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Sample records for 5r-thymine glycol lesion

  1. Brisk Demand of Neopentyl Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Neopentyl glycol (NPG) is an important chemical raw material. It is mainly used to produce saturated polyester resin for powder coatings,unsaturated polyester resin, polyester polyols, esters for synthetic lubricants, plasticizers and alkyd resins.

  2. The effects of increased penetration of betamethasone dipropionate in a propylene glycol base (Diprolene) for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, A

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of betamethasone dipropionate, 0.05% in a propylene glycol base (Diprolene), was investigated in an open, fixed-dose study of thirty-one patients with resistant psoriasis. Clearing of lesions or marked improvement occurred in 97% (thirty out of thirty-one) of patients. Increased penetration of corticosteroid did not cause adrenal suppression or other adverse reactions.

  3. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W

    2001-01-01

    The ingredients considered in this safety assessment are polyethylene glycol ethers of either propylene glycol itself, propylene glycol stearate, propylene glycol oleate, or propylene glycol cocoate. They function in cosmetic formulations as surfactant--cleansing agents; surfactant-solubilizing agents; surfactant--emulsifying agents; skin conditioning agents--humectant; skin-conditioning agents--emollient; and solvents. Those in current use are used in only a small number of cosmetic formulations. Some are not currently used. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Propylene Glycol Cocoates and PEG Propylene Glycol Oleates are produced by the esterification of polyoxyalkyl alcohols with lauric acid and oleic acid, respectively. Although there is no information available on the method of manufacture of the other polymers, information was available describing impurities, including ethylene oxide (maximum 1 ppm), 1,4-dioxane (maximum 5 ppm), polycyclic aromatic compounds (maximum 1 ppm), and heavy metals-lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic included (maximum 10 ppm combined). In an acute oral toxicity study, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was not toxic. An antiperspirant product containing 2.0% PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was nonirritating to mildly irritating to the eyes of rabbits. This product was also practically nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in single-insult occlusive patch tests. In a guinea pig sensitization test, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was classified as nonallergenic at challenge concentrations of 25% and 50% in petrolatum. PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate and PEG-55 Propylene Glycol Oleate were negative in clinical patch tests. Based on the available data, it was concluded that these ingredients are safe as used (concentrations no greater than 10%) in cosmetic formulations. Based on evidence of sensitization and nephrotoxicity in burn patients treated with a PEG-based antimicrobial preparation, the ingredients included in this review

  5. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Leadon, S A

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing rad...

  6. Ethylene glycol, hazardous substance in the household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Jirí; Hon, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment. PMID:20608228

  7. Review of glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents used in the coating industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene oxide-based glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have been used in the coatings industry for the past fifty years. Because of their excellent performance properties (evaporation rate, blush resistance, flow-out and leveling properties, solubility for coating resins, solvent activity, mild odor, good coupling ability, good solvent release) a complete line of ethylene oxide-based solvents of various molecular weights has been developed. These glycol ether and glycol ether ester...

  8. A DNA glycosylase from human lymphoblasts that releases cis-thymine glycol from oxidized DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An endonuclease (termed the UVX endonuclease) partially purified from cultured human leukemic lymphoblasts (CEM-CCRF line) was previously shown to act specifically on DNA irradiated by ionizing radiation, UV light, or treated with osmium tetroxide. This activity is tightly associated with an endonuclease specific for apurinic /apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA, suggesting that the initial attack on the radiation or oxidation induced lesions is by a DNA glycosylase that generates such AP sites. Thymine glycol has been shown to be a product common to γ-irradiated and oxidized DNA and in the present studies the authors have shown that the UVX endonuclease releases free cis-thymine glycol from osmium tetroxide treated DNA. HPLC analysis of the reaction products failed to detect any cis-thymidine glycol or nucleotide material indicating that the activity responsible is truly a DNA glycosylase. This enzyme thus resembles Endonuclease III of E. coli which contains both AP endonuclease and thymine glucol-DNA glycosylase activities

  9. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  10. Enhanced bioconversion of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid by a newly isolated Burkholderia sp. EG13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxin; Ma, Zhengfei; Yang, Limin; Ma, Jiangquan

