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Sample records for 6-m telescope description

  1. The EMCCD-Based Speckle Interferometer of the BTA 6-m Telescope: Description and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Maksimov, A F; Dyachenko, V V; Malogolovets, E V; Rastegaev, D A; Semernikov, E A

    2009-01-01

    The description is given for the speckle interferometer of the BTA 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS based on a new detector with an electron multiplication CCD. The main components of the instrument are microscope objectives, interference filters and atmospheric dispersion correction prisms. The PhotonMAX-512B CCD camera using a back-illuminated CCD97 allows up to 20 speckle images (with 512$\\times$512 pix resolution) per second storage on the hard drive. Due to high quantum efficiency (93% in the maximum at 550 nm), and high transmission of its optical elements, the new camera can be used for diffraction-limited (0.02$''$) image reconstruction of $15^{m}$ stars under good seeing conditions. The main advantages of the new system over the previous generation BTA speckle interferometer are examined.

  2. ADAM low- and medium-resolution spectrograph for 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, V L; Amirkhanyan, V R; Moiseev, A V

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design of a low- and medium-resolution spectrograph ( R=300-1300) developed at the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS) for the 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope of Sayan Observatory of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. We report the results of laboratory measurements of the parameters of the instrument and tests performed on the SAO RAS 1-m Zeiss-1000 telescope. We measured the total quantum efficiency of the "spectrograph + telescope + detector" system on AZT-33IK telescope, which at its maximum reaches 56%. Such a hight transparency of the spectrograph allows it to be used with the 1.6-m telescope to determine the types and redshifts of objects with magnitudes m_AB~20-21, that was confirmed by actual observations.

  3. OAJ 2.6-m survey telescope: assembly, integration, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Olivier; Bastin, Christian; Lousberg, Grégory; Tortolani, Jean-Marc; Verheyden, Peter

    2014-07-01

    AMOS S.A. has developed a 2.6 m wide field telescope for the "Observatorio Astrofisico de Javalambre". The leading edge performance of this telescope has not only required an extensive work of design, analysis and optimization but also a mastered fabrication process and an appropriate AIV plan. The telescope has successfully passed the factory test and is installed at the observatory on the "Pico del Buitre" in Spain. This paper aims to present the philosophy of the test, the results and the current status after installation. AMOS has gained since more than 30 years a huge experience in testing small and large instruments, including optical testing, alignment, mechanical static, dynamic measurements, system identification, etc. It is this combination of various techniques of measurement that produce accurate and reliable results which are a key element of a successful project.

  4. A Study of Magnetic CP Stars in Open Clusters and Associations with the 6-m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Yakunin, I. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2017-06-01

    The study of magnetic CP stars in groups of different ages allows us to obtain data on the origin and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields. We selected 17 groups for observation with the 6-m telescope. Here we draw first conclusions from the study of the Orion OB1 association. Six new magnetic stars in it are added to those seventeen that had been known earlier, ten more CP stars were suspected to have fields. A complex structure of the magnetic field in the star HD 34736 has been found, which is indicative of its fossil origin.

  5. Characterization of friction in the 3.6m Devasthal optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. S.; Bastin, Christian; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work on characterization of friction in the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope axes. The telescope azimuth axis is supported on a hydrostatic bearing while the altitude and rotator axes are supported on hydrodynamic bearings. Both altitude and azimuth axes are driven directly by high power BLDC motors and the rotator is driven by BLDC motor via a gearbox. This system is designed by AMOS, Belgium and tuned to achieve a tracking accuracy better than 0.1 arcsec RMS. Friction poses control related problems at such low speeds hence it is important to periodically characterize the behaviour at each axes. Compensation is necessary if the friction behaviour changes over the time and starts dominating the overall system response. For identifying friction each axis of telescope is rotated at different constant speeds and speed versus torque maps are generated. The LuGre model for friction is employed and nonlinear optimization is performed to identify the four static parameters of friction. The behaviour of friction for each axis is presented and the results are discussed.

  6. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  7. Customized overhead cranes for installation of India's largest 3.6m optical telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Tarun; Yadava, Shobhit; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghanti, A. S.; Hardikar, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    India's largest 3.6 m aperture optical telescope facility has been recently established at Devasthal site by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observation Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous Institute under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The telescope is equipped with active optics and it is designed to be used for seeinglimited observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. A steel building with rotating cylindrical steel Dome was erected to house 3.6m telescope and its accessories at hilltop of Devasthal site. Customized cranes were essentially required inside the building as there were space constraints around the telescope building for operating big external heavy duty cranes from outside, transportation constraints in route for bringing heavy weight cranes, altitude of observatory, and sharp bends etc. to site. To meet the challenge of telescope installation from inside the telescope building by lifting components through its hatch, two Single Girder cranes and two Under Slung cranes of 10 MT capacity each were specifically designed and developed. All the four overhead cranes were custom built to achieve the goal of handling telescope mirror and its various components during installation and assembly. Overhead cranes were installed in limited available space inside the building and tested as per IS 3177. Cranes were equipped with many features like VVVFD compatibility, provision for tandem operation, digital load display, anti-collision mechanism, electrical interlocks, radio remote, low hook height and compact carriage etc. for telescope integration at site.

  8. OAJ 2.6m survey telescope: optical alignment and on-sky evaluation of IQ performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousberg, Gregory P.; Bastin, Christian; Moreau, Vincent; Pirnay, Olivier; Flebus, Carlo; Chueca, Sergio; Iñiguez, César; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Ramió, Héctor V.; Cenarro, A. Javier

    2016-08-01

    AMOS has recently completed the alignment campaign of the 2.6m telescope for the Observatorio Astrofisico de Javalambre (OAJ). AMOS developed an innovative alignment technique for wide field-of-view telescopes that has been successfully implemented on the OAJ 2.6m telescope with the active support of the team of CEFCA (Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón). The alignment relies on two fundamental techniques: (1) the wavefront-curvature sensing (WCS) for the evaluation of the telescope aberrations at arbitrary locations in the focal plane, and (2) the comafree point method for the adjustment of the position of the secondary mirror (M2) and of the focal plane (FP). The alignment campaign unfolds in three steps: (a) analysis of the repeatability of the WCS measurements, (b) assessment of the sensitivity of telescope wavefront error to M2 and FP position adjustments, and (c) optical alignment of the telescope. At the end of the campaign, seeing-limited performances are demonstrated in the complete focal plane. With the help of CEFCA team, the image quality of the telescope are investigated with a lucky-imaging method. Image sizes of less than 0.3 arcsec FWHM are obtained, and this excellent image quality is observed over the complete focal plane.

  9. Quantitative Measurements of Daytime Near Infrared Sky Brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    techniques for high-resolution imaging of satellites from the AEOS telescope. 1 MOTIVATION At first glance it would appear that imaging in the near...sensitivity, which includes spectral regions of strong atmospheric extinction . The sky brightness results in this case represent the mean flux that would

  10. Observations of Lick Standard Stars Using the SCORPIO Multi-Slit Unit at the SAO 6-m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, M E; Puzia, T

    2006-01-01

    We present Lick line-index measurements of standard stars from the list of Worthey. The spectra were taken with the multi-slit unit of the SCORPIO spectrograph at the 6-m Special Astrophysical observatory telescope. We describe in detail our method of analysis and explain the importance of using the Lick index system for studying extragalactic globular clusters. Our results show that the calibration of our instrumental system to the standard Lick system can be performed with high confidence.

  11. KMTNET: A Network of 1.6 m Wide-Field Optical Telescopes Installed at Three Southern Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Byeong-Gon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Han, Cheongho; Chun, Moo-Young; Yuk, Insoo

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) is a wide-field photometric system installed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Here, we present the overall technical specifications of the KMTNet observation system, test observation results, data transfer and image processing procedure, and finally, the KMTNet science programs. The system consists of three 1.6 m wide-field optical telescopes equipped with mosaic CCD cameras of 18k by 18k pixels. Each telescope provides a 2.0 by 2.0 square degree field of view. We have finished installing all three telescopes and cameras sequentially at the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in South Africa, and the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in Australia. This network of telescopes, which is spread over three different continents at a similar latitude of about -30 degrees, enables 24-hour continuous monitoring of targets observable in the Southern Hemisphere. The test observations showed good image quality that meets the seeing requirement of less than 1.0 arcsec in I-band. All of the observation data are transferred to the KMTNet data center at KASI via the international network communication and are processed with the KMTNet data pipeline. The primary scientific goal of the KMTNet is to discover numerous extrasolar planets toward the Galactic bulge by using the gravitational microlensing technique, especially earth-mass planets in the habitable zone. During the non-bulge season, the system is used for wide-field photometric survey science on supernovae, asteroids, and external galaxies.

  12. KMTNet: a network of 1.6-m wide field optical telescopes installed at three southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Dong-Joo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Jae Woo; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Lim, Beomdu; Lim, Jin-Sun; Gho, Seung-Won; Kim, Min-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) have installed three identical 1.6-m telescopes, called Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), which cover 2 x 2 degree field of view with the plate scale of 0.4 arcsec/pixel at three observatories - CTIO, SSO and SAAO in southern hemisphere. The uniqueness of the system is the uninterupted 24-hour monitoring with a wide field optics in southern hemisphere. The telescope adopts prime focus using a parabolic mirror and four spherical flattening lenses. The structural design and driving systems are modified from the degin of 2MASS telescope. The one piece filter-shutter assembly has a sliding shutter and four 310-mm square filters. Each observation system produces a 680MB size image file at site and the images are transfered to KASI data center using the Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development (GLORIAD) network with the band width of 50Mbps in average. The main science goal of the KMTNet is to discover Earth like extra solar planet using the microlensing technique during bulge season, and 50% of the total observation time is allocated for the science program solely. The other telescope times are allocated for pre-selected seven science programs during non-bulge season. From the test observation, we verify that the most important two requirements are satisfied: 10 arcsec in RMS for the pointing accuracy and 1 arcsec of delivered image quality in I-band. In this presentation, we introduce finally installed system at each observatory and its observational performance obtained from the test observation.

  13. Ultra-Narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the1.6m New Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He I 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in solar flares.

  14. Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830~\\AA\\ using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yan; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles which have adverse effects in the near Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6~m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, here we show a striking "negative" flare with a narrow, but unambiguous "dark" moving front observed in He I 10830 \\AA, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in H-alpha and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 \\AA\\ can be produced under special circumstances, by nonthermal-electron collisions, or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomi...

  15. Ten Years of Nearby Galaxies Investigation with the Multi-Pupil Spectrograph of the 6m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Silchenko, O K

    2002-01-01

    We describe the history and results of our study of early-type disk galaxies with the Multi-Pupil Spectrograph of the 6m telescope (MPFS). With the new data we confirm the discovery of chemically distinct nuclei reported in 1992; now such nuclei are found in two dozens galaxies. The structure of chemically distinct features formed probably in secondary nuclear star-formation bursts seems to be complex and closely related to an appearance of separate circumnuclear disks. As by-product, we have also found inner polar gaseous disks in 4 non-interacting, regular spiral galaxies; this phenomenon may be related to bulge or bar triaxiality. Some preliminary statistical conclusions on stellar population properties in the nuclei and in the bulges of nearby S0 galaxies are given.

  16. Post-perihelion observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at the 6 m BTA telescope: optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O. V.; Rosenbush, V. K.; Kiselev, N. N.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Korsun, P. P.

    2017-07-01

    In the framework of the worldwide ground-based campaign, long-slit spectroscopy of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was performed at the 6 m BTA telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS in the post-perihelion period from 2015 November to 2016 April at a heliocentric distance from 1.61 to 2.72 au. Strong CN and relatively weak C2, C3, and CO+ emissions were identified in the spectra of the comet on 2015 November 8 and December 9, while NH2 emissions were only observed on November 8. In the spectrum derived on 2016 April 3, only the CN emission was found. The production rates of CN, C3, and C2 are in good agreement with data obtained by other authors. The value log[Q(C2)/Q(CN)] = -0.43 corresponds to the carbon-chain depleted class of comets. The spectra of the comet show a high level of the continuum referring to dust-rich comets. The dust production Afρ decreased from 172 cm at r = 1.62 au to 55 cm at r = 2.72 au, which is close to data derived from photometry at this telescope. The normalized gradient of the cometary dust reflectivity in the 3600-7070 Å spectral range varied from 12.5 ± 2 per cent 1000 Å-1 to 11.3 ± 2 per cent 1000 Å-1, which is close to a mean spectral reddening of cometary dust of 11 ± 2 per cent 1000 Å-1. In general, the photometric properties of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko show that it is a typical Jupiter-family comet.

  17. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Ju; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most curr...

  18. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-04-13

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  19. Blazar variability studies with the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope and the automated 0.6m Bell Observatory telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Mattox, J. R.; Walters, R.; Poteet, C.; Wills, W.; Gelderman, R.; Davis, D.; Everett, M.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; McGruder, C. H., III

    2004-10-01

    One of the key programs on the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) located at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 0.6m telescope at the Bell Observatory operated by Western Kentucky University is a study of the variability of the class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known as Blazars. Blazars are highly variable on timescales of minutes to decades and this variability is seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, they display a featureless spectrum, thus continuum variability provides the only diagnostic of these objects. Variability provides information on the size of the emission region responsible for the observed variations and when observations are obtained at multiple wavelengths, it can be used to discriminate between emission models. However, traditional ground based observations are limited in a variety of ways. We will discuss how an automated facility, with time dedicated to this astrophysically interesting problem, can overcome many of these limitations, and we show results from the Bell Observatory as well as some of the first results of Blazar observations from the RCT.

  20. ULTRA-NARROW NEGATIVE FLARE FRONT OBSERVED IN HELIUM-10830 Å USING THE 1.6 m NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda; Gary, Dale [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Ding, Mingde [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kleint, Lucia [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Institute of 4D technologies Bahnhofstr. 6, CH-5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Su, Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji, Haisheng [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 Beijing Xi Lu, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chae, Jongchul; Cho, Kyuhyoun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyungsuk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdae-ro 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.

  1. Innovative and Improved Efficiency on the Design of a control System SOftware for CBSS 6m Radio Telescope using LabView in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis

    2015-08-01

    Software has been provided for controlling the antenna and selection of sources in a 6m radio telescope. In this work the most challenging aspect is the maintainance of the pointing accuracy of the final structure with pointing tolerance of about 0.0003 or 1 arcsecond. Using LabView, the voltage through the I/Q is read with a DAQ virtual instrument. The values are then calculated with the dish at its zero position, hence the control system is fully implemented and tested to work at full efficiency.

  2. CCD polarimetry of distant comets C/2010 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) at the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Oleksandra V; Afanasiev, Viktor L; Reshetnyk, Volodymyr M; Korsun, Pavlo P

    2015-01-01

    We present first measurements of the degree of linear polarization of distant comets C/2010 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) at heliocentric distances r= 5.9 - 7.0 AU. Observations were carried out with the SCORPIO-2 focal reducer at the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS. Both comets showed considerable level of activity beyond a zone where water ice sublimation is negligible (up to 5 AU). Significant spatial variations both in the intensity and polarization are found in both comets. The slope of radial profiles of intensity changes gradually with the distance from the photocenter: from - 0.7 near the nucleus up to about - 1.3 for larger distances (up to 100000 km). The variation in polarization profiles indicates the non uniformity in the polarization distribution over the coma. The polarization degree over the coma gradually increases (in absolute value) with increasing the photocentric distance from of about - 1.9% up to - 3% for comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), and from of about - 2.5% up to - 3.5% for comet C/2010...

  3. Design and development of control unit and software for the ADFOSC instrument of the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the details of control unit and GUI software for positioning two filter wheels, a slit wheel and a grism wheel in the ADFOSC instrument. This is a first generation instrument being built for the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope. The control hardware consists of five electronic boards based on low cost 8-bit PIC microcontrollers and are distributed over I2C bus. The four wheels are controlled by four identical boards which are configured in I2C slave mode while the fifth board acts as an I2C master for sending commands to and receiving status from the slave boards. The master also communicates with the interfacing PC over TCP/IP protocol using simple ASCII commands. For moving the wheels stepper motors along with suitable amplifiers have been employed. Homing after powering ON is achieved using hall effect sensors. By implementing distributed control units having identical design modularity is achieved enabling easier maintenance and upgradation. A GUI based software for commanding the instrument is developed in Microsoft Visual C++. For operating the system during observations the user selects normal mode while the engineering mode is available for offering additional flexibility and low level control during maintenance and testing. A detailed time-stamped log of commands, status and errors are continuously generated. Both the control unit and the software have been successfully tested and integrated with the ADFOSC instrument.

  4. CCD polarimetry of distant comets C/2010 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) at the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra V.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.; Reshetnyk, Volodymyr M.; Korsun, Pavlo P.

    2015-12-01

    We present first measurements of the degree of linear polarization of distant comets C/2010 S1 (LINEAR) and C/2010 R1 (LINEAR) at heliocentric distances r=5.9-7.0 AU. Observations were carried out with the SCORPIO-2 focal reducer at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia). Both comets showed considerable level of activity (significant dust comae and tails) beyond a zone where water ice sublimation is negligible (up to 5 AU). Significant spatial variations both in the intensity and polarization are found in both the comets. The slope of radial profiles of intensity changes gradually with the distance from the photocenter: from -0.7 near the nucleus up to about -1.3 for larger distances (up to 100,000 km). The variation in polarization profiles indicates the non-uniformity in the polarization distribution over the coma. The polarization degree over the coma gradually increases (in absolute value) with increasing photocentric distance from of about -1.9% up to -3% for comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), and from of about -2.5% up to -3.5% for comet C/2010 R1 (LINEAR). These polarization values are significantly higher than typical value of the whole coma polarization (∼-1.5%) for comets at heliocentric distances less than 5 AU. The obtained photometric and polarimetric data are compared with those derived early for other comets at smaller heliocentric distances. Numerical modeling of light scattering characteristics was performed for media composed of particles with different refractive indexes, shapes, and sizes. The computations were made by using the superposition T-matrix method. We obtained that for comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), the dust in the form of aggregates of overall radius R~1.3 μm composed of N=1000 spherical monomers with radius a=0.1 μm and refractive index m=1.65+i0.05, allows to obtain a satisfactory agreement between the results of polarimetric observations of comet C/2010 S1 and computations.

  5. New Results of Spectral Observations of CP Stars in the Li I 6708 Å Spectral Region with the 6-m BTA Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Drake, N.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Smirnova, M.

    The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has for a long time been a subject of debates. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as a high abundance of rare-earth elements, the presence of magnetic fields, complex structures of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP stars, make the detection of lithium lines, and determination of lithium abundance a challenging task. The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed during the meeting in Slovakia in 1996. The results of the Li study, carried out in CrAO (Polosukhina, 1973 - 1976), the works of Faraggiana & Hack (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992 - 1996) formed the basis of the international project, called Lithium in the Cool CP Stars with Magnetic Fields. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of the anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

  6. InnoPOL: an EMCCD imaging polarimeter and 85-element curvature AO system on the 3.6-m AEOS telescope for cost effective polarimetric speckle suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, David; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Gisler, Daniel; Kuhn, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    The Hokupa'a-85 curvature adaptive optics system components have been adapted to create a new AO-corrected coud\\'{e} instrument at the 3.67m Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) telescope. This new AO-corrected optical path is designed to deliver an f/40 diffraction-limited focus at wavelengths longer than 800nm. A new EMCCD-based dual-beam imaging polarimeter called InnoPOL has been designed and is presently being installed behind this corrected f/40 beam. The InnoPOL system is a flexible platform for optimizing polarimetric performance using commercial solutions and for testing modulation strategies. The system is designed as a technology test and demonstration platform as the coud\\'{e} path is built using off-the-shelf components wherever possible. Models of the polarimetric performance after AO correction show that polarization modulation at rates as slow as 200Hz can cause speckle correlations in brightness and focal plane location sufficient enough to change the speckle suppression behavior of the mod...

  7. Age -- Metallicity relation in the MCs clusters (Based on observations made with the Danish 1.54 m and ESO 3.6m Telescopes at La Silla Observatory, Chile)

    CERN Document Server

    Livanou, E; Kontizas, M; Nordström, B; Kontizas, E; Andersen, J; Dirsch, B; Karampelas, A

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate a possible dependence between age and metallicity in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) from a study of small open star clusters, using Str\\"{o}mgren photometry. Our goal is to trace evidence of an age metallicity relation (AMR) and correlate it with the mutual interactions of the two MCs. Our aim is also to correlate the AMR with the spatial distribution of the clusters. In the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the majority of the selected clusters are young (up to 1 Gyr) and our aim is to search for an AMR at this epoch which has not been much studied. Methods: We report on results for 15 LMC and 8 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, scattered all over the area of these galaxies, to cover a wide spatial distribution and metallicity range. The selected LMC clusters were observed with the 1.54m Danish Telescope in Chile, using the Danish Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (DFOSC) with a single 2kx2k CCD, whereas the SMC clusters were observed with the ESO 3.6m Telescope also in Chile with the E...

  8. Sardinia Radio Telescope: General Description, Technical Commissioning and First Light

    CERN Document Server

    Bolli, P; Stringhetti, L; Orfei, A; Righini, S; Ambrosini, R; Bartolini, M; Bortolotti, C; Buffa, F; Buttu, M; Cattani, A; D'Amico, N; Deiana, G; Fara, A; Fiocchi, F; Gaudiomonte, F; Maccaferri, A; Mariotti, S; Marongiu, P; Melis, A; Migoni, C; Morsiani, M; Nanni, M; Nasyr, F; Pellizzoni, A; Pisanu, T; Poloni, M; Poppi, S; Porceddu, I; Prandoni, I; Roda, J; Roma, M; Scalambra, A; Serra, G; Trois, A; Valente, G; Vargiu, G P; Zacchiroli, G

    2016-01-01

    In the period 2012 June - 2013 October, the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) went through the technical commissioning phase. The characterization involved three first-light receivers, ranging in frequency between 300MHz and 26GHz, connected to a Total Power back-end. It also tested and employed the telescope active surface installed in the main reflector of the antenna. The instrument status and performance proved to be in good agreement with the expectations in terms of surface panels alignment (at present 300 um rms to be improved with microwave holography), gain (~0.6 K/Jy in the given frequency range), pointing accuracy (5 arcsec at 22 GHz) and overall single-dish operational capabilities. Unresolved issues include the commissioning of the receiver centered at 350 MHz, which was compromised by several radio frequency interferences, and a lower-than-expected aperture efficiency for the 22-GHz receiver when pointing at low elevations. Nevertheless, the SRT, at present completing its Astronomical Validation ph...

  9. The camera of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope. Part I: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolmont, J., E-mail: bolmont@in2p3.fr [LPNHE, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Corona, P.; Gauron, P.; Ghislain, P.; Goffin, C.; Guevara Riveros, L.; Huppert, J.-F.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Nayman, P.; Parraud, J.-M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Toussenel, F.; Vincent, D.; Vincent, P. [LPNHE, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bertoli, W.; Espigat, P.; Punch, M. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Besin, D.; Delagnes, E.; Glicenstein, J.-F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2014-10-11

    In July 2012, as the four ground-based gamma-ray telescopes of the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) array reached their tenth year of operation in Khomas Highlands, Namibia, a fifth telescope took its first data as part of the system. This new Cherenkov detector, comprising a 614.5 m{sup 2} reflector with a highly pixelized camera in its focal plane, improves the sensitivity of the current array by a factor two and extends its energy domain down to a few tens of GeV. The present part I of the paper gives a detailed description of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope's camera, presenting the details of both the hardware and the software, emphasizing the main improvements as compared to previous H.E.S.S. camera technology.

  10. The camera of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope. Part I: System description

    CERN Document Server

    Bolmont, J; Gauron, P; Ghislain, P; Goffin, C; Riveros, L Guevara; Huppert, J -F; Martineau-Huynh, O; Nayman, P; Parraud, J -M; Tavernet, J -P; Toussenel, F; Vincent, D; Vincent, P; Bertoli, W; Espigat, P; Punch, M; Besin, D; Delagnes, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Moudden, Y; Venault, P; Zaghia, H; Brunetti, L; Dubois, J-M; Fiasson, A; Geffroy, N; Monteiro, I Gomes; Journet, L; Krayzel, F; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; Lees, S; Lieunard, B; Maurin, G; Mugnier, P; Panazol, J-L; Prast, J; Chounet, L -M; Edy, E; Fontaine, G; Giebels, B; Hormigos, S; Khélifi, B; Manigot, P; Maritaz, P; de Naurois, M; Compin, M; Feinstein, F; Fernandez, D; Mehault, J; Rivoire, S; Royer, S; Sanguillon, M; Vasileiadis, G

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012, as the four ground-based gamma-ray telescopes of the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) array reached their tenth year of operation in Khomas Highlands, Namibia, a fifth telescope took its first data as part of the system. This new Cherenkov detector, comprising a 614.5 m$^2$ reflector with a highly pixellized camera in its focal plane, improves the sensitivity of the current array by a factor two and extends its energy domain down to a few tens of GeV. The present part I of the paper gives a detailed description of the fifth H.E.S.S. telescope's camera, presenting the details of both the hardware and the software, emphasizing the main improvements as compared to previous H.E.S.S. camera technology.

  11. Contact Profilometer: Dektak 6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Profilometer 1This system is used to measure step hights by profilometry. Specifications / Capabilities:Up to 6" wafersStylus force 1-15mgTip...

  12. Exploring model based engineering for large telescopes: getting started with descriptive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R.; Zamparelli, M.; Bauvir, B.; Koehler, B.; Noethe, L.; Balestra, A.

    2008-07-01

    Large telescopes pose a continuous challenge to systems engineering due to their complexity in terms of requirements, operational modes, long duty lifetime, interfaces and number of components. A multitude of decisions must be taken throughout the life cycle of a new system, and a prime means of coping with complexity and uncertainty is using models as one decision aid. The potential of descriptive models based on the OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysMLTM) is examined in different areas: building a comprehensive model serves as the basis for subsequent activities of soliciting and review for requirements, analysis and design alike. Furthermore a model is an effective communication instrument against misinterpretation pitfalls which are typical of cross disciplinary activities when using natural language only or free-format diagrams. Modeling the essential characteristics of the system, like interfaces, system structure and its behavior, are important system level issues which are addressed. Also shown is how to use a model as an analysis tool to describe the relationships among disturbances, opto-mechanical effects and control decisions and to refine the control use cases. Considerations on the scalability of the model structure and organization, its impact on the development process, the relation to document-centric structures, style and usage guidelines and the required tool chain are presented.

  13. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures.

  14. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures. F

  15. Calibration of the ZEUS 6 m tagger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Matthias

    2008-11-15

    In the last period of the HERA running, data were taken with the ZEUS detector to measure directly the longitudinal structure function of the proton and to determine the total photoproduction cross section. The identification of electrons from photoproduction events, in which an electron interacts with a proton and is scattered at very small angles, is essential for both the measurements. The electrons were detected using a small electromagnetic calorimeter, the 6 m tagger, which as located near the beam pipe at {approx} 6m from the ep interaction point. A method for the calibration and reconstruction of electromagnetic showers in the 6m tagger was developed and the energy acceptance range and the resolution of the 6 m tagger was measured. Furthermore, the photon acceptance and the energy resolution of a different electromagnetic calorimeter used for the luminosity measurement at ZEUS were analyzed using the 6 m tagger. (orig.)

  16. Coating experiment with 1.6-m vacuum evaporation chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yukiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Noguchi, Takeshi; Kanzawa, Tomio; Sasaki, Goro; Torii, Yasuo; Yutani, Masami; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    1998-08-01

    We have conducted a series of coating experiments using the newly installed 1.6 m evaporation chamber at the Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The main task of this chamber is to re-aluminize the 1.6 m mirror of the Infrared Simulator at the ATC. The design concept of the 1.6 m chamber is basically the same with the 8.3 m coating facility for Subaru Telescope. Therefore, we could utilize this chamber to evaluate the fundamental performance of the larger chamber. The extensive coating experiments were done in the spring, autumn of 1996, and autumn of 1997. Reduction of the number of the filaments has lead to the increase in their size, which caused difficulty in the annealing process. Attempts are focused on securing the sufficient metal loads on the filaments. Then the filaments are fired to measure the spray pattern of a single filament exposure, or the uniformity pattern resulted from the full setup of filament arrays. Using small slide glasses, the important parameters of the resultant reflecting film that are the thickness, the uniformity of the thickness, and the spectroscopic reflectance are measured. The absolute value of the reflectivity is estimated to be around 91% immediately after opening the chamber. In order to cover a wide range of observing wavelengths for the Infrared Simulator, and eventually for the optical-IR Subaru Telescope, it is necessary to seek after a higher evaporation rate with these chambers.

  17. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) with The Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetti, D; Sabbi, E; Adamo, A; Smith, L J; Andrews, J E; Ubeda, L; Bright, S N; Thilker, D; Aloisi, A; Brown, T M; Chandar, R; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Clayton, G C; da Silva, R; de Mink, S E; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, B G; Elmegreen, D M; Evans, A S; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Herrero, A; Hunter, D A; Johnson, K E; Kennicutt, R C; Kim, H; Krumholz, M R; Lennon, D; Levay, K; Martin, C; Nair, P; Nota, A; Oestlin, G; Pellerin, A; Prieto, J; Regan, M W; Ryon, J E; Schaerer, D; Schiminovich, D; Tosi, M; Van Dyk, S D; Walterbos, R; Whitmore, B C; Wofford, A; .,

    2014-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope, aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging, from the near-ultraviolet to the I-band, with the Wide Field Camera 3, plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the Wide Field Camera 3 are: F275W(2,704 A), F336W(3,355 A), F438W(4,325 A), F555W(5,308 A), and F814W(8,024 A); the parallel observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys use the filters: F435W(4,328 A), F606W(5,921 A), and F814W(8,057 A). The multi-band images are yielding accurate recent (<~50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The e...

  18. Study of new optical transients using 3.6m DOT at Devasthal Nainital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Longitudinal advantage of Indian sub-continent makes the recently installed 3.6m telescope as a novel facility for astronomical observations, specially, to study time critical events, i.g. transients. This telescope along with the first generation back-end instruments could be efficiently used to study new transients discovered using a global network of robotic survey telescopes. Study of new transients as a part of time domain astronomy will play a key role in near future along with the upcoming multi-wavelength facilities to explore the underlying physics behind these sources.

  19. ElevationOther_nDSM1p6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m; Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m; Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related "normalized"...

  20. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m; Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m; Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related SLOPE...

  1. ElevationOther_HILSHD1p6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m; Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m; Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related "HILLSHADE"...

  2. ElevationDEM_DEM1p6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m; Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m; Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and Digital Elevation...

  3. ElevationOther_ASPECT1p6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m; Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m; Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.4m and related ASPECT...

  4. Diseño de montura Davies-Cotton de telescopio Cherenkov de 6m de diámetro para el proyecto CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, M.; Ringegni, P.; Antico, F.; Bottani, A.; Vallejo, G.; Ochoa, I.; Marconi, D.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Rovero, A. C.

    For the next generation of ground-based instruments for the observation of gamma-rays, the construction of 6 m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is foreseen. We have proposed a design of Davies-Cotton mount for such a telescope, within Cherenkov Telescope Array specifications, and evaluated its mechanical and optical performance. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. The Allen Telescope Array Pi GHz Sky Survey I. Survey Description and Static Catalog Results for the Bootes Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Geoffrey C; Keating, Garrett; Whysong, David; Ackermann, Rob; Atkinson, Shannon; Backer, Don; Backus, Peter; Barott, Billy; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bradford, Tucker; Cheng, Calvin; Cork, Chris; Davis, Mike; DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matt; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Fleming, Matt; Forster, R James; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Harp, G R; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Hull, Chat; Jordan, Jane; Jorgensen, Susanne; Kilsdonk, Tom; Law, Casey; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Lugten, John; MacMahon, Dave; McMahon, Peter; Milgrome, Oren; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Shostak, Seth; Siemion, Andrew; Smolek, Ken; Tarter, Jill; Thornton, Douglas; Urry, Lynn; Vitouchkine, Artyom; Wadefalk, Niklas; Weinreb, Sandy; Welch, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter K G; Wright, Melvyn

    2010-01-01

    The Pi GHz Sky Survey (PiGSS) is a key project of the Allen Telescope Array. PiGSS is a 3.1 GHz survey of radio continuum emission in the extragalactic sky with an emphasis on synoptic observations that measure the static and time-variable properties of the sky. During the 2.5-year campaign, PiGSS will twice observe ~250,000 radio sources in the 10,000 deg^2 region of the sky with b > 30 deg to an rms sensitivity of ~1 mJy. Additionally, sub-regions of the sky will be observed multiple times to characterize variability on time scales of days to years. We present here observations of a 10 deg^2 region in the Bootes constellation overlapping the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey field. The PiGSS image was constructed from 75 daily observations distributed over a 4-month period and has an rms flux density between 200 and 250 microJy. This represents a deeper image by a factor of 4 to 8 than we will achieve over the entire 10,000 deg^2. We provide flux densities, source sizes, and spectral indices for the 425 sources d...

  6. IR spectrometer project for the BTA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  7. IR Spectrometer Project for the BTA Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  9. ElevationOther_DSM1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related Digital Surface Model (DSM) data. This metadata complies with the...

  10. ElevationOther_HILSHD1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related "HILLSHADE" raster data. HILLSHADE data is for cartographic use...

  11. ElevationDEM_DEM1p6M2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various "hydro-treatments": DEM,...

  12. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  13. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  14. ElevationOther_nDSM1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related "normalized" Digital Surface Model (nDSM). Created "Normalized...

  15. ElevationOther_DSM1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related Digital Surface Model (DSM) data. This metadata complies with the VT...

  16. ElevationOther_HILSHD1p6M2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related "HILLSHADE" raster data. HILLSHADE data is for cartographic use...

  17. ElevationOther_HILSHD1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related "HILLSHADE" raster data. HILLSHADE data is for cartographic use only...

  18. ElevationSlope_SLOPE1p6M2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE" command to produce...

  19. ElevationOther_ASPECT1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related ASPECT datasets. This metadata complies with the VT Geodata Portal...

  20. ElevationOther_DSM1p6M2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and related Digital Surface Model (DSM) data. This metadata complies with the...

  1. ElevationOther_nDSM1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related "normalized" Digital Surface Model (nDSM). Created "Normalized...

  2. ElevationOther_ASPECT1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related ASPECT datasets. This metadata complies with the VT Geodata Portal...

  3. ElevationDEM_DEM1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various "hydro-treatments": DEM,...

  4. ElevationDEM_DEMHF1p6M2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various "hydro-treatments": DEM,...

  5. ElevationDEM_DEM1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various "hydro-treatments": DEM,...

  6. ElevationDEM_DEMHF1p6M2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various "hydro-treatments": DEM,...

  7. ElevationDEM_DEMHF1p6M2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various "hydro-treatments": DEM,...

  8. The First VERITAS Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, J; Badran, H M; Blaylock, G; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Byrum, K L; Carter-Lewis, D A; Celik, O; Chow, Y C K; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Daniel, M K; De la Calle-Perez, I; Dowdall, C; Dowkontt, P; Duke, C; Falcone, A D; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L F; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G; Glidewell, O J; Grube, J; Gutíerrez, K J; Gyuk, G; Hall, J; Hanna, D; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, S B; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Jung, I; Kaaret, Philip; Kenny, G E; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Knapp, J; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Linton, E; Little, E K; Maier, G; Manseri, H; Milovanovic, A; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Ogden, P A; Ong, R A; Perkins, J S; Pizlo, F; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E T; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Sleege, G A; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Syson, A; Toner, J A; Valcarcel, L; Vasilev, V V; Wagner, R; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; White, R J; Williams, D A

    2006-01-01

    The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV $\\gamma$-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

  9. Astrobo: Towards a new observatory control system for the Garching Observatory 0.6m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweyer, T.; Jarmatz, P.; Burwitz, V.

    2016-12-01

    The recently installed Campus Observatory Garching (COG) 0.6m telescope features a wide array of instruments, including a wide-field imager and a variety of spectrographs. To support all these different instruments and improve time usage, it was decided to develop a new control system from scratch, that will be able to safely observe autonomously as well as manually (for student lab courses). It is built using an hierarchical microservice architecture, which allows well-specified communication between its components regardless of the programming language used. This modular design allows for fast prototyping of components as well as easy implementation of complex instrumentation control software.

  10. Observatory wins GBP 10.6m contract

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalton, A W

    2003-01-01

    Funding has been secured for a revolutionary GBP 10.6 million telescope camera, SCUBA 2, to be built in Edinburgh. The instrument will be able to track much larger areas of sky more quickly and will replace the original Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array camera which was also built in Edinburgh (1/2 page).

  11. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  12. Ice Middleware in the New Solar Telescope's Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumko, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now in the process of assembling and aligning its 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST). There are many challenges controlling NST and one of them is establishing reliable and robust communications between different parts of the Telescope Control System (TCS). For our TCS we selected Ice (Internet communication engine) from ZeroC, Inc. In this paper we discuss advantages of the Ice middleware, details of implementation and problems we face implementing it.

  13. Neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, J

    2002-01-01

    This review presents the scientific objectives and status of Neutrino Telescope Projects. The science program of these projects covers: neutrino astronomy, dark matter searches and measurements of neutrino oscillations. The two neutrino telescopes in operation: AMANDA and BAIKAL will be described together with the ANTARES neutrino telescope being built in the Mediterranean. (18 refs).

  14. Engineering aspects of the HT-6M Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    The HT-6M is a medium-sized tokamak being built in China. The principal aim of the project is to study high-power auxiliary heating (1-MW neutral beam injection, 1-MW ion cyclotron resonance heating, and 100-kW electron cyclotron resonance heating), high-..beta.. experiments, the transport process, and the formation and diffusion process of impurities. The main device parameters are: major plasma radius R = 65 cm, minor plasma radius a = 20 cm, plasma current I/subP/ = 150 kA, discharge time tau = 150 ms, toroidal field B/subT/ = 15 kG. Simplicity of construction, accessibility to the plasma, reliability in operation, and convenience for maintenance were particularly emphasized in the design. The important design features of the device and power supply system are described.

  15. Design of 2-m to 6-m Liquid Mirror Containers

    CERN Document Server

    Content, R

    2003-01-01

    A new design is proposed for large (up to 6-m) liquid mirror containers. The design uses Kevlar, foam and aluminum, as in previous designs, but with a different configuration that makes the container lighter, stronger and more rigid. The results of finite element analysis are presented, consisting in the deformations due to temperature changes and to weight, and in the security factor for each material when maximum constraints are applied. Tilt rigidity is also analyzed. They show that the composite material construction technique gives a good performance up to 6 meter diameters. The figures and tables contained in this paper can be used as recipes to build containers having diameters between 2 and 6 meters.

  16. 6M 新喂养情人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栋栋丽; 丽霖; 李旭

    2007-01-01

    <正> 后纯爱时代还有什么不能"混"?一如最适合情人节的美食是西餐,这就是一种混搭。实在的美味与虚幻的浪漫结合,温馨的烛光与高屋华堂搭伴,这是时下谈恋爱最流行的调调。浪漫情色不需多,一圈光影一丝香氛,一个眼神一句情话,足以让人心旌摇荡。你一定要提早预定全城最值得白领标榜的西餐厅,联络大厨及招待,设计自己的浪漫时刻。餐桌之外,谁也不想对方被邻桌的美女型男或者其他东西分散注意力,所以要精心考察餐厅环境:是否可以沐浴夕阳,是否有大海做背景,是否有充满欲望的城市夜色,是否有许多老外和异国情调,是否有对方最喜欢的风格音乐……千万不要忽略情人大餐的任何细节,吃西餐讲究6M,一定要用 Menu 点菜;似听到又听不到的的 Music;浪漫、迷人、淡雅的 Mood;和亲密的人 Meeting;绅士淑女的 Manner;用鼻子"吃"的 Meal。现在跟随我们进人几家兼备6M 的西餐厅。

  17. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 166 9. Space telescopes Figure 9.1: Paraboloid telescope. In the following sections, NI...planets nearby a brighter star. Normal-incidence telescopes One-mirror telescope The one-mirror telescope (mostly an off-axis paraboloid ; Figure 9.1) has...rotation of the whole instrument (see SUMER/SOHO, Wilhelm et al (1995) and EIS/Hinode, Culhane et al (2007)). The paraboloid field curvature (Petzval

  18. The first aluminum coating of the 3700mm primary mirror of the Devasthal Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheemireddy, Krishna Reddy; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Pant, Jayshreekar; Omar, Amitesh; Kumar, Brijesh; Uddin, Wahab; Kumar, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    Initially the primary mirror of the 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope is uncoated polished zerodur glass supplied by Lytkarino Optical Glass Factory, Russia/Advanced Mechanical and Optical Systems, Belgium. In order to do the aluminium coating on the primary mirror the coating plant including washing unit is installed near the telescope (extension building of telescope) by Hind High Vacuum (HHV) Bangalore, India. Magnetron sputtering technique is used for the coating. Several coating trials are done before the primary mirror coating; samples are tested for reflectivity, uniformity, adhesivity and finally commissioned. The primary mirror is cleaned, coated by ARIES. We present here a brief description of the coating plant installation, Mirror cleaning and coating procedures and the testing results of the samples.

  19. HARPS3 for a roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Samantha J.; Queloz, Didier; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; González Hernández, Jonay I.; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramón; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Ségransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Young, John

    2016-08-01

    We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R≃115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10- year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ≍1:4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous ow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a robotic operation. The robotic operation will optimise our programme which requires our target stars to be measured on a nightly basis. We present an overview of the entire project, including a description of our anticipated robotic operation.

  20. Burrell-Optical-Kepler Survey (BOKS) I: Survey Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, John J.; Howell, S.; Harding, P.; Mihos, C.; Rudick, C.; Sherry, W.; Lee, T.; Knox, C.; Ciardi, D.; von Braun, K.; Everett, M.; Proctor, M.; van Belle, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Burrell Optical Kepler Survey (BOKS) is a ground-based, high cadence, stellar variability survey over a portion of the planned science field for the Kepler mission. The survey was carried out at the 0.6m Burrell Schmidt telescope, with an observed field size of 1.36 square degrees. Over 60,000 stars were observed within the BOKS field in the SDSS r-band spanning a time period of 39 days, with a 4.5 minute cadence. We give a basic description of the survey, and calculate the observability function for stellar variablity of different types.

  1. SNAP telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  2. Instrument Description and Performance Evaluation of a High-Order Adaptive Optics System for the 1 m New Vacuum Solar Telescope at Fuxian Solar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Changhui; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Xuejun; Zhang, Lanqiang; Bao, Hua; Kong, Lin; Guo, Youming; Zhong, Libo; Ma, Xue'an; Li, Mei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fan, Xinlong; Chen, Donghong; Feng, Zhongyi; Gu, Naiting; Liu, Yangyi

    2016-12-01

    A high-order solar adaptive optics (AO) system including a fine tracking loop and a high-order wavefront correction loop has been installed at the 1 m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of the Fuxian Solar Observatory, in routine operation since 2016. The high-order wavefront correction loop consists of a deformable mirror with 151 actuators, a correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with 102 subapertures of which the Absolute Difference Square Algorithm is used to extract the gradients, and a custom-built real-time controller based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and multi-core Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The frame rate of the wavefront sensor is up to 3500 Hz and this is, to our knowledge, the fastest solar AO system. This AO system can work with a Fried parameter r 0, at the 500 nm wavelength, of larger than 3 cm. The first 65 modes of the Zernike aberrations can be efficiently corrected and the Strehl ratio of the corrected TiO image for the solar pore is superior to 0.75 with the Fried parameter r 0 larger than 10 cm. In this paper, the design of the system is described, and high-resolution solar observational images are presented. Furthermore, the performances of the AO system are evaluated according to the data recorded by the real-time controller.

  3. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  4. HARPS3 for a Roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Samantha J; Baraffe, Isabelle; Brake, Martyn; Dolgopolov, Andrey; Fisher, Martin; Fleury, Michel; Geelhoed, Joost; Hall, Richard; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Naylor, Tim; Pepe, Francesco; Piskunov, Nikolai; Rebolo, Rafael; Sander, Louis; Segransan, Damien; Seneta, Eugene; Sing, David; Snellen, Ignas; Snik, Frans; Spronck, Julien; Stempels, Eric; Sun, Xiaowei; Tschudi, Samuel Santana; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of a new instrument development, HARPS3, planned to be installed on an upgraded and roboticized Isaac Newton Telescope by end-2018. HARPS3 will be a high resolution (R = 115,000) echelle spectrograph with a wavelength range from 380-690 nm. It is being built as part of the Terra Hunting Experiment - a future 10 year radial velocity measurement programme to discover Earth-like exoplanets. The instrument design is based on the successful HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6m ESO telescope and HARPS-N on the TNG telescope. The main changes to the design in HARPS3 will be: a customised fibre adapter at the Cassegrain focus providing a stabilised beam feed and on-sky fibre diameter ~ 1.4 arcsec, the implementation of a new continuous flow cryostat to keep the CCD temperature very stable, detailed characterisation of the HARPS3 CCD to map the effective pixel positions and thus provide an improved accuracy wavelength solution, an optimised integrated polarimeter and the instrument integrated into a...

  5. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 MODEST is a 0.6m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO). Report Documentation Page Form...altitude ( Cerro Paranal) [7]. A 0.5mag increase in extinction increases the smallest detectable size by ~30%. The inland location on Ascension will...This mode follows the method implemented by MODEST for surveying the GEO belt [2]. MODEST is a 0.6m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican

  6. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  7. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  8. The Robotic Super-LOTIS Telescope: Results & Future Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, G. G.; Milne, P. A.; Park, H.S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Hartmann, D. H.; Updike, A.; Hurley, K.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the robotic Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) telescope and present results from gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations using Super-LOTIS and other Steward Observatory telescopes. The 0.6-m Super-LOTIS telescope is a fully robotic system dedicated to the measurement of prompt and early time optical emission from GRBs. The system began routine operations from its Steward Observatory site atop Kitt Peak in April 2000 and currently operates ...

  9. VST telescope dynamic analisys and position control algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schipani, P

    2001-01-01

    The VST (VLT Survey Telescope) is a 2.6 m class Alt-Az telescope to be installed on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile, in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) site. The VST is a wide-field imaging facility planned to supply databases for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) science and carry out stand-alone observations in the UV to I spectral range. So far no telescope has been dedicated entirely to surveys; the VST will be the first survey telescope to start the operation, as a powerful survey facility for the VLT observatory. This paper will focus on the axes motion control system. The dynamic model of the telescope will be analyzed, as well as the effect of the wind disturbance on the telescope performance. Some algorithms for the telescope position control will be briefly discussed.

  10. Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DV6M-2BOZL [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ain> 1DV6M IADRG-----TAAER ...>HH -----HHHHH> ATOM 4117 CA ILE M 238 78.038 1... 2BOZL AANPEKGKEMRTPDH >HH H...ain>1DV6M TVVDN----WYVWG re...hain>2BOZL TIWFDQWVDWWQWW ure> GGGGGHHH

  12. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  13. Holographic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  14. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  15. 2016 - Color & Infrared (4 band) - Statewide NAIP (0.6m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NAIP_0_6M_CLRIR_2016 dataset is a (60 centimeter) truecolor and infrared (4 band) NAIP imagery product acquired during the summer of 2016 by...

  16. A review of the safety features of 6M packagings for DOE programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report, prepared by a US Department of Energy (DOE) Task Force and organized for clarity into two-page modules, argues that the US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification-6M packagings (hereafter referred to as 6M packaging, or simply 6M) merit continued DOE use and, if necessary, DOE certification. This report is designed to address the specific requirements of a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). While not a SARP, this report constitutes a compilation of all available documentation on 6M packagings. The authors individually, and the Task Force collectively, believe their investigation provides justification for the continued use of 6M packagings because they meet criteria for quality assurance and for safety under normal and accident conditions as defined by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. This report may be used by DOE managers to assist in deliberations on future requirements for 6M packagings as they are required to support DOE programs. For the purpose of ready evaluation, this report includes categorical topics found in Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.9, the topical guideline for SARPs. The format, however, will (it is hoped) pleasantly surprise customary reader expectations. For, while maintaining categorical headings and subheadings found in SARPs as a skeleton, the Task Force chose to adopt the document design principles developed by Hughes Aircraft in the 1960s, ''Sequential Thematic Organization of Publications'' (STOP). 37 figs.

  17. The Antares Undersea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinolfi, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Neutrino astronomy is a very promising field of investigation representing a complementary source of information with respect to photon-astronomy. ANTARES, operating off the French Mediterranean coast, is the worlds largest operational underwater neutrino telescope. In these proceedings, in addition to a short detector description, the results of recent analysis will be discussed. The ANTARES project is an important physics experiment but also represents a bench mark for a future large detector of the km3 scale.

  18. The Experiment of Modulated Toroidal Current on HT-7 and HT-6M Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiments of Modulated Toroidal Current were done on the HT-6M tokamakand HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The toroidal current was modulated by programming theOhmic heating field. Modulation of the plasma current has been used successfully to suppressMHD activity in discharges near the density limit where large MHD m = 2 tearing modes weresuppressed by sufficiently large plasma current oscillations. The improved Ohmic confinementphase was observed during modulating toroidal current (MTC) on the Hefei Tokamak-6M (HT-6M) and Hefei superconducting Tokamak-7 (HT-7). A toroidal frequency-modulated current,induced by a modulated loop voltage, was added on the plasma equilibrium current. The ratio ofA.C. amplitude of plasma current to the main plasma current △Ip/Ip is about 12% ~ 30%. Thedifferent formats of the frequency-modulated toroidal current were compared.

  19. Structure and abrasive wear resistance of R6M5 steel-tungsten carbide composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyusov, S. F.

    2012-09-01

    Features of the structure formation, composition, and abrasive wear resistance of R6M5 steel-tungsten carbide (R6M5-WC) composite coatings have been studied as dependent on the WC content. The introduction of ˜20 wt % WC into the hardening composition leads to an increase in the fraction of M6C carbide (in the form of eutectic inclusions with average size ˜5.9 μm at grain boundaries and dispersed ˜0.25 μm particles in the volume of grains), while a large proportion of metastable austenite (˜88 vol %) is still retained. The R6M5-WC coatings exhibit high abrasive wear resistance, which is ensured by the γ → α' martensite transformation during friction and a muiltimodal size distribution of hardening particles.

  20. Development and tests of interferometry facility in 6-m diameter radiometer thermal vacuum chamber in Tsukuba Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masahiro; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Naitoh, Masataka; Imai, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Masashi; Maruyama, Kenta; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Tange, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Takao

    2010-07-01

    We present a test of optical metrology for 800-mm spaceborne optics in the 6-m radiometer thermal vacuum chamber at JAXA's Tsukuba Space Center of JAXA. Under the framework of the JAXA's large-optics study program for astronomy and Earth observations, we developed a test bench for interferometric metrology of large optics with an auto-collimation method in the chamber. The optical system was aligned in a horizontal light-axis configuration within the facility limit to handle a 3.5-m aperture telescope like SPICA. A high-speed interferometer was contained in an aluminum and titanmade pressure vessel, which was mounted on the five-axis stage. We tested the 800-mm lightweight C/SiC optics using a 900-mm diameter flat mirror. Alignment changes in tilts of about ten arcseconds were observed as pressure went down from 1 atm to vacuum. After we re-aligned the interferometer and flat mirror, the wavefronts through the optics under vacuum were observed to increase in astigmatism aberration by 0.07λRMS at λ=633nm from under atmosphere, which might be caused by a deformation in the test optics or flat mirror.

  1. Chemical Bond Parameters in Sr3MRhO6 (M=Rare earth)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chemical bond parameters, that is, bond covalency, bond valence, macroscopic linear susceptibility, and oxidation states of elements in Sr3MRhO6 (M=Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) have been calculated. The results indicate that the bond covalency of M-O decreases sharply with the decrease of ionic radius of M3+ from Sm to Yb, while no obvious trend has been found for Rh-O and Sr-O bonds. The global instability index indicates that the crystal structures of Sr3MrhO6 (M = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho) have strained bonds.

  2. A Signature of Self-Organized Criticality in the HT-6M Edge Plasma Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Hao; YU Chang-Xuan; WEN Yi-Zhi; XU Yu-Hong; LING Bi-Li; GONG Xian-Zu; LIU Bao-Hua; WAN Bao-Nian

    2001-01-01

    ower spectra of electron density and floating potential fluctuations in the velocity shear layer of the HT-6M edge region have been measured and analysed. All the spectra have three distinct frequency regions with the spectral decay indices typical of self-organized criticality systems (0, -1 and -4) when Doppler shift effects induced by the plasma E × B flow velocity have been taken into account. These results are consistent with the predictions of the self-organized criticality models, which may be an indication of edge plasma turbulence in the HT-6M tokamak evolving into a critical state independent of local plasma parameters.

  3. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  4. Complete $\\alpha^6\\,m$ corrections to the ground state of H$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Czachorowski, Pawel; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We perform the calculation of all relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections of the order of $\\alpha^6\\,m$ to the ground electronic state of a hydrogen molecule and present improved results for the dissociation and the fundamental transitions energies. These results open the window for the high-precision spectroscopy of H$_2$ and related low-energy tests of fundamental interactions.

  5. The Robotic Super-LOTIS Telescope: Results & Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, G G; Park, H S; Barthelmy, S D; Hartmann, D H; Updike, A; Hurley, K

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the robotic Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) telescope and present results from gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations using Super-LOTIS and other Steward Observatory telescopes. The 0.6-m Super-LOTIS telescope is a fully robotic system dedicated to the measurement of prompt and early time optical emission from GRBs. The system began routine operations from its Steward Observatory site atop Kitt Peak in April 2000 and currently operates every clear night. The telescope is instrumented with an optical CCD camera and a four position filter wheel. It is capable of observing Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) error boxes as early or earlier than the Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Super-LOTIS complements the UVOT observations by providing early R- and I-band imaging. We also use the suite of Steward Observatory telescopes including the 1.6-m Kuiper, the 2.3-m Bok, the 6.5-m MMT, and the 8.4-m Large Binocular Telescope to perform follow-up optical and near ...

  6. 'n Evaluering van die 6M-Simulasie opleidingkursus vir oningewyde swart werkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. van Niekerk

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the 6M Simulation Training Course is discussed with reference to mastery of course content, influence of training on job performance and reaction of course attendants to the course. Results indicate a significant increase in knowledge, irrespective of variables such as age, educational qualifications, years of service, home language, place of origin and job category. A positive change in 34 items related to the job situation and a positive reaction to the course content and training techniques were also found. .Opsomming'n Evaluering van die 6M-Simulasie Opleidingskursus word bespreek met verwysing na die bemeestering van kursusinhoud, die invloed van opleiding op werkprestasie en reaksie van kursusgangers. Resultate dui op 'n beduidende toename in kennis ongeag tussenkomende veranderlikes soos ouderdom, opvoedkundige kwalifikasies, jare diens, huistaal, geboorteplek en werkkategorie. 'n Positiewe reaksie op 34 vrae wat verband hou met die werksituasie, en op die kursusinhoud en opleidingstegnieke word ook gerapporteer.

  7. The SOFIA Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krabbe, A

    2000-01-01

    The SOFIA telescope as the heart of the observatory is a major technological challenge. I present an overview on the astro-nomical and scientific requirements for such a big airborne observatory and demonstrate the impact of these requirements on the layout of SOFIA, in particular on the telescope design as it is now. Selected components of the telescope will be de-scribed in their context and functionality. The current status of the telescope is presented.

  8. BCL6 mRNA Expression Level in Invasive Duct Carcinoma not otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Eman; Masoud, Eman; Eldien, Marwa Serag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction B-Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) has an oncogenic role in tumourigenesis of various malignancies. It represses genes involved in terminal differentiation and plays complementary role with Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in triple-negative breast cancer cellular function. Aim To evaluate the expression of BCL6 in cancer breast and determine its correlation with the clinico-pathological features including the molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods This prospective case control study was carried out on 150 patients, divided into 100 cases of invasive duct carcinoma not otherwise specified and 50 benign breast lesions including fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease. Fresh tissues were excised, which were then subjected to RNA extraction. The BCL6 mRNA level was assessed using real-time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results There was a significant higher levels of BCL6 mRNA in malignant cases compared to benign ones (p<0.001). The level of BCL6 mRNA was higher in cases showing advanced tumor stage (p<0.04), triple negative subtype and associated in situ component (p<0.001) compared to cases with an early stage, luminal or Her 2-neu positive subtypes and those lacking in situ component. Conclusion BCL6 is up-regulated in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognostic features such as advanced stage and triple negative molecular subtype. BCL6 inhibitors might be considered as targeted therapy for breast cancer. PMID:28208987

  9. High-Flying Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which operates the Hubble Space Telescope,have proposed a new telescope that would have twice the resolution of Hubble at about one-tenth the cost. It would hover seven miles above Earth,dangling below a football-field-size helium balloon

  10. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  11. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  12. The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2013-01-01

    The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

  13. EDUCATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REMOTE ACCESS TELESCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  14. a New Concept of Agile Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Valasek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the description of a new concept for a spherical mechanism for agile telescopes. It is based on redundantly actuated parallel kinematical structure. Due to the three times overactuated structure and application of several further innovative concepts, the Hexasphere achieves the movability of ±100 degrees. This enables the use of a Hexasphere as the basis for mounts of telescopes. Such telescopes can be optimized for minimum weight or for maximum dynamics. The proposed mechanism is expected to play a role in novel robotic telescopes nowadays used in many fields of astronomy and astrophysics, with emphasis on automated systems for alert observations of celestial gamma-ray bursts.

  15. The Africa Millimetre Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, M.; Müller, C.; Conway, J. E.; Deane, R.; Evans, R.; Falcke, H.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Goddi, C.; Klein Wolt, M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; MacLeod, G.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Roelofs, F.; Shen, Z. Q.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    It is believed that supermassive black holes are found in the centres of galaxies, including the Milky Way. Still, only indirect evidence has been gathered for the existence of these enigmatic objects that are predicted by the general theory of relativity. With the Event Horizon Telescope, a Very Long Baseline Interferometry network of millimetre-wave (radio) telescopes, it will be possible to directly image the 'shadow' of the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, Sgr A*. Although the Event Horizon Telescope utilises an extensive network of telescopes, there is a huge gap in the coverage of the u-v-plane for these observations across Africa. We discuss the benefits of adding the Africa Millimetre Telescope to the Event Horizon Telescope and present Mt. Gamsberg in Namibia as the best site for this new and first mm-wave telescope in Africa.

  16. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  17. Cosmic ray tests of a 4.6 m-long test drift chamber for JLC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurihara, Y; Sudo, S; Abe, T; Fujii, K; Ishihara, N; Khalatyan, N; Matsui, T; Nitoh, O; Ohama, T; Okuno, H; Sugiyama, A; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, T; Yoshida, T

    2000-01-01

    Performance of a 4.6 m-long drift chamber filled with a CO sub 2 iso-butane (90:10) mixture was studied using cosmic-ray data, in the course of detector R and D for JLC. After correcting the data for wire displacements due to gravitational and electrostatic forces, a spatial resolution of 100 mu m per wire was achieved over the full length of the chamber. The relation between wire efficiency and oxygen remnant in the chamber gas is also discussed.

  18. Zn/gelled 6 M KOH/O 2 zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, A. A.

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6 M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50 mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell.

  19. Structural Testing of a 6m Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing low ballistic coefficient technologies to support the Nations long-term goal of landing humans on Mars. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current and future launch vehicle fairing limitations. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) are being developed to circumvent this limitation and are now considered a leading technology to enable landing of heavy payloads on Mars. At the beginning of 2014, a 6m diameter HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify its structural performance under flight-relevant loads. The inflatable structure was constructed into a 60 degree sphere-cone configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber-reinforced thin films. The inflatable tori were joined together using adhesives and high-strength textile woven structural straps. These straps help distribute the load throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials that are designed to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen in flight during atmospheric entry. A custom test fixture was constructed to perform the static load test series. The fixture consisted of a round structural tub with enough height and width to allow for displacement of the HIAD test article as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The rigid centerbody of the HIAD was mounted to a pedestal in the center of the structural tub. Using an impermeable membrane draped over the HIAD test article, an airtight seal was created with the top rim of the static load tub. This seal allowed partial vacuum to be pulled beneath the HIAD resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. Using this technique, the test article

  20. Ultra high tip speed (670.6 m/sec) fan stage with composite rotor: Aerodynamic and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, J. E.; Burger, G. D.; Dundas, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A highly loaded, single-stage compressor having a tip speed of 670.6 m/sec was designed for the purpose of investigating very high tip speeds and high aerodynamic loadings to obtain high stage pressure ratios at acceptable levels of efficiency. The design pressure ratio is 2.8 at an adiabatic efficiency of 84.4%. Corrected design flow is 83.4 kg/sec; corrected design speed is 15,200 rpm; and rotor inlet tip diameter is 0.853 m. The rotor uses multiple-circular-arc airfoils from 0 to 15% span, precompression airfoils assuming single, strong oblique shocks from 21 to 43% span, and precompression airfoils assuming multiple oblique shocks from 52% span to the tip. Because of the high tip speeds, the rotor blades are designed to be fabricated of composite materials. Two composite materials were investigated: Courtaulds HTS graphite fiber in a Kerimid 601 polyimide matrix and the same fibers in a PMR polyimide matrix. In addition to providing a description of the aerodynamic and mechanical design of the 670.0 m/sec fan, discussion is presented of the results of structural tests of blades fabricated with both types of matrices.

  1. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable (<2 x 10/sup -7/ g) to a high of 1 x 10/sup -3/ g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates <6 x 10/sup -4/ atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount (<2 x 10/sup -7/ g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The Solar Telescope GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, R.

    2008-09-01

    During the last years the new 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR was assembled at Izania on Tenerife, Spain. The telescope is designed for high-precision measurements of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and chromosphere with a resolution of 70km on the Sun. The telescope concept offers also high resolution stellar spectroscopy. The telescope is build by a consortium of the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, the Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam, the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung and additional international Partners. The telescope is a complete open structure with active cooled main mirror. High performance post-focus instruments in the visible and near IR wavelength acquire high resolution spectra with 2 dimensional spatial resolution and polarimetric information. The commissioning of the telescope will start in 2008 to allow first science observations at the end of 2009.

  3. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  4. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  5. Pointing a solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    As far as pointing is concerned, a solar telescope is merely an ordinary astronomical telescope but with enhancements for observing solar and coronal features. The paper discusses the additional coordinate systems that need to be supported, shows how to generate the required solar ephemerides (both orbital and physical), and sets out a suitable application programming interface for the telescope control system to use when making solar observations.

  6. Primary thermometry triad at 6 mK in mesoscopic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Iftikhar, Z; Jezouin, S; Parmentier, F D; Jin, Y; Cavanna, A; Ouerghi, A; Gennser, U; Pierre, F

    2016-01-01

    Quantum physics emerge and develop as temperature is reduced. Although mesoscopic electrical circuits constitute an outstanding platform to explore quantum behavior, the challenge in cooling the electrons impedes their potential. The strong coupling of such micrometer-scale devices with the measurement lines, combined with the weak coupling to the substrate, makes them extremely difficult to thermalize below 10 mK and imposes in-situ thermometers. Here we demonstrate electronic quantum transport at 6 mK in micrometer-scale mesoscopic circuits. The thermometry methods are established by the comparison of three in-situ primary thermometers, each involving a different underlying physics. The employed combination of quantum shot noise, quantum back-action of a resistive circuit and conductance oscillations of a single-electron transistor covers a remarkably broad spectrum of mesoscopic phenomena. The experiment, performed in vacuum using a standard cryogen-free dilution refrigerator, paves the way toward the sub-...

  7. Construction and Test of 3.6 m Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils for LARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Cozzolino, J.; Dietderich, D.R.; Escallier, J.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ganetis, G.; Ghosh, A. K.; Gupta, R. C.; Hafalia,, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joshi, P.; Kovach, P.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Sabbi, G.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Turrioni, D.

    2008-06-01

    Development of high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles is one of the major goals of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). As part of this program, long racetrack magnets were made in order to check the fabrication steps for long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, that the changes in coil length that take place during reaction and cooldown are correctly accounted for in the quadrupole design, and the use of a long aluminum shell for the support structure. This paper reports the construction of the first long Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet with racetrack coils 3.6 m long. The magnet reached a nominal 'plateau' at 9596 A after five quenches. This is about 90% of the estimated conductor limit. The peak field in the coils at this current was 11 T.

  8. Zn/gelled 6M KOH/O{sub 2} zinc-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, A.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2006-09-13

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell. (author)

  9. LUTE telescope structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  10. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  11. Water-filled telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2014-01-01

    In this short note we discuss the case of the thought experiments on water-filled telescopes and their realizations during 18th and 19th century. The story of those instruments shows that the scientific progress occurs in a curious way, since there was no stringent reason for the construction of a water-filled telescope.

  12. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  13. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several o

  14. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  15. Symmetry analysis of the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Agnieszka; Sikora, Wiesława

    2011-06-01

    Symmetry analysis was applied in this work to discuss the behavior of the family R6M23 compounds upon hydrogenation (deuteration), where different structural transformations and magnetic properties, depending on the type of R and M atoms and hydrogen (deuterium) concentrations, have been found. The crystallographic structure of these compounds is described by the Fm3m space group and contain 116 atoms per unit cell occupying the positions 24e(R), 4b, 24d, 32f1 and 32f2(M). Additionally in the elementary cell, there could be up to 100 atoms of hydrogen (or deuterium) occupying the interstitial positions 4a, 32f3, 96j1 and 96k1. The symmetry analysis in the frame of the theory of space groups and their representation gives the opportunity to find all possible transformations from high symmetry parent structure to the structures with symmetry belonging to one of its subgroups. For a given transformation it indicates possible displacements of atoms from initial positions in the parent structure, ordering of hydrogen over interstitial sites and also ordering of magnetic moments, described by the smallest possible number of free parameters. The analysis was carried out by means of the MODY computer program for vectors k = (0; 0; 0) and k = (0; 0; 1) describing the changes of translational symmetry and all positions occupied by the R, M and D atoms.

  16. Implementation and Evaluation of Technology Mentoring Program Developed for Teacher Educators: A 6M-Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Gunuc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this basic research is to determine the problems experienced in the Technology Mentoring Program (TMP, and the study discusses how these problems affect the process in general. The implementation was carried out with teacher educators in the education faculty. 8 doctorate students (mentors provided technology mentoring implementation for one academic term to 9 teacher educators (mentees employed in the Education Faculty. The data were collected via the mentee and the mentor interview form, mentor reflections and organization meeting reflections. As a result, the problems based on the mentor, on the mentee and on the organization/institution were determined. In order to carry out TMP more effectively and successfully, a 6M-framework (Modifying, Meeting, Matching, Managing, Mentoring - Monitoring was suggested within the scope of this study. It could be stated that fewer problems will be encountered and that the process will be carried out more effectively and successfully when the structure in this framework is taken into consideration.

  17. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  18. NSVS07394765: A new low-mass eclipsing binary below 0.6 M_sun

    CERN Document Server

    Çakirli, Ö

    2013-01-01

    The multi-color photometric and spectroscopic (based on observations obtained with the T{\\"U}B{\\.I}TAK National Observatory 1.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the T{\\"U}B{\\.I}TAK) observations of the newly discovered eclipsing binary NSVS 07394765 were obtained. The resultant light and radial velocities were analysed and the global parameters of the system: T$_{1}$=3 300 K; T$_{2}$=3 106 K; M$_1$=0.36 M$_{\\odot}$; M$_2$=0.18 M$_{\\odot}$; R$_1$=0.46 R$_{\\odot}$; R$_2$=0.50 R$_{\\odot}$; L$_{1}$=0.030 L$_{\\odot}$; L$_2$=0.026 L$_{\\odot}$; $i=89.2{^\\circ}$; $a=5.97$ R$_{\\odot}$; $d=28$ pc. The chromospheric activity of its components is revealed by strong emission in the H$\\alpha$ line and observed flares. Empirical relations for mass-radius and mass-temperature are derived on the basis of the parameters of known binaries with low-mass dM components.

  19. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeffery; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; McLean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, theJWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  20. The AMANDA neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.C.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Bergstrom,L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson,M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad,J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.; Dalberg, E.; DeYoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, S.; He, Y.; de, los, Heros,C.P.; Hill, G.; Hulth, PO.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.C.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren,D.; Porrata, R.; Potter, D.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch,C.H.; Wischnewski, R.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.; AMANDACollaboration

    1999-04-01

    With an effective telescope area of order 10(4) m(2) for TeVneutrinos, a threshold near similar to 50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of2.5 degrees per muon track, the AMANDA detector represents the first of anew generation of high energy neutrino telescopes, reaching a scaleenvisaged over 25 years ago. We describe early results on the calibrationof natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA'sperformance as a neutrino telescope.

  1. The AMANDA neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.C.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Bergstroem, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.; Dalberg, E.; DeYoung, T.; Edsjoe, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, S.; He, Y.; Heros, C.P. de los; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Jones, A.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.C.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Porrata, R.; Potter, D.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriquez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwartz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Taboada, I.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wischnewski, R.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    1999-05-01

    With an effective telescope area of order 10{sup 4} m{sup 2} for TeV neutrinos, a threshold near {approx}50 GeV and a pointing accuracy of 2.5 degrees per muon track, the AMANDA detector represents the first of a new generation of high energy neutrino telescopes, reaching a scale envisaged over 25 years ago. We describe early results on the calibration of natural deep ice as a particle detector as well as on AMANDA's performance as a neutrino telescope.

  2. Modular assembled space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  3. A ribonucleoprotein complex protects the interleukin-6 mRNA from degradation by distinct herpesviral endonucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Muller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During lytic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV infection, the viral endonuclease SOX promotes widespread degradation of cytoplasmic messenger RNA (mRNA. However, select mRNAs escape SOX-induced cleavage and remain robustly expressed. Prominent among these is interleukin-6 (IL-6, a growth factor important for survival of KSHV infected B cells. IL-6 escape is notable because it contains a sequence within its 3' untranslated region (UTR that can confer protection when transferred to a SOX-targeted mRNA, and thus overrides the endonuclease targeting mechanism. Here, we pursued how this protective RNA element functions to maintain mRNA stability. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified a set of proteins that associate specifically with the protective element. Although multiple proteins contributed to the escape mechanism, depletion of nucleolin (NCL most severely impacted protection. NCL was re-localized out of the nucleolus during lytic KSHV infection, and its presence in the cytoplasm was required for protection. After loading onto the IL-6 3' UTR, NCL differentially bound to the translation initiation factor eIF4H. Disrupting this interaction, or depleting eIF4H, reinstated SOX targeting of the RNA, suggesting that interactions between proteins bound to distant regions of the mRNA are important for escape. Finally, we found that the IL-6 3' UTR was also protected against mRNA degradation by the vhs endonuclease encoded by herpes simplex virus, despite the fact that its mechanism of mRNA targeting is distinct from SOX. These findings highlight how a multitude of RNA-protein interactions can impact endonuclease targeting, and identify new features underlying the regulation of the IL-6 mRNA.

  4. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Clampin, M; Doyon, R; Greenhouse, M A; Hammel, H B; Hutchings, J B; Jakobsen, P; Lilly, S J; Long, K S; Lunine, J I; McCaughrean, M J; Mountain, M; Nella, J; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Rix, H W; Smith, E P; Sonneborn, G; Stiavelli, M; Stockman, H S; Windhorst, R A; Wright, G S; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-infrared camera, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 to 5.0 microns, while the mid-infrared instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 to 29 microns. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-e...

  6. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  7. Parabolic Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2013-01-01

    We present a proposal of a new type of telescopes using a rotating parabolic strip as the primary mirror. It is the most principal modification of the design of telescopes from the times of Galileo and Newton. In order to demonstrate the basic idea, the image of an artificial constellation observed by this kind of telescope was reconstructed using the techniques described in this article. As a working model of this new telescope, we have used an assembly of the primary mirror---a strip of acrylic glass parabolic mirror 40 cm long and 10 cm wid shaped as a parabolic cylinder of focal length 1 m---and an artificial constellation, a set of 5 apertures in a distance of 5 m illuminated from behind. In order to reconstruct the image, we made a series of snaps, each after a rotation of the constellation by 15 degrees. Using Matlab we reconstructed the image of the artificial constellation.

  8. The Dark Matter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J A; Angel, J R P; Wittman, David

    2001-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing enables direct reconstruction of dark matter maps over cosmologically significant volumes. This research is currently telescope-limited. The Dark Matter Telescope (DMT) is a proposed 8.4 m telescope with a 3 degree field of view, with an etendue of 260 $(m. degree)^2$, ten times greater than any other current or planned telescope. With its large etendue and dedicated observational mode, the DMT fills a nearly unexplored region of parameter space and enables projects that would take decades on current facilities. The DMT will be able to reach 10-sigma limiting magnitudes of 27-28 magnitude in the wavelength range .3 - 1 um over a 7 square degree field in 3 nights of dark time. Here we review its unique weak lensing cosmology capabilities and the design that enables those capabilities.

  9. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  10. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  11. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  12. Design of optical systems for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    On the basis of long-term experience of LOMO PLC in creating large optical systems for ground and space telescopes, with diameter of primary mirror from 1 to 6 meters, the following issues should be considered: principles of constructing optical systems for space telescopes and selecting their optimum design in respect of dimensions/mass and performance criteria; ensuring the fulfillment of image quality requirements in the process of manufacturing optical systems for controlling ground telescope elements in operating conditions; providing automatic adjustment of telescope secondary mirror, automatic focusing, interferometric control of image quality by means of stellar interferometer with radial shift and internal control with Gartman's test. Description of space telescope equipped with primary mirror of diameter 1.5 m, manufactured in LOMO PLC, is given.

  13. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  14. The Travelling Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  15. The South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, J E; Carlstrom, J E; Cho, H M; Crawford, T; Dobbs, M; Greer, C H; Halverson, W; Holzapfel, W L; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leong, J; Leitch, E M; Lu, W; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C L; Schwan, D; Sharp, M K; Runyan, M C; Spieler, H; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A

    2004-01-01

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency...

  16. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  17. Large Astronomical Telescope Development in China: Achievements and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    From the point of view of an opticist, the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) marks a miracle-like milestone. It integrates a lot of innovative ideas once thought to be impossible: both the primary mirror and the corrector segmented and adjustable using active optics; an incredible 5-degree field of view achieved by an 8m telescope; the highest spectra acquiring rate in the world; an amazing variable optical system capable of forming a series of Schmidt telescopes through real-time adjustment, and many others (relier to the description of LAMOST on page 231 ).

  18. LSST telescope modeling overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  19. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  20. Integrated Modeling of Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly complex and costly opto-mechanical systems, there is a growing need for reliable computer modeling and simulation. The field of integrated modeling, combining optics, mechanics, control engineering, and other disciplines, is the subject of this book. Although the book primarily focuses on ground-based optical telescopes, the techniques introduced are applicable also to other wavelengths and to other opto-mechanical applications on the ground or in space. Basic tools of integrated modeling are introduced together with concepts of ground-based telescopes. Modeling of optical systems, structures, wavefront control systems with emphasis on segmented mirror control, and active and adaptive optics are described together with a variety of noise sources; many examples are included in this book. Integrated Modeling of Telescopes is a text for physicists and engineers working in the field of opto-mechanical design and wavefront control, but it will also be valuable as a textbook for PhD students.

  1. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  2. Pointing the SOFIA Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Michael A K; Moore, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne, gyroscopically stabilized 2.5m infrared telescope, mounted to a spherical bearing. Unlike its predecessors, SOFIA will work in absolute coordinates, despite its continually changing position and attitude. In order to manage this, SOFIA must relate equatorial and telescope coordinates using a combination of avionics data and star identification, manage field rotation and track sky images. We describe the algorithms and systems required to acquire and maintain the equatorial reference frame, relate it to tracking imagers and the science instrument, set up the oscillating secondary mirror, and aggregate pointings into relocatable nods and dithers.

  3. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  4. New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With its pure aperture up to 985mm, the New Vacuum Solar Telescope of China (NVST) has become the world's biggest vacuum solar telescope. The main science task of NVST is the high-resolution observation of photosphere and chromosphere including their fine structure of magnetic field on the sun. The NVST was equipped with many new technologies and powerful instruments, such as an adaptive optical system, a polarization analyzer, two vertical spectrographs, a high-resolution image system and a very narrow Ha filter (0.125A).

  5. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    NICMOS enabling it to resume operation, and install a new set of solar panels. Replacement of the thermal insulation will continue and the telescope will be reboosted to a higher orbit. The plans for the fourth Servicing Mission are preliminary at this time, but two new science instruments are being developed for that mission: Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), which will replace COSTAR, and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), which will replace WFPC2. It is planned to retrieve Hubble at the end of its life (around 2010) and bring it back to Earth. In the future ESA may have the opportunity to continue its collaboration with NASA on the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), which in many ways can be seen as Hubble's successor. The plan is to launch NGST in 2008, and ESA is currently considering a possible role in the project. Piero Benvenuti concludes: "The European Space Agency, in deciding to join NASA on the HST Project, made a very successful investment on behalf of European science. Today, NASA would not consider proceeding alone on the continued operation of HST or on the design of NGST. Not just because of the benefit of shared cost, but mainly because of the intellectual contribution by the European astronomers, who have made such effective scientific use of HST." Hubble Space Telescope - Fact sheet Description The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a co-operation between ESA and NASA. It is a long-term space-based observatory. Its observations are carried out in visible, infrared and ultraviolet light. HST has in many ways revolutionised modern astronomy, being a highly efficient tool for making new discoveries, but also by driving astronomical research in general. Objective HST was designed to take advantage of being above the Earth's disturbing atmosphere, and thereby providing astronomers with observations of very high resolution - opening new windows on planets, stars and galaxies. HST was designed as a flagship mission of the highest standard, and has served to pave

  6. THE LARGE MILLIMETER TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between M xico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrof sica, ptica y Electr nica (INAOE and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeterwave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain rst-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the re ector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for nal commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, out ted with its initial complement of scienti c instruments, will be a world-leading scienti c research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  7. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  8. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  9. Effect of Carburizing and Hardening Temperature on the Endurance of Forming Dies from Steel R6M5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankin, I. N.; Ken'ko, V. M.; Boiko, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Results of a study of the effect of carburizing of the forming surfaces of cold upset dies from high-speed steel R6M5 and of the hardening temperature on the structure and properties of the dies are presented. It is shown that the hardness and endurance of the carburized tools can be raised by hardening from lower temperatures.

  10. Identification of microRNAs that regulate TLR2-mediated trophoblast apoptosis and inhibition of IL-6 mRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Garg

    Full Text Available While infection-induced placental inflammation is a common mechanism of adverse pregnancy outcome, some pathogens can also trigger placental apoptosis, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs mediate this response. Treatment of human first trimester trophoblast cells with bacterial peptidoglycan (PDG reduces their constitutive secretion of IL-6 protein and induces apoptosis. This apoptotic response is dependent upon the cell's expression of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR10, and their lack of TLR6, such that ectopic expression of TLR6 prevents PDG-induced apoptosis and restores IL-6 production. In this current study we have identified three microRNAs (miRs that regulate TLR2-mediated responses in the human trophoblast. Herein we report that miR-329 plays a pivotal role in mediating PDG-induced trophoblast apoptosis and inhibition of IL-6 mRNA expression by targeting the NF-κB subunit, p65. TLR2 activation by PDG upregulates miR-329 expression and inhibits NF-κB p65 and IL-6 mRNA, and this is reversed by the presence of TLR6. Moreover, inhibition of miR-329 prevents PDG-induced inhibition of NF-κB p65 and IL-6 mRNA expression, and restores cell survival. In addition, we have found miR-23a and let-7c to directly regulate PDG-mediated inhibition of IL-6 mRNA. TLR2 activation by PDG upregulates miR23a and let-7c expression and this is reversed by the presence of TLR6. Furthermore, inhibition of both miR23a and let-7c prevents PDG-inhibition of trophoblast IL-6 mRNA expression. Together, our findings suggest that multiple miRs are involved in the molecular regulation of TLR2-mediated responses in the trophoblast towards gram-positive bacterial components.

  11. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  12. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  13. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visual light of the sky region where the gamma-ray burst was detected, then shipped them off electronically to their Dutch colleagues [3]. Comparing the new photos with earlier ones in the digital sky archive, Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol almost immediately discovered a new, relatively bright visual source in the region of the gamma-ray burst, which they proposed as the optical counterpart of the burst, cf. their dedicated webpage at http://www.astro.uva.nl/~titus/grb990510/. The team then placed a message on the international Gamma-Ray Burster web-noteboard ( GCN Circular 310), thereby alerting their colleagues all over the world. One hour later, the narrow-field instruments on BeppoSax identified a new X-Ray source at the same location ( GCN Circular 311), thus confirming the optical identification. All in all, a remarkable synergy of human and satellite resources! Observations of GRB 990510 at ESO Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol, in collaboration with Nicola Masetti, Eliana Palazzi and Elena Pian of the BeppoSAX GRB optical follow-up team (led by Filippo Frontera ) and the Huntsville optical follow-up team (led by Chryssa Kouveliotou ), also contacted the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Astronomers at this Organization's observatories in Chile were quick to exploit this opportunity and crucial data were soon obtained with several of the main telescopes at La Silla and Paranal, less than 14 hours after the first detection of this event by the satellite. ESO PR Photo 22a/99 ESO PR Photo 22a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 211 x 400 pix - 72k] [Normal - JPEG: 422 x 800 pix - 212k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1582 x 3000 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22b/99 ESO PR Photo 22b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 297k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 1.1M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2509 pix - 5.9M] Caption to PR Photo 22a/99 : This wide-field photo was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m

  14. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  15. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  16. Application of sealing socket joint of medium-temperature pitch in 6m coke oven battery%中温沥青密封承插口在6m 焦炉的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵仪先

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced a new technology for socket joint of ascension pipe by sealing with medium-temperature pitch,which has successfully been used for four 6m coke oven batteries in terms of improving operating environment and a remarkable economic benefit by 330,000 RMB yuan all year around.%介绍了上升管承插口采用中温沥青密封处理的新方法,已成功应用于4座6m 焦炉,全年效益可达33万元,改善了作业环境,经济环保效益显著。

  17. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross- comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments - Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of earth impacting NEO. The results of the comparis...

  18. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Perrina, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    At about 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France), anchored at 2475 m deep in the Mediterranean Sea, there is ANTARES: the first undersea neutrino telescope and the only one currently operating. The detector consists of 885 photomultiplier tubes arranged into 12 strings of 450-metres high, with the aim to detect the Cherenkov light induced by the charged superluminal interaction products of neutrinos. Its main scientific target is the search for high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the cosmic neutrino diffuse flux, focusing in particular on events coming from below the horizon (up-going events) in order to significantly reduce the atmospheric muons background. Thanks to the development of a strategy for the identification of neutrinos coming from above the horizon (down-going events) the field of view of the telescope will be extended.

  19. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  20. Everyday Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  1. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  2. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort dedicated to the design and operation of the next-generation ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (VERITAS, H.E.S.S., and MAGIC) in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV, and will extend the viability of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) down to tens of GeV and above 100 TeV. In order to achieve such improved performance at both a northern and southern CTA site, four 23m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LST) optimized for low energy gamma rays will be deployed close to the centre of the array. A larger number of Medium Size Telescopes (MST) will be optimized for the core IACT energy range. The southern site will include 25 12m single-mirror MSTs and a US contribution of up to 24 novel dual-mirror design Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) type MSTs with a primary mirror of 9.5m diameter, and will also include an array of Small Size Telescopes (SST) to observe the highest-energy gamma rays from galactic sources. The SSTs can be smaller and more widely separated because more energetic gamma rays produce a larger Cherenkov light pool with many photons. The SSTs achieve a large collection area by covering a wide (10 sq km) footprint on the ground. The CTA project is finishing its preparatory phase, and the pre-production phase will start this year. I will review the status and the expected performance of CTA as well as the main scientific goals for the observatory.

  3. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  4. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  6. A large aperture balloon-borne telescope for a submillimeter wavelength survey of the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Walser, D. W.; Flanick, A.; Silver, A. D.; Smith, J.; Gezari, D. Y.; Kelsall, T.; Cheung, L. H.; Skillman, T. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A balloon-borne, 1.2 meter Cassegrain telescope with a servo-controlled chopping secondary mirror has been developed and used to survey the Galactic Plane at submillimeter wavelengths. The telescope pointing system uses a gyroscope as the primary stabilization reference and makes use of microprocessors for pointing control, on-board data collection, and telemetry formatting. A description of the telescope, multi-channel liquid-helium-cooled focal plane and the aspect and orientation subsystems are presented.

  7. The first GCT camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    De Franco, A.; Allan, D.; Armstrong, T.; Ashton, T.; Balzer, A.; Berge, D.; Bose, R.; Brown, A.M.; Buckley, J.; Chadwick, P.M.; Cooke, P.; Cotter, G.; Daniel, M.K.; Funk, S.; Greenshaw, T.; Hinton, J.; Kraus, M.; Lapington, J.; Molyneux, P.; Moore, P.; Nolan, S.; Okumura, A.; Ross, D.; Rulten, C.; Schmoll, J.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Stephan, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Tajima, H.; Thornhill, J.; Tibaldo, L.; Varner, G.; Watson, J.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Gamma Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) is proposed to be part of the Small Size Telescope (SST) array of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The GCT dual-mirror optical design allows the use of a compact camera of diameter roughly 0.4 m. The curved focal plane is equipped with 2048 pixels of ~0.2{\\deg} angular size, resulting in a field of view of ~9{\\deg}. The GCT camera is designed to record the flashes of Cherenkov light from electromagnetic cascades, which last only a few tens of nanoseconds. Modules based on custom ASICs provide the required fast electronics, facilitating sampling and digitisation as well as first level of triggering. The first GCT camera prototype is currently being commissioned in the UK. On-telescope tests are planned later this year. Here we give a detailed description of the camera prototype and present recent progress with testing and commissioning.

  8. The GCT camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Anthony M; Allan, D; Amans, J P; Armstrong, T P; Balzer, A; Berge, D; Boisson, C; Bousquet, J -J; Bryan, M; Buchholtz, G; Chadwick, P M; Costantini, H; Cotter, G; Daniel, M K; De Franco, A; De Frondat, F; Dournaux, J -L; Dumas, D; Fasola, G; Funk, S; Gironnet, J; Graham, J A; Greenshaw, T; Hervet, O; Hidaka, N; Hinton, J A; Huet, J -M; Jegouzo, I; Jogler, T; Kraus, M; Lapington, J S; Laporte, P; Lefaucheur, J; Markoff, S; Melse, T; Mohrmann, L; Molyneux, P; Nolan, S J; Okumura, A; Osborne, J P; Parsons, R D; Rosen, S; Ross, D; Rowell, G; Sato, Y; Sayede, F; Schmoll, J; Schoorlemmer, H; Servillat, M; Sol, H; Stamatescu, V; Stephan, M; Stuik, R; Sykes, J; Tajima, H; Thornhill, J; Tibaldo, L; Trichard, C; Vink, J; Watson, J J; White, R; Yamane, N; Zech, A; Zink, A; Zorn, J

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) is proposed for the Small-Sized Telescope component of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). GCT's dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optical system allows the use of a compact camera with small form-factor photosensors. The GCT camera is ~0.4 m in diameter and has 2048 pixels; each pixel has a ~0.2 degree angular size, resulting in a wide field-of-view. The design of the GCT camera is high performance at low cost, with the camera housing 32 front-end electronics modules providing full waveform information for all of the camera's 2048 pixels. The first GCT camera prototype, CHEC-M, was commissioned during 2015, culminating in the first Cherenkov images recorded by a SC telescope and the first light of a CTA prototype. In this contribution we give a detailed description of the GCT camera and present preliminary results from CHEC-M's commissioning.

  9. Atmospheric Cherenkov Gamma-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, is now used by a number of existing and planned gamma-ray observatories around the world. It provides the most sensitive view of the very high energy gamma-ray sky (above 30 GeV), coupled with relatively good angular and spectral resolution over a wide field-of-view. This Chapter summarizes the details of the technique, including descriptions of the telescope optical systems and cameras, as well as the most common approaches to data analysis and gamma-ray reconstruction.

  10. SOAR Telescope Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.

    1999-12-01

    The 4.3m SOAR telescope is fully funded and under construction. A partnership between the country of Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, SOAR is being designed for high-quality imaging and imaging spectroscopy in the optical and near-IR over a field of view up to 12' diameter. US astronomers outside MSU and UNC will access 30% of the observing time through the standard NOAO TAC process. The telescope is being designed to support remote and synoptic observations. First light is scheduled for July 2002 at Cerro Pachon in Chile, a site with median seeing of 2/3" at 500 nm. The telescope will be operated by CTIO. Corning Inc. has fused the mirror blanks from boules of ULE glass. RSI in Richardson, Texas and Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. in Danbury, Conn. are designing and will fabricate the mount and active optics systems, respectively. The mount supports an instrument payload in excess of 5000 kg, at 2 Nasmyth locations and 3 bent Cass. ports. The mount and facility building have space for a laser to generate an artificial AO guide star. LabVIEW running under the Linux OS on compactPCI hardware has been adopted to control all telescope, detector, and instrument systems. The primary mirror is 10 cm thick and will be mounted on 120 electro-mechanical actuators to maintain its ideal optical figure at all elevations. The position of the light-weighted secondary mirror is adjusted to maintain collimation through use of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The tertiary mirror feeds instruments and also jitters at up to 50 Hz to compensate for telescope shake and atmosphere wavefront tilt. The dome is a steel framework, with fiberglass panels. Air in the observing volume will be exchanged with that outside every few minutes by using large fans under computer control. All systems will be assembled and checked at the manufacturer's facility, then shipped to Chile. A short integration period is planned, and limited science

  11. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... of music therapy with a specific population (Gold, Voracek & Wigram, Wigram, 2002). The collection of such evidence, through surveys of the literature and documentation of music therapy studies that show effect with a specified population are becoming increasingly important in order to underpin music...

  12. Deciphering the molecular mechanism responsible for GCaMP6m's Ca2+-dependent change in fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Thomas E.; Drobizhev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to determine how GCaMP6m’s fluorescence is altered in response to Ca2+-binding. Our detailed spectroscopic study reveals the simplest explanation for how GCaMP6m changes fluorescence in response to Ca2+ is with a four-state model, in which a Ca2+-dependent change of the chromophore protonation state, due to a shift in pKa, is the predominant factor. The pKa shift is quantitatively explained by a change in electrostatic potential around the chromophore due to the conformational changes that occur in the protein when calmodulin binds Ca2+ and interacts with the M13 peptide. The absolute pKa values for the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-saturated states of GCaMP6m are critical to its high signal-to-noise ratio. This mechanism has important implications for further improvements to GCaMP6m and potentially for other similarly designed biosensors. PMID:28182677

  13. Platform Deformation Refined Pointing and Phase Correction for the AMiBA Hexapod Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Chang, Yu-Yen; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Yung; Chereau, Guillaume; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wie; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chi-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a radio interferometer for research in cosmology, currently operating 7 0.6m diameter antennas co-mounted on a 6m diameter platform driven by a hexapod mount. AMiBA is currently the largest hexapod telescope. We briefly summarize the hexapod operation with the current pointing error model. We then focus on the upcoming 13-element expansion with its potential difficulties and solutions. Photogrammetry measurements of the platform reveal deformations at a level which can affect the optical pointing and the receiver radio phase. In order to prepare for the 13-element upgrade, two optical telescopes are installed on the platform to correlate optical pointing tests. Being mounted on different locations, the residuals of the two sets of pointing errors show a characteristic phase and amplitude difference as a function of the platform deformation pattern. These results depend on the telescope's azimuth, elevation and polarization position. An analytical model ...

  14. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  15. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indications that the known sources represent only the tip of the iceberg. A major step in sensitivity is needed to increase the number of detected sources, observe short time-scale variability and improve morphological studies of extended sources. An extended energy coverage is advisable to observe far-away extragalactic objects and improve spectral analysis. CTA aims to increase the sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred o...

  16. Large Size Telescope Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, D; Teshima, M

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to f...

  17. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  18. Large size telescope report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, D.; Cortina, J.; Teshima, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirements, present results of element prototyping and describe the installation and operation plans.

  19. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  20. New insights into the structural and dynamical features of lithium hexaoxometalates Li7MO6 (M = Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühle, Claus; Dinnebier, Robert E; van Wüllen, Leo; Schwering, Georg; Jansen, Martin

    2004-02-09

    We present a (re)investigation of the hexaoxometalates Li(8)MO(6) (M = Sn, Pb, Zr, Hf) and Li(7)MO(6) (M = Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi). Lithium motion and ionic conductivity in the hexaoxometalates were studied using impedance spectroscopy (for Li(7)MO(6), M = Sb, Bi, Ta) and (6)Li and (7)Li solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (for Li(7)TaO(6)). The NMR data indicate a considerable exchange of Li among the tetrahedral and octahedral voids even at ambient temperature. In an investigation of the crystal structures using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction techniques, the structures of Li(7)TaO(6), Li(7)NbO(6), and Li(7)SbO(6) could be solved and refined. All three reveal a triclinic metric (Li(7)SbO(6), triclinic, P1, a = 5.38503(6) A, b = 5.89164(7) A, c = 5.43074(6) A, alpha = 117.2210(6) degrees, beta = 119.6311(6) degrees, gamma = 63.2520(7) degrees, V = 127.454(3) A(3), Z = 1; Li(7)NbO(6), triclinic, P1, a = 5.37932(9) A, b = 5.91942(11) A, c = 5.37922(9) A, alpha = 117.0033(9) degrees, beta = 119.6023(7) degrees, gamma = 63.2570(9) degrees, V = 126.938(4) A(3), Z = 1; Li(7)TaO(6), triclinic, P1, a = 5.38486(2) A, b = 5.92014(3) A, c = 5.38551(2) A, alpha = 117.0108(2) degrees, beta = 119.6132(2) degrees, gamma = 63.2492(2) degrees, V = 127.208(1) A(3), Z = 1.

  1. Upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, Daniel; Garczarczyk, Markus; Giavitto, Gianluca; Sitarek, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) located on the Canary island of La Palma. With 17m diameter mirror dishes and ultra-fast electronics, they provide an energy threshold as low as 50 GeV for observations at low zenith angles. The first MAGIC telescope was taken in operation in 2004 whereas the second one joined in 2009. In 2011 we started a major upgrade program to improve and to unify the stereoscopic system of the two similar but at that time different telescopes. Here we report on the upgrade of the readout electronics and digital trigger of the two telescopes, the upgrade of the camera of the MAGIC I telescope as well as the commissioning of the system after this major upgrade.

  2. Experience in the adoption of a coke battery with ovens 41. 6 m/sup 3/ in volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemarda, N.A.; Khlebnikov, O.F.; Dobrovinskii, G.B.; Stel' makh, V.A.; Maslova, L.R.; Muzychuk, V.D.

    1982-11-06

    The performance, product quality and design differences of a new, 41.6 m/sup 3/ coking oven battery have been evaluated and compared with those of older smaller units over two years. Improvement in the uniformity of coke bed heating was attained by optimization of combustion air supply and the degree of recirculation of combustion products. Coke produced compares favorably with that from smaller ovens, but has a slightly smaller particle size. Product moisture content is adversely affected by design deficiencies in the wet quenching system. They are being corrected by adoption of a pulsed quenching system and a new irrigation device.

  3. Measurement of amplitude detuning at flat-top and beta star = 0.6 m using AC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, T; Langner, A; Levinsen, Z I; Miyamoto, R; Maclean, E H; McAteer, M J; Redaelli, R; Skowronski, P K; Tomas, R; Persson, T H B; White, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the first direct measurement of amplitude detuning using AC dipoles. The only means in the LHC at high energy to excite large betatron oscillations is using AC dipoles. In the linear regime a perfect AC dipole does not excite the natural tune of the machine. This seriously challenges the measurement of the amplitude detuning by having to rely on imperfections in order to observe the natural tune. The measurements were carried out at $\\beta$*=0.6 m and at flat-top during two MD sessions in 12-10-2012 and 27-11-2012, respectively.

  4. The Effect of Nuclear Reaction Rates & Convective Mixing on the Evolution of a 6M$_{\\odot}$ Star

    CERN Document Server

    Halabi, Ghina M

    2014-01-01

    We present the evolution of a 6M$_{\\odot}$ star, of solar-like initial metallicity, and investigate the effects of key nuclear reaction rates, as well as the treatment of the convective mixing on its evolution along the Cepheid instability strip. In particular, we study the effect of recent estimates of the $^{14}$N(p,{\\gamma})$^{15}$O reaction on the formation and extension of the blue loop during core helium burning. We also investigate the effects induced on this blue loop by the adoption of non-standard convective mixing prescriptions, as well as the implications of modifying the Mixing Length Theory.

  5. Grid Integration of Robotic Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Breitling, F; Enke, H

    2008-01-01

    Robotic telescopes and grid technology have made significant progress in recent years. Both innovations offer important advantages over conventional technologies, particularly in combination with one another. Here, we introduce robotic telescopes used by the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam as ideal instruments for building a robotic telescope network. We also discuss the grid architecture and protocols facilitating the network integration that is being developed by the German AstroGrid-D project. Finally, we present three user interfaces employed for this purpose.

  6. Near Earth Object Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Near Earth Object Survey Telescope (NEOST), located at the Xuyi station of the Purple Mountain Observatory, is a telescope with the most powerful detection capacity, the highest efficiency and the best performance in the fields of near Earth object survey and optical imaging in China. NEOST is an 171.8 Schmidt type telescope with a 1.20 meter primary mirror and a 1.04 meter corrector,

  7. Expression of CC Chemokine Ligand 20 and CC Chemokine Receptor 6 mRNA in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳; 李家文

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore the possible role of CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and its receptor CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the expression levels of mRNA of them in psoriatic lesions were investigated. The skin biopsies were collected from skin lesions in 35 cases of psoriasis vulgaris and 18 normal controls. RT-PCR was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the mRNA expression of CCL20 and CCR6 in the psoriatic lesions and the normal skin tissues.The results showed that the mRNA of CCL20 and CCR6 was present in every specimen. The expression levels of CCL20 mRNA in skin lesions were 1. 1397±0. 0521, which were greatly higher than those in normal controls (0.8681±0.0308) (P<0. 001). The expression levels of CCR6 mRNA in skin lesions were 1.1103±0.0538, significantly higher than in the controls (0.9131±0.0433, P<0. 001). These findings indicate that up-regulated expression of CCL20 and CCR6 mRNA might be related to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  8. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  9. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  10. The neutrino telescope ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleixner Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. The detector consists of a three-dimensional array of 885 photomultiplier tubes, distributed along 12 lines, located at a depth of 2500 m in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the experiment is the detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The detection principle is based on the observation of Cherenkov-Light emitted by muons resulting from charged-current interactions of muon neutrinos in the vicinity of the detection volume. The main scientific targets of ANTARES include the search for astrophysical neutrino point sources, the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux and the indirect search for dark matter.

  11. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zornoza, Juan de Dios

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration completed the installation of the first neutrino detector in the sea in 2008. It consists of a three dimensional array of 885 photomultipliers to gather the Cherenkov photons induced by relativistic muons produced in charged-current interactions of high energy neutrinos close to/in the detector. The scientific scope of neutrino telescopes is very broad: the origin of cosmic rays, the origin of the TeV photons observed in many astrophysical sources or the nature of dark matter. The data collected up to now have allowed us to produce a rich output of physics results, including the map of the neutrino sky of the Southern hemisphere, search for correlations with GRBs, flaring sources, gravitational waves, limits on the flux produced by dark matter self-annihilations, etc. In this paper a review of these results is presented.

  12. Composite telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  13. Spectroradiometry with Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Smith, Peter L; Colina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Radiometry has been of fundamental importance in astronomy from the early beginnings. Initially, astronomers had their own radiometric system, based on extraterrestrial standards, namely the irradiance of stars expressed in visual magnitudes. Observing and comparing magnitudes in specific spectral bands then led to the astronomical spectrophotometry. The advent of astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy offered the possibility to interpret observations through physical models of stellar atmospheres. Such models had to be constructed based on physics-related units, and such units, rather than magnitudes, were then used for observational tests of the models. In this review, we provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration, and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. Recently, the quest for independent calibrations traceable to laboratory standards has become a well-supported aim, and has led to plans for now also launching ...

  14. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  15. European Solar Telescope: Progress status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collados, M.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Cavaller, L.; Ermolli, I.; Gelly, B.; Pérez, A.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the present status of the development of the design of the European Solar Telescope is described. The telescope is devised to have the best possible angular resolution and polarimetric performance, maximizing the throughput of the whole system. To that aim, adaptive optics and multi-c

  16. First measurements with a new 6m long violin-bow marine heat probe off Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennerich, H.-H.; Grevemeyer, I.; Heesemann, B.; Heesemann, M.; Kaul, N.; Müller, M.; Villinger, H.

    2003-04-01

    The design of a new 6m long violin-bow marine heat probe, first successful tests and data collected off Costa Rica during cruise M54-2 on RV METEOR in August 2002 are presented. The mechanically robust heat probe is designed for the operation in a pogo-style mode with a wide application range from 6000m deep sea trenches with mostly soft sediments to the upper continental slope where sediments are often sandy and difficult to penetrate. Due to the 6m length of its temperature sensor string undisturbed temperature gradients can be determined in shallow water with seasonal bottom water temperature variations. The heat probe is constructed in the classical "violin bow" design, with 22 thermistors equidistantly distributed inside an oil filled hydraulic tube attached to the strength member. The sensor tube also contains a heater wire for the generation of a calibrated heat pulse for in situ thermal conductivity measurements. The signal of the temperature sensors is measured with a resolution of 20-bits at a sample rate of 1 sec, resulting in a final temperature resolution of less than 1 mK at ambient sea floor temperatures. A carefully calibrated seawater sensor on top of the weight stand allows to measure the absolute bottom water temperature. Inclination and acceleration of the probe is measured also with a 1 sec sample rate to monitor the penetration process into the sediments and potential disturbances during the measurement period while the probe sits in the sediment. Data from a pressure sensor in conjunction with an acoustic altimeter allow the exact absolute measurement of the final penetration depth of the probe. The complete data set is stored in the probe but also transmitted via coax cable on board in real time which allows operational decisions during long term deployments of the probe. In addition the heat probe can be operated in a completely autonomous mode with internal storage and automated heat pulses. The battery capacity allows for 3 days

  17. Crystal Structure and Dielectric Properties of Microwave Ceramics CaLa(CaM)O6 [M = Nb, Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Alo; Mandal, Sanjay; Kumari, Premlata; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2017-03-01

    The dielectric properties of two perovskite oxides CaLa(CaM)O6 [M = Nb, Sb] synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique have been studied in the microwave and radio frequency range. The phase formation and the crystal structure of the materials are investigated by the Rietveld refinement of the x-ray diffraction data at room temperature. The Raman spectrum substantiates the crystal structure of the materials. The temperature dependence of the relaxation frequencies in the radio frequency range follows the Arrhenius law, and the corresponding activation energies are found to be 0.339 eV and 0.346 eV, respectively, for CaLa(CaNb)O6 and CaLa(CaSb)O6. The difference in the values of the dielectric constant and the loss tangent are correlated with the respective crystal structure of the materials.

  18. Crystal Structure and Dielectric Properties of Microwave Ceramics CaLa(CaM)O6 [M = Nb, Sb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Alo; Mandal, Sanjay; Kumari, Premlata; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S. K.; Sinha, T. P.

    2017-01-01

    The dielectric properties of two perovskite oxides CaLa(CaM)O6 [M = Nb, Sb] synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique have been studied in the microwave and radio frequency range. The phase formation and the crystal structure of the materials are investigated by the Rietveld refinement of the x-ray diffraction data at room temperature. The Raman spectrum substantiates the crystal structure of the materials. The temperature dependence of the relaxation frequencies in the radio frequency range follows the Arrhenius law, and the corresponding activation energies are found to be 0.339 eV and 0.346 eV, respectively, for CaLa(CaNb)O6 and CaLa(CaSb)O6. The difference in the values of the dielectric constant and the loss tangent are correlated with the respective crystal structure of the materials.

  19. Construction of a Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: status of the optical system

    CERN Document Server

    Rousselle, J; Cameron, R; Connaughton, V; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Humensky, T B; Jenke, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; Okumura, A; Petrashyk, A; Vassiliev, V

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the status of procurement of the optical system of the prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT), for which construction is scheduled to begin in fall at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA. The Schwarzschild-Couder telescope is a candidate for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which utilizes imaging atmospheric Cherenkov techniques to observe gamma rays in the energy range of 60Gev-60TeV. The pSCT novel aplanatic optical system is made of two segmented aspheric mirrors. The primary mirror has 48 mirror panels with an aperture of 9.6 m, while the secondary, made of 24 panels, has an diameter of 5.4 m. The resulting point spread function (PSF) is required to be better than 4 arcmin within a field of view of 6.4 degrees (80% of the field of view), which corresponds to a physical size of 6.4 mm on the focal plane. This goal represents a challenge for the inexpensive fabrication of aspheric mirror panels and for the precise ali...

  20. New ferromagnetic semiconductor double perovskites: La{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Co, Rh, and Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuh, Huei-Ru [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Weng, Ke-Chuan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yun-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yin-Kuo [Center for General Education and Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6} is a potential candidate for ferromagnetic semiconductor. • The FM semiconductor originates from the exchange effect between Fe and Co. • We calculate the 406 combinations of possible La{sub 2}MM′O{sub 6} compounds here. - Abstract: Density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) plus onsite Coulomb interaction (GGA + U) was used to calculate physical proprieties of new ferromagnetic semiconductor materials of the La{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Co, Rh, and Ir). We calculate the 406 (C{sub 2}{sup 29}) La{sub 2}MM′O{sub 6} compounds which MM′ can be any pair taken from the 29 transition metal elements except La. La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6} is a potential candidate for ferromagnetic semiconductor. For the GGA + U scheme, La{sub 2}FeCo{sub 6} remains a stable FM semiconductor, whereas La{sub 2}FeRhO{sub 6} and La{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6} are shown the FM and AFM states of which are degenerate with each other. The FM semiconductor gap remains in existence under tensile or compressive strain in La{sub 2}FeRhO{sub 6} and La{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6}. The superexchange interaction in ferromagnetic La{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Co, Rh, and Ir) is high spin (HS) Fe completely empty e{sub g} orbital hopping to the half-filled (LS) Co (Rh and Ir) empty e{sub g} orbital.

  1. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  2. Water Vapour Radiometers for the Australia Telescope Compact Array

    CERN Document Server

    Indermuehle, Balthasar T; Crofts, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed Water Vapour Radiometers (WVRs) for the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) that are capable of determining path fluctuations by virtue of measuring small temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere using the 22.2 GHz water vapour line for each of the six antennae. By measuring the line of sight variations of the water vapour, the induced path excess and thus the phase delay can be estimated and corrections can then be applied during data reduction. This reduces decorrelation of the source signal. We demonstrate how this recovers the telescope's efficiency and image quality as well as how this improves the telescope's ability to use longer baselines at higher frequencies, thereby resulting in higher spatial resolution. A description of the WVR hardware design, their calibration and water vapour retrieval mechanism is given.

  3. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  4. Diamond Pixel Luminosity Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-12-15

    In this document, Halyo summaries her key contributions to CMS at the LHC and provide an explanation of their importance and her role in each project. At the end Halyo describes her recent research interest that includes GPU/MIC Acceleration of the High Level Trigger (HLT) to Extend the Physics Research at the LHC. A description of her work the recent promising results that she accomplished and the deliverable are also elaborated. These contribution were only possible thanks to DOE support of junior faculty research and their clear goal to promote research and innovations.

  5. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  6. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  7. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mattox, J R

    1999-01-01

    Because of the scheduled GLAST mission by NASA, there is strong scientific justification for preparation for very extensive blazar monitoring in the optical bands to exploit the opportunity to learn about blazars through the correlation of variability of the gamma-ray flux with flux at lower frequencies. Current optical facilities do not provide the required capability.Developments in technology have enabled astronomers to readily deploy automatic telescopes. The effort to create an Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) for blazar monitoring in the GLAST era is described. Other scientific applications of the networks of automatic telescopes are discussed. The potential of the ATN for science education is also discussed.

  8. Bhavnagar Telescope: the most widely travelled telescope in the country

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara; Vagiswari, A

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade of the 19th century Maharaja Takhtasingji Observatory was built at Poona (1888-1912) under the supervision of K.D.Naegamavala, with the grant from Maharaja of Bhavnagar (from where the name Bhavnagar Telescope must have originated. The story of this telescope from its inception to the current status is traced. IIA Archives has been extensively used to resource information for this note.

  9. The small size telescope projects for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The small size telescopes (SSTs), spread over an area of several square km, dominate the CTA sensitivity in the photon energy range from a few TeV to over 100 TeV, enabling for the detailed exploration of the very high energy gamma-ray sky. The proposed telescopes are innovative designs providing a wide field of view. Two of them, the ASTRI (Astrophysics con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) and the GCT (Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope) telescopes, are based on dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optics, with primary mirror diameters of 4 m. The third, SST-1M, is a Davies-Cotton design with a 4 m diameter mirror. Progress with the construction and testing of prototypes of these telescopes is presented. The SST cameras use silicon photomultipliers, with preamplifier and readout/trigger electronics designed to optimize the performance of these sensors for (atmospheric) Cherenkov light. The status of the camera developments is discussed. The SST sub-array will consist of about 70 telescopes at the CTA souther...

  10. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  11. Telescopic drilling rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, I.L.; Berezov, S.I.; Gavrilov, G.A.; Goykhman, Ya.A.; Makushkin, D.O.; Rachev, M.P.; Voynich, L.K.

    1981-09-07

    The telescopic drilling rod includes an inner section of the rod, in whose center cable has been passed and is attached a bearing assembly connecting it to the winch, outer section of rod along which there is pipeline connecting the working cavity formed by the inner section of rod and the housing, installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, with cavity formed by framework of the guide swivel and end piece and connected to the hydraulic system of the machine by pipeline, as well as clamping elements. In order to drill wells to a depth greater than the length of the outer sectrion of the rod, the latter jointly with the inner section of rod is lowered into the extreme lower position until swivel rests on the feed mechanism. With further slipping of cable and the absence of pressure in the hydraulic system, clamping elements do not have an effect on the inner section of rod. It has the opportunity to freely move along the outer section of rod downwards to the face. When pressure is supplied on pipeline into cavity and further through pipeline into working cavity, the inner section of rod is clamped with feed of the outer section in the process of drilling, both sections move jointly. Because of the link between working cavity of sleeve installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, and the hydraulic system of the machine through the swivel cavity, it is possible to fix the drilling rod in any mutual axial position of the section.

  12. Assembly and Test of a Support Structure for 3.6 m Long Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; Muratore, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Wanderer, P.J.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is currently developing 4 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets for a possible upgrade of the LHC Interaction Regions (IR). In order to provide a reliable test bed for the fabrication and test of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, LARP has started the development of the long racetrack magnet LRS01. The magnet is composed of two 3.6 m long racetrack coils contained in a support structure based on an aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders and interference keys. For the phase-one test of the assembly procedure and loading operation, the structure was pre-stressed at room temperature and cooled down to 77 K with instrumented, solid aluminum 'dummy coils'. Mechanical behavior and stress homogeneity were monitored with strain gauges mounted on the shell and the dummy coils. The dummy coils were replaced with reacted and impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn coils in a second assembly procedure, followed by cool-down to 4.5 K and powered magnet test. This paper report on the assembly and loading procedures of the support structure as well as the comparison between strain gauge data and 3D model predictions.

  13. Near-infrared photocatalytic activity induced by intrinsic defects in Bi2MO6 (M = W, Mo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Tao; Dai, Ying; Wei, Wei; Ma, Xiangchao; Huang, Baibiao

    2014-09-14

    The electronic structure and related photocatalytic properties of Bi2MO6 (M = W, Mo) with various intrinsic defects are studied based on the first-principles density functional theory (DFT). Our results indicate that O vacancies form easily in both Bi2WO6 and Bi2MoO6 under Bi rich/O poor conditions. The near-infrared light transitions can be realized involving electrons from the O vacancy induced impurity states within the band gap to the conduction band. Rather than acting as photogenerated carrier recombination centers, the impurity states caused by O vacancies favor the transfer of photogenerated holes and further benefit the photocatalytic process due to the delocalized nature. The spatial separation of photogenerated carriers among different layers can be realized, which reduces the carrier recombination and improves the photocatalytic activity. In addition, Bi2WO6 with O vacancies is desirable for having better near-infrared photocatalytic performance than Bi2MoO6 due to the larger mobility of photogenerated holes.

  14. The Swift Mission and the REM Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelemy, S. D.; Burrow, D. N.; Hurley, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    Following a description of the science drive which originated the Swift Mission, this is US NASA MIDEX Mission with the collaboration of Italy and the UK, we will describe the status of the hardware and the observing strategy. The telemetry is carried out via the TDRSS satellite for those communications that need immediate response. The data transfer and the scheduled uploading of routine commands will be done through the ASI Malindi station in Kenia. Both in the US and in Europe a large effort will be done to follow the bursts with the maximum of efficiency and as soon as possible after the alert. We will describe how the ESO VLT telescopes are able to respond to the alert. To address the problematic of the dark bursts and to immediately follow up all of the bursts also in the Near Infrared we designed and built a 60 cm NIR Robotic telescope, REM, to be located on the ESO ground at Cerro La Silla. The instrumentation includes also a low dispersion spectrograph with the capability of multi wavelength optical photometry.

  15. The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope: The Final Archive

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, William V; Kruk, Jeffrey W; Romelfanger, Mary L

    2013-01-01

    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) was a 0.9 m telescope and moderate-resolution (~3 A) far-ultraviolet (820-1850 A) spectrograph that flew twice on the space shuttle, in 1990 December (Astro-1, STS-35) and 1995 March (Astro-2, STS-67). The resulting spectra were originally archived in a non-standard format that lacked important descriptive metadata. To increase their utility, we have modified the original data-reduction software to produce a new and more user-friendly data product, a time-tagged photon list similar in format to the Intermediate Data Files (IDFs) produced by the {\\it Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer} calibration pipeline. We have transferred all relevant pointing and instrument-status information from locally-archived science and engineering databases into new FITS header keywords for each data set. Using this new pipeline, we have reprocessed the entire HUT archive from both missions, producing a new set of calibrated spectral products in a modern FITS format that is fully complia...

  16. The Swift Mission and the REM Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelemy, S. D.; Burrow, D. N.; Hurley, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    Following a description of the science drive which originated the Swift Mission, this is US NASA MIDEX Mission with the collaboration of Italy and the UK, we will describe the status of the hardware and the observing strategy. The telemetry is carried out via the TDRSS satellite for those communications that need immediate response. The data transfer and the scheduled uploading of routine commands will be done through the ASI Malindi station in Kenia. Both in the US and in Europe a large effort will be done to follow the bursts with the maximum of efficiency and as soon as possible after the alert. We will describe how the ESO VLT telescopes are able to respond to the alert. To address the problematic of the dark bursts and to immediately follow up all of the bursts also in the Near Infrared we designed and built a 60 cm NIR Robotic telescope, REM, to be located on the ESO ground at Cerro La Silla. The instrumentation includes also a low dispersion spectrograph with the capability of multi wavelength optical photometry.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. M.

    1995-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in spring of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximicrons flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximicrons stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia

  19. The calculus of telescopic urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Arabindoo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Developing Amin's invocation of a telescopic urbanism as more than a visual metaphor, this paper seeks to rethink its epistemological and methodological focus, resisting at the same time the tendency to oversimplify the relationship between the different optics he outlines. Threatened by a dominant meta-narrative of a numerically driven calculus, this paper identifies an opportunity in Amin's telescopic urbanism to reject the 'big-data' approach to the city. In this context, it challenges the...

  20. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  1. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescaro, D., E-mail: dtescaro@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Dept. Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E>400GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5–10 years. - Highlights: • In 2011 and 2012 the MAGIC telescopes underwent a two-stage major upgrade. • The new camera of MAGIC-I allows us to exploit a 1.4 larger trigger area. • The novel DRS4-based readout systems allow a cost-effective ultra-fast digitization. • The upgrade greatly improved the maintainability of the system. • MAGIC has now an optimal integral sensitivity of 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux.

  2. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  3. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  4. Experimental and theoretical characterization of acoustic noise from a 7.6 m diameter yaw controlled teetered rotor wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroz, E. [Univ. of Texas at El Paso, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation into the acoustic noise from a small (7.6 m diameter) teetered rotor wind turbine, set at various yaw angles up to 90 degrees of yaw, was conducted. The results revealed a 1/3 octave spectra which was dominated by a broad peak in the higher frequency range, at all yaw angles investigated. This prompted a theoretical investigation to reveal the mechanisms producing the dominant feature in the experimentally obtained noise spectra and resulted in the development of a wind turbine aerodynamic noise prediction coce, WTNOISE. The location near busy roads and the relatively rough terrain of the wind test site caused difficulties in obtaining useful noise spectral information below 500Hz. However, sufficiently good data was obtained above 500Hz to clearly show a dominant `hump` in the spectrum, centered between 3000 and 4000Hz. Although the local Reynolds number for the blade elements was around 500,000 and one might expect Laminar flow over a significant portion of the blade, the data did not match the noise spectra predicted when Laminar flow was assumed. Given the relatively poor surface quality of the rotor blades and the high turbulence of the test site it was therefore assumed that the boundary layer on the blade may have tripped relatively early and that the turbulent flow setting should be used. This assumption led to a much better correlation between experiment and predictions. The WTNOISE code indicated that the broad peak in the spectrum was most likely caused by trailing edge bluntness noise. Unfortunately time did not allow for modifications to the trailing edge to be investigated. (au)

  5. The Research Productivity of Small Telescopes and Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, F A; Lovell, R L; Kays, S A; Torres, Y V A

    2003-01-01

    We present statistics on the research productivity of astronomical telescopes. These were compiled by finding papers in which new data were presented, noting which telescopes were used, and then counting the number of papers, number of pages, and other statistics. The journals used were the Astronomical Journal, the Astrophysical Journal (including the Letters and Supplements), and the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. We also compiled citations from the Science Citation Index. This work was designed to be similar to that of Trimble (1995), except that more recent journals (from 1995) and citations (from 1998) were used. We also did not restrict our sample to large telescopes only: we included all telescopes from which new data were presented, the smallest of which was a 0.1-m. The data were gathered by first-year work-study undergraduates, who were instructed to include data for all telescopes for which they found new data were included in the journals. A by-product of this research wa...

  6. Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Meagher, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next major ground-based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy. With CTA gamma-ray sources will be studied in the very-high energy gamma-ray range of a few tens of GeV to 100 TeV with up to ten times better sensitivity than available with current generation instruments. We discuss the proposed US contribution to CTA that comprises imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics. Key features of the SC telescope are a wide field of view of eight degrees, a finely pixelated camera with silicon photomultipliers as photon detectors, and a compact and power efficient 1 GS/s readout. The progress in both the optical system and camera development are discussed in this paper.

  7. A 1.2 meter balloon-borne telescope for a submillimeter wave sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Mather, J. C.; Gezari, D. Y.; Kelsall, T.; Cheung, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    A balloon-borne, 1.2 meter Cassegrain telescope designed for diffraction-limited imagery at 100 microns is being developed for a survey of the Galactic plane at submillimeter wavelengths. The telescope pointing system is servocontrolled using a gyroscope for the primary stabilization reference. Extensive use is made of microprocessors for flight sequencing, pointing control and stabilization, and telemetry formatting. A description of the telescope, helium-cooled detectors, and the orientation subsystems are presented together with a brief discussion of the proposed astronomical observations.

  8. Feature-based telescope scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghib, Elahesadat; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Feature-based Scheduler offers a sequencing strategy for ground-based telescopes. This scheduler is designed in the framework of Markovian Decision Process (MDP), and consists of a sub-linear online controller, and an offline supervisory control-optimizer. Online control law is computed at the moment of decision for the next visit, and the supervisory optimizer trains the controller by simulation data. Choice of the Differential Evolution (DE) optimizer, and introducing a reduced state space of the telescope system, offer an efficient and parallelizable optimization algorithm. In this study, we applied the proposed scheduler to the problem of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Preliminary results for a simplified model of LSST is promising in terms of both optimality, and computational cost.

  9. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  10. FAMOUS. The fluorescence telescope prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Johannes; Bretz, Thomas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lauscher, Markus; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Peters, Christine; Sommer, Dominik; Stephan, Maurice [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Auffenberg, Jan; Schaufel, Merlin [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most successful techniques for the detection of air showers produced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are fluorescence telescopes. The light produced by de-exciting nitrogen in the atmosphere is typically detected by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). This technique has been successfully used by the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina for many years. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) promise higher photon detection efficiencies than PMTs. This and other advantages motivate the construction of the fluorescence telescope prototype FAMOUS (First Auger Multi-pixel photon counter camera for the Observation of Ultra-high-energy air Showers) which makes use of SiPMs. In this talk we discuss the FAMOUS telescope with a new 64-pixel camera including power supply and DAQ.

  11. LSST telescope and site status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project1 received its construction authorization from the National Science Foundation in August 2014. The Telescope and Site (T and S) group has made considerable progress towards completion in subsystems required to support the scope of the LSST science mission. The LSST goal is to conduct a wide, fast, deep survey via a 3-mirror wide field of view optical design, a 3.2-Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. The summit facility is currently under construction on Cerro Pachón in Chile, with major vendor subsystem deliveries and integration planned over the next several years. This paper summarizes the status of the activities of the T and S group, tasked with design, analysis, and construction of the summit and base facilities and infrastructure necessary to control the survey, capture the light, and calibrate the data. All major telescope work package procurements have been awarded to vendors and are in varying stages of design and fabrication maturity and completion. The unique M1M3 primary/tertiary mirror polishing effort is completed and the mirror now resides in storage waiting future testing. Significant progress has been achieved on all the major telescope subsystems including the summit facility, telescope mount assembly, dome, hexapod and rotator systems, coating plant, base facility, and the calibration telescope. In parallel, in-house efforts including the software needed to control the observatory such as the scheduler and the active optics control, have also seen substantial advancement. The progress and status of these subsystems and future LSST plans during this construction phase are presented.

  12. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  13. The network of INTA telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, L.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial has a network of three telescopes located at some of the best places for astronomy in mainland Spain. The first is at the Observatorio de Calar Alto in Almeria, at an altitude of more than 2100 m. The second is near Calatayud in Zaragoza, at the summit of a 1400-m high mountain. The last is on the campus of the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospatial (INTA), in Madrid. The three telescopes are either 40 or 50 cm in diameter and will be available for communications and educational projects.

  14. Wide field of view telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  15. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  16. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  17. Highlights from the Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  18. The study on quantitative expression of CD44v6mRNA by real-time RT-PCR with the micro-metastases of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daorong Wang; Xunliang Liu; Guoyu Chen; Yi Miao; Jianguo Xia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of CD44 correlation and the ability of metastasis of tumor cells in gastric carcinoma, and to find the correlation of the quantitative of CD44V6mRNA and the histology expression of CD44v6 in tumors with the clinic-pathologic features, and to make the quantitative expression of CD44v6mRNA. Methods: Twenty patients with gastric carcinoma, 4patients with gastritis, and 10 apparently healthy controls were recruited. Blood samples were obtained before surgery. 10 days after surgery, the blood samples were obtained again. Serum CD44v6mRNA in all cases was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results:Serum CD44V6mRNA was detectable in 20 of 20( 100% ) gastric carcinoma cases, The expression level ranged from 4.9 × 102 copies/μg RNA to 3.2 × 10s copies/μg RNA, the average levels of peripheral blood was 3.9 × 104 copies/μg RNA, The expression level of peripheral blood of gastric cancer after curative operation ranged from 5.5 × 100 copies/μg RNA to 7.6 × 103 copies/μg RNA. After curative operation the expression level was decreased markedly. Conclusion: Serum CD44v6mRNA is expressed in the peripheral blood of gastric carcinoma patients. The expression level of CD44V6mRNA is obviously decreased after curative operation. An elevated level of CD44v6mRNA may serve as an indicator of lymph node metastasis (especially early metastasis) and bad prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoma.

  19. A cryogenic liquid-mirror telescope on the moon to study the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Roger; Borra, Ermanno F; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Foing, Bernard; Hickson, Paul; Josset, Jean-Luc; Ma, Ki Bui; Seddiki, Omar; Sivanandam, Suresh; Thibault, Simon; van Susante, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the feasibility and scientific potential of zenith observing liquid mirror telescopes having 20 to 100 m diameters located on the moon. They would carry out deep infrared surveys to study the distant universe and follow up discoveries made with the 6 m James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), with more detailed images and spectroscopic studies. They could detect objects 100 times fainter than JWST, observing the first, high-red shift stars in the early universe and their assembly into galaxies. We explored the scientific opportunities, key technologies and optimum location of such telescopes. We have demonstrated critical technologies. For example, the primary mirror would necessitate a high-reflectivity liquid that does not evaporate in the lunar vacuum and remains liquid at less than 100K: We have made a crucial demonstration by successfully coating an ionic liquid that has negligible vapor pressure. We also successfully experimented with a liquid mirror spinning on a superconducting bearing, as w...

  20. B-machine polarimeter: A telescope to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian Dean

    The B-Machine Telescope is the culmination of several years of development, construction, characterization and observation. The telescope is a departure from standard polarization chopping of correlation receivers to a half wave plate technique. Typical polarimeters use a correlation receiver to chop the polarization signal to overcome the 1/f noise inherent in HEMT amplifiers. B-Machine uses a room temperature half wave plate technology to chop between polarization states and measure the polarization signature of the CMB. The telescope has a demodulated 1/f knee of 5 mHz and an average sensitivity of 1.6 mK s . This document examines the construction, characterization, observation of astronomical sources, and data set analysis of B-Machine. Preliminary power spectra and sky maps with large sky coverage for the first year data set are included.

  1. Direct Detection 1.6?m DIAL / Doppler Lidar for Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moreover, wind information is an important parameter for transport simulations and inverse estimation of surface CO2 flux. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler wind lidar with the range resolution is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles and wind profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a scanning 1.6 μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system for simultaneously measuring CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd: YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz) and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detect a Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope [1] [2]. We had developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system for 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL[3]. To achieve continuous tuning of the resonant OPO output without mode hopping, it is necessary to vary the OPO cavity length synchronously with the seed-frequency. On the other hand, the OPG does not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The CO2-DIAL was operated with the range-height indicator (RHI) mode, and the 2-D measurement provided inhomogeneity in the boundary layer. Vertical CO2 concentration profiles and wind profiles were also measured simultaneously. The elevation angle was fixed at 52 deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m height resolution. Vertical

  2. Results from the AMANDA telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganupati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, Ph.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schinarakis, K.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudoff, P.; Sudoff, K.-H.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

    2003-06-30

    We present results from the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole. They include measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux, search for UHE point sources, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic/hadronic showers at the detector or close to it.

  3. The Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Yutaro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    1999-10-01

    We have a plan to operate a new 10 m telescope at Pampa la Bola (4800 m) in Chile as one of Japanese R&D activities for Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Technical and scientific purposes in this experiment are to develop and evaluate a high precision 10 m antenna under exposed conditions at the site, to develop and test low-noise submillimeter receivers and new SIS photon detectors, to test various techniques for submillimeter observations, and to explore the southern hemisphere in the submillimeter band: Galactic Center, Magellanic Clouds, and so on. The SIS mixer receivers at the Cassegrain focus covers 100, 230, 350, 500, 670, and 810 GHz bands for spectral line observations. A digital autocorrelator consisted of four modules with 500 MHz bandwidth is mounted in a container near the telescope. Two power generators with a capability of 200 kW are installed at the site. The telescope will be operated remotely from Japan via a commercial satellite communication system. After a test operation at Nobeyama for one and a half years, the telescope will be transported to Pampa la Bola in August 2001.

  4. Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Solar Axion Telescope, CAST, aims to shed light on a 30-year-old riddle of particle physics by detecting axions originating from the 15 million degree plasma in the Sun 's core. Axions were proposed as an extension to the Standard Model of particle physics to explain why CP violation is observed in weak but not strong interactions.

  5. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  6. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  7. Results from the AMANDA telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhali, O

    2003-01-01

    We present results from the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole. They include measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux, search for UHE point sources, and diffuse sources producing electromagnetic/hadronic showers at the detector or close to it. (4 refs).

  8. NESTOR Neutrino Telescope Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, P. K. F.; NESTOR Collaboration; Aloupis, A.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Arvanitis, N.; Babalis, A.; Ball, A.; Bourlis, G.; Butkevich, A. V.; Chinowsky, W.; Christopoulos, P. E.; Darsaklis, A.; Dedenko, L. G.; Elistrup, D.; Fahrun, E.; Gialis, J.; Goudis, Ch.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Karaevsky, S. K.; Katrivanos, P.; Keussen, U.; Kiskiras, J.; Knutz, Th.; Kolostelov, D.; Komlev, K.; Kontaxis, J.; Koske, P.; Learned, J. G.; Ledenev, V. V.; Leisos, A.; Limberopoulos, G.; Ludvig, J.; Makris, J.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mielke, J.; Mihos, Th.; Minkowski, P.; Mironovich, A. A.; Mitiguy, R.; Nounos, S.; Nygren, D. R.; Papageorgiou, K.; Passera, M.; Politis, C.; Preve, P.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rathlev, J.; Resvanis, L. K.; Rosen, M.; Schmidt, N.; Schmidt, Th.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris, T.; Stavrakakis, G.; Stokstad, R.; Surin, N. M.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tsirmpas, J.; Tzamarias, S.; Vasiliev, O.; Vaskine, O.; Voigt, W.; Vougioukas, A.; Voulgaris, G.; Zacharov, L. M.; Zheleznykh, I. M.; Zhukov, A.

    2003-07-01

    The first so-called flo or with 12 detector modules of the NESTOR deep sea high energy muon and neutrino telescope had been deployed successfully this March (2003) together with its electronics system. Since that data the system and the associated environmental monitoring units are operating properly and data

  9. The control software for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlati, A.; Buttu, M.; Melis, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

    2012-09-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-meter shaped antenna designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. This large instrument has been built in Sardinia, 35 km north of Cagliari, and is now facing the technical commissioning phase. This paper describes the architecture, the implementation solutions and the development status of NURAGHE, the SRT control software. Aim of the project was to produce a software which is reliable, easy to keep up to date and flexible against other telescopes. The most ambitious goal will be to install NURAGHE at all the three italian radio telescopes, allowing the astronomers to access these facilities through a common interface with very limited extra effort. We give a description of all the control software subsystems (servo systems, backends, receivers, etc.) focusing on the resulting design, which is based on the ACS (Alma Common Software) patterns and comes from linux-based, LGPL, Object-Oriented development technologies. We also illustrate how NURAGHE deals with higher level requirements, coming from the telescope management or from the system users.

  10. Lunar-based optical telescopes: Planning astronomical tools of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Nein, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    A succession of optical telescopes, ranging in aperture from 1 to 16 m or more, can be deployed and operated on the lunar surface over the next half-century. These candidates to succeed NASA's Great Observatories would capitalize on the unique observational advantages offered by the Moon. The Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE Task Team of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have assessed the feasibility of developing and deploying these facilities. Studies include the 16-m Large Lunar Telescope (LLT); the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment (LCTE), a 4-m precursor to the LLT; the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT); and its precursor, the 1-m Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). The feasibility of developing and deploying each telescope was assessed and system requirements and options for supporting technologies, subsystems, transportation, and operations were detailed. Influences of lunar environment factors and site selection on telescope design and operation were evaluated, and design approaches and key tradeoffs were established. This paper provides an overview of the study results. Design concepts and brief system descriptions are provided, including subsystem and mission options selected for the concepts.

  11. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  12. Research of dynamic properties of alloys of AMg6BM and AMg6M in shock-wave experiment on a gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrushin, S. S.; Karnaukhov, E. I.; Malugina, S. N.; Kazakov, D. N.; Kozelkov, O. E.; Pavlenko, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Spall strength and elastoplastic parameters of aluminum alloys AMg6BM and AMg6M were studied in shock wave experiments with light gas guns LGG-1200 and LGG-2500 and results of these experiments are provided. Strength wave profiles were registered simultaneously by VISAR and interferometer PDV. Consideration was given to dependences of spall strength and strength parameters of aluminum alloys AMg6BM and AMg6M on the amplitude of the shock-wave loading in the range of 1.1 to 14.2 GPa and on deformation rate in the range of 0.2 to 3.6 · 105 s-1. Threshold damage levels for alloys AMg6M and AMg6BM are determined. It was shown that alloy AMg6BM softens under the pressure more than 5 GPa.

  13. Research of dynamic properties of alloys of AMg6BM and AMg6M in shock-wave experiment on a gas gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrushin S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spall strength and elastoplastic parameters of aluminum alloys AMg6BM and AMg6M were studied in shock wave experiments with light gas guns LGG-1200 and LGG-2500 and results of these experiments are provided. Strength wave profiles were registered simultaneously by VISAR and interferometer PDV. Consideration was given to dependences of spall strength and strength parameters of aluminum alloys AMg6BM and AMg6M on the amplitude of the shock-wave loading in the range of 1.1 to 14.2 GPa and on deformation rate in the range of 0.2 to 3.6 · 105 s−1. Threshold damage levels for alloys AMg6M and AMg6BM are determined. It was shown that alloy AMg6BM softens under the pressure more than 5 GPa.

  14. The automated Palomar 60 inch telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Cenko, S Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Henning, John R.; Guzman, C. Dani; Bonati, Marco; Smith, Roger M.; Thicksten, Robert P.; Doyle, Michael W.; Petrie, Hal L.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Anagnostou, Nathaniel L.

    2006-01-01

    We have converted the Palomar 60-inch telescope (P60) from a classical night assistant-operated telescope to a fully robotic facility. The automated system, which has been operational since September 2004, is designed for moderately fast (t

  15. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  16. Origins Space Telescope: Telescope Design and Instrument Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Margaret; Carter, Ruth; Leisawitz, David; Dipirro, Mike; Flores, Anel; Staguhn, Johannes; Kellog, James; Roellig, Thomas L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bradford, Charles; Wright, Edward L.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The renaming of the mission reflects Origins science goals that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. This poster will show the preliminary telescope design that will be a large aperture (>8 m in diameter), cryogenically cooled telescope. We will also present the specifications for the spectrographs and imagers over a potential wavelength range of ~10 microns to 1 millimeter. We look forward to community input into this mission definition over the coming year as we work on the concept design for the mission. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  17. The Medium Size Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, covering a photon energy range of ~20 GeV to above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of the order of 100 telescopes of three sizes, installed at two sites in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. This contribution deals with the 12 meter Medium Size Telescopes (MST) having a single mirror (modified Davies-Cotton, DC) design. In the baseline design of the CTA arrays, 25 MSTs in the South and 15 MSTs in the North provide the necessary sensitivity for CTA in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. DC-MSTs will be equipped with photomultiplier (PMT)-based cameras. Two options are available for these focal plane instruments, that will be provided by the FlashCam and the NectarCAM sub-consortia. In this contribution, a short introduction to the projects and their status is given.

  18. The Principles of Astronomical Telescope Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Jingquan

    2009-01-01

    Presents a summary of the author's twenty five years of experience in telescope design. This work provides a general introduction to various aspects of telescope design. It discusses the theory behind telescope design. It covers Radio, Infrared, Optical, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray wavelengths

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  20. CFRP lightweight structures for extremely large telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J.

    2008-01-01

    Telescope structures are traditionally built out of steel. To improve the possibility of realizing the ambitious extremely large telescopes, materials with a higher specific stiffness and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion are needed. An important possibility is Carbon Fibre Reinforced...... Plastic (CFRP). The advantages of using CFRP for the secondary mirror support structure of the European overwhelmingly large telescope are discussed....

  1. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  2. The Ortega Telescope Andor CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M.; Batcheldor, D.

    2012-07-01

    We present a preliminary instrument report for an Andor iKon-L 936 charge-couple device (CCD) being operated at Florida Tech's 0.8 m Ortega Telescope. This camera will replace the current Finger Lakes Instrumentation (FLI) Proline CCD. Details of the custom mount produced for this camera are presented, as is a quantitative and qualitative comparison of the new and old cameras. We find that the Andor camera has 50 times less noise than the FLI, has no significant dark current over 30 seconds, and has a smooth, regular flat field. The Andor camera will provide significantly better sensitivity for direct imaging programs and, once it can be satisfactorily tested on-sky, will become the standard imaging device on the Ortega Telescope.

  3. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0...... and suggests a need for greater clinical focus on the gender differences of gambling behavior....

  4. Cherenkov Telescope Array Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lamanna, G; Contreras, J L; Knödlseder, J; Kosack, K; Neyroud, N; Aboudan, A; Arrabito, L; Barbier, C; Bastieri, D; Boisson, C; Brau-Nogué, S; Bregeon, J; Bulgarelli, A; Carosi, A; Costa, A; De Cesare, G; Reyes, R de los; Fioretti, V; Gallozzi, S; Jacquemier, J; Khelifi, B; Kocot, J; Lombardi, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyard, E; Maier, G; Massimino, P; Osborne, J P; Perri, M; Rico, J; Sanchez, D A; Satalecka, K; Siejkowski, H; Stolarczyk, T; Szepieniec, T; Testa, V; Walter, R; Ward, J E; Zoli, A

    2015-01-01

    Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is evolving towards the model of a public observatory. Handling, processing and archiving the large amount of data generated by the CTA instruments and delivering scientific products are some of the challenges in designing the CTA Data Management. The participation of scientists from within CTA Consortium and from the greater worldwide scientific community necessitates a sophisticated scientific analysis system capable of providing unified and efficient user access to data, software and computing resources. Data Management is designed to respond to three main issues: (i) the treatment and flow of data from remote telescopes; (ii) "big-data" archiving and processing; (iii) and open data access. In this communication the overall technical design of the CTA Data Management, current major developments and prototypes are presented.

  5. Highlights from the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth’s surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  6. The LWA1 Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingson, S W; Craig, J; Hartman, J; Dowell, J; Wolfe, C N; Clarke, T E; Hicks, B C; Kassim, N E; Ray, P S; Rickard, L J; Schinzel, F K; Weiler, K W

    2012-01-01

    LWA1 is a new radio telescope operating in the frequency range 10-88 MHz, located in central New Mexico. The telescope consists of 258 pairs of dipole-type antennas whose outputs are individually digitized and formed into beams. Simultaneously, signals from all dipoles can be recorded using one of the instrument's "all dipoles" modes, facilitating all-sky imaging. Notable features of the instrument include high intrinsic sensitivity (about 6 kJy zenith system equivalent flux density), large instantaneous bandwidth (up to 78 MHz), and 4 independently-steerable beams utilizing digital "true time delay" beamforming. This paper summarizes the design of LWA1 and its performance as determined in commissioning experiments. We describe the method currently in use for array calibration, and report on measurements of sensitivity and beamwidth.

  7. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  8. Physics and astrophysics with gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In the past few years gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age. A modern suite of telescopes is now scanning the sky over both hemispheres and over six orders of magnitude in energy. At {approx}TeV energies, only a handful of sources were known a decade ago, but the current generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS) has increased this number to nearly one hundred. With a large field of view and duty cycle, the Tibet and Milagro air shower detectors have demonstrated the promise of the direct particle detection technique for TeV gamma rays. At {approx}GeV energies, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has increased the number of known sources by nearly an order of magnitude in its first year of operation. New classes of sources that were previously theorized to be gamma-ray emitters have now been confirmed observationally. Moreover, there have been surprise discoveries of GeV gamma-ray emission from source classes for which no theory predicted it was possible. In addition to elucidating the processes of high-energy astrophysics, gamma-ray telescopes are making essential contributions to fundamental physics topics including quantum gravity, gravitational waves, and dark matter. I summarize the current census of astrophysical gamma-ray sources, highlight some recent discoveries relevant to fundamental physics, and describe the synergetic connections between gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. This is a brief overview intended in particular for particle physicists and neutrino astronomers, based on a presentation at the Neutrino 2010 conference in Athens, Greece. I focus in particular on results from Fermi (which was launched soon after Neutrino 2008), and conclude with a description of the next generation of instruments, namely HAWC and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  9. Building the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous presentation, I reported on how the freak collapse of the NRAO 300-ft transit radio telescope led to the inclusion of $75 million for a new radio telescope in the 1989 Congressional Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. But, this was only the beginning. NRAO was faced with challenging specifications and an unworkable schedule, but there was no design and no project team. Only one bid was even close to the Congressional appropriation. In an attempt to meet the unrealistic antenna delivery date, the contractor started construction of the foundation and fabrication of antenna members before the design was finished, leading to retrofits, redesign, and multiple delays. The antenna contractor was twice sold to other companies leading to further delays and cost escalation. In order to recoup their mounting losses, the new owners sued NRAO for $29 million for claimed design changes, and NRAO countersued demanding to be reimbursed for added project management costs and lost scientific data resulting from the seven-year delay in the completion of the telescope. Legal fees and a small net award in favor of the contractor left NRAO and the NSF with a nine million dollar bill which NSF handled by an innovative accounting adjustment.

  10. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  11. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  12. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  13. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fangjun

    2011-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will be China's first astronomical satellite. On board HXMT there are three kinds of slat-collimated telescopes, the High Energy X-ray Telescope (HE, 20-250 keV, 5000 cm^2), the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope (ME, 5-30 keV, 952 cm^2), and the Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE, 1-15 keV, 384 cm^2).

  14. Educational activities with the Faulkes Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Roche, P.; Ross, R.

    2008-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) will eventually provide access to a global network of robotic telescopes for research-based science education. Here we present the educational projects that have been undertaken using the 2-m Faulkes Telescopes in Hawaii and Australia in both the UK and Europe. These include themed observing days in which schools collaborate in their telescope sessions, the development of science portals where schools can upload and share their telescope data, and other innovative projects. Public access to these facilities will increase as IYA2009 approaches.

  15. Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph System in New Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y. H.; Chae, J.; Goode, P. R.; Cho, K. S.; Park, H. M.; Nah, J. K.; Jang, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, Big Bear Solar Observatory in California, USA launched a project for construction of the world's largest aperture solar telescope (D = 1.6m) called New Solar Telescope(NST). University of Hawaii (UH) and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute(KASI) partly collaborate on the project. NST is a designed off-axis parabolic Gregorian reflector with very high spatial resolution(0.07 arcsec at 5000A) and is equipped with several scientific instruments such as Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph IRIM), and so on. Since these scientific instruments are focused on studies of the solar photosphere, we need a post-focus instrument for the NST to study the fine structures and dynamic patterns of the solar chromosphere and low Transition Region (TR) layer, including filaments/prominences, spicules, jets, micro flares, etc. For this reason, we developed and installed a fast imaging solar spectrograph(FISS) system on the NST withadvantages of achieving compact design with high spectral resolution and small aberration as well as recording many solar spectral lines in a single and/or dual band mode. FISS was installed in May, 2010 and now we carry out a test observation. In this talk, we introduce the FISS system and the results of the test observation after FISS installation.

  16. The space telescope: A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    1989-01-01

    Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.

  17. Astrophysical results of the Mauritius radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanah, R.; Issur, N.; Oozeer, N.

    2013-04-01

    One of the first scientific justifications of building the Mauritius Radio Telescope (hereafter referred to as MRT) was to complement the Cambridge 6C survey, which is a radio map of most of the northern sky at 150 MHz [1]; the MRT would then be the equivalent of the 6C survey for the southern sky and together we would obtain a whole sky radio map at 150 MHz. When the MRT was built, there were no radio surveys of the southern sky at frequencies less than 408 MHz; the frequency of 150 MHz was also chosen to complement the other radio surveys of the southern sky, which have been done at higher frequencies. Furthermore low radio frequencies like 150 MHz are bound to see new sources that would have been missed at higher frequencies due to the form of their spectra. Interesting features of resolved objects can also be studied in more details. In this paper, a brief description of the MRT will be made as well as the observations and imaging with the MRT data, and some astrophysical results obtained since its commissioning in 1992 (20 years of existence this year 2012).

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Hesser, James E.; Pryor, Carlton; Stetson, Peter B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is presented. The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main-sequence population.

  19. Gleam: the GLAST Large Area Telescope Simulation Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Boinee, P; De Angelis, Alessandro; Favretto, Dario; Frailis, Marco; Giannitrapani, Riccardo; Milotti, Edoardo; Longo, Francesco; Brigida, Monica; Gargano, Fabio; Giglietto, Nicola; Loparco, Francesco; Mazziotta, Mario Nicola; Cecchi, Claudia; Lubrano, Pasquale; Pepe, Monica; Baldini, Luca; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Kuss, Michael; Latronico, Luca; Omodei, Nicola; Spandre, Gloria; Bogart, Joanne R.; Dubois, Richard; Kamae, Tune; Rochester, Leon; Usher, Tracy; Burnett, Thompson H.; Robinson, Sean M.; Bastieri, Denis; Rando, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the GLAST high energy gamma-ray telescope. The simulation package, written in C++, is based on the Geant4 toolkit, and it is integrated into a general framework used to process events. A detailed simulation of the electronic signals inside Silicon detectors has been provided and it is used for the particle tracking, which is handled by a dedicated software. A unique repository for the geometrical description of the detector has been realized using the XML language and a C++ library to access this information has been designed and implemented.

  20. CELESTE an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for high energy gamma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Paré, E; Bazer-Bachi, R; Bergeret, H; Berny, F; Briand, N; Bruel, P; Cerutti, M; Collon, J; Cordier, A; Cornebise, P; Debiais, G; Dezalay, J P; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Eschstruth, P T; Espigat, P; Fabre, B; Fleury, P; Gilly, J; Gouillaud, J C; Gregory, C; Herault, N; Holder, J; Hrabovsky, M; Incerti, S; Jouenne, A; Kalt, L; Legallou, R; Lott, B; Lodygensky, O; Manigot, P; Manseri, H; Manitaz, H; Martin, M; Morano, R; Morineaud, G; Muenz, F; Musquere, A; Naurois, M D; Neveu, J; Noppe, J M; Olive, J F; Palatka, M; Pérez, A; Quebert, J; Rebii, A; Reposeur, T; Rob, L; Roy, P; Sans, J L; Sako, T; Schovanek, P; Smith, D A; Snabre, P; Villard, G

    2002-01-01

    CELESTE is an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope based on the sampling method which makes use of the de-commissioned THEMIS solar electrical plant in the French Pyrenees. A large (2000 m sup 2) mirror surface area from 40 independent heliostats followed by a secondary optic, a trigger system using analog summing techniques and signal digitization with 1 GHz flash ADCs make possible the detection of cosmic gamma-rays down to 30 GeV. This paper provides a detailed technical description of the CELESTE installation.

  1. A Fully Wheelchair Accessible Telescope for the Frank N. Bash Visitors Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, F.; Wren, W.; Jones, M.; Dubberly, M.

    2008-06-01

    We present the design and description of a telescope that is fully wheelchair accessible. It is to be installed at the the McDonald Observatory Visitor Center and will service the needs of the general public at star parties and other night-time observing functions.

  2. Herschel SPIRE FTS telescope model correction

    CERN Document Server

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Polehampton, Edward T; Valtchanov, Ivan; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Pearson, Chris P; Swinyard, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Emission from the Herschel telescope is the dominant source of radiation for the majority of SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations, despite the exceptionally low emissivity of the primary and secondary mirrors. Accurate modelling and removal of the telescope contribution is, therefore, an important and challenging aspect of FTS calibration and data reduction pipeline. A dust-contaminated telescope model with time invariant mirror emissivity was adopted before the Herschel launch. However, measured FTS spectra show a clear evolution of the telescope contribution over the mission and strong need for a correction to the standard telescope model in order to reduce residual background (of up to 7 Jy) in the final data products. Systematic changes in observations of dark sky, taken over the course of the mission, provide a measure of the evolution between observed telescope emission and the telescope model. These dark sky observations have been used to derive a time dependent correction to the tel...

  3. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  4. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  5. Status of the Cherenkov Telescope Array's Large Size Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cortina, J

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 PMTs and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is well underway. In 2016 the first LST will be installed at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain). In this talk we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirem...

  6. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  7. Scientific Potential of Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B; Acernese, F; Andersson, P Amaro-Seoane N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beveridge, M Beker N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; Salvo, R De; Dent, T; Rosa, R De; Fiore, L Di; Virgilio, A Di; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hild, S; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller--Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Racz, I; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Rezzolla, L; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Schnabe, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; Veggel, M van; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K

    2011-01-01

    Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET) is a design study funded by the European Commission to explore the technological challenges of and scientific benefits from building a third generation gravitational wave detector. The three-year study, which concluded earlier this year, has formulated the conceptual design of an observatory that can support the implementation of new technology for the next two to three decades. The goal of this talk is to introduce the audience to the overall aims and objectives of the project and to enumerate ET's potential to influence our understanding of fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  8. Detectors for the space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, T.

    1978-01-01

    This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

  9. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B S; Broeck, Chris Van Den

    2009-01-01

    Einstein Telescope (ET) is a 3rd generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector that is currently undergoing a design study. ET can detect millions of compact binary mergers up to redshifts 2-8. A small fraction of mergers might be observed in coincidence as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance and red-shift to the source. By fitting these measured values to a cosmological model, it should be possible to accurately infer the dark energy equation-of-state, dark matter and dark energy density parameters. ET could, therefore, herald a new era in cosmology.

  10. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S E; Ryan, J; Aprile, E; Gehrels, N; Kippen, M; Leising, M; Oberlack, U; Wunderer, C; Zych, A; Bloser, P; Harris, M; Hoover, A; Klimenk, A; Kocevski, D; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Novikova, E I; Phlips, B; Polsen, M; Sturner, S; Tournear, D; Weidenspointner, G; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Bildsten, L; Dermer, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Starrfield, S; Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, James; Ryan, James; Aprile, Elena; Gehrels, Neil; Kippen, Marc; Leising, Mark; Oberlack, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Zych, Allen; Bloser, Peter; Harris, Michael; Hoover, Andrew; Klimenk, Alexei; Kocevski, Dan; Connell, Mark Mc; Milne, Peter; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard; Polsen, Mark; Sturner, Steven; Tournear, Derek; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wulf, Eric; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baring, Matthew; Beacom, John; Bildsten, Lars; Dermer, Charles; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; Smith, David; Starrfield, Sumner

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  11. In humans IL-6 is released from the brain during and after exercise and paralleled by enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per; Vedel, J-C; Olesen, J

    2011-01-01

    . Additionally, it was evaluated in mice whether brain release of IL-6 reflected enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in the brain as modulated by brain glycogen levels. Methods: Nine healthy male subjects completed 4 h of ergometer rowing while the arterio-jugular venous difference (a-v diff) for IL-6 was determined....... The IL-6 mRNA and the glycogen content were determined in mouse hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex before and after 2 h treadmill running (N = 8). Results: At rest, the IL-6 a-v diff was negligible but decreased to -2.2 ± 1.9 pg ml(-1) at the end of exercise and remained low (-2.1 ± 2.1 pg ml(-1) ) 1 h...

  12. 研华推出Atom双核ARK-6320-6M01E无风扇嵌入式工控机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    面对工控行业的低功耗趋势,研华推出了紧凑、低功耗、功能强大的Mini-ITX嵌入式工控机ARK-6320—6M01E。ARK-6320—6M01采用了双核IntelAtomTMD510处理器,工作静音,并可在恶劣环境中稳定运行。它具有很强的扩展能力,是热门的多合一嵌入式工控机,适合于工业自动化、KIOSK/POS.数字标牌(DSA)以及其他嵌入式应用。

  13. 研华推出Atom双核ARK-6320—6M01E无风扇嵌入式工控机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    研华近期推出了紧凑、低功耗、功能强大的Mini—ITX嵌入式工控机ARK-6320—6M01E。ARK-6320—6M01采用了双核Intel?Atom TM D510处理器,工作静音,并可在恶劣环境中稳定运行。它具有很强的扩展能力,是最热门的多合一嵌入式工控机,适合于工业自动化、KIOSK/POS,数字标牌(DSA)以及其他嵌入式应用。

  14. LLCD operations using the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Wright, Malcolm W.; Roberts, William T.; Cheng, Michael K.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera; Shaw, Matthew D.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2014-03-01

    The Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) located on Table Mountain near Wrightwood, CA served as an alternate ground terminal to the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), the first free-space laser communication demonstration from lunar distances. The Lunar Lasercom OCTL Terminal (LLOT) Project utilized the existing 1m diameter OCTL telescope by retrofitting: (i) a multi-beam 1568 nm laser beacon transmitter; (ii) a tungsten silicide (WSi) superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) receiver for 1550 nm downlink; (iii) a telescope control system with the functionality required for laser communication operations; and (iv) a secure network connection to the Lunar Lasercom Operations Center (LLOC) located at the Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL-MIT). The laser beacon transmitted from Table Mountain was acquired by the Lunar Lasercom Space Terminal (LLST) on-board the Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and a 1550 nm downlink at 39 and 78 Mb/s was returned to LLOT. Link operations were coordinated by LLOC. During October and November of 2013, twenty successful links were accomplished under diverse conditions. In this paper, a brief system level description of LLOT along with the concept of operations and selected results are presented.

  15. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation filling of a 6$m^3$ vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A; Gendotti, A; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Coleman, J; Lewis, M; Mavrokoridis, K; McCormick, K; Touramanis, C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 $m^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to $all$ sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  16. Mechanical properties and electronic structures of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Fe, Cr, Mn)-type multicomponent carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangzhen [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China); Jiang, Yehua, E-mail: jiangyehua@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Xing, Jiandong [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710049 (China); Zhou, Rong [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Feng, Jing, E-mail: jfeng@seas.harvard.edu [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02318 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The mechanical and electronic properties of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}- (M = Fe, Cr, Mn) and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}-type multicomponent carbides are investigated systematically by first-principles calculations. The values of cohesive energy and formation enthalpy exhibited thermodynamically stable structures of these carbides. The stress–strain method and Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation were used to calculate the elastic constants and moduli, respectively. The mechanical properties of the doped Fe or Mo in M{sub 23}C{sub 6} compounds are superior to the pure phases of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}, Mn{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Fe{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Mechanical anisotropy of these compounds was illustrated from the anisotropic index and different shapes of the surface contour by Young's modulus. Moreover, the total density of states of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} compounds indicated that the bonding behaviors of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} compounds were combinations of metallic and covalent bonds. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Mo, W), which formed in different heat treatment of many iron-based alloys can dramatically influence the mechanical properties of materials such as extreme hardness, high melting point, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and high thermal conductivity, etc. - Highlights: • The mechanical properties of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Fe, Cr, Mn) multicomponent carbides are estimated. • The anisotropy of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides are discussed with regards to bonding and density of states. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Fe, Cr, Mn) multicomponent carbides are thermodynamically stable.

  17. The EEE Project: a sparse array of telescopes for the measurement of cosmic ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, P.; Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccetti, F.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D'Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferraro, A.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Liciulli, F.; Maggiora, A.; Maragoto Rodriguez, O.; Maron, G.; Martelli, B.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M.; Paoletti, R.; Park, W.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Rizzi, M.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stori, L.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Visnyei, O. B.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is meant to be the most extensive experiment to detect secondary cosmic particles in Italy. To this aim, more than 50 telescopes have been built at CERN and installed in high schools distributed all over the Italian territory. Each EEE telescope comprises three large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) and is capable of reconstructing the trajectories of the charged particles traversing it with a good angular resolution. The excellent performance of the EEE telescopes allows a large variety of studies, from measuring the local muon flux in a single telescope, to detecting extensive air showers producing time correlations in the same metropolitan area, to searching for large-scale correlations between showers detected in telescopes tens, hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart. In addition to its scientific goal, the EEE Project also has an educational and outreach objective, its aim being to motivate young people by involving them directly in a real experiment. High school students and teachers are involved in the construction, testing and start-up of the EEE telescope in their school, then in its maintenance and data-acquisition, and later in the analysis of the data. During the last couple of years a great boost has been given to the EEE Project through the organization of simultaneous and centralized data taking with the whole telescope array. The raw data from all telescopes are transferred to CNAF (Bologna), where they are reconstructed and stored. The data are currently being analyzed, looking at various topics: variation of the rate of cosmic muons with time, upward going muons, muon lifetime, search for anisotropies in the muon angular distribution and for time coincidences between stations. In this paper an overall description of the experiment is given, including the design, construction and performance of the telescopes. The operation of the whole array is also presented by showing the most recent

  18. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  19. Corrector systems for cassegrain telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R N

    1968-02-01

    Most modern reflecting telescopes have relative apertures of about f/3 and f/8 for the primary and first secondary foci in accordance with the suggestions of Bowen. The angular field which can be used at the first secondary focus is limited by the size of available plates for large instruments but can approach +/-1 degrees for smaller systems. The factors influencing the choice of the field corrector system in the first secondary focus are discussed. It is an important point whether the Ritchey-Chrétien form of the mirrors is strictly maintained-giving an optimum field without the corrector-or whether the aspheric constants are allowed to vary as free parameters. The differences are small but significant. The performance of a number of secondary focus correctors consisting of one, two, and three elements is discussed, spot diagrams being given in each case. Systems with fixed Ritchey-Chrétien mirror constants are inferior to those with free mirror constants. Test methods for the manufacture of the mirrors of telescopes of this type are compared. A doublet type corrector is suitable for compensation testing of primary mirrors or for secondaries tested from the back, but the testing of the latter from the front is more difficult. Several possible techniques are discussed.

  20. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  1. Far Ultraviolot Space Telescope (FAUST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope is a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for observations of extended and point sources of astronomical interest. It was originally used in sounding rocket work by both French and American investigators. The instrument was modified for flight on the space shuttle and flew on the Spacelab 1 mission as a joint effort between the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale and the University of California, Berkeley. The prime experiment objective of this telescope on the Atmospheric Laboratory Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission is to observe faint astronomical sources in the far ultraviolet with sensitivities far higher than previously available. The experiment will cover the 1300 to 1800 A band, which is inaccessible to observers on earth. The observing program during the mission consists of obtaining deep sky images during spacecraft nighttime. The targets will include hot stars and nebulae in our own galaxy, faint diffuse galactic features similar to the cirrus clouds seen by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), large nearby galaxies, nearby clusters of galaxies, and objects of cosmological interest such as quasars and the diffuse far ultraviolet background.

  2. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  3. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  4. Merz telescopes a global heritage worth preserving

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises a fascinating collection of contributions on the Merz telescopes in Italy that collectively offer the first survey on historical large refracting telescopes in the country, drawing on original documents and photographs. It opens with a general introduction on the importance of Merz telescopes in the history of astronomy and analyses of the local and international contexts in which the telescopes were made. After examination of an example of the interaction between the maker and the astronomer in the construction and maintenance of these refractors, the history of the Merz telescopes at the main Italian observatories in the nineteenth century is described in detail. Expert testimony is also provided on how these telescopes were successfully used until the second half of the twentieth century for research purposes, thus proving their excellent optical qualities.

  5. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  6. Parameterized Telescoping Proves Algebraic Independence of Sums

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Usually creative telescoping is used to derive recurrences for sums. In this article we show that the non-existence of a creative telescoping solution, and more generally, of a parameterized telescoping solution, proves algebraic independence of certain types of sums. Combining this fact with summation-theory shows transcendence of whole classes of sums. Moreover, this result throws new light on the question why, e.g., Zeilberger's algorithm fails to find a recurrence with minimal order.

  7. Resolution studies with the DATURA beam telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We present resolution studies carried out with the DATURA beam telescope, which belongs to the family of EUDET-type beam telescopes. The EUDET-type beam telescopes make use of CMOS MIMOSA 26 pixel detectors for particle tracking allowing for precise characterisation of particle sensing devices. A profound understanding of the performance of the beam telescope as a whole is obtained by a detailed characterisation of the sensors themselves. We extract the differential intrinsic resolution as measured in a MIMOSA 26 sensor using an iterative pull method and show various clustersize dependent quantities as the residual distribution, the intra-pixel residual width distribution and the intra-pixel frequency distribution.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, M. A.; Boyce, L. A.; Glazer, S. D.; Johnson, E. L.; McCloskey, J. C.; Sullivan, P. C.; Voyton, M. F.

    2005-12-01

    In this poster, we describe the major design features of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The JWST mission is under development by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies for launch during 2013. The JWST is designed to enable a five year science mission that is focused on four themes: [1] observation of the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, [2] the assembly of these objects into galaxies, [3] the birth of stars and planetary systems, and [4] the formation of planets and the origins of life. The above science themes require high sensitivity and HST-like angular resolution over the near- to mid-infrared spectrum. A 40 K cryogenic radiatively cooled telescope with a 25 m2 collecting area was selected to meet these requirments. A mission architecture involving a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point was chosen to meet optical stability and data downlink requirments. A modular flight segment architecture was selected to enable incremental integration and test of the cryogenic payload. The ISIM is one key feature of this modular architecture that enables a feasible cryogenic test program. The ISIM element is the science instrument payload of the observatory. It contains 70 million infrared detector pixels allocated among four science instrument systems and a fine guidance sensor system. Brief instrument descriptions are available at: www.stsci.edu/jwst/docs/flyers. The ISIM also contains a passive 40 K thermal control system, a 6 K cryo-cooler system, a command and data handling system, a flight software system, and an optical metering structure system. The ISIM element is responsible for acquisition of the JWST science data, fine guidance data for telescope pointing control, and wavefront sensing data for in-flight adjustment of the telescope optics. Further information about the JWST mission is available at: www.jwst.nasa.gov.

  9. Peer mentoring of telescope operations and data reduction at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Carini, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Peer mentoring plays an important role in the astronomy program at Western Kentucky University. I will describe how undergraduates teach and mentor other undergraduates the basics of operating our 0.6m telescope and data reduction (IRAF) techniques. This peer to peer mentoring creates a community of undergraduate astronomy scholars at WKU. These scholars bond and help each other with research, coursework, social, and personal issues. This community atmosphere helps to draw in and retain other students interested in astronomy and other STEM careers.

  10. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  11. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  12. The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ANTARES is the first undersea neutrino telescope. It is in its complete configuration since May 2008 at about 2.5 km below the sea surface close to Marseille. Data from 12 lines are being analyzed and are producing first results. Here we discuss first analysis results for 5 lines and 10 lines, and we also comment on the performance of the full detector. We show that the detector has capabilities for discriminating upgoing neutrino events from the much larger amount of downgoing atmospheric muons and that data and simulation are in good agreement. We then discuss the physics reach of the detector for what concerns point-like source and dark matter searches.

  13. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  14. Recent Results from Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, M

    2015-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum Xmax are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20 degrees radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 sigma. The measured Xmax is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 10^18.2 eV - 10^19.2 eV.

  15. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyaprakash, B S [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Schutz, B F [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, The Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, Golm, D-14476 (Germany); Van Den Broeck, C, E-mail: B.Sathyaprakash@astro.cf.ac.u, E-mail: B.F.Schutz@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: vdbroeck@nikhef.n [Nikhef - National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-07

    The Einstein Telescope, a third-generation gravitational-wave detector under a design study, could detect millions of binary neutron star inspirals each year. A small fraction of these events might be observed as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance D{sub L} to and redshift z of the source. By fitting these measured values of D{sub L} and z to a cosmological model, it would be possible to infer the dark energy equation of state to within 1.5% without the need to correct for errors in D{sub L} caused by weak lensing. This compares favourably with 0.3-10% accuracy that can be achieved with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (where weak lensing will need to be dealt with) as well as with dedicated dark energy missions that have been proposed, where 3.5-11% uncertainty is expected.

  16. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    NESTOR Collaboration; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons.

  17. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  18. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  19. Effect of increased occlusal force on the expression of IL-6 mRNA in the rat periodontium%牙合力增强对大鼠牙周组织IL-6 mRNA表达影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁林; 周伟东; 赵云凤

    2001-01-01

    目的:检测不同牙合力状态下,大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞和牙槽骨成骨细胞中IL-6 mRNA的动态表达,探讨IL-6在牙周组织改建过程中的分子机制。方法:选用Wistar大鼠建立正常牙合力、牙合力增强的动物模型,采用原位杂交的方法,观察成纤维细胞和成骨细胞中IL-6 mRNA表达的动态变化。结果:牙合力增强诱导成纤维细胞和成骨细胞中IL-6 mRNA表达较正常牙合力时明显增强。结论:牙合力增强,促使牙周组织中的成纤维细胞和成骨细胞产生IL-6 mRNA明显增多,且出现一定的规律性变化,提示IL-6在牙合力影响牙周组织改建的过程中起着重要的调节作用。%AIM: To study the expression of IL-6 mRNA in rat periodontal ligament cells (PDLC) and osteoblasts under different occlusal forces, in order to explain the molecular mechanism of periodontium remodeling. METHODS: A rat model of different occlusal force was established by extracting the left maxillary molars, so that the left mandibular molar area was used as the bite force lost model and the right mandibular molar area as the bite force increased model. The untreated rats' mandibular molar area used as normal bite force model. The prepared tissue specimens were processed to study the expression of IL-6 mRNA in PDLC and osteoblasts with in situ hybridization technique. RESULTS: In the group of increased occlusal force the expression of IL-6 mRNA in PDLC and osteoblasts enhanced apparently than the group of normal occlusal force. CONCLUSION: The result of the increased occlusal force enhanced the expression of IL-6 mRNA in PDLC and osteoblasts suggested that the IL-6 may play important roles in the process of periodontium remodeling initiated by different occlusal force.

  20. High-fidelity cryothermal test of a subscale large space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Ollendorf, S.; Mattern, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Jackson, M.; Francis, J.; Hait, T.; Cleveland, P.; Muheim, D.; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    To take advantage of the unique environment of space and optimize infrared observations for faint sources, space telescopes must be cooled to low temperatures. The new paradigm in cooling large space telescopes is to use a combination of passive radiative cooling and mechanical cryocoolers. The passive system must shield the telescope from the Sun, Earth, and the warm spacecraft components while providing radiative cooling to deep space. This shield system is larger than the telescope itself, and must attenuate the incoming energy by over one million to limit heat input to the telescope. Testing of such a system on the ground is a daunting task due to the size of the thermal/vacuum chamber required and the degree of thermal isolation necessary between the room temperature and cryogenic parts of the shield. These problems have been attacked in two ways: by designing a subscale version of a larger sunshield and by carefully closing out radiation sneak paths. The 18% scale (the largest diameter shield was 1.5 m) version of the SPIRIT Origins Probe telescope shield was tested in a low cost helium shroud within a 3.1 m diameter x 4.6 m long LN II shrouded vacuum chamber. Thermal straps connected from three shield stages to the liquid helium cooled shroud were instrumented with heaters and thermometers to simulate mechanical cryocooler stages at 6 K, 18-20 K, and 45-51 K. Performance data showed that less than 10 microwatts of radiative heat leaked from the warm to cold sides of the shields during the test. The excellent agreement between the data and the thermal models is discussed along with shroud construction techniques.

  1. Flagstaff Robotic Survey Telescope (FRoST): Rapid Response for NEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avner, Louis Daniel; Trilling, David E.; Dunham, Edward W.

    2016-10-01

    The Flagstaff Robotic Survey Telescope (FRoST) is a robotic 0.6m Schmidt telescope that will be used for instant follow-up observations of newly discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here, we present the progress being made on FRoST as well as the remaining tasks until the telescope is fully operational. With more than one thousand NEOs being found yearly, more telescopes are needed to carry out follow-up observations. Most NEOs are found at their peak brightness, meaning that these observations need to happen quickly before they fade. By using the Catalina Sky Survey Queue Manager, FRoST will be able to accept interruptions during the night and prioritize observations automatically, allowing instant follow-up observations. FRoST will help refine the orbit of these newly discovered objects while providing optical colors. We will ingest information from the NEOCP and JPL's Scout program at five minute intervals and observe newly discovered targets robotically, process the data automatically, and autonomously generate astrometry and colors. We estimate that will we provide essentially 100% recovery of objects brighter than V~20. This work was supported by the NSF MRI program as well as by NAU and Lowell Observatory.

  2. Valence transition of samarium in hexaboride solid solutions Sm 1-xMxB6 (M = Yb 2+ , Sr2+ , La3+ , Y3+ , Th4+ )

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    International audience; The X-ray absorption measurements at the LIII edge have been carried out at 300 K in the solid solutions Sm1-xMxB 6 (M = Yb2+, Sr2+, La3+, Y3+, Th4+). The fine structure of the edge indicates that the average samarium valence tends towards Sm3+ with increasing Yb2+ and Sr2+ contents whereas the substitutions with La 3+, Y3+ and Th4+ involve a decrease of the average samarium valence reaching Sm2+ as x increases. The entire results obtained agree well with those deduced...

  3. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  4. Solar Magnetometry with the dutch open telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Zalm, E.B.J. van der

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) has become op- erational at the Roque de los Muchachos Observa- tory on La Palma. The rst image sequences taken with this innovative telescope demonstrate its capa- bility for tomographic high-resolution imaging of the magnetic topology of the solar atmosphere up to th

  5. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design

  6. Lijiang 2.4m Optical Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2.4m optical telescope of Yunnan Observatory was installed at Lijiang Observatory in the northwest of the Yunnan Province in 2007, which became operational since May 2008. At present, it is the largest general-use optical telescope in East Asia.

  7. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  8. LUNASKA simultaneous neutrino searches with multiple telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, J D; James, C W; Roberts, P; Brown, A; Phillips, C J; Protheroe, R J; Reynolds, J E; McFadden, R A; Aartsen, M

    2011-01-01

    The most sensitive method for detecting neutrinos at the very highest energies is the lunar Cherenkov technique, which employs the Moon as a target volume, using conventional radio telescopes to monitor it for nanosecond-scale pulses of Cherenkov radiation from particle cascades in its regolith. Multiple-antenna radio telescopes are difficult to effectively combine into a single detector for this purpose, while single antennas are more susceptible to false events from radio interference, which must be reliably excluded for a credible detection to be made. We describe our progress in excluding such interference in our observations with the single-antenna Parkes radio telescope, and our most recent experiment (taking place the week before the ICRC) using it in conjunction with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, exploiting the advantages of both types of telescope.

  9. Calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Reyes, Raquel de los; Doro, Michele; Foerster, Andreas; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Parsons, Dan; van Eldik, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is expected to start soon. We will present the baseline methods and their extensions currently foreseen to calibrate the observatory. These are bound to achieve the strong requirements on allowed systematic uncertainties for the reconstructed gamma-ray energy and flux scales, as well as on the pointing resolution, and on the overall duty cycle of the observatory. Onsite calibration activities are designed to include a robust and efficient calibration of the telescope cameras, and various methods and instruments to achieve calibration of the overall optical throughput of each telescope, leading to both inter-telescope calibration and an absolute calibration of the entire observatory. One important aspect of the onsite calibration is a correct understanding of the atmosphere above the telescopes, which constitutes the calorimeter of this detection technique. It is planned to be constantly monitored with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and...

  10. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  11. Optical design of a rotating eyepiece telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Nasim, F.; Khan, A. N.; Gul, A.

    2016-08-01

    Flexible eyepiece telescope has been designed and verified. The rotating eyepiece of telescope will facilitate viewing of objects in a remote or out of sight target. Eyepiece arm of telescope can be rotated upto 360o keeping objective and reticule unchanged and ensuring zero deviation in reticule inclination. Main application of this scope is off axis viewing of objects. Image inversion has been carried out by using pair of mirrors and length of telescope is controlled by using relay lenses. The optical design, simulation and image analysis has been carried out by using ZEMAX®. Magnification of telescope is between 10∼⃒12 times with FOV of 60. Experiment has been carried out using uncoated Edmund Optics and optical tool box of Micro Series Kit, NEWPORT.

  12. Performance of the SST-1M telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Moderski, R; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Chruślińska, M.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Pueschel, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Rozwadowski, P.; Schioppa, E. jr; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Pujadas, I. Troyano; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Żychowski, P.

    2015-01-01

    The single mirror small-size telescope (SST-1M) is one of the telescope projects being proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory by a sub-consortium of Polish and Swiss institutions. The SST-1M prototype structure is currently being constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Poland, while the camera will be assembled at the University of Geneva, Switzerland. This prototype enables measurements of parameters having a decisive influence on the telescope performance. We present results of numerical simulations of the SST-1M performance based on such measurements. The telescope effective area, the expected trigger rates and the optical point spread function are calculated.

  13. Design of the STAR-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  14. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 E6 mRNA in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong Jiang; Peng Wang; Yong Li; Tao Ning; Xiao-song Rao; Bao-guoLiu

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC)is a common malignant tumor in Northeast China and is frequently associated with well-established risk factors like smoking and alcohol abuse.Human papilloma virus(HPV)is an epitheliotropic oncogenic virus that has been detected in a variety of head and neck tumors including LSCC.This retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in patients with LSCC.Methods:In situ hybridization was performed in 99 patients with LSCC to detect the expression of HPV-16 E6mRNA.Results:The positive rate of HPV16 E6 mRNA was 36.36%(36/99)in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC),whereas only 3 of 50(6%)specimens of the normal laryngeal mucosa as a control group showed positive results(P0.05).Conclusion:The results suggest that the increased prevalence of HPV infection compared to normal laryngeal mucosa and the fact that high-risk HPV types(especially type 16)were the most frequently identified do not allow the exclusion of HPV as a risk factor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.However,their clinical value remains to be further investigated.

  15. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 E6 mRNA in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong Jiang; Peng Wang; Yong Li; Tao Ning; Xiao-song Rao; Bao-guoLiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma(LSCC) is a common malignant tumor in Northeast China and is frequently associated with well-established risk factors like smoking and alcohol abuse.Human papilloma virus (HPV) is an epitheliotropic oncogenic virus that has been detected in a variety of head and neck tumors including LSCC.This retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in patients with LSCC.Methods: In situ hybridization was performed in 99 patients with LSCC to detect the expression of HPV-16 E6 mRNA.Results: The positive rate of HPV 16 E6 mRNA was 36.36%(36/99) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC),whereas only 3 of 50(6%) specimens of the normal laryngeal mucosa as a control group showed positive results(P0.05).Conclusion: The results suggest that the increased prevalence of HPV infection compared to normal laryngeal mucosa and the fact that high-risk HPV types(especially type 16) were the most frequently identified do not allow the exclusion of HPV as a risk factor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.However,their clinical value remains to be further investigated.

  16. Computational insights into the concomitant changes of hollow interior evolution in [SbnAunSbn]m (n=3, 4, 5, 6; m= -3, -2, -1, -2) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingting; Ning, Ping; Tang, Lihong; Li, Kai; Bao, Shuangyou; Jin, Xu; Song, Xin; Zhang, Xiuying; Han, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    A series of novel all-metal sandwich species, [SbnAunSbn]m (n= 3, 4, 5, 6; m= -3, -2, -1, -2), are carefully designed and are systematically investigated in term of structure, bonding nature, stability, and potential application. These results show that [SbnAunSbn]m (n=3, 4, 5, 6; m= -3, -2, -1, -2), have local minimum values on their potential energy surfaces. For the Sb-Sb and Sb-Au bond, they are obviously covalent features, while in Au-Au, there is a typical aurophilic interaction. Furthermore, these species present expected stability owing to the positive dissociation energy, great Egap, ionization potential (IP), aromaticity and perfected mechanical stability. Interestingly, [Sb5Au5Sb5]- and [Sb6Au6Sb6]2- are aromatic, while both [Sb3Au3Sb3]3- and [Sb4Au4Sb4]2- possess conflicting aromaticity. And all the title species hold tube aromaticty and δ aromaticty. prediction The application suggests that the Sb site is favorable for absorbing CO in the units, and [Sb3Au3Sb3]3- is more suitable than others; CO is absorbed by the p-p interaction between the C and Sb atoms.

  17. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  19. Job descriptions made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  20. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  1. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  2. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. S.; Carrasco, L.; Schloerb, F. P.

    2002-05-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts (UMass) in the USA and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico to build a 50m-diameter millimeter-wave antenna which will operate with good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT is being built at an altitude of 4600 m atop Volcan Sierra Negra, an extinct volcanic peak in the state of Puebla, Mexico, approximately 100 km east of the city of Puebla. At 18 degrees 59' N latitude, the site offers an excellent view of the Galactic Center and good sky coverage of both hemispheres. Construction of the telescope is now well underway, and it is expected to be completed in late 2004. The LMT specifications call for an overall effective surface accuracy of 75 microns rms and a pointing accuracy of 1" rms. The strategy for meeting these performance goals supplements conventional antenna designs with various "active" systems to bring the final performance within the requirements. For surface accuracy, the LMT will rely on an open loop active surface which includes 180 moveable surface segments. For pointing accuracy, we will use traditional approaches supplemented by measurements to characterize the behavior of the structure, including inclinometers and temperature sensors which may be used with finite element models to determine structural deformations and predict pointing behavior. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies; and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and angular resolution, the LMT will enable unique studies of the early universe and galaxy evolution, the interstellar medium and star formation in galaxies, and planetary science. In particular, with nearly 2000 m2 of collecting

  3. Diseño de montura Davies-Cotton de telescopio Cherenkov de 6m de diámetro para el proyecto CTA

    OpenAIRE

    Actis, Marcos Daniel; Ringeni, Pablo L.; Bottani, Asdrúbal Enrique; Vallejo, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    En los últimos años, la actual generación de observatorios terrestres como Hess, Magic y Veritas ha conducido exitosamente la observación en el campo de la astronomía de rayos gama de muy alta energía con un aumento significativo de observaciones de fuentes y de observaciones detalladas sobre muchos objetos relevantes. Para la próxima generación de instrumentos de observación de rayos gamma desde tierra, la comunidad internacional a través del proyecto Europeo Cherenkov Telescope Array (CT...

  4. Design, optimization and characterization of the light concentrators of the single-mirror small size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, J A; Boccone, V; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; della Volpe, D; Montaruli, T; Platos, L; Rameez, M

    2014-01-01

    The focal-plane camera of $\\gamma$-ray telescopes frequently uses light concentrators in front of light sensors. The purpose of these concentrators is to increase the effective area of the camera as well as to reduce the stray light coming at large incident angles. These light concentrators are usually based on the Winston cone design. In this contribution we present the design of an hexagonal hollow light concentrator with a lateral profile optimized using a cubic B\\'ezier function to achieve a higher collection efficiency in the angular region of interest. The design presented here is optimized for a Davies-Cotton telescope with primary mirror of about 4 meters of diameter and focal length of 5.6 m. The described concentrators are part of an innovative camera made up of silicon-photomultipliers sensors, although a similar approach can be used for other sizes of single-mirror telescopes with different camera sensors, including photomultipliers. The challenge of our approach is to achieve a cost-effective des...

  5. Mirror Illumination and Spillover Measurements of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Patricio; Dunner, Rolando; Wollack, Ed; Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m telescope designed to map the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) simultaneously at 145 GHz, 220GHz and 280GHz, The receiver in ACT, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, features 1000 TES bolometers in each band, The detector performance depends critically on the total optical loading, requiring the spmover contributions from the optics to be minimal. This inspired the use of a cold Lyot stop to limit the illumination of the primary and the use of guard rings surrounding the primary and secondary reflectors. Here, we present a direct measurement of the illumination aperture for both reflectors and of the attenuation level outside the main optical path. We used a 145 GHz, 1 m W source and a chopper wheel to produce a time-varying signal with a broad heam proflle, We sampled the response of the camera for different locations of the source, placed in front and beside the primary and secondary mirrors. The aperture of the primary was measured to be 5,72 plus or minus 0,17m in diameter (95 plus or minus 3% of its geometrical size), while the aperture of the secondary yielded 2 plus or minus 0.12m in diameter. Both apertures are consistent with the optical design. Comparing to previous measurements of the beam solid angle from planet observations, we estimate an optical efficiency of 72.3 plus or minus 4,8%. We found that the attenuation outside the primary aperture was -16 plus or minus 2dB, which is below the theoretical expectations, and -22 plus or minus 1 dB outside the secondary aperture, which is consistent with simulations. These results motivated the extension of the baffles surrounding the secondary mirror, with the following reduction in detector optical loading from 2,24 pW to 188pW.

  6. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  7. Telescopes for the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.

    In the last decades, astronomy has been changed in a number of significant ways. The number of large optical telescopes with diameters on the order of or larger than 2.3 m has increased from 3 shortly after World War II to about 20 at the present time. Whereas prewar astronomy was largely devoted to the visual wavelengths (0.3-0.8 μm), astronomical observations currently span the range from γ ray wavelengths to the longest radio wavelengths. Most significantly, astronomy outside conventional optical astronomy has developed into sophisticated disciplines rather than experimental explorations. Many of the observational advances at the forefront of astronomy now come from other than visual observations. Along with these changes have come fundamental changes in visual astronomy itself. Observations with photographic plates are the exception rather than the rule at most large observatories. Instead, electronic cameras are in common use. A second change, especially in the United States, is that the funding has gone from largely private funding (e.g., the Carnegie Institution of Washington) to funding with the government providing a main share of the support. Indeed, the government has provided the total funding for those disciplines, like X ray astronomy, which use space-borne platforms. These changes have also affected the character of doing astronomy, and astronomers have become much more politically active on the national science scene.

  8. Proposed National Large Solar Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagdev Singh

    2008-03-01

    Sun’s atmosphere is an ideal place to study and test many magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes controlling turbulent plasma. We wish to resolve some of the finest solar features (which remain unresolved presently) and study their dynamics. Indian Institute of Astrophysics has proposed to design, fabricate and install a 2-meter class solar telescope at a suitable site in India to resolve features on the Sun of the size of about 0.1 arcsec. The focal plane instruments will include a high resolution polarimeteric package to measure polarization with an accuracy of 0.01 per cent; a high spectral resolution spectrograph to obtain spectra in 5 widely separated absorption lines simultaneously and high spatial resolution narrow band imagers in various lines. The Himalayan region appears to be a good choice keeping in view the prevailing dry and clear weather conditions. We have started detailed analysis of the weather conditions in the area and at some other locations in India. The site characterization will be done using the Sun-photometer, S-DIMM and SHABAR techniques to determine the seeing conditions.

  9. Very large Arecibo-type telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Frank D.

    1988-03-01

    The Arecibo-type radio telescope, based on a fixed spherical reflector, is a very effective design for a large radio telescope on the Moon. In such telescopes, major structural members are provided by the ground on which they are built, and thus are provided at no cost in materials or transportation. The strong compression members, the tall towers which support the suspended platform, are an expensive part of the Arecibo telescope. The need for such towers can be eliminated if a suitable valley or crater can be found wherein the rim of the depression can be used as the support point for the cables which support the suspended platform. With an Arecibo-type radio telescope on the Moon, there are no changing gravity loads because of the design and no changing wind loads because of the location; therefore, the only source of time variation in the telescope geometry is thermal changes. Calculations show that with conventional materials, such as steel, it should be possible to construct an Arecibo-type telescope with a reflector diameter of some 30 km on the Moon, and with a reflector diameter of some 60 to 90 km if materials of high specific strength are used.

  10. Calvin-Rehoboth Robotic Twin Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, D. B.; Molnar, L. A.; VanBaak, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The astronomy program at Calvin College, like many small colleges, is limited by poor weather and light pollution at its midwestern campus and by limited free time on the part of its astronomy faculty. Nonetheless we believe direct access to the physical universe is key to the science education both of science majors and nonmajors. Recent advances in hardware and software for modest robotic telescopes have made it possible for colleges like ours to incorporate the use of a remote bservatory into our curriculum within typical financial and time constraints. In this poster we make our first report on the installation of two robotic telescopes (one on campus and one at a remote site in New Mexico) using largely off-the-shelf components. Students learn first with the local telescope in order to understand the equipment and procedures, but obtain the majority of their data with the remote telescope. Equipment development is done first with the local telescope, and then implemented on the remote telescope (where time spent in development is difficult). We received an NSF CCLI grant and matching college funds in the summer of 2002. The local telescope was installed in the spring of 2003, and the New Mexico telescope was ready for remote operation in January 2004. Our poster will describe our equipment choices, including a few components (such as an equipment rack for the back end of the telescope) which we designed ourselves. It will also detail classroom use of the equipment in its first two semesters by students at a range of levels. A copy of the poster and many additional details of the project are available on the Calvin observatory website, http://www.calvin.edu/observatory/.

  11. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  12. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  13. The GREGOR solar telescope on Tenerife

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang; Volkmer, Reiner; Denker, Carsten; Solanki, Sami; Balthasar, Horst; Gonzalez, Nazaret Bello; Berkefeld, Thomas; Collados, Manuel; Hofmann, Axel; Kneer, Franz; Lagg, Andreas; Puschmann, Klaus; Schmidt, Dirk; Sobotka, Michal; Soltau, Dirk; Strassmeier, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    2011 was a successful year for the GREGOR project. The telescope was finally completed in May with the installation of the 1.5-meter primary mirror. The installation of the first-light focal plane instruments was completed by the end of the year. At the same time, the preparations for the installation of the high-order adaptive optics were finished, its integration to the telescope is scheduled for early 2012. This paper describes the telescope and its instrumentation in their present first light configuration, and provides a brief overview of the science goals of GREGOR.

  14. Final acceptance of the 200 GHz telescope unit for the QUIJOTE CMB experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquirce-García, R.; Sainz-Pardo, I.; Etxeita-Arriaga, B.; Murga-Llano, Gaizka; Fernandez-Santos, E.; Sánchez-de-la-Rosa, V.; Viera-Curbelo, T. A.; Gómez-Reñasco, F.; Aguiar-González, M.; Pérez de Taoro, M. R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife) experiment is a scientific collaboration, led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), with the aim of measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the frequency range 10-40 GHz and at large angular scales (around 1°). The project is composed of 2 telescopes and 3 instruments, located in Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Idoḿs contribution for this project is divided in two phases. Phase I consisted on the design, assembly and factory testing of the first telescope (2008), the integration and functional tests for the 5 polarimeters of the first instrument (2009), and the design and construction supervision of the building which protects both telescopes (2009), including the installation and commissioning of the mechanism for domes apertures. Phase II comprised the design, factory assembly and testing, transport and final commissioning on site of the second telescope, which finished in January 2015. The optical design of both telescopes should allow them to reach up to 200 GHz. The required opto-mechanical performance was checked under nominal conditions, reaching a pointing and tracking accuracy lower than 5 arcsec in both axes, 8 times better than specified. Particular inspections and tests were carried out for critical systems, as the rotary joint that transmits fluid, power and signal to the rotary elements, or for the safety system to ensure personnel and hardware protection under emergency conditions. This paper contains a comprehensive description of the power electronics and acquisition/control design required for safely operation under nominal and emergency conditions, as well as a detailed description of the factory and observatory tests required for the final acceptance of the telescope

  15. California Extremely Large Telescope : conceptual design for a thirty-meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following great success in the creation of the Keck Observatory, scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California have begun to explore the scientific and technical prospects for a much larger telescope. The Keck telescopes will remain the largest telescopes in the world for a number of years, with many decades of forefront research ahead after that. Though these telescopes have produced dramatic discoveries, it is already clear that even larger telescopes must be built if we are to address some of the most profound questions about our universe. The time required to build a larger telescope is approximately ten years, and the California community is presently well-positioned to begin its design and construction. The same scientists who conceived, led the design, and guided the construction of the Keck Observatory have been intensely engaged in a study of the prospects for an extremely large telescope. Building on our experience with the Keck Observatory, we have concluded that the large telescope is feasible and is within the bounds set by present-day technology. Our reference telescope has a diameter of 30 meters, the largest size we believe can be built with acceptable risk. The project is currently designated the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT).

  16. Yellow-green luminescence and extreme thermal quenching in the Sr6M2Al4O15:Eu2+ (M = Y, Lu, Sc) phosphor series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Anna C.; Finley, Erin; Hermus, Martin; Brgoch, Jakoah

    2016-10-01

    A series of Eu2+-substituted yellow-green emitting phosphors based on the compound, Sr6M2Al4O15 (M = Y, Lu, Sc) were identified as potential efficient phosphors based on their high calculated Debye temperatures (ΘD > 450 K), which acts as a proxy for photoluminescent quantum yield (PLQY). The crystal structure contains corner-sharing [MO6] octahedra and [AlO4] tetrahedra leading to a highly connected, densely packed crystal structure. However, contrary to prediction, these compounds all showed a low PLQY (<6.5%) at room temperature. Temperature dependent luminescence measurements indicate that the photoluminescence is intense at 80 K but loses ≈90% of the emission intensity by room temperature, with the thermal quenching temperature (T50) occurring well below room temperature. These results suggest that even though Debye temperature (ΘD) is a valid proxy for PLQY, it does not describe thermal quenching.

  17. Stabilization of the chiral phase of the SU (6 m ) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice with m particles per site for m larger than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Jérôme; Mila, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    We show that, when N is a multiple of 6 (N =6 m , where m is an integer), the SU (N) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice with m particles per site has a clear tendency toward chiral order as soon as m ≥2 . This conclusion has been reached by a systematic variational Monte Carlo investigation of Gutzwiller projected wave functions as a function of m between the case of one particle per site (m =1 ), for which the ground state has recently been shown to be in a plaquette singlet state, and the m →∞ limit, where a mean-field approach has established that the ground state has chiral order. This demonstrates that the chiral phase can indeed be stabilized for not too large values of m , opening the way to its experimental realizations in other lattices.

  18. Test Results of LARP 3.6 m Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils Support by Full-length and Segmented Shell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratore, Joseph F.; Ambrosio, Giorgio; Anerella, Michael; Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Cheng, D. W.; Cozzolino, John; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Escallier, John; Feher, Sandor; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup K.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joshi, Piyush; Kovach, Paul; Lietzke, A. F.; Louie, Wing; Marone, Andrew; McInturff, Al D.; Nobrega, F.; Sabbi, GianLuca; Schmalzle, Jesse; Thomas, Richard; Turrioni, Daniele; Wanderer, Peter

    2008-08-17

    As part of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) to build a high performance quadrupole magnet with Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor, a pair of 3.6 m-long Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack coils has been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and installed in two shell-type support structures built by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL). These magnet assemblies have been tested at 4.5 K at BNL to gauge the effect of extended length and prestress on the mechanical performance of the long structure compared to earlier short models. This paper presents the results of quench testing and compares the overall performance of the two versions of the support structure. We also summarize the shell strain measurements and discuss the variation of quench current with ramp rate.

  19. Tables of Replacement Parts for Vehicle Average Useful Life Study of Truck, 5 Ton, 6x6, M39A2 Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Logistics ,O. ABSTRACT (Continue , l ree e-•’oe d it neoeeaty and td --, flt, by block numb..) This report contains tables of replacement parts developed...8217 n4c 000’’n>,. _j.u0.too ~0 ~ 0 0’(0 49 43 :; S Z) c ;u 0tLu .. .!J, Lu0LU Lu j w - 1- a L tD 4 o cm 0 L Z ..J P- 3 > ..2c ~ ~ ~ ~ .. W . L4 IL l I 4m...WI z v ൌmi WKn z-zO. M~ 43 Km K: 0KK X 44ft4az-4O:tm 0 4.~4kmu Wtm4. ac o K 4 3m 6m-30 4 .9mgemm.94mN I..e "Mre-NaPIP-aa:m.9lop 040.9m.4r.. FA#..Ne

  20. Implication of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme gene (CYP2E1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, mEH and NAT2 Polymorphisms in Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbouj Sallouha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes (XMEs contribute to the detoxification of numerous cancer therapy-induced products. This study investigated the susceptibility and prognostic implications of the CYP2E1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, mEH and NAT2 gene polymorphisms in breast carcinoma patients. Methods The authors used polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to characterize the variation of the CYP2E1, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, mEH and NAT2 gene in a total of 560 unrelated subjects (246 controls and 314 patients. Results The mEH (C/C mutant and the NAT2 slow acetylator genotypes were significantly associated with breast carcinoma risk (p = 0.02; p = 0.01, respectively. For NAT2 the association was more pronounced among postmenopausal patients (p = 0.006. A significant association was found between CYP2D6 (G/G wild type and breast carcinoma risk only in postmenopausal patients (p = 0.04. Association studies of genetic markers with the rates of breast carcinoma specific overall survival (OVS and the disease-free survival (DFS revealed among all breast carcinoma patients no association to DFS but significant differences in OVS only with the mEH gene polymorphisms (p = 0.02. In addition, the mEH wild genotype showed a significant association with decreased OVS in patients with axillary lymph node-negative patients (p = 0.03 and with decreasesd DFS in patients with axillary lymph node-positive patients (p = 0.001. However, the NAT2 intermediate acetylator genotype was associated with decreased DFS in axillary lymph node-negative patients. Conclusion The present study may prove that polymorphisms of some XME genes may predict the onset of breast carcinoma as well as survival after treatment.

  1. Optoelectronic behavior of Quaternary Uranium Chalcogenides Rb{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}UM{sub 6} (M = S, Se): A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Haleem Ud [Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra (Pakistan); Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The Fermi surface and optoelectronic properties for Rb{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}UM{sub 6} (M = S, Se) compounds are investigated for the first time. • The electronic band structure calculations reveal a metallic nature for the herein studied compounds. • The bonding nature between different atoms is discussed. • Considerable anisotropy was found between the principal complex tensor components for the two compounds. - Abstract: First principle calculations of electronic, Fermi surface, electronic charge density and optical properties of Quaternary Uranium Chalcogenides Rb{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}UM{sub 6} (M = S, Se) are performed using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the frame work of density functional theory. Using mBJ method, the electronic band curves overlap at Fermi level and show metallic band structure for both compounds. The calculated densities of states (DOS) spectra show that the valence band is mainly attributed to Rb-p, Pd-d and S-s/p or Se-s/p states; conduction band is mainly attributed to Pd-d, U-f and S-p or Se-p/d states. From the electronic charge density spectrum, it is revealed that a strong covalent bond exists between Pd and S, and Pd or Se while charge transfer between U and S, U and Se, Rb and S, and Rb and Se atoms results in ionic bond nature. It is noted from Fermi surface calculations that both compounds comprise same number of fast velocity electrons but differs in slow or intermediate velocity of electrons. The calculated frequency dependent dielectric function, energy loss function and reflectivity show a considerable anisotropy for both compounds.

  2. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of novel B-site ordered double perovskites, SrLaMReO6 (M = Mg, Mn, Co and Ni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corey M; Chi, Lisheng; Hayes, John R; Hallas, Alannah M; Wilson, Murray N; Munsie, Timothy J S; Swainson, Ian P; Grosvenor, Andrew P; Luke, Graeme M; Greedan, John E

    2015-06-21

    Four new double perovskites, SrLaMReO(6) (M = Mg, Mn, Co, Ni) in which Re(5+) (5d(2)) is present, were prepared via conventional solid state reactions and characterized by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, XANES, SQUID magnetometry, and muon spin relaxation (μSR). Synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments confirmed that all compounds crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n structure type, which consists of alternately corner-shared octahedra of MO(6) and ReO(6). Rietveld refinement results indicated anti-site mixing of less than 7% on the M/Re sites. Bond valence sum calculations (BVS) suggest all M and Re ions are 2+ and 5+, respectively, and for the Mn-containing phase this is also supported by XANES measurements. All of the materials are paramagnetic at room-temperature and their Curie-Weiss temperatures are positive (except for Mg) indicating net ferromagnetic interactions. No evidence for long-range magnetic order is evident in the dc magnetic susceptibility and μSR measurements for SrLaMgReO(6) to 2 K. The Mn-phase shows long-range order at T(C) = 190 K and neutron diffraction revealed a ferromagnetic structure with a refined net moment of ∼3.7μ(B). Both Co- and Ni-containing phases exhibit spin glass behavior at T(G) = 23 and 30 K, respectively, which is supported by neutron diffraction and a.c. susceptibility data. The structure and physical properties of these four new rhenium based ordered double perovskites are compared to the closely related "pillared perovskites", La(5)Re(3)MO(16), the isoelectronic Os(6+) (5d(2)) double perovskite Sr(2)CoOsO(6), and the Re(6+) (5d(1)) double perovskites, Sr(2)MReO(6), (M = Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni).

  3. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  4. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  5. Lightweight composite mirrors for telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, steady and stiff mirrors are necessary to decrease cost of telescopes such as IXO and GenX used in special NASA missions. Low-density materials are...

  6. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Ai; S. Jin; S. Wang; B. Ye; S. Yang

    2000-09-01

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper.

  7. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stellar Imager, an ultraviolet, sparse-aperture telescope, was one of the fifteen Vision Missions chosen for a study completed last year. Stellar Imager will...

  8. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  9. Atmospheric Monitoring for the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, M; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Font, Ll; Fruck, C; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Hrupec, D; Hose, J; López-Oramas, A; Maneva, G; Martinez, M; Mirzoyan, R; Temnikov, P; Zanin, R

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of the atmosphere is very relevant for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Adverse weather conditions (strong wind, high humidity, etc.) may damage the telescopes and must therefore be monitored continuously to guarantee a safe operation, and the presence of clouds and aerosols affects the transmission of the Cherenkov light and consequently the performance of the telescopes. The ATmospheric CAlibration (ATCA) technical working group of the MAGIC collaboration aims to cover all aspects related to atmosphere monitoring and calibration. In this paper we give an overview of the ATCA goals and activities, which include the set-up and maintenance of appropriate instrumentation, proper analysis of its data, the realization of MC studies, and the correction of real data taken under non-optimal atmospheric conditions. The final goal is to reduce the systematic uncertainties in the determination of the $\\gamma$-ray flux and energy, and to increase the duty cycle of the telescopes by establishing o...

  10. Beam Combination for Sparse Aperture Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for funding to continue development of an alternative beam combiner for Stellar Imager (SI), a 30-aperture, interferometric telescope chosen as one...

  11. The MuPix Telescope: A Thin, high Rate Tracking Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, H; Dittmeier, S; Grzesik, C; Hammerich, J; Huang, Q; Huth, L; Kiehn, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Meier, F; Perić, I; Perrevoort, A -K; Schöning, A; Bruch, D vom; Wauters, F; Wiedner, D

    2016-01-01

    The MuPix Telescope is a particle tracking telescope, optimized for tracking low momentum particles and high rates. It is based on the novel High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), designed for the Mu3e tracking detector. The telescope represents a first application of the HV-MAPS technology and also serves as test bed of the Mu3e readout chain. The telescope consists of up to eight layers of the newest prototypes, the MuPix7 sensors, which send data self-triggered via fast serial links to FPGAs, where the data is time-ordered and sent to the PC. A particle hit rate of 1 MHz per layer could be processed. Online tracking is performed with a subset of the incoming data. The general concept of the telescope, chip architecture, readout concept and online reconstruction are described. The performance of the sensor and of the telescope during test beam measurements are presented.

  12. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System: Intelligent Linking of Distributed Autonomous Robotic Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    White, R R; Davis, H; Galassi, M; Starr, D; Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficiently in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescope...

  13. Optical Testing and Verification Methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  14. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  15. The Telescope Array Middle Drum fluorescence detector simulation on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Telescope-Array Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been recognized and widely used as an accelerator for many scientific calculations. In general, problems amenable to parallelization are ones that benefit most from the use of GPUs. The Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence detector response to air showers presents many opportunities for parallelization. In this paper we report on a Monte Carlo program used for the simulation of the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector located at the Middle Drum site which uses GPU acceleration. All of the physics simulation from shower development, light production and atmospheric attenuation, as well as, the realistic detector optics and electronics simulations are done on the GPU. A detailed description of the code implementation is given, and results on the accuracy and performance of the simulation are presented as well. Improvements in computational throughput in excess of 50× are reported and the accuracy of the results is on par with the CPU implementation of the simulation.

  16. Design constraints on Cherenkov telescopes with Davies-Cotton reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bretz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of high-performance ground-based gamma-ray Cherenkov telescopes with a Davies-Cotton reflector. For the design of such telescopes, usually physics constrains the field-of-view, while the photo-sensor size is defined by limited options. Including the effect of light-concentrators in front of the photo sensor, it is demonstrated that these constraints are enough to mutually constrain all other design parameters. The dependability of the various design parameters naturally arises once a relationship between the value of the point-spread functions at the edge of the field-of-view and the pixel field-of-view is introduced. To be able to include this constraint into a system of equations, an analytical description for the point-spread function of a tessellated Davies-Cotton reflector is derived from Taylor developments and ray-tracing simulations. Including higher order terms renders the result precise on the percent level. Design curves are provided within the typical phase sp...

  17. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Data Characterization and Map Making

    CERN Document Server

    Dünner, Rolando; Marriage, Tobias A; Sievers, Jon; Acquaviva, Viviana; Addison, Graeme E; Ade, Peter A R; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S; Bond, J Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Calabarese, Erminia; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Doriese, W Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P; Gralla, Megan B; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Hilton, Gene C; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, David H; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Irwin, Kent D; Juin, Jean Baptiste; Kaul, Madhuri; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lau, Judy M; Limon, Michele; Lin, Yen-Ting; Louis, Thibaut; Lupton, Robert H; Marsden, Danica; Martocci, Krista; Mauskopf, Phil; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Moseley, Harvey; Netterfield, Calvin B; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Partridge, Bruce; Quintana, Hernán; Reid, Beth; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Trac, Hy; Tucker, Carole; Warne, Ryan; Wilson, Grant; Wollack, Ed; Zhao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    We present a description of the data reduction and mapmaking pipeline used for the 2008 observing season of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The data presented here at 148 GHz represent 12% of the 90 TB collected by ACT from 2007 to 2010. In 2008 we observed for 136 days, producing a total of 1423 hours of data (11 TB for the 148 GHz band only), with a daily average of 10.5 hours of observation. From these, 1085 hours were devoted to a 850 deg^2 stripe (11.2 hours by 9.1 deg) centered on a declination of -52.7 deg, while 175 hours were devoted to a 280 deg^2 stripe (4.5 hours by 4.8 deg) centered at the celestial equator. We discuss sources of statistical and systematic noise, calibration, telescope pointing, and data selection. Out of 1260 survey hours and 1024 detectors per array, 816 hours and 593 effective detectors remain after data selection for this frequency band, yielding a 38% survey efficiency. The total sensitivity in 2008, determined from the noise level between 5 Hz and 20 Hz in the time-o...

  18. The Large Binocular Telescope azimuth and elevation encoder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, David S.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Rosato, Jerry; Brynnel, Joar G.

    2008-08-01

    A typical high-resolution encoder interpolator relies on careful mechanical alignment of the encoder read-heads and tight electrical tolerances of the signal processing electronics to ensure linearity. As the interpolation factor increases, maintaining these tight mechanical and electrical tolerances becomes impractical. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is designed to utilize strip-type encoders on the main axes. Because of the very large scale of the telescope, the accumulative length of the azimuth and elevation encoder strips exceeds 80 meters, making optical tape prohibitively expensive. Consequently, the designers of the LBT incorporated the far less expensive Farrand Controls Inductosyn® linear strip encoder to encode the positions of the main axes and the instrument rotators. Since the cycle pitch of these encoders is very large compared to that of optical strip encoders, the interpolation factor must also be large in order to achieve the 0.005 arcsecond encoder resolution as specified. The authors present a description of the innovative DSP-based hardware / software solution that adaptively characterizes and removes common systematic cycle-to-cycle encoder interpolation errors. These errors can be caused by mechanical misalignment, encoder manufacturing flaws, variations in electrical gain, signal offset or cross-coupling of the encoder signals. Simulation data are presented to illustrate the performance of the interpolation algorithm, and telemetry data are presented to demonstrate the actual performance of the LBT main-axis encoder system.

  19. A microstrip silicon telescope for high performance particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietti, D.; Berra, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2013-11-01

    Bent crystals are thin silicon/germanium devices that act as a bulk dipole magnet and thus are able to deflect relativistic charged particle beams with high efficiency (up to 98%). To study their behavior on extracted beamlines in terms of deflection capability and efficiency, a fast and high position resolution telescope is needed such as the INSULAB telescope. It consists in several modules equipped with double or single side silicon detectors readout by different ASICs. The Data Acquisition system is designed to work with pulsed beams minimizing the dead time to allow the collection of a large statistics in a short time. It is based on custom VME readout/memory boards for the data storage and 12 bit ADC custom boards for the signal digitization; the present maximum DAQ rate is 6 kHz. A detailed description of the detectors, the ASICs and the readout system together with the results obtained at the SPS H4 and PS T9 CERN beamlines in terms of spatial resolution and charge sharing are presented.

  20. Challenges in optics for Extremely Large Telescope instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.; Zerbi, F. M.; Norrie, C. J.; Cunningham, C. R.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Bianco, A.; Blanche, P. A.; Bougoin, M.; Ghigo, M.; Hartmann, P.; Zago, L.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Delabre, B.; Dekker, H.; Melozzi, M.; Snÿders, B.; Takke, R.

    2006-08-01

    We describe and summarize the optical challenges for future instrumentation for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Knowing the complex instrumental requirements is crucial for the successful design of 30-60 m aperture telescopes. After all, the success of ELTs will heavily rely on its instrumentation and this, in turn, will depend on the ability to produce large and ultra-precise optical components like light-weight mirrors, aspheric lenses, segmented filters, and large gratings. New materials and manufacturing processes are currently under study, both at research institutes and in industry. In the present paper, we report on its progress with particular emphasize on volume-phase-holographic gratings, photochromic materials, sintered silicon-carbide mirrors, ion-beam figuring, ultra-precision surfaces, and free-form optics. All are promising technologies opening new degrees of freedom to optical designers. New optronic-mechanical systems will enable efficient use of the very large focal planes. We also provide exploratory descriptions of ``old'' and ``new'' optical technologies together with suggestions to instrument designers to overcome some of the challenges placed by ELT instrumentation.

  1. Astronaut operations requirements document for the White Light Coronagraph experiment s-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Information necessary for successful performance of the observer's function in the White Light Coronagraph portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments is presented. The pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the S-052 experiment are described. A discussion of the scientific objectives of the experiment and a description of the hardware are provided.

  2. The Automated Palomar 60 Inch Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Henning, John R.; Guzman, C. Dani; Bonati, Marco; Smith, Roger M.; Thicksten, Robert P.; Doyle, Michael W.; Petrie, Hal L.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Anagnostou, Nathaniel L.; Laity, Anastasia C.

    2006-10-01

    We have converted the Palomar 60 inch (1.52 m) telescope from a classic night-assistant-operated telescope to a fully robotic facility. The automated system, which has been operational since 2004 September, is designed for moderately fast (tdesign requirements, hardware and software upgrades, and lessons learned from roboticization. We present an overview of the current system performance as well as plans for future upgrades.

  3. CLIC Telescope optimization with ALLPIX simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Wu

    2015-01-01

    A simulation study of CLIC-EUDET telescope resolution with MIMOSA 26 as reference sensors under DESY (5.6 GeV electron beam) and CERN-SPS (120-180 GeV pion^{-} beam) conditions. During the study, a virtual DUT sensor with cylindrical sensing area was defined and used with ALLPIX software. By changing the configuration of telescope, some results for DESY's setup were found agreeing with the theoretical calculation.

  4. ESO's Telescopes In memoriam Daniel Enard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The contributions of ESO to the art of telescope-making have come a long way since the early years, placing it, by the turn of the millennium, among the acknowledged leaders in the field. In this article I will give a brief history of what are, in my view, the highlights among these developments, from the 3.6-metre telescope through the NTT and VLT/I to the E-ELT.

  5. Indirect Dark Matter Searches with MAGIC Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Satalecka, Konstancja; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the indirect dark matter (DM) searches became a hot topic, with several experimental results showing hints of DM signal. The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes are two $17$\\,m diameter Cherenkov telescopes, located on the Canary island La Palma (Spain). MAGIC carries out a broad DM search program, including observations of dwarf galaxies, galaxy clusters and other DM dominated objects. In these proceedings recent MAGIC results from this field ar...

  6. Misalignment-induced nodal aberration fields in two-mirror astronomical telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin P; Rolland, Jannick P

    2010-06-01

    We present the effects of misalignments on the field dependence of the third-order aberration fields of traditional, two-mirror astronomical telescopes in the context of nodal aberration theory, which we believe is the most general and extensible framework for describing and improving on-station performance. While many of the advantages of nodal aberration theory, compared to other, often power series expansion-based descriptions of misalignment effects on aberrations, become particularly important when analyzing telescopes with more than two mirrors, or in the presence of figure errors; this paper aims to provide and demonstrate the fundamental concepts needed to fully describe the state of correction of misaligned two-mirror telescopes. Importantly, it is shown that the assumption that perfect performance on axis ensures a fully aligned telescope is false, and we demonstrate that if Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes are aligned for zero coma on axis as the sole criterion, formidable misalignments will likely remain, leading to image quality degradation, particularly beyond midfield caused by astigmatism with binodal field dependence (i.e., astigmatism goes to zero at two points in the field).

  7. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  8. A Pointing Solution for the Medium Size Telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Tiziani, D; Oakes, L; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of the calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is the pointing, which enables an exact alignment of each telescope and therefore allows to transform a position in the sky to a point in the plane of the Cherenkov camera and vice versa. The favoured approach for the pointing calibration of the medium size telescopes (MST) is the installation of an optical CCD-camera in the dish of the telescope that captures the position of the Cherenkov camera and of the stars in the night sky simultaneously during data taking. The adaption of this approach is presented in this proceeding.

  9. Reliability-centered maintenance for ground-based large optical telescopes and radio antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Formentin, F.; Rampini, F.

    2014-07-01

    In the last years, EIE GROUP has been more and more involved in large optical telescopes and radio antennas array projects. In this frame, the paper describes a fundamental aspect of the Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) process, that is the application of the Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology for the generation of maintenance plans for ground-based large optical telescopes and radio antennas arrays. This helps maintenance engineers to make sure that the telescopes continue to work properly, doing what their users require them to do in their present operating conditions. The main objective of the RCM process is to establish the complete maintenance regime, with the safe minimum required maintenance, carried out without any risk to personnel, telescope and subsystems. At the same time, a correct application of the RCM allows to increase the cost effectiveness, telescope uptime and items availability, and to provide greater understanding of the level of risk that the organization is managing. At the same time, engineers shall make a great effort since the initial phase of the project to obtain a telescope requiring easy maintenance activities and simple replacement of the major assemblies, taking special care on the accesses design and items location, implementation and design of special lifting equipment and handling devices for the heavy items. This maintenance engineering framework is based on seven points, which lead to the main steps of the RCM program. The initial steps of the RCM process consist of: system selection and data collection (MTBF, MTTR, etc.), definition of system boundaries and operating context, telescope description with the use of functional block diagrams, and the running of a FMECA to address the dominant causes of equipment failure and to lay down the Critical Items List. In the second part of the process the RCM logic is applied, which helps to determine the appropriate maintenance tasks for each identified failure mode. Once

  10. Development of an X-ray Telescope with a Large Effective Area for the Iron K Line Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Tachibana, Sasagu; Yoshikawa, Shun; Tamura, Keisuke; Mori, Hideyuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Kojun

    2015-08-01

    X-ray micro-calorimeters such as the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board ASTRO-H will enable precise spectroscopy of iron K lines even for spatially extended objects. To exploit the full power of the high-energy resolution, X-ray telescopes with a large effective area around 6 keV are essentially important. Conventional Wolter-I X-ray telescopes aimed at X-rays below 10 keV have used the principle of total reflection to collect the X-rays. Enlarging the diameter of this type of telescopes is not effective to obtain the large effective area, since the incident angle of X-rays for the outer part of the telescope exceeds the critical angle, and the X-ray reflectivity of the outer part is significantly low. For example, the critical angle of Ir for an X-ray of 6 keV is 0.748 deg. Thus if we assume a focal length of 6 m for a Wolter-I optics using mirrors covered with Ir as a reflector, the mirrors the radial position of which are larger than 34 cm cannot reflect X-rays above 6 keV effectively. If multi-layer mirrors are applied to the outer part of the telescope, however, the X-ray reflectivity can be enhanced significantly by the principle of Bragg reflection. Our objective is to develop a Wolter-I X-ray telescope with an aperture of 110 cm and a focal length of 6 m, and make all mirrors in the telescope can reflect X-rays around 6 keV effectively by utilizing the multi-layer mirrors. The size of the telescope is determined by a boundary condition that can be launched by the epsilon rocket of ISAS/JAXA. The multi-layer is designed to enhance the reflectivity at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV, or 6.9 keV. Our simulation suggests that the effective area averaged in the 5.7-7.7 keV band could be 2000 cm2, whichis comparable to the effective area of Athena launched in 2028 by ESA. Furthermore, we showed that the Ir/C multi-layers produced by our DC magnetron sputtering machine has a surface roughness of less than 4 angstrom. This value is smaller than the average surface roughness

  11. New rock salt-related oxides Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni): Synthesis, structure, magnetism and electrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S. [Departamento de Químicas Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Morán, E., E-mail: emoran@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Químicas Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sáez-Puche, R.; Alario-Franco, M.Á.; Dos santos-Garcia, A.J. [Departamento de Químicas Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalo, E.; Kuhn, A.; García-Alvarado, F. [Universidad CEU San Pablo, Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Química, 28668 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain); Sivakumar, T.; Tamilarasan, S.; Natarajan, S.; Gopalakrishnan, J. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2013-07-15

    We describe the synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic and electrochemical characterization of new rock salt-related oxides of formula, Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni). The M=Co oxide adopts the LiCoO{sub 2} (R-3m) structure, where sheets of LiO{sub 6} and (Co{sub 2}/Ru)O{sub 6} octahedra are alternately stacked along the c-direction. The M=Ni oxide also adopts a similar layered structure related to Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, where partial mixing of Li and Ni/Ru atoms lowers the symmetry to monoclinic (C2/c). Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that in Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, the oxidation states of transition metal ions are Co{sup 3+} (S=0), Co{sup 2+} (S=1/2) and Ru{sup 4+} (S=1), all of them in low-spin configuration and at 10 K, the material orders antiferromagnetically. Analogous Li{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} presents a ferrimagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature of 100 K. The differences in the magnetic behavior have been explained in terms of differences in the crystal structure. Electrochemical studies correlate well with both magnetic properties and crystal structure. Li-transition metal intermixing may be at the origin of the more impeded oxidation of Li{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}RuO{sub 6} when compared to Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}. Interestingly high first charge capacities (between ca. 160 and 180 mAh g{sup −1}) corresponding to ca. 2/3 of theoretical capacity are reached albeit, in both cases, capacity retention and cyclability are not satisfactory enough to consider these materials as alternatives to LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Two new rock salt related oxides of formula, Li{sub 3}M{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared. The M=Co oxide adopts the LiCoO{sub 2} (R-3m) structure and the M=Ni oxide adopts a similar layered structure related to Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3,} monoclinic (C2/c), with partial mixing of Li and Ni/Ru atoms. For Li{sub 3}Co{sub 2}RuO{sub 6}, oxidation state for Ru is 4+ and antiferromagnetic (AFM) order is

  12. The Mercator telescope: relevance, status, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Merges, Florian; Pérez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In todays era of ever growing telescope apertures, there remains a specific niche for meter-class telescopes, provided they are equipped with efficient and dedicated instruments. In case these telescopes have permanent and long-term availability, they turn out very useful for intensive monitoring campaigns over a large range of time-scales. Flexible scheduling and time allocation allow small telescopes to rapidly seize new opportunities or provide immediate follow-up observations to complement data from large ground-based or space-borne facilities. The Mercator telescope, a 1.2-m telescope, installed at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), successfully targets this niche of intensive monitoring and flexible scheduling. Mercator is already in operation since 2001 and has seen several upgrades in the mean time. In this contribution we give an update about the actual telescope status and its performance. We also present the Mercator instrument suite that currently consists of two instruments. The workhorse instrument is HERMES, a very efficient and stable fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph. Recently, the MAIA imager was commissioned. This is a three- channel photometric instrument that observes a large field simultaneously in the different color bands. The MAIA detectors are unique 6k x 2k frame transfer devices which also allow for fast and continuous monitoring of variable phenomena.We discuss two important upcoming upgrades: a long-awaited automatic mirror cover and, more importantly, an entirely new telescope control system (TCS). This TCS is based on modern PLC technology, and relies on OPC UA and EtherCAT communication. Only commercially off-the-shelve hardware will be used for controlling the telescope. As a test case and as a precursor of the full TCS, such PLC systems are already deployed at Mercator to steer the Nasmyth mirror mechanism and to control the MAIA instrument. Finally, we also give an overview of the

  13. BaGa2MQ6 (M = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se): a new series of promising IR nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenlong; Feng, Kai; He, Ran; Mei, Dajiang; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2012-05-14

    The four compounds BaGa(2)MQ(6) (M = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se) have been identified as a new series of IR nonlinear optical (NLO) materials and are promising for practical applications. They are isostructural and crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric polar space group R3 of the trigonal system. Their three-dimensional framework is composed of corner-sharing (Ga/M)Q(4) (M = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se) tetrahedra with Ba(2+) cations in the cavities. The polar alignment of one (Ga/M)-Q2 bond for each (Ga/M)Q(4) tetrahedra along the c direction is conducive to generating a large NLO response, which was confirmed by powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) using a 2090 nm laser as fundamental wavelength. The SHG signal intensities of the two sulfides were close to that of AgGaS(2) and those for the two selenides were similar as that of AgGaSe(2). The large band gaps of 3.75(2) eV, 3.23(2) eV, 2.88(2) eV, and 2.22 (2) eV for BaGa(2)SiS(6), BaGa(2)GeS(6), BaGa(2)SiSe(6), and BaGa(2)GeSe(6), respectively, will be very helpful to increase the laser damage threshold. Moreover, all the four BaGa(2)MQ(6) (M = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se) compounds exhibit congruent-melting behavior, which indicates that bulk crystals needed for practical applications can be obtained by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The calculated birefringence indicates that these materials may be phase-matchable in the IR region and the calculated SHG coefficients agree with the experimental observations. According to our preliminary study, the BaGa(2)MQ(6) compounds represent a new series of promising IR nonlinear optical (NLO) materials which do not belong to the traditional chalcopyrite-type materials such as AgGaQ2 (Q = S, Se) and ZnGeP(2).

  14. Transfection with the ribozyme targeting HPVE6 mRNA results in growth inhibition of E6-expressing cervical carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕芳; 张积仁

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To acquire a ribozyme against the E6 gene of human papillomaviruses type 16 (HPV16E6) and investigate its effects on the phenotypes and gene expression of cervical cancer cell line. Methods: Anti-HPV16E6 ribozyme (HRz) was designed by computer programs and its activity identified by cleavage experiment in vitro before its transfection via lipofectin into CaSKi cells with the empty eucaryotic expression plasmid transfection of the cells also performed, the resultant cells designated as CaSKi-R, CaSKi-P respectively. The morphology and the soft agar forming ability were studied in CaSKi cells and the transfected cells, and the expression of E6, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and C-erbB-2 genes assayed by flow cytometry. The tumorgenicity of each cell line was evaluated in nude mice receiving inoculations of CaSKi, CaSKi-R and CaSKi-P cells separately, while in one group, both CaSKi and CaSKi-R cells were inoculated on different sides of the mice. Results: HRz was able to cleave HPV16E6 mRNA in a site-specific manner and could be expressed stably in transfected CaSKi cells. Northern blot analysis showed that E6 mRNA was less in CaSKi-R than in CaSKi cells, and no significant difference in the morphology and growth rate was observed between CaSKi and CaSKi-P cells, but the growth rate CaSKi-R was lowered. The colony-forming rate of CaSKi-P in soft agar was similar to that of CaSKi cells, while that of CaSKi-R was decreased. Flow cytometry showed that anti-HPV16E6 ribozyme reduced the expression of E6, PCNA and C-erbB-2 genes in CaSKi-R cells, but not in CaSKi-P cells. The tumorgenicity of CaSKi-R in nude mice was decreased compared with CaSKi cells. Conclusion: HRz can partially reverse the malignant phenotype of CaSKi cells, possibly due to decreased E6 gene expression, and the consequent decrease of PCNA and C-erbB-2 gene expressions.

  15. Evaluation of Ca3(Co,M2O6 (M=Co, Fe, Mn, Ni as new cathode materials for solid-oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Series compounds Ca3(Co0.9M0.12O6 (M=Co, Fe, Mn, Ni with hexagonal crystal structure were prepared by sol–gel route as the cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs. Effects of the varied atomic compositions on the structure, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion and electrochemical performance were systematically evaluated. Experimental results showed that the lattice parameters of Ca3(Co0.9Fe0.12O6 and Ca3(Co0.9Mn0.12O6 were both expanded to certain degree. Electron-doping and hole-doping effects were expected in Ca3(Co0.9Mn0.12O6 and Ca3(Co0.9Ni0.12O6 respectively according to the chemical states of constituent elements and thermal-activated behavior of electrical conductivity. Thermal expansion coefficients (TEC of Ca3(Co0.9M0.12O6 were measured to be distributed around 16×10−6 K−1, and compositional elements of Fe, Mn, and Ni were especially beneficial for alleviation of the thermal expansion problem of cathode materials. By using Ca3(Co0.9M0.12O6 as the cathodes operated at 800 °C, the interfacial area-specific resistance varied in the order of M=Co6 (M=Co, Fe, Mn, Ni can be used as the cost-effective cathode materials for SOFCs.

  16. Reliability of semiology description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2008-01-01

    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  17. Hosting the Student Telescope Network First Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M.; Bisque, S. T. M. D.; Stencel, R. E.

    2002-05-01

    The demonstration site for the Student Telescope Network, and for the first practical public-use Internet observatory, as powered by iBisque software, is at New Mexico Skies in southern New Mexico (www.nmskies.com). The observatory site, located approximately 14 miles northeast of the Apache Point Observatory and the Sunspot National Solar Observatory, is at 2,225 meters elevation in the southern Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. It has very dark transparent skies, excellent weather conditions, good seeing and a high proportion of clear photometric nights. The Internet observatory pod concept includes placing multiple telescopes (as many as twelve), in each of several 32-foot roll-off roof observatories. The 14 to 16 inch aperture telescopes, mounted on accurately pointing and tracking Bisque "Paramounts" (www.bisque.com), plus KAF-1001E CCD cameras, are controlled with a browser-based sky-map GUI (patent pending) control system also developed by Software Bisque. We provide detail on the concept and its implementation. As of mid-March, 2002, the first demonstration telescope has been operating nightly for about 60 days. Over 420 users have registered on the telescope server, more than 2,000 images have been taken and their FITS files downloaded to users' computers all over the world. In this and the companion poster, we report our experiences over the period of the February-May (2002) trial period, including technical challenges and performance measures on the Internet observatory's operations. We further detail lessons learned for future development of browser-based Internet observatories for high school/college level instructional use, and lessons applicable to the use of Internet-based telescopes for serious astronomical research as well. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in support of this Internet telescope services pilot project.

  18. Planck intermediate results. XXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck clusters with the RTT150 telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Mac\\'\\ias-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Mart\\'\\in, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6-m Bolshoy Telescope Azimutal'ny (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redhifts f...

  19. First principle study on electronic structure, structural phase stability, optical and vibrational properties of Ba2ScMO6 (M = Nb, Ta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshe, Balasubramaniam; Murugan, Ramaswamy; Palanivel, Balan

    2016-12-01

    First principle calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structure, structural phase stability, optical and vibrational properties of double perovskite oxide semiconductors namely Ba2ScMO6 (M = Nb, Ta) in the cubic symmetry using WIEN2k. In order to study the ground state properties of these compounds, the total energies are calculated as a function of reduced volumes and fitted with Brich Murnaghan equation. The estimated ground state parameters are comparable with the available experimental data. Calculations of electronic band structure on these compounds reveal that both Ba2ScNbO6 and Ba2ScTaO6 exhibit a semiconducting behavior with a direct energy gap of 2.78 and 3.15 eV, respectively. To explore the optical transitions in these compounds, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity, optical absorption coefficient, real part of optical conductivity and the energy-loss function are calculated at ambient pressure and analyzed. The collective Raman active modes of the atoms of these materials are also calculated in order to understand the structural stability of these compounds.

  20. Synthesis, structure, and properties of Li2In2MQ6 (M = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se): a new series of IR nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenlong; Feng, Kai; Hao, Wenyu; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2012-05-21

    The four isostructural compounds Li(2)In(2)MQ(6) (M = Si, Ge; Q = S, Se) have been synthesized for the first time. They crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric monoclinic space group Cc with the three-dimensional framework composed of corner-sharing LiQ(4), InQ(4), and MQ(4) tetrahedra. The second-harmonic-generation signal intensities of the two sulfides and two selenides were close to those of AgGaS(2) and AgGaSe(2), respectively, when probed with a laser with 2090 nm as the fundamental wavelength. They possess large band gaps of 3.61(2) eV for Li(2)In(2)SiS(6), 3.45(2) eV for Li(2)In(2)GeS(6), 2.54(2) eV for Li(2)In(2)SiSe(6), and 2.30(2) eV for Li(2)In(2)GeSe(6), respectively. Moreover, these four compounds all melt congruently at relatively low temperatures, which makes it feasible to grow bulk crystals needed for practical application by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method.

  1. A 1-V 10-bit 80-MS/s 1.6-mW SAR ADC in 65-nm GP CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ma; Yawei, Guo; Yue, Wu; Xu, Cheng; Xiaoyang, Zeng

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 80-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) suitable for integration in a system on a chip (SoC). By using the top-plate-sample switching scheme and a split capacitive array structure, the total capacitance is dramatically reduced which leads to low power and high speed. Since the split structure makes the capacitive array highly sensitive to parasitic capacitance, a three-row layout method is applied to the layout design. To overcome the charge leakage in the nanometer process, a special input stage is proposed in the comparator. As 80 MS/s sampling rate for a 10-bit SAR ADC results in around 1 GHz logic control clock, and a tunable clock generator is implemented. The prototype was fabricated in 65 nm 1P9M (one-poly-nine-metal) GP (general purpose) CMOS technology. Measurement results show a peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) of 48.3 dB and 1.6 mW total power consumption with a figure of merit (FOM) of 94.8 fJ/conversion-step.

  2. Ab initio study of the structural phase transitions of the double perovskites Sr2MWO6 (M=Zn, Ca, Mg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralanda, U.; Etxebarria, I.

    2014-02-01

    We study the interplay of structural distortions in double perovskites Sr2MWO6 (M = Zn, Ca, Mg) by means of first-principles calculations and group theoretical analysis. Structure relaxations of the cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases show that the ground states of the three compounds are monoclinic, although the energy difference between the monoclinic and tetragonal structures is very small in the case of Sr2MgWO6. The symmetry analysis of the distortions involved in the experimental and calculated low-temperature structures shows that the amplitude of two primary distortions associated to rigid rotations of the MX6 and WO6 octahedra are dominant, although the amplitude of a third mode related to deformations of the MX6 groups can not be neglected. The energy maps of the space spanned by the three relevant modes are calculated, and the couplings among the modes are evaluated, showing that the role of a hard secondary mode (in the Landau sense) coupled trilinearly to the two primary instabilities is crucial to stabilize the monoclinic ground state. Results suggest that the key role of the trilinear coupling among three modes could be rather common. A phenomenological theory including the effects of the chemical pressure is also developed. We find that the evolution of the stiffness constants in terms of the atomic substitution follows an accurate linear dependence and that the influence of quantum saturation of the order parameters could stabilize the tetragonal phase of Sr2MgWO6.

  3. Improvement of Hydrogen Storage Properties of La0.6M0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping DU; Wei CAO; Manqi LU; Jiangping CHEN; Ke YANG

    2004-01-01

    Investigation has been carried out to find the effects of Nd substitution and Cu addition on the hydrogen storage properties of AB5-type alloy with a multicomponent La0.6M0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 (M=Y, Nd) system. La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2,which was used in an air-conditioning system, showed poor hysteresis and sloping characteristics, which led to a decrease concerning the coefficient of performance of the system. By the substitution of Nd for Y, the hydrogenstorage capacity increased, and the plateau pressure decreased a little, but the hydrogen absorption kinetics decreased dramatically. Cu addition can effectively improve the kinetics of hydride formation without changing the hydrogen storage capacity of La0.6Nd0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2. It has been found that La0.6Nd0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2Cu0.1 alloy showed good hydrogen storage characteristics for metal hydride air-conditioning system. The results showed that, for each component of La0.6Mo.4Ni4.8Mn0.2, the effective hydrogen storage capacity increased with decrease of the unit cell parameter c/a and the hydrogen absorption plateau pressure increased with decrease of the parameter a.

  4. A 1-V 10-bit 80-MS/s 1.6-mW SAR ADC in 65-nm GP CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jun; Guo Yawei; Wu Yue; Cheng Xu; Zeng Xiaoyang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-bit 80-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) suitable for integration in a system on a chip (SoC).By using the top-plate-sample switching scheme and a split capacitive array structure,the total capacitance is dramatically reduced which leads to low power and high speed.Since the split structure makes the capacitive array highly sensitive to parasitic capacitance,a three-row layout method is applied to the layout design.To overcome the charge leakage in the nanometer process,a special input stage is proposed in the comparator.As 80 MS/s sampling rate for a 10-bit SAR ADC results in around 1 GHz logic control clock,and a tunable clock generator is implemented.The prototype was fabricated in 65 nm 1P9M (one-poly-nine-metal) GP (general purpose) CMOS technology.Measurement results show a peak signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (S1NAD) of 48.3 dB and 1.6 mW total power consumption with a figure of merit (FOM) of 94.8 fJ/conversion-step.

  5. New Radio Telescope Makes First Scientific Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The world's two largest radio telescopes have combined to make detailed radar images of the cloud-shrouded surface of Venus and of a tiny asteroid that passed near the Earth. The images mark the first scientific contributions from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, which worked with the NSF's recently-upgraded Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico. The project used the radar transmitter on the Arecibo telescope and the huge collecting areas of both telescopes to receive the echoes. GBT-Arecibo Radar Image of Maxwell Montes on Venus "These images are the first of many scientific contributions to come from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a great way for it to begin its scientific career," said Paul Vanden Bout, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Our congratulations go to the scientists involved in this project as well as to the hard-working staffs at Green Bank and Arecibo who made this accomplishment possible," Vanden Bout added. To the eye, Venus hides behind a veil of brilliant white clouds, but these clouds can be penetrated by radar waves, revealing the planet's surface. The combination of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the world's largest fully-steerable radio telescope, and the Arecibo telescope, the world's most powerful radar, makes an unmatched tool for studying Venus and other solar-system bodies. "Having a really big telescope like the new Green Bank Telescope to receive the radar echoes from small asteroids that are really close to the Earth and from very distant objects like Titan, the large moon of Saturn, will be a real boon to radar studies of the solar system." said Cornell University professor Donald Campbell, leader of the research team. Ten years ago, the radar system on NASA's Magellan spacecraft probed though the clouds of Venus to reveal in amazing detail the surface of the Earth's twin planet. These new studies using the GBT and Arecibo, the

  6. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  7. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-01-01

    The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110) They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without an...

  8. CRAC2 model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.

  9. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  10. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  11. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  12. Control challenges for extremely large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2003-08-01

    The next generation of large ground-based optical telescopes are likely to involve a highly segmented primary mirror that must be controlled in the presence of wind and other disturbances, resulting in a new set of challenges for control. The current design concept for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) includes 1080 segments in the primary mirror, with the out-of-plane degrees of freedom actively controlled. In addition to the 3240 primary mirror actuators, the secondary mirror of the telescope will also require at least 5 degree of freedom control. The bandwidth of both control systems will be limited by coupling to structural modes. I discuss three control issues for extremely large telescopes in the context of the CELT design, describing both the status and remaining challenges. First, with many actuators and sensors, the cost and reliability of the control hardware is critical; the hardware requirements and current actuator design are discussed. Second, wind buffeting due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure is likely to drive the control bandwidth higher, and hence limitations resulting from control-structure-interaction must be understood. Finally, the impact on the control architecture is briefly discussed.

  13. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2012-12-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  14. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  15. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  16. Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Development of the Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Rousselle, Julien; Errando, Manel; Humensky, Brian; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Nieto, Daniel; Okumura, Akira; Vassiliev, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is the next generation ground-based experiment for very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations. It will integrate several tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) with different apertures into a single astronomical instrument. The US part of the CTA collaboration has proposed and is developing a novel IACT design with a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) aplanatic two mirror optical system. In comparison with the traditional single mirror Davies-Cotton IACT the SC telescope, by design, can accommodate a wide field-of-view, with significantly improved imaging resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of an SC telescope makes it compatible with highly integrated cameras assembled from silicon photo multipliers. In this submission we report on the status of the development of the SC optical system, which is part of the effort to construct a full-scale prototype telescope of this type at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.

  17. Single-Mirror Small-Size Telescope structure for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Niemiec, Jacek; Dyrda, Michał; Kochański, Wojciech; Ludwin, Jaromir; Stodulski, Marek; Ziółkowski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    A single-mirror small-size (1M-SST) Davies-Cotton telescope has been proposed for the southern observatory of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) by a consortium of scientific institutions from Poland, Switzerland, and Germany. The telescope has a 4 m diameter reflector and will be equipped with a fully digital camera based on Geiger avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Such a design is particularly interesting for CTA because it represents a very simple, reliable, and cheap solution for a SST. Here we present the design and the characteristics of the mechanical structure of the 1M-SST telescope and its drive system. We also discuss the results of a finite element method analysis in order to demonstrate the conformance of the design with the CTA specifications and scientific objectives. In addition, we report on the current status of the construction of a prototype telescope structure at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow.

  18. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  19. Status of the Schwarzchild-Couder Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Benbow, W

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next-generation very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observatory. It is anticipated that CTA will improve upon the sensitivity of the current generation of VHE experiments, such as VERITAS, HESS and MAGIC, by an order of magnitude. CTA is planned to consist of two graded arrays of Cherenkov telescopes with three primary-mirror sizes. A proof-of-concept telescope, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzchild-Couder design, is being constructed on the VERITAS site at the F.L. Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA, and is a candidate design for the medium-sized telescopes. The construction of the telescope will be completed in early 2017, and the status of this project is presented here.

  20. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  1. A Description Logic Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, Markus; Horrocks, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a self-contained first introduction to description logics (DLs). The main concepts and features are explained with examples before syntax and semantics of the DL SROIQ are defined in detail. Additional sections review light-weight DL languages, discuss the relationship to the Web Ontology Language OWL and give pointers to further reading.

  2. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  3. SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF TRAINEES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEARCE, FRANK C.

    THIS REPORT GIVES A SUBJECTIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERAL POPULATION FROM WHICH TRAINEES FOR THE MODESTO MULTI-OCCUPATIONAL PROJECT WERE SELECTED. IT INCLUDES AN EXTENSIVE STUDY OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF A GROUP OF WHITE MIGRANTS WHO MOVED FROM THE EASTERN UNITES STATES TO CALIFORNIA. THE AUTHOR ALSO INCLUDED REFERENCES TO THE CHANGING…

  4. WZB117 (2-Fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl m-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits GLUT1-mediated Sugar Transport by Binding Reversibly at the Exofacial Sugar Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojelabi, Ogooluwa A; Lloyd, Kenneth P; Simon, Andrew H; De Zutter, Julie K; Carruthers, Anthony

    2016-12-23

    WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter glucose transport protein 1 (GLUT1) and examines the transporter isoform specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with Ki(app) = 6 μm but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with Ki(app) = 0.3 μm but is a competitive inhibitor of sugar exit indicating that WZB117 and CB bind at exofacial and endofacial sugar binding sites, respectively. WZB117 inhibition of GLUTs expressed in HEK293 cells follows the order of potency: insulin-regulated GLUT4 ≫ GLUT1 ≈ neuronal GLUT3. This may explain WZB117-induced murine lipodystrophy. Molecular docking suggests the following. 1) The WZB117 binding envelopes of exofacial GLUT1 and GLUT4 conformers differ significantly. 2) GLUT1 and GLUT4 exofacial conformers present multiple, adjacent glucose binding sites that overlap with WZB117 binding envelopes. 3) The GLUT1 exofacial conformer lacks a CB binding site. 4) The inward GLUT1 conformer presents overlapping endofacial WZB117, d-glucose, and CB binding envelopes. Interrogating the GLUT1 mechanism using WZB117 reveals that subsaturating WZB117 and CB stimulate erythrocyte 3MG uptake. Extracellular WZB117 does not affect CB binding to GLUT1, but intracellular WZB117 inhibits CB binding. These findings are incompatible with the alternating conformer carrier for glucose transport but are consistent with either a multisubunit, allosteric transporter, or a transporter in which each subunit presents multiple, interacting ligand binding sites. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.

    2011-01-01

    NEAT (Nearby Exo ]Earths Astrometric Telescope) is a modest sized (1m diameter telescope) It will be capable of searching approx 100 nearby stars down to 1 Mearth planets in the habitable zone, and 200 @ 5 Mearth, 1AU. The concept addresses the major issues for ultra -precise astrometry: (1) Photon noise (0.5 deg dia field of view) (2) Optical errors (beam walk) with long focal length telescope (3) Focal plane errors , with laser metrology of the focal plane (4) PSF centroiding errors with measurement of the "True" PSF instead of using a "guess " of the true PSF, and correction for intra pixel QE non-uniformities. Technology "close" to complete. Focal plane geometry to 2e-5 pixels and centroiding to approx 4e -5 pixels.

  6. The University of Iowa Automated Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, E. C.; Mutel, R. L.

    We describe a CCD-based automated telescope system in operation at the University of Iowa. Observers initiate observing programs using a simple free-format scripting language for preparing observing requests. The schedule file describes sources, durations, filters and other observing parameters. A telescope scheduling program generates an ordered master observing list for a given night based on priority telescope control daemon then reads the sorted schedule file and issues commands to the hardware control daemons. All CCD images are calibrated (bias, thermal, flat) by default and pattern matched to the Guide Star Catalog, with accurate WCS coordinates written to the FITS header. Additional post-processing tools include an interactive image display and analysis program which supports photometry and astrometry, batch tools to automate supernova searches and time-sequenced photometry, and a stand-alone world coordinate calibration tool. Additional details are available {http://inferno.physics.uiowa.edu} on the WWW.

  7. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the sub-arcminute range which is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  8. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Simon, V. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A.; Semencova, V. [Center for Advanced X-ray Technologies, Reflex, Prague (Czech Republic); Skulinova, M. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  9. Adaptive Real Time Imaging Synthesis Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Melvyn

    2012-01-01

    The digital revolution is transforming astronomy from a data-starved to a data-submerged science. Instruments such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will measure their accumulated data in petabytes. The capacity to produce enormous volumes of data must be matched with the computing power to process that data and produce meaningful results. In addition to handling huge data rates, we need adaptive calibration and beamforming to handle atmospheric fluctuations and radio frequency interference, and to provide a user environment which makes the full power of large telescope arrays accessible to both expert and non-expert users. Delayed calibration and analysis limit the science which can be done. To make the best use of both telescope and human resources we must reduce the burden of data reduction. Our instrumentation comprises of a flexible correlator, beam former and imager with digital signal processing closely coupled...

  10. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  11. Mirror Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Baba, H; Bähr, J; Bonardi, A; Bonnoli, G; Brun, P; Canestrari, R; Chadwick, P; Chikawa, M; Carton, P -H; De Souza, V; Dipold, J; Doro, M; Durand, D; Dyrda, M; Giro, E; Glicenstein, J -F; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Hrabovski, M; Jeanney, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Lessio, L; MANDAT, D; Mariotti, M; Medina, C; Michałowski, J; Micolon, P; Nakajima, D; Niemiec, J; Nozato, A; Palatka, M; Pareschi, G; Pech, M; Peyaud, B; Pühlhofer, G; Rataj, M; Rodeghiero, G; Rojas, G; Rousselle, J; Sakonaka, R; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Schultz, C; Shu, S; Stinzing, F; Stodulski, M; Teshima, M; Travniczek, P; Van Eldik, C; Vassiliev, V; Wiśniewski, Ł; Wörnlein, A; Yoshida, T

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned observatory for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy. It will consist of several tens of telescopes of different sizes, with a total mirror area of up to 10,000 square meters. Most mirrors of current installations are either polished glass mirrors or diamond-turned aluminium mirrors, both labour intensive technologies. For CTA, several new technologies for a fast and cost-efficient production of light-weight and reliable mirror substrates have been developed and industrial pre-production has started for most of them. In addition, new or improved aluminium-based and dielectric surface coatings have been developed to increase the reflectance over the lifetime of the mirrors compared to those of current Cherenkov telescope instruments.

  12. GREGOR: the New German Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Balthasar, H; Kneer, F; Staude, J; Volkmer, R; Berkefeld, T; Caligari, P; Collados, M; Halbgewachs, C; Heidecke, F; Hofmann, A; Klvana, M; Nicklas, H; Popow, E; Puschmann, K; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Soltau, D; Strassmeier, K; Wittmann, A

    2007-01-01

    GREGOR is a new open solar telescope with an aperture of 1.5m. It replaces the former 45-cm Gregory Coude telescope on the Canary island Tenerife. The optical concept is that of a double Gregory system. The main and the elliptical mirrors are made from a silicon-carbide material with high thermal conductivity. This is important to keep the mirrors on the ambient temperature avoiding local turbulence. GREGOR will be equipped with an adaptive optics system. The new telescope will be ready for operation in 2008. Post-focus instruments in the first stage will be a spectrograph for polarimetry in the near infrared and a 2-dimensional spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometers for the visible.

  13. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  14. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  15. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  16. Multiple Descriptions Using Sparse Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Østergaard, Jan; Dahl, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of multiple descriptions (MDs) using sparse decompositions. In a description erasure channel only a subset of the transmitted descriptions is received. The MD problem concerns the design of the descriptions such that they individually approximate the source...

  17. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  18. The ANTARES Telescope Neutrino Alert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ageron, M; Samarai, I Al; Albert, A; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigi, A; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouhou, B; Bouwhuis, M C; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Cârloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charif, Z; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Enzenöfer, A; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fermani, P; Ferri, M; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Giacomelli, G; Giordano, V; Gòmez-González, J; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Hartman, J; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lamar, P; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Meli, A; Montaruli, T; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Payet, K; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Reed, C; Richardt, C; Richter, R; Rivière, C; Robert, A; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Ruiz-Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Schüssler, F; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spies, A; Spuriol, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sànchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zùñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  19. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E; Cho, H. -M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldov...

  20. SOAR Telescope seismic performance II: seismic mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jonathan H.; Muñoz, Freddy; Warner, Michael; Rivera, Rossano; Martínez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    We describe design modifications to the SOAR telescope intended to reduce the impact of future major earthquakes, based on the facility's experience during recent events, most notably the September 2015 Illapel earthquake. Specific modifications include a redesign of the encoder systems for both azimuth and elevation, seismic trigger for the emergency stop system, and additional protections for the telescope secondary mirror system. The secondary mirror protection may combine measures to reduce amplification of seismic vibration and "fail-safe" components within the assembly. The status of these upgrades is presented.

  1. Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (WFAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Guy; Ofek, Eran Oded; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Diner, Oz; Rappaport, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (W-FAST) is an experiment designed to explore variability on sub-second time scales. When completed it will consist of two robotic 55-cm f/2 Schmidt telescopes. The optics is capable of providing $\\sim0.5$" image quality over 23 deg$^2$. The focal plane will be equipped with fast readout, low read-noise sCMOS detectors. The first generation focal plane is expected to have 6.2 deg$^2$ field of view. WFAST is designed to study occultations by solar system objects (KBOs and Oort cloud objects), short time scale stellar variability, and high resolution imaging via proper coaddition.

  2. Recent Results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope is located in the Mediterranean Sea about 40 km from Toulon at a depth of 2475 m. In its 12 line configuration it has almost 900 photomultipliers in 295 floors. The performance of the detector is discussed and several results are presented, including the measurements of downgoing muons, atmospheric neutrinos, search for a diffuse flux of high energy muon neutrinos, search for cosmic point sources of neutrinos, multi messenger astronomy, searches for fast magnetic monopoles and slow nuclearites. A short discussion is also made on Earth and Sea Science studies with a neutrino telescope.

  3. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Alexandra; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Berukoff, Steven

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is a versatile high resolution ground-based solar telescope designed to explore the dynamic Sun and its magnetism throughout the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the faint corona. The DKIST is currently under construction on Haleakala, Maui, Hawai'i, and expected to commence with science operations in 2019. In this contribution we provide an overview of the high-level science operations concepts from proposal preparation and submission to the flexible and dynamic planning and execution of observations.

  4. Telescope Bernard Lyot: operation, instrumentation, perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanac, R.

    2016-12-01

    This talk is the TBL director report at the 3rd French national telescopes Users Meeting of 2016. Telescope Bernard Lyot, the 2-m at Pic du midi (2870m), is dedicated to spectro-polarimetric studies since 2007 with the instrument Narval. This paper presents TBL operation, science highlights and statistics of the past 10 years of operation. It also opens perspectives for the coming 10 years with the funding of Neo-Narval (Narval stabilized to v_r Pic du midi (aka SPIP) for the study of the young exoplanetary systems.

  5. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  6. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Antonille, Scott; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew; Berrier, Josh; Cofie, Emmanuel; Coulter, Phil; Gracey, Renee; Hayden, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Hylan, Jason; Kubalak, David; McLean, Kyle; Miskey, Cherie; Redman, Kevin; Rohrbach, Scott; Sabatke, Derek; Telfer, Randal; Wenzel, Greg; Zielinski, Thomas; Sullivan, Joseph; Hartig, George; Eichhorn, William

    2016-10-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SI), including a guider. The SIs and guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer envelope approximate measurements of 2.2x2.2x1.7m. These SI units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an Optical telescope element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the flight structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using opto-mechanical metrology and customized interfaces. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors and metrology in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear, pupil roll, boresight, wavefront error, and image quality, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. This work reports on the as-run ambient assembly and ambient alignment steps for the flight ISIM, including SI interface fixtures and customization and kinematic mount adjustment. The ISIM alignment plan consists of multiple steps to meet the "absolute" alignment requirements of the SIs and OSIM to the flight coordinate system. In this paper, we focus on key aspects of absolute, optical-mechanical alignment. We discuss various metrology and alignment techniques. In addition, we summarize our approach for dealing with and the results of ground-test factors, such as gravity.

  7. The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Qun Cui; Xiao-Zheng Xing; Xin-Nan Li; Yong-Tian Zhu; Gang Wang; Bo-Zhong Gu; A-Li Luo; Xin-Qi Xu; Zhen-Chao Zhang; Gen-Rong Liu; Hao-Tong Zhang; Yong-Heng Zhao; De-Hua Yang; Shu-Yun Cao; Hai-Yuan Chen; Jian-Jun Chen; Kun-Xin Chen; Ying Chen; Jia-Ru Chu; Lei Feng; Xue-Fei Gong; Yong-Hui Hou; Yao-Quan Chu; Hong-Zhuan Hu; Ning-Sheng Hu; Zhong-Wen Hu; Lei Jia; Fang-Hua Jiang; Xiang Jiang; Zi-Bo Jiang; Ge Jin; Ai-Hua Li; Yan Li; Guo-Ping Li; Ye-Ping Li; Guan-Qun Liu; Zhi-Gang Liu; Wen-Zhi Lu; Yin-Dun Mao; Li Men; Yong-Jun Qi; Zhao-Xiang Qi; Huo-Ming Shi; Zheng-Hong Tang; Qi Li; Qing-Sheng Tao; Da-Qi Wang; Dan Wang; Guo-Min Wang; Hai Wang; Jia-Ning Wang; Jian Wang; Jian-Ling Wang; Jian-Ping Wang; Lei Wang; Li-Ping Zhang; Shu-Qing Wang; You Wang; Yue-Fei Wang; Ling-Zhe Xu; Yan Xu; Shi-Hai Yang; Yong Yu; Hui Yuan; Xiang-Yan Yuan; Chao Zhai; Hong-Jun Su; Jing Zhang; Yan-Xia Zhang; Yong Zhang; Ming Zhao; Fang Zhou; Guo-Hua Zhou; Jie Zhu; Si-Cheng Zou; Zheng-Qiu Yao; Ya-Nan Wang

    2012-01-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST,also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope.LAMOST's special design allows both a large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6m-4.9m) and a wide field of view (FOV) (5°).It has an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration which continuously changes the mirror's surface that adjusts during the observation process and combines thin deformable mirror active optics with segmented active optics.Its primary mirror (6.67 m ×6.05 m) and active Schmidt mirror (5.74m×4.40m) are both segmented,and composed of 37 and 24 hexagonal sub-mirrors respectively.By using a parallel controllable fiber positioning technique,the focal surface of 1.75 m in diameter can accommodate 4000 optical fibers.Also,LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras.LAMOST will be the telescope with the highest rate of spectral acquisition.As a national large scientific project,the LAMOST project was formally proposed in 1996,and approved by the Chinese government in 1997.The construction started in 2001,was completed in 2008 and passed the official acceptance in June 2009.The LAMOST pilot survey was started in October 2011 and the spectroscopic survey will launch in September 2012.Up to now,LAMOST has released more than 480 000 spectra of objects.LAMOST will make an important contribution to the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe,structure and evolution of the Galaxy,and cross-identification of multiwaveband properties in celestial objects.

  8. 4 m Davies-Cotton telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moderski, R; Barnacka, A; Basili, A; Boccone, V; Bogacz, L; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; Della Volpe, M; Dyrda, M; Frankowski, A; Grudzińska, M; Janiak, M; Karczewski, M; Kasperek, J; Kochański, W; Korohoda, P; Kozioł, J; Lubiński, P; Ludwin, J; Lyard, E; Marszałek, A; Michałowski, J; Montaruli, T; Nicolau-Kukliński, J; Niemiec, J; Ostrowski, M; Płatos, Ł; Rajda, P J; Rameez, M; Romaszkan, W; Rupiński, M; Seweryn, K; Stodulska, M; Stodulski, M; Walter, R; Winiarski, K; Wiśniewski, Ł; Zagdański, A; Zietara, K; Ziółkowski, P; Żychowski, P

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory. It will consist of three classes of telescopes, of large, medium and small sizes. The small telescopes, of 4 m diameter, will be dedicated to the observations of the highest energy gamma-rays, above several TeV. We present the technical characteristics of a single mirror, 4 m diameter, Davies-Cotton telescope for the CTA and the performance of the sub-array consisting of the telescopes of this type. The telescope will be equipped with a fully digital camera based on custom made, hexagonal Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The development of cameras based on such devices is an RnD since traditionally photomultipliers are used. The photodiodes are now being characterized at various institutions of the CTA Consortium. Glass mirrors will be used, although an alternative is being considered: composite mirrors that could be adopted if they meet the project requirements. We present a design of the telescope structure,...

  9. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Today, forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers are concluding a one-week, educational `working visit' to the ESO Headquarters in Garching (See ESO Press Release 14/95 of 8 November 1995). They are the winners of the Europe-wide contest `Europe Towards the Stars', organised by ESO with the support of the European Union, under the auspices of the Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. From November 14-20, they have worked with professional ESO astronomers in order to get insight into the methods and principles of modern astronomy and astrophysics, as carried out at one of the world's foremost international centres. This included very successful remote observations with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) via a satellite link between the ESO Headquarters and the La Silla observatory in Chile, 12,000 kilometres away. After a general introduction to modern astronomy on the first day of the visit, the participants divided into six teams, according to their interests. Some chose to observe distant galaxies, others prefered to have a closer look on binary stars, and one team decided to investigate a star which is thought to be surrounded by a proto-planetary system. Each team was supported by an experienced ESO astronomer. Then followed the observations at the remote consoles during three nights, the first at the NTT and the following at the CAT. Each team had access to the telescope during half a night. Although the work schedule - exactly as in `real' science - was quite hard, especially during the following data reduction and interpretative phase, all teams managed extremely well and in high spirits. The young astronomers' observations were favoured by excellent atmospheric conditions. At the NTT, the seeing was better than 0.5 arcsecond during several hours, an exceptional value that allows very good images to be obtained. All observations represent solid and interesting science, and

  10. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    -Res - JPEG: 1985 x 2148 pix - 2.0M] ESO PR Photo 19b/99 ESO PR Photo 19b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 478 pix - 165k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 956 pix - 594k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3583 pix - 7.1M] Caption to PR Photo 19a/99 : This photo was obtained with VLT KUEYEN on April 4, 1999. It is reproduced from an excellent 60-second R(ed)-band exposure of the innermost region of a globular cluster, Messier 68 (NGC 4590) , in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water-Snake). The distance to this 8-mag cluster is about 35,000 light years, and the diameter is about 140 light-years. The excellent image quality is 0.38 arcsec , demonstrating a good optical and mechanical state of the telescope, already at this early stage of the commissioning phase. The field measures about 90 x 90 arcsec 2. The original scale is 0.0455 pix/arcsec and there are 2048x2048 pixels in one frame. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR Photo 19b/99 : This photo shows the central region of spiral galaxy ESO 269-57 , located in the southern constellation Centaurus at a distance of about 150 million light-years. Many galaxies are seen in this direction at about the same distance, forming a loose cluster; there are also some fainter, more distant ones in the background. The designation refers to the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the Southern Sky in the 1970's during which over 15,000 southern galaxies were catalogued. ESO 269-57 is a tightly bound object of type Sar , the "r" referring to the "ring" that surrounds the bright centre, that is overexposed here. The photo is a composite, based on three exposures (Blue - 600 sec; Yellow-Green - 300 sec; Red - 300 sec) obtained with KUEYEN on March 28, 1999. The image quality is 0.7 arcsec and the field is 90 x 90 arcsec 2. North is up and East is left. ESO PR Photo 19c/99 ESO PR Photo 19c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 478 pix - 132k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 956 pix - 446k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3583 pix - 4.6M] ESO PR Photo 19d/99 ESO PR Photo 19d/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x

  11. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Large Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To create large-size optical telescopes, various design concepts have been used. Each concept inevitably faced the challenge to optimize technical characteristics and parameters of the telescope. There was always a question: what concept to choose, how to estimate efficiency of such telescopes and by what criteria and how to estimate expediency of this or that project of the large-size telescope. It is, obviously, insufficient to make a resolution-based estimation. An estimate by the angular field size is inappropriate too. Well, it may be also an estimate by the stellar magnitude. All these criteria are related to each other. Improvement of one of these parameters inevitably leads to deterioration of the others. Obviously, the certain generalized criterion considering all parameters and features of the design concept of the large-size telescope is necessary here. As such can serve the criterion of informational content of the telescope.The article offers a complex criterion allowing not only to estimate efficiency of large-size optical telescopes, but also to compare their conceptual and technological level among themselves in terms of obtaining information.The article suggests a new term, i.e. the informational content invariant to characterize informative capacities of the chosen concept and of the realizing technology. It will allow us to avoid unjustified complications of technical solutions, wrong accents in designing and excess material inputs when developing the project.The informational content criterion-based analysis of the existing projects of large-size telescopes has been convincingly shown that, conceptually, there are three best telescopes, namely: GSMT, CELT, and ACT-25. And, in terms of informational content, the АCТ-25 is 10 times more than GSMT and CELT, and the existing Keck-telescope exceeds by 30 times. Hence, it is hard to escape a conclusion that it is more favourable to implement one ACT-25, than to do 10 GSMT or CELT

  12. Ionic transport and structural investigations on MSn(OH){sub 6} (M = Ba, Ca, Mg, Co, Zn, Fe, Mn) hydroxide perovskites synthesized by wet sonochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Hrudananda [Materials Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)]. E-mail: hnje@igcar.ernet.in; Kutty, K.V. Govindan [Materials Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kutty, T.R.N. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2004-11-15

    Hydroxide perovskites of MSn(OH){sub 6} (M = Ba, Ca, Mg, Co, Zn, Fe or Mn) were synthesized by co-precipitation and sonochemical reaction routes. Some of the compounds were also prepared by the hydrothermal method. These were characterized by XRD, TGA/DTA, TEM and IR studies. The hydroxide perovskites are stable up to {approx}523 K and all the compounds stabilize in cubic crystal system (SG = Pn3m) at 298-523 K except BaSn(OH){sub 6}. The as-prepared powders of the above compositions show cubic square net in the reciprocal lattice of their electron diffraction patterns. Among these perovskites; MgSn(OH){sub 6} and CoSn(OH){sub 6} exhibit proton conduction at 298-500 K. Above {approx}523 K, solid solutions of SnO{sub 2} and the corresponding MO components were observed. On heat-treatment at 850-950 K, M{sub 2-x}(V{sub M}){sub x}SnO{sub 4} (M-deficient spinel, x {<=} 1) along with SnO{sub 2} are observed. On further sintering to 1773 K for a duration of 6-7 h, M{sub 2-x}(V{sub M}){sub x}SnO{sub 4} phase is stabilized. The electrical properties of these compounds were measured by four-probe dc method. Co{sub 2-x}(V{sub Co}){sub x}SnO{sub 4} + SnO{sub 2} mixed phase showed oxide ion conductivity at 500-1273 K. The activation energy of oxide ion conduction is 0.93 eV. CaSn(OH){sub 6}does not show any type of electrical conduction at 298-850 K. The loss of proton conduction above 523 K may be ascribed to dehydroxylation and subsequent decomposition to SnO{sub 2} + M{sub 2-x}SnO{sub 4} (defect spinel, M = Mg, Zn, Co) or MSnO{sub 3} (M = Ba, Ca000.

  13. Three new alternative splicing variants of human cytochrome P450 2D6 mRNA in human extratumoral liver tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhuge; Ying-Nian Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the new alternative splicing variants of human CYP2D6 in human extratumoral liver tissue with RT-PCR and sequencing.METHODS: Full length of human CYP2D6 cDNAs was amplificated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from a human extratumoral liver tissue and cloned into pGEM-T vector. The cDNA was sequenced.Exons from 1 to 4 of human CYP2D6 cDNAs were also amplificated by RT-PCR from extratumoral liver tissues of17 human hepatocellular carcinomas. Some RT-PCR products were sequenced. Exons 1 to 4 of CYP2D6 gene were amplified by PCR from extratumoral liver tissue DNA.Two PCR products from extratumoral liver tissues expressing skipped mRNA were partially sequenced.RESULTS: One of the CYP2D6cDNAs had 470 nucleotides from 79 to 548 (3' portion of exons 1 to 5' portion of exon 4),and was skipped. Exons 1 to 4 of CYP2D6 cDNA were assayed with RT-PCR in 17 extratumoral liver tissues. Both wild type and skipped mRNAs were expressed in 4 samples,only wild type mRNA was expressed in 5 samples, and only skipped mRNA was expressed in 8 samples. Two more variants were identified by sequencing the RT-PCR products of exons 1 to 4 of CYP2D6cDNA. The second variant skipped 411 nucleotides from 175 to 585. This variant was identified in 4 different liver tissues by sequencing the RT-PCR products. We sequenced partially 2 of the PCR products amplified of CYP2D6 exon 1 to exon 4 from extratumoral liver tissue genomic DNA that only expressed skipped mRNA by RT-PCR. No point mutations around exon 1, intron 1, and exon 4, and no deletion in CYP2D6gene were detected. The third variant was the skipped exon 3, and 153 bp was lost.CONCLUSION: Three new alternative splicing variants of CYP2D6 mRNA have been identified. They may not be caused by gene mutation and may lose CYP2D6 activity and act as a down-regulator of CYP2D6.

  14. Prototype of the SST-1M Telescope Structure for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Niemiec, J; Błocki, J; Bogacz, L; Borkowski, J; Bulik, T; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; Curyło, M; della Volpe, D; Dyrda, M; Favre, Y; Frankowski, A; Grudnik, Ł; Grudzińska, M; Heller, M; Idźkowski, B; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Kasperek, J; Lalik, K; Lyard, E; Mach, E; Mandat, D; Marszałek, A; Michałowski, J; Moderski, R; Montaruli, T; Neronov, A; Ostrowski, M; Paśko, P; Pech, M; Porcelli, A; Prandini, E; Rajda, P; Rameez, M; Schioppa, E jr; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Skowron, K; Sliusar, V; Sowiński, M; Stawarz, Ł; Stodulska, M; Stodulski, M; Pujadas, I Troyano; Toscano, S; Walter, R; Wiȩcek, M; Zagdański, A; Ziȩtara, K

    2015-01-01

    A single-mirror small-size (SST-1M) Davies-Cotton telescope with a dish diameter of 4 m has been built by a consortium of Polish and Swiss institutions as a prototype for one of the proposed small-size telescopes for the southern observatory of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The design represents a very simple, reliable, and cheap solution. The mechanical structure prototype with its drive system is now being tested at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow. Here we present the design of the prototype and results of the performance tests of the structure and the drive and control system.

  15. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  16. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  17. Recent Developments in the Alignment and Test Plans for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approximately 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of 2.1 x 2.2 x 1.9m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an OTE SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a approximately 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. Temperature-induced mechanical SI alignment and structural changes are measured using a photogrammetric measurement system at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear and wavefront error, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. We present an updated plan for the assembly and ambient and cryogenic optical alignment, test and verification of the ISIM element.

  18. Analytical description of nonlinear acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Chae, Jongchul

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Vertical propagation of acoustic waves of finite amplitude in an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere is considered. Methods: Methods of nonlinear acoustics are used to derive a dispersive solution, which is valid in a long-wavelength limit, and a non-dispersive solution, which is valid in a short-wavelength limit. The influence of the gravitational field on wave-front breaking and shock formation is described. The generation of a second harmonic at twice the driving wave frequency, previously detected in numerical simulations, is demonstrated analytically. Results: Application of the results to three-minute chromospheric oscillations, driven by velocity perturbations at the base of the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Numerical estimates suggest that the second harmonic signal should be detectable in an upper chromosphere by an instrument such as the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Observatory.

  19. Management control system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The cern axion solar telescope (CAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Arik, E.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F. T.; Barth, K.; Bowyer, S. M.; Brauninger, H.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrian, S.; Celebi, G.; Cetin, S.; Collar, J. I.; Creswick, R.; Delbart, A.; Delattre, M.; DiLella, L.; De Oliveira, R.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Erdutan, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H. A.; Fiorini, C.; Geralis, Th.; Giomataris, I.; Girard, T. A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Golubev, N. A.; Hasinoff, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jeanneau, F.; Knopf, M. A.; Kovzelev, A. V.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Lakić, B.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lutz, G.; Longoni, A.; Luzon, G.; Mailov, A.; Matveev, V. A.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz, A.; Pitts, W. K.; Placci, A.; Postoev, V. E.; Raffelt, G. G.; Riege, H.; Sampieto, M.; Sarsa, M.; Savvidis, I.; Stipčević, M.; Thomas, C. W.; Thompson, R. C.; Valco, P.; Villar, J. A.; Villierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Wilcox, W.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.

    2002-07-01

    A decommissioned LHC test magnet is being prepared as the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 meters. It is being mounted on a platform to track the sun over plus or minus 8 to the sixth power vertically and plus or minus 45 to the sixth power, horizontally.

  1. Axis Offset Estimation of VLBI Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásná, Hana; Nickola, Marisa; Böhm, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Axis offset models have to be applied for VLBI telescopes with pointing axes which do not intersect. In this work, we estimated the axis offsets for VLBI antennas in a global adjustment of suitable IVS 24-hour sessions (1984.0-2014.0) with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS). In particular, we focused on the two radio telescopes of the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) in South Africa. For the older 26-m telescope we compared the estimated axis offset values before (6699.2 ± 0.5 mm) and after (6707.3 ± 0.8 mm) the bearing repair in 2010. A comparison with axis offset estimates from other geodetic techniques, such as GNSS or conventional local survey, was made. The estimated axis offset for the newer 15-m telescope (1495.0 ± 3.4 mm) agrees with the estimated value from the GPS survey in 2007. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of differences in the axis offsets on the estimated geodetic parameters, such as station coordinates or Earth Orientation Parameters.

  2. TeraHertz Space Telescope (TST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Lesser, David; O'Dougherty, Stephan; Swift, Brandon; Pat, Terrance; Cortez, German; Smith, Steve; Goldsmith, Paul; Walker, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    The Terahertz Space Telescope (TST) utilizes breakthrough inflatable technology to create a ~25 m far-infrared observing system at a fraction of the cost of previous space telescopes. As a follow-on to JWST and Herschel, TST will probe the FIR/THz regime with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, answering fundamental questions concerning the origin and destiny of the cosmos. Prior and planned space telescopes have barely scratched the surface of what can be learned in this wavelength region. TST will pick up where JWST and Herschel leave off. At ~30µm TST will have ~10x the sensitivity and ~3x the angular resolution of JWST. At longer wavelengths it will have ~1000x the sensitivity of Herschel and ~7 times the angular resolution. TST can achieve this at low cost through the innovative use of inflatable technology. A recently-completed NIAC Phase II study (Large Balloon Reflector) validated, both analytically and experimentally, the concept of a large inflatable spherical reflector and demonstrated critical telescope functions. In our poster we will introduce the TST concept and compare its performance to past, present, and proposed far-infrared observatories.

  3. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  4. The Mathematics of Go to Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the mathematics involved in finding and tracking celestial objects with an electronically controlled telescope. The essential idea in solving this problem is to choose several different coordinate systems that simplify the various motions of the earth and other celestial objects. These coordinate systems are then related by…

  5. Modeling and control of antennas and telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gawronski, Wodek

    2008-01-01

    The book shows, step-by-step, the design, implementation, and testing of the antenna/telescope control system, from the design stage (analytical model) to fine tuning of the RF beam pointing (monopulse and conscan). It includes wide use of Matlab and Simulink..

  6. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  7. Searching for tau neutrinos with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, D.; Bernardini, E.; Kappes, A.

    2015-02-01

    Cherenkov telescopes have the capability of detecting high energy tau neutrinos in the energy range of 1-1000 PeV by searching for very inclined showers. If a tau lepton, produced by a tau neutrino, escapes from the Earth or a mountain, it will decay and initiate a shower in the air which can be detected by an air shower fluorescence or Cherenkov telescope. In this paper, we present detailed Monte Carlo simulations of corresponding event rates for the VERITAS and two proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array sites: Meteor Crater and Yavapai Ranch, which use representative AGN neutrino flux models and take into account topographic conditions of the detector sites. The calculated neutrino sensitivities depend on the observation time and the shape of the energy spectrum, but in some cases are comparable or even better than corresponding neutrino sensitivities of the IceCube detector. For VERITAS and the considered Cherenkov Telescope Array sites the expected neutrino sensitivities are up to factor 3 higher than for the MAGIC site because of the presence of surrounding mountains.

  8. XSPECT telescopes on the SRG: optical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Polny, Josef; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    The XSPECT, thin foil, multiply nested telescope on SRG has been designed to achieve a large effective area at energies between 6 and 15 keV. The design goal for the angular resolution is 2 arcmin (HPD). Results of foil figure error measurements are presented. A ray tracing analysis was performed...

  9. Imaging capabilities of the SODART telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Pedersen, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    The on- and off-axis imaging properties and effective area of the two SODART flight telescopes have been measured using the expanded beam X-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. Following measurements have been done for both Flight Model 1 & 2, at three energies: 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11...

  10. So You Want a Meade LX Telescope!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lawrence

    Perhaps every generation of astronomers believes that their telescopes are the best that have ever been. They are surely all correct! The great leap of our time is that computer-designed and machined parts have led to more accurately made components that give the astronomer ever better views. The manual skills of the craftsman mirror grinder have been transformed into the new-age skills of the programmer and the machine maker. (The new products did not end the work of craftsman telescope makers, though. Many highly skilled amateur/professional opticians continued to produce good-quality mirrors that are still seen today.) Amateur-priced telescopes are now capable of highly accurate tracking and computer control that were once only the province of professionals. This has greatly increased the possibilities of serious astronomy projects for which tailor-made software has been developed. Add a CCD camera to these improved telescopes (see Chap. 3), and you bring a whole new dimension to your astronomy (see Fig. 1.1).

  11. Roughness tolerances for Cherenkov telescope mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Tayabaly, K; Canestrari, R; Bonnoli, G; Lavagna, M; Pareschi, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a forthcoming international ground-based observatory for very high-energy gamma rays. Its goal is to reach sensitivity five to ten times better than existing Cherenkov telescopes such as VERITAS, H.E.S.S. or MAGIC and extend the range of observation to energies down to few tens of GeV and beyond 100 TeV. To achieve this goal, an array of about 100 telescopes is required, meaning a total reflective surface of several thousands of square meters. Thence, the optimal technology used for CTA mirrors manufacture should be both low-cost (~1000 euros/m2) and allow high optical performances over the 300-550 nm wavelength range. More exactly, a reflectivity higher than 85% and a PSF (Point Spread Function) diameter smaller than 1 mrad. Surface roughness can significantly contribute to PSF broadening and limit telescope performances. Fortunately, manufacturing techniques for mirrors are now available to keep the optical scattering well below the geometrically-predictable effect of ...

  12. Choosing and Using a Refracting Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The refracting telescope has a long and illustrious past. Here’s what the author says about early telescopes and today’s refractors: “Four centuries ago, a hitherto obscure Italian scientist turned a home-made spyglass towards the heavens. The lenses he used were awful by modern standards, inaccurately figured and filled with the scars of their perilous journey from the furnace to the finishing workshop. Yet, despite these imperfections, they allowed him to see what no one had ever seen before – a universe far more complex and dynamic than anyone had dared imagine. But they also proved endlessly useful in the humdrum of human affairs. For the first time ever, you could spy on your neighbor from a distance, or monitor the approach of a war-mongering army, thus deciding the fate of nations. “The refractor is without doubt the prince of telescopes. Compared with all other telescopic designs, the unobstructed view of the refractor enables it to capture the sharpest, highest contrast images and the wides...

  13. Thirty Meter Telescope: observatory software requirements, architecture, and preliminary implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David R.; Angeli, George; Boyer, Corinne; Sirota, Mark; Trinh, Thang

    2008-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be a ground-based, 30-m optical-IR alt-az telescope with a highly segmented primary mirror located in a remote location. Efficient science operations require the asynchronous coordination of many different sub-systems including telescope mount, three independent active optics sub-systems, adaptive optics, laser guide stars, and user-configured science instrument. An important high-level requirement is target acquisition and observatory system configuration must be completed in less than 5 minutes (or 10 minutes if moving to a new instrument). To meet this coordination challenge and target acquisition time requirement, a distributed software architecture is envisioned consisting of software components linked by a service-based software communications backbone. A master sequencer coordinates the activities of mid-layer sequencers for the telescope, adaptive optics, and selected instrument. In turn, these mid-layer sequencers coordinate the activities of groups of sub-systems. In this paper, TMT observatory requirements are presented in more detail, followed by a description of the design reference software architecture and a discussion of preliminary implementation strategies.

  14. A Research on the Primary Mirror Manipulator of Large Segmented-mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, H.

    2012-09-01

    Since Galileo firstly used the telescope to observe the sky 400 years ago, the aperture of the telescope has become larger and larger to observe the deeper universe, and the segmented-mirror telescope is becoming more and more popular with increasing aperture. In the early 21st century, a series of segmented-mirror telescopes have been constructed including the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) of China. LAMOST is a meridian reflecting Schmidt telescope, and the dimension of the primary mirror is about 6.7 m× 6 m, which is composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors. However, a problem about the mirror installation appears with the increasing aperture. If there are hundreds of sub-mirrors in the telescope, it is a challenging job to mount and dismount them to the truss. This problem is discussed in this paper and a manipulator for the primary mirror of LAMOST is designed to perform the mount and dismount work. In chapter 1, all the segmented-mirror telescopes in the world are introduced and how the sub-mirrors of these telescopes are installed has been investigated. After comparing with the serial and the parallel robot, a serial robot manipulator proposal, which has several redundant degrees of freedom (DOFs), has been chosen from a series of design proposals. In chapter 2, the theoretical analysis has been carried out on the basis of the design proposal, which includes the forward kinematics and the inverse kinematics. Firstly the D-H coordinate is built according to the structure of the manipulator, so it is possible to obtain the end-effector position and orientation from the individual joint motion thanks to the forward kinematics. Because of the redundant DOFs of the manipulator, the inverse kinematics solution can be a very trick task, and the result may not be only, therefore a kind of simulation is carried out to get the numerical solution using ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). In the dynamics analysis the

  15. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for pre-college students and teachers. (1) not many schools have teachers trained to use and maintain astronomy equipment; (2) school usually happens during the day and observing normally is a night-time activity; (3) the scourge of light pollution has hidden the stars from many students living in or near cities; (4) there is a general lack of access to expertise when needed. In addition, physically disabled students cannot climb ladders, to access the telescope eyepiece. Internet access to computer-controlled telescopes equipped with digital cameras can solve many of these difficulties. This enables students and their teachers to access well-maintained, robust Internet-controllable telescopes in dark-site locations and to consult more readily with experts. We present the results of technical solutions to Internet-control of telescopes, by Software Bisque, the New Mexico Skies Guest Observatory and the Youth Activities Committee of the Astronomical League in collaboration with Denver University Astronomy. We jointly submitted a funding proposal to the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom, and conducted a pilot program allowing high school students to access a CCD-equipped, accurately-pointing and tracking telescope, controllable over the Web, with a user-friendly skymap browser tool. With suitably placed telescopes worldwide, observing from the classroom in daylight will become feasible, as we have demonstrated with Australian and Eurasian student users of the New Mexico Skies Internet telescope. We report here on a three-month pilot project exploring this solution, conducted Feb-May 2002. User interest proved phenomenal, while user statistics proved diverse and there were distinct lessons learned about how to enhance student participation in the research process. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in partial

  16. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DATA CHARACTERIZATION AND MAPMAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenner, Rolando; Aguirre, Paula; Barrientos, L. Felipe [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Hasselfield, Matthew; Amiri, Mandana; Battistelli, Elia S.; Burger, Bryce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Marriage, Tobias A.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Das, Sudeep [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Sievers, Jon; Appel, John William [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Calabrese, Erminia [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ade, Peter A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Brown, Ben [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Chervenak, Jay [Code 553/665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present a description of the data reduction and mapmaking pipeline used for the 2008 observing season of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The data presented here at 148 GHz represent 12% of the 90 TB collected by ACT from 2007 to 2010. In 2008 we observed for 136 days, producing a total of 1423 hr of data (11 TB for the 148 GHz band only), with a daily average of 10.5 hr of observation. From these, 1085 hr were devoted to an 850 deg{sup 2} stripe (11.2 hr by 9. Degree-Sign 1) centered on a declination of -52. Degree-Sign 7, while 175 hr were devoted to a 280 deg{sup 2} stripe (4.5 hr by 4. Degree-Sign 8) centered at the celestial equator. The remaining 163 hr correspond to calibration runs. We discuss sources of statistical and systematic noise, calibration, telescope pointing, and data selection. For the 148 GHz band, out of 1260 survey hours and 1024 detectors in the array, 816 hr and 593 effective detectors remain after data selection, yielding a 38% survey efficiency. The total sensitivity in 2008, determined from the noise level between 5 Hz and 20 Hz in the time-ordered data stream (TOD), is 32 {mu}K{radical}s in cosmic microwave background units. Atmospheric brightness fluctuations constitute the main contaminant in the data and dominate the detector noise covariance at low frequencies in the TOD. The maps were made by solving the least-squares problem using the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method, incorporating the details of the detector and noise correlations. Simulations, as well as cross-correlations with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps on large angular scales, reveal that our maps are unbiased at multipoles l > 300. This paper accompanies the public release of the 148 GHz southern stripe maps from 2008. The techniques described here will be applied to future maps and data releases.

  17. Camera Development for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose

    2017-01-01

    With the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the very-high-energy gamma-ray universe, between 30 GeV and 300 TeV, will be probed at an unprecedented resolution, allowing deeper studies of known gamma-ray emitters and the possible discovery of new ones. This exciting project could also confirm the particle nature of dark matter by looking for the gamma rays produced by self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The telescopes will use the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) to record Cherenkov photons that are produced by the gamma-ray induced extensive air shower. One telescope design features dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optics that allows the light to be finely focused on the high-resolution silicon photomultipliers of the camera modules starting from a 9.5-meter primary mirror. Each camera module will consist of a focal plane module and front-end electronics, and will have four TeV Array Readout with GSa/s Sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET) chips, giving them 64 parallel input channels. The TARGET chip has a self-trigger functionality for readout that can be used in higher logic across camera modules as well as across individual telescopes, which will each have 177 camera modules. There will be two sites, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, for full sky coverage, each spanning at least one square kilometer. A prototype SC telescope is currently under construction at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF award AST-1560016.

  18. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  19. Hazard detection with a monocular bioptic telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Amy L; Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang

    2015-09-01

    The safety of bioptic telescopes for driving remains controversial. The ring scotoma, an area to the telescope eye due to the telescope magnification, has been the main cause of concern. This study evaluates whether bioptic users can use the fellow eye to detect in hazards driving videos that fall in the ring scotoma area. Twelve visually impaired bioptic users watched a series of driving hazard perception training videos and responded as soon as they detected a hazard while reading aloud letters presented on the screen. The letters were placed such that when reading them through the telescope the hazard fell in the ring scotoma area. Four conditions were tested: no bioptic and no reading, reading without bioptic, reading with a bioptic that did not occlude the fellow eye (non-occluding bioptic), and reading with a bioptic that partially-occluded the fellow eye. Eight normally sighted subjects performed the same task with the partially occluding bioptic detecting lateral hazards (blocked by the device scotoma) and vertical hazards (outside the scotoma) to further determine the cause-and-effect relationship between hazard detection and the fellow eye. There were significant differences in performance between conditions: 83% of hazards were detected with no reading task, dropping to 67% in the reading task with no bioptic, to 50% while reading with the non-occluding bioptic, and 34% while reading with the partially occluding bioptic. For normally sighted, detection of vertical hazards (53%) was significantly higher than lateral hazards (38%) with the partially occluding bioptic. Detection of driving hazards is impaired by the addition of a secondary reading like task. Detection is further impaired when reading through a monocular telescope. The effect of the partially-occluding bioptic supports the role of the non-occluded fellow eye in compensating for the ring scotoma. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  20. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. L.; McMillan, R. S.; Barr, L. D.; Bressi, T. H.; Gehrels, T.

    1996-09-01

    The largest telescope in the world dedicated to the search for Earth-approaching asteroids and other previously unknown members of the solar system will soon be operational. Its 1.8-m aperture, large and sensitive CCD, and dedication to surveying will make it possible to find as many as 80,000 new asteroids per year. The mechanical design by Barr is optimized by finite-element analysis to provide high resonant frequencies. The mount is an altitude-azimuth type for compatibility with the mirror support cell contributed by the Multi-Mirror Telescope Observatory. Both axes are driven by DC servo motors directly coupled to friction rollers. The CCD instrument stage will also be rotated under computer control. The telescope was fabricated in the University Research Instrumentation Center (URIC). Construction of the building began on Kitt Peak on July 1, 1996. The optical configuration is f/2.7 folded prime focus with a flat secondary that locates the focal plane in the center of the optical truss near the altitude axis. This shortened the telescope enough to make the dome building affordable, and the flat secondary preserves the fast f/number of the primary mirror. The coma corrector designed by R. A. Buchroeder is a modified Klee design of 5 spherical lens elements plus a filter transmitting longward of the B bandpass. The filter greatly simplifies lens design and reduces sky background while not significantly reducing the brightness of asteroids. The distortion-free, flat, unvignetted field of view is 0.8 deg in diameter and the image scale is 1.0 arcsec/24 micron pixel. Construction of the Spacewatch Telescope has been funded by grants from the DoD Clementine Program, NASA, the University of Arizona Foundation, and other private and corporate donors.