decrease IOP. ECC decreases after operation, but it is in the normal range. It is a safe and effective operation mode.%目的:探讨伴有白内障的原发性闭角型青光眼( primary angle closure glaucoma ,PACG)采用超声乳化白内障吸出(phacoemulsification,Phaco)人工晶状体(IOL)植入联合前房角分离术治疗后角膜内皮细胞的变化,并分析相关影响因素。  方法:回顾分析接受Phaco+IOL联合前房角分离术治疗的PACG合并白内障患者95例95眼,其中女73例,男22例,年龄46~85(平均66±7)岁。记录并分析术前及术后1wk,1、2、3、6mo 最佳矫正视力( BCVA)、眼内压( IOP)及角膜内皮细胞计数( endothelial cell count,ECC),同时记录术前及术后6 mo 前房深度( anterior chamber depth,ACD)以及前房角关闭范围。随访8mo~2a。 

  10. Social cognitive determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerksen, Shawna E; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  11. Prenatal exposure to vitamin-D from fortified margarine and milk and body size at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Gamborg, M; Berentzen, T L;

    2015-01-01

    during foetal life was associated with body size at 7 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Vitamin-D fortification of margarine was mandatory in Denmark from 1961 to 1985, and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk was permitted from 1972 to 1976. Using information on body mass index (BMI) Z-score at the age...... or termination of margarine and milk fortification periods, respectively. In total four sets of analyses were performed. RESULTS: We observed no difference in mean BMI Z-score between children exposed to vitamin-D fortification in utero and non-exposed children. Similar results were observed for overweight...

  12. High Fat Diet Alters Lactation Outcomes: Possible Involvement of Inflammatory and Serotonergic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura L; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Ekta Yadav; Seeley, Randy J.; Nelson D Horseman

    2012-01-01

    Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD) has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat) diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat) to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Fee...

  13. A Comparison Between Two Types of Preventive Educational Programs for a Population at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    227 81 49.8 coconut oil, palm oil 0 100 74.6 cocoa butter ( chocolate ) 100 74.6 CHEESES dry curd cottage cheese, 6 2.1 0.9 tofu, pot cheese, low-fat...140 lard 900 pies 250-350 pecans 696 milk choc. nuts 542 raw peanuts 543 chocolate fudge 390 pea nut butter 576 no-fat yogurt sweetened 40 cashew...brains, etc.) (H) U U U U Eggs (H) U U U 0 0 DAIRY PROUT Whole milk (H) U U U U U Non-dairy creamer (M) UU U U U Cream, half & half (H) U Ci 0 C Lowfat

  14. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour...... fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society....

  15. Tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft unripened cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia V. Iakovchenko; Tamara P. Arseneva

    2016-01-01

    Background. An excessive consumption of fat has been associated with an increased risk of health problems such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Cheese is a highly concentrated product which is rich in protein and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and essential amino acids, therefore it is an important food in the diet. But low fat cheeses are usually characterized as having poor body and flavour. Therefore,  it is crucial to find ways of improving the a...

  16. Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Peng; Erika S. Georget; Aganovic, Kemal; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) opens up new areas for dynamic high pressure assisted thermal sterilization of liquids. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores are resistant to high isostatic pressure and temperature and were suggested as potential surrogate for high pressure thermal sterilization validation. B. amyloliquefaciens spores suspended in PBS buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.0), low fat milk (1.5%, pH 6.7), and whole milk (3.5%, pH 6.7) at initial concentration of ~106 CFU/mL were subjecte...

  17. Phytochemical investigation and proximate analysis on the leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Odetola, Adebimpe A; Azeez, Odunayo I

    2011-03-01

    The study was designed to carry out the phytochemical screening and the proximate analysis of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves. The results obtained showed the presence of tannins, saponin, alkaloids, and flavonoids with the absence of glycosides. The proximate analysis and mineral composition of C. aconitifolius leaves showed high levels of crude protein, ash, and fiber, in that order, and low fat content with concomitant presence of minerals such as sodium, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, phosphate, and zinc. The leaves of C. aconitifolius have high nutrient potentials and could be used as nutraceuticals in complementary foods, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Effect of two different hypocaloric diets in transaminases and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obese patients Efecto de dos dietas hipocalóricas en los niveles de transaminasas y resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos con hígado graso no alcohólico

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. De Luis; R. Aller; O. Izaola; M. Gonzalez Sagrado; Conde, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the changes in hypertransaminasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD and the relation with insulin resistance. Research Methods: A population of 162 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat) and b) diet II (low carbohydrate), dieting along 3 months. Patients were classified as group I (n=112) when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD, n=30) when serum ALT activity was ( > o...

  19. Glycemic profile and prebiotic potential "in vitro" of bread with yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Moura Rolim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elaborate bread with yacon flour at two different levels (6% and 11% and to analyze their proximate composition, their glycemic indices and their prebiotic potentials in vitro. Bread with 6% and 11% of yacon flour presented, simultaneously, low and moderate glycemic index. As for the prebiotic potentials, it was evident the presence of probiotic bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus. The results showed that, the addition of yacon flour on bread rendered products from low to moderate GI, with prebiotic potential, low fat and high fiber contents, according to the Brazilian food legislation.

  20. Evaluation of performance of dough and bread incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Puig, Esther; Haros, Monika

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the opinion given by the European Food Safety Authority about the safety of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) and whole ground chia seed as food ingredients, they may be placed on the market in the European Community as novel food ingredients to be used in bread products. The objective of the present investigation was to develop new cereal-based products with increased nutritional quality by using chia and ground chia seeds (whole chia flour, semi-defatted chia flour and low-fat c...