    2014-10-01

    Burkholderia sp. EG13 with high ethylene glycol-oxidizing activity was isolated from soil, which could be used for the synthesis of glycolic acid from the oxidation of ethylene glycol. Using the resting cells of Burkholderia sp. EG13 as biocatalysts, the optimum reaction temperature and pH were 30 °C and 6.0, respectively. After 24 h of biotransformation, the yield of glycolic acid from 200 mM ethylene glycol was 98.8 %. Furthermore, an integrated bioprocess for the production of glycolic acid which involved in situ product removal (ISPR) was investigated. Using fed-batch method with ISPR, a total of 793 mM glycolic acid has been accumulated in the reaction mixture after the 4th feed.

  11. Glycolic acid modulates the mechanical property and degradation of poly(glycerol, sebacate, glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Jie; Wu, Lan; Huang, Wei; Chen, Chang; Chen, Yan; Lu, Xi-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Bao-Feng; Dong, De-Li

    2010-01-01

    The development of biodegradable materials with controllable degradation properties is beneficial for a variety of applications. Poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) is a promising candidate of biomaterials; so we synthesize a series of poly(glycerol, sebacate, glycolic acid) (PGSG) with 1:2:0, 1:2:0.2, 1:2:0.4, 1:2:0.6, 1:2:1 mole ratio of glycerol, sebacate, and glycolic acid to elucidate the relation of doped glycolic acid to the degradation rate and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the polymers with different doping of glycolic acid were dissimilar. PGSG with glycolic acid in the ratio of 0.2 displayed an integral degree of ordering, different to those with glycolic acid in the ratio of 0, 0.4, 0.6, and 1, which showed mild phase separation structure. The number, DeltaH(m), and temperature of the PGSG melting peaks tended to decrease with the increasing ratio of doped glycolic acid. In vitro and in vivo degradation tests showed that the degradation rate of PGSG with glycolic acid in the ratio of 0.2 was slowest, but in the ratio range of 0, 0.4, and 0.6, the degradation rate increased with the increase of glycolic acid. All PGSG samples displayed good tissue response and anticoagulant effects. Our data suggest that doping glycolic acid can modulate the microstructure and degree of crosslinking of PGS, thereby control the degradation rate of PGS.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  13. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, S A

    1987-06-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. Thymine glycols were detected using a monoclonal antibody against this product in a sensitive immunoassay. We found that thymine glycols were produced in DNA in a dose dependent manner after exposure to the carcinogens and that their production was reduced if either catalase or superoxide dismutase or both were present at the time of treatment. The efficiency of thymine glycol production following exposure to the chemical carcinogens was greater than that following equi-toxic doses of radiation. Thymine glycols were efficiently removed from the DNA of human cells following treatment with either the chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light. PMID:3477281

  14. Unique psoriatic lesion versus multiple lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the number of lesions of psoriasis and to find risk factors for multiple lesions. Material and Methods: 1,236 patients (male 54.13%, female 45.87% with psoriasis were seen over a period of 8 years in an Outpatient Clinic. Patients filled out questionnaires containing age at onset, number of lesions and location at the beginning of the disease, gender, type and localization of psoriasis at the time of clinical examination, psoriasis family history, previous treatment, comorbidities, and social status. Results: The number of psoriasis lesions correlates with: onset age of psoriasis (F=8.902, p=0.0029; age at the moment of clinical examination (F=8.902, p=0.0029; residence in rural area (χ2=8.589, p=0.00338, 95%CI; alcohol intake (χ2=16.47, p=0.00005, 95%CI; smoking (χ2=8.408, p=0.00373, 95%CI; occupation: workers/pupils/students (χ2=14.11, p=0.0069, 95%CI. Conclusions: There is a correlation between number of psoriatic lesions and some factors. Multiple lesions were observed in older patients, smokers and drinkers, coming from rural area and social active (workers and pupils/students. No correlation was statistically proved between number of lesions and gender, comorbidities and family history of psoriasis.

  15. Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) thermogel as a novel submucosal cushion for endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Xu, Wei; Shen, Wenjia; Cao, Luping; Liu, Yan; Li, Zhaoshen; Ding, Jiandong

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a clinical therapy for early stage neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is, however, faced with a crucial problem: the high occurrence of perforation. The formation of a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) via a fluid injection is the best way to avoid perforation, and thus an appropriate biomaterial is vital for this minimally invasive endoscopic technique. In this study, we introduced an injectable thermogel as a novel submucosal injection substance in ESD. The hydrogel synthesized by us was composed of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers. The polymer/water system was a low-viscosity fluid at room temperature and thus easily injected, and turned into a non-flowing gel at body temperature after injection. The submucosal injection of the thermogel to create SFCs was performed in both resected porcine stomachs and living minipigs. High mucosal elevation with a clear margin was maintained for a long duration. Accurate en bloc resection was achieved with the assistance of the thermogel. The mean procedure time was strikingly reduced. Meanwhile, no obvious bleeding, perforation and tissue damage were observed. The application of the thermogel not only facilitated the ESD procedure, but also increased the efficacy and safety of ESD. Therefore, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel provides an excellent submucosal injection system, and has great potential to improve the ESD technique significantly.

  16. Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating. PMID:23064775

  17. Transport and metabolism of glycolic acid by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the excretion of glycolate from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the conditions affecting glycolate synthesis and metabolism were investigated. Although glycolate is synthesized only in the light, the metabolism occurs in the light and dark with greater metabolism in the light due to refixation of photorespiratory CO2. The amount of internal glycolate will affect the metabolism of externally added glycolate. When glycolate synthesis exceeds the metabolic capacity, glycolate is excreted from the cell. The transport of glycolate into the cells occurs very rapidly. Equilibrium is achieved at 40C within the time cells are pelleted by the silicone oil centrifugation technique through a layer of [14C] glycolate. Glycolate uptake does not show the same time, temperature and pH dependencies as diffusion of benzoate. Uptake can be inhibited by treatment of cells with N-ethylmaleimide and stimulated in the presence of valino-mycin/KCl. Acetate and lactate are taken up as quickly as glycolate. The hypothesis was made that glycolate is transported by a protein carrier that transports monocarboxylic acids. The equilibrium concentration of glycolate is dependent on the cell density, implying that there may be a large number of transporter sites and that uptake is limited by substrate availability

  18. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  19. 21 CFR 582.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is generally recognized as safe (except in cat food) when used in accordance with good manufacturing... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.1666 Section 582.1666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  20. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were chara

  1. Complete recovery after massive ethylene glycol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L; Kraner, J; Wine, H; Savitt, D; Abuelo, J G

    1992-06-01

    We treated a 64-year-old man who recovered completely from a massive antifreeze ingestion with ethylene glycol levels well above those of previously described survivors. Rapid and aggressive treatment of the patient with recognized methods, including hemodialysis, resulted in the favorable outcome.

  2. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ f...

  3. Methacrylated glycol chitosan as a photopolymerizable biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Brian G; Sukarto, Abby; Knight, Darryl K; Shapka, Stephen N

    2007-12-01

    Glycol chitosan is a derivative of chitosan that is soluble at neutral pH and possesses potentially useful biological properties. With the goal of obtaining biocompatible hydrogels for use as tissue engineering scaffolds or drug delivery depots, glycol chitosan was converted to a photopolymerizable prepolymer through graft methacrylation using glycidyl methacrylate in aqueous media at pH 9. N-Methacrylation was verified by both (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The degree of N-methacrylation, measured via (1)H NMR, was easily varied from 1.5% to approximately 25% by varying the molar ratio of glycidyl methacrylate to glycol chitosan and the reaction time. Using a chondrocyte cell line, the N-methacrylated glycol chitosan was found to be noncytotoxic up to a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The prepolymer was cross-linked in solution using UV light and Irgacure 2959 photoinitiator under various conditions to yield gels of low sol content ( approximately 5%), high equilibrium water content (85-95%), and thicknesses of up to 6 mm. Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (13)C solid state NMR verified the complete conversion of the double bonds in the gel. Chondrocytes seeded directly onto the gel surface, populated the entirety of the gel and remained viable for up to one week. The hydrogels degraded slowly in vitro in the presence of lysozyme at a rate that increased as the cross-link density of the gels decreased. PMID:18031015

  4. Mechanisms of propylene glycol and triacetin pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laino, Teodoro; Tuma, Christian; Moor, Philippe; Martin, Elyette; Stolz, Steffen; Curioni, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol and triacetin are chemical compounds, commonly used as food additives. Though the usage of the pure chemicals is not considered harmful when used as dietary supplements, little is known about the nature of their thermal degradation products and the impact they may have on human heal

  5. Glycine/Glycolic acid based copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, in 't Peter J.A.; Shen, Zheng-Rong; Takens, Gijsbert A.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Glycine/glycolic acid based biodegradable copolymers have been prepared by ring-opening homopolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione, and ring-opening copolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione and glycolide. The homopolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione was carried out in the melt at 200°C for 3 min u

  6. Anaerobic treatment of glycol contaminated wastewater for methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Agbalakwe, Ekene

    2011-01-01

    Glycols are usually used in the offshore gas industry as hydrate inhibitor in gas pipelines laid deep under the sea. Glycols, in its use, are contaminated by dissolved salts from formation water together with scaling and corrosion products from the pipeline. This results to generation of wastewater containing glycols. Anaerobic treatment may represent an alternative to the aerobic treatment of glycol wastewater. Laboratory-scale studies were carried out to investigate the treatability of glyc...

  7. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunok Choi; Norbert Schmidbauer; John Spengler; Carl-Gustaf Bornehag

    2010-01-01

    Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE) in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samp...

  8. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R(w)), as there are...... response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee. The...... literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination of...

  9. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  10. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe3O4 with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g−1 and 131 emu g−1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy

  11. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  12. Skin strain and its influence on systemic exposure to a glycol ether in offset printing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, G; Göen, T; Lakemeyer, M; Broding, H C; Drexler, H

    2003-11-01

    Under workplace conditions, it is difficult to prove the influence of skin lesions on skin penetration by chemical substances. The aim of the present study was to show whether systemic exposure to glycol ether increases due to lesions of the skin in printing workers. 28 male printers, exposed to 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE), were interviewed about the workplace exposure by a standardized questionnaire. The systemic exposure in printers was determined by biological monitoring of the main metabolite of BEE butoxyethoxyacetic acid (BEAA) in urine. Furthermore, clinical examination of the skin, transepidermal water loss, capacitance and skin surface pH measurements were carried out. Erythema and scaliness were the most important factors showing an effect on dermal absorption. The mean urinary BEAA excretions for printers with skin lesions on the hands were higher (20.62 mg/l for scaliness and 14.40 mg/l for erythema) compared to that for printers without detectable skin lesions (12.08 mg/l for scaliness and 13.03 mg/l for erythema). Bioengineering measurements to predict skin strain and percutaneous absorption were only supportive. We were able to show that by using a multiple spectrum of methods an enhancement of percutaneous absorption of BEE could be demonstrated in workers with skin lesions.

  13. Biocompatible and target specific hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Li, Weiyi; Rubenstein, David A; Meng, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Atherosclerosis is a major cause for cardiovascular diseases. Drugs that treat atherosclerosis usually act nonspecifically. To enhance drug delivery specificity, the authors developed a hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan (HGC) nanoparticle that can specifically target activated endothelial cells. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles toward red blood cells and platelets was evaluated through hemolysis, platelet activation, platelet thrombogenicity, and platelet aggregation assays. The biocompatibility of these nanoparticles toward vascular endothelial cells was evaluated by their effects on endothelial cell growth, metabolic activity, and activation. The results demonstrated that HGC nanoparticles did not cause hemolysis, or affect platelet activation, thrombogenicity, and aggregation capability in vitro. The nanoparticles did not impair vascular endothelial cell growth or metabolic activities in vitro, and did not cause cell activation either. When conjugated with intercellular adhesion molecular 1 antibodies, HGC nanoparticles showed a significantly increased targeting specificity toward activated endothelial cells. These results suggested that HGC nanoparticles are likely compatible toward red blood cells, platelets, and endothelial cells, and they can be potentially used to identify activated endothelial cells at atherosclerotic lesion areas within the vasculature, and deliver therapeutic drugs. PMID:27126597

  14. POLYMERIZATION OF ETHYLENE METHYL PHOSPHATE IN THE PRESENCE OF SODIUM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)ATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wen; Ren-xi Zhuo; Lu Wang

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ethylene methyl phosphate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene methyl phosphate) triblock copolymers carrying hydroxyl group at both chain ends were synthesized with sodium poly(ethylene glycol)ate as initiator. The effects of the factors such as solvent, amount of the initiator and reaction time were investigated. The copolymers were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 1H{31p}-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P{1H}-NMR, and DSC. High molecular weight of the copolymer and high yield of the polymerization were achieved within 3 min at 25℃. The polymerization process was studied by 31P{1H}-NMR and transesterification was found during longer polymerization time.

  15. Reversible focal splenial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Massimo; Limbucci, Nicola [University of L' Aquila, Department of Radiology, S. Salvatore Hospital, L' Aquila (Italy); Paonessa, Amalia [Loreto Nuovo Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Napoli (Italy); Caranci, Ferdinando [Federico II University, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Reversible focal lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) have recently been reported.They are circumscribed and located in the median aspect of the SCC. On MRI, they are hyperintense on T2-W and iso-hypointense on T1-W sequences, with no contrast enhancement. On DWI, SCC lesions are hyperintense with low ADC values, reflecting restricted diffusion due to cytotoxic edema. The common element is the disappearance of imaging abnormalities with time, including normalization of DWI. Clinical improvement is often reported. The most established and frequent causes of reversible focal lesions of the SCC are viral encephalitis, antiepileptic drug toxicity/withdrawal and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Many other causes have been reported, including traumatic axonal injury. The similar clinical and imaging features suggest a common mechanism induced by different pathological events leading to the same results. Edema and diffusion restriction in focal reversible lesions of the SCC have been attributed to excitotoxic mechanisms that can result from different mechanisms; no unifying relationship has been found to explain all the pathologies associated with SCC lesions. In our opinion, the similar imaging, clinical and prognostic aspects of these lesions depend on a high vulnerability of the SCC to excitotoxic edema and are less dependent on the underlying pathology. In this review, the relevant literature concerning reversible focal lesions in the SCC is analyzed and hypotheses about their pathogenesis are proposed. (orig.)

  16. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  17. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-03-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:27607324

  18. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  19. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L;

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental ...

  20. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  1. Andersson Lesion in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai N, KrishnanKutty K, Panchapakesa Rajendran C, Rukmangatharajan S, Rajeswari S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Andersson lesions are destructive foci that appear at the discovertebral junction in ankylosingspondylitis. We report three cases of ankylosing spondylitis with such lesions. These lesions simulatean infection and in our country, mimic spinal tuberculosis.

  2. Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugard, P H; M. Walker; Mawdsley, S J; Scott, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    To assist evaluation of the hazards of skin contact with selected undiluted glycol ethers, their absorption across isolated human abdominal epidermis was measured in vitro. Epidermal membranes were set up in glass diffusion cells and, following an initial determination of permeability to tritiated water, excess undiluted glycol ether was applied to the outer surface for 8 hr. The appearance of glycol ether in an aqueous "receptor" phase bathing the underside of the epidermis was quantified by...

  3. Marangoni effects in aqueous polypropylene glycol foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Su Nee; Fornasiero, Daniel; Sedev, Rossen; Ralston, John

    2005-06-15

    The foam behavior of three polypropylene glycols covering the molecular weight range between 192 and 725 g/mol has been examined. Static and dynamic surface tension data, as well as bubble size distribution and retention time in the foam, were incorporated into a simple model of foam stability. The latter clearly indicates that surface tension differences between the plateau border and lamellar region adjacent to the bubble surface are the dominant factor in controlling foamability, causing liquid flow in the direction opposite to liquid drainage, a process termed the Marangoni effect.

  4. Detection of DNA damage: effect of thymidine glycol residues on the thermodynamic, substrate and interfacial acoustic properties of oligonucleotide duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Romanova, E; Kubareva, E; Dolinnaya, N; Gajdos, V; Burenina, O; Fedotova, E; Ellis, J S; Oretskaya, T; Hianik, T; Thompson, M

    2009-01-01

    Thymidine glycol residues in DNA are biologically active oxidative molecular damage sites caused by ionizing radiation and other factors. One or two thymidine glycol residues were incorporated in 19- to 31-mer DNA fragments during automatic oligonucleotide synthesis. These oligonucleotide models were used to estimate the effect of oxidized thymidines on the thermodynamic, substrate and interfacial acoustic properties of DNA. UV-monitoring melting data revealed that modified residues in place of thymidines destabilize the DNA double helix by 8-22 degrees C, depending on the number of lesions, the length of oligonucleotide duplexes and their GC-content. The diminished hybridizing capacity of modified oligonucleotides is presumably due to the loss of aromaticity and elevated hydrophilicity of thymine glycol in comparison to the thymine base. According to circular dichroism (CD) data, the modified DNA duplexes retain B-form geometry, and the thymidine glycol residue introduces only local perturbations limited to the lesion site. The rate of DNA hydrolysis by restriction endonucleases R.MvaI, R.Bst2UI, R.MspR9I and R.Bme1390I is significantly decreased as the thymidine glycol is located in the central position of the double-stranded recognition sequences 5'-CC / WGG-3' (W = A, T) or 5'-CC / NGG-3' (N = A, T, G, C) adjacent to the cleavage site. On the other hand, the catalytic properties of enzymes R.Psp6I and R.BstSCI recognizing the similar sequence are not changed dramatically, since their cleavage site is separated from the point of modification by several base-pairs. Data obtained by gel-electrophoretic analysis of radioactive DNA substrates were confirmed by direct spectrophotometric assay developed by the authors. The effect of thymidine glycol was also observed on DNA hybridization at the surface of a thickness-shear mode acoustic wave device. A 1.9-fold decrease in the rate of duplex formation was noted for oligonucleotides carrying one or two thymidine glycol

  5. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; da Silva, Sebastião William; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; de Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90-120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron-iron oxide were 145 emu g-1 and 131 emu g-1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  6. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  7. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    1997-01-01

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg nanc

  8. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-e...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3880 - Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate. 721.3880 Section 721.3880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3880 Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate. (a) Chemical substance and... glycol substituted acetate (PMN P-91-1269) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  11. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching; Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  12. Relations among traumatic subdural lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. S.; Doh, J. W.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and subdural hygroma (SDG) occur in the subdural space, usually after trauma. We tried to find a certain relationship among these three traumatic subdural lesions in 436 consecutive patients. We included all subdural lesions regardless of whether they were main or not. We evaluated the distribution, age incidence and interval from injury to diagnosis of these lesions, and the frequency of new subdural lesions in each lesion. ASD...

  13. Water potential of aqueous polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuter, A A

    1981-01-01

    Water potential (Psiomega) values were determined for aqueous colloids of four molecular sizes of polyethylene glycol (PEG) using freezing-point depression and vapor-pressure deficit methods. A significant third-order interaction exists between the method used to determine Psiomega, PEG molecular size, and concentration. At low PEG concentrations, freezing-point depression measurements result in higher (less negative) values for Psiomega than do vapor-pressure deficit measurements. The reverse is true at high concentrations. PEG in water does not behave according to van't Hoff's law. Psiomega is related to molality for a given PEG but not linearly. Moreover, Psiomega varies with the molecular size of the PEG. It is suggested that the Psiomega of PEG in water may be controlled primarily by the matric forces of ethylene oxide subunits of the PEG polymer. The term matricum is proposed for PEG in soil-plant-water relation studies. PMID:16661635

  14. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. PMID:24269528

  15. Validation of an analytical methodology for the determination of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as impurities in glycerin and propylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for the quantification of diethylene glycol (DEG) and the ethylene glycol (EG) impurities by gas Chromatography with flame ionization detector in glycerol and propylene glycol samples was developed and validated. It was selected dimethyl sulphoxide as internal standard. It was used hydrogen as carrier and auxiliary gas. The temperature program was 100°C holding one minute, then ramp to rate of 7.5°C/ min up to 200 °C. A Restek 624 column was used, with a flow in column of 4.20 ml/ min. Temperatures of the injector and detector were set at 220°C and 250 °C, respectively. The linearity was determined at 25-75 ?μg/ml as interval of concentrations for both impurities with correlation coefficients larger than 0.999. Detection Limits were settled down in 0.0350 μ?g/ml to the diethylene glycol, and 0.0572 μg/ml to ethylene glycol, while the quantitation limits were 0.1160 μ?g/ml to DEG and 0.1897 μg/ml to the EG. The recoveries were 99.98 % and 100.00 %, respectively; with RSD % 1.18 % to DEG, and 0.60 % to the EG. The obtained results demonstrated that the methodology was linear, accurate, robustness, sensitive and selective to be used in the determination of both impurities in the quality control of the glycerol and propylene glycol as raw materials

  16. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  17. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  18. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  19. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  20. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 4. Alternating polyetheresteramides based on glycols (4NTglycol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Polyetheresteramides (PEEAs) have been synthesised in the melt from 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and ethylene or propylene glycols. The ethylene glycols were ethylenediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol. The propylene glycols were 1,3-propanediol and the mixtures of 1

  1. Asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of studying the incidence, pathomorphology and etiology of asymptomatic ischemic cerebral lesions, we carried out a brain MRI study on 65 patients with diabetes mellitus accompanied with hypertension who are thought to belong to a high risk group of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Excluding the abnormality of tendon reflex due to diabetic neuropathy, sixty percent of the total patients had some mild neurological signs and symptoms, most of them was discrepancy in tendon reflex. The percentage of the patients in whom MRI disclosed some abnormalities was as high as 70%, they were lacunar stroke, multiple lacunar state, cortical infarct, and patchy high signal lesions visible only in the T2 weighted image. Lacunes or these patchy high signal lesions (considered to be the dilatation of the perivascular space or true lacunes) tended to be found along the border zone or the terminal zone. These results indicate that asymptomatic patients in whom MRI discloses the abnormalities should be considered as candidates for the future onset of multi-infarct. (author)

  2. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  3. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  4. Synthetic heat carrier oil compositions based on polyalkylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of syntheses of heat carrier oils based on polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) using suitable additives have been reported. Polyalkylene glycols have been prepared by heating diethylene glycol, propylene oxide, glycols, adipic acid and 2-ethyhexanol in the presence of KOH and stannyl octoate as catalyst in the molar ratio to give proper physical properties and viscosity-temperature index. The prepared PAGs have been taken as basic components for heat carrier oil compositions. In order to improve the thermal stability and viscosity indices, as well as other specifications, anti-oxidant and anti-foaming additives were added to the base material to reach optimum compositions. Thermal stability, mass loss on vaporization at 250 oC, 350 oC and changing the specifications after heating at 300 oC for 10 h have also been investigated. The obtained heat carrier oils showed comparable improved properties in comparison with commercially available heat carriers

  5. Measurement of diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Vadim D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of propylene glycol was studied ex vivo. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight and thickness of the samples decreased during propylene glycol penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of propylene glycol is discussed. Diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue ex vivo has been estimated as (1.35±0.95)×10-7 cm2/s with the taking into account of kinetics of both weight and thickness of skin samples. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.

  6. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  7. Effect of polyethylene glycol on electrochemically deposited trivalent chromium layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo-Yul LEE; Man KIM; Sik-Chol KWON

    2009-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the trivalent chromium deposits and their interfacial behavior in the plating solution with and without polyethylene glycol molecules were observed by using various electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential transition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. It is shown that the polyethylene glycol molecules make the reductive current density lower in the trivalent chromium plating system and promote a hydrogen evolution reaction through their adsorption on the electrode surface. And the trivalent chromium layer formed from the polyethylene glycol-containing solution has somewhat higher density of cracks on its surface and results in a lower film resistance, lower polarization resistance, and higher capacitance in a corrosive atmosphere. It is also revealed that the formation of chromium carbide layer is facilitated in the presence of polyethylene glycol, which means easier electrochemical codeposition of chromium and carbon, not single chromium deposition.

  8. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  9. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes

  10. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  11. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  12. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  13. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  14. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  15. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  16. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2011-03-10

    Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher

  17. Thermodynamical Study of Alcoholic Solutions of Poly (ethylene glycol Diacrylate and Poly (ethylene glycol Dimethacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the behaviour of polymer solutions, density and ultrasonic velocity of binary mixtures of pentanol with polyethylene glycol diacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate have been investigated at 293.15 K, 303.15 K and 313.15 K, under atmospheric pressure. Thermophysical parameters viz. intermolecular free length, internal pressure and pseudo-Grüneisen parameter have been calculated which infer about the interactions and structural changes on mixing pentanol with these polymers. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow at different concentrations of polymer solution have been reported. Excess molar volume, deviation in isentropic compressibility, deviation in ultrasonic velocity, excess acoustic impedance and excess molar enthalpy have been calculated and results have been correlated with Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Density and ultrasonic velocity data have been fitted by third order polynomial equation.

  18. Fast determination of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid in blood serum and urine for emergency and clinical toxicology by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, Tomáš; Bursová, Miroslava; Čabalaa, Radomír

    2014-12-01

    A simple, cost effective, and fast gas chromatography method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid was developed and validated for clinical toxicology purposes. This new method employs a relatively less used class of derivatization agents - alkyl chloroformates, allowing the efficient and rapid derivatization of carboxylic acids within seconds while glycols are simultaneously derivatized by phenylboronic acid. The entire sample preparation procedure is completed within 10 min. To avoid possible interference from naturally occurring endogenous acids and quantitation errors 3-(4-chlorophenyl) propionic acid was chosen as an internal standard. The significant parameters of the derivatization have been found using chemometric procedures and these parameters were optimized using the face-centered central composite design. The calibration dependence of the method was proved to be quadratic in the range of 50-5000 mg mL(-1), with adequate accuracy (92.4-108.7%) and precision (9.4%). The method was successfully applied to quantify the selected compounds in serum of patients from emergency units.

  19. Mycetoma: Nonvenereal perineal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shweta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the skin, and subcutaneous tissue, which sometimes involves muscle, bones, and neighboring organs. It is characterized by tumefaction, abscess formation, and fistulae with discharge of grains from sinuses. Mycetoma can be caused by various species of fungi (eumycetoma and aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma, which occur as saprophytes in soil or plants. A tentative diagnosis sufficient to initiate treatment may be made on the basis of grain color. For instance, melanoid grains are always caused by fungi and ochroid or pale grains by actinomycetes. Although this is not the thumbrule, there are exceptional reports too. As trauma favors infection, most lesions are on the foot and lower leg but they may occur anywhere on the body mimicking actinomycosis. However, lab investigations and culture are important tool to differentiate apart from the clinical picture. We are reporting atypical case with unusual site of presentation (perineum and thigh of mycetoma.

  20. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  1. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semi-VOCs (SVOCs, including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3 additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolytically degradable copolyester biomaterials based on glycolic acid, sebacic acid and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, J; Soulis, S; Triantou, D; Zoumpoulakis, L; Zotali, P

    2011-12-01

    Copolyesters of glycolic acid (G) combined with sebacic acid (S) and ethylene glycol were synthesized in different molar ratios (G: 0-100% and S: 100-0%) and their hydrolytic degradation was studied and correlated with their structures. Based on the FTIR spectra of the homopolyesters and copolyesters and the normalized peak intensity of the I(2918), I(2848) and I(1087) for the corresponding wavenumbers, it is concluded that the I(2918) and the I(2848) are in accordance with the mean number degree of polymerization of ethylene sebacate units and the I(1087) is in accordance with the mean number degree of polymerization of glycolate units. Based on the XRD diffractograms, poly(ethylene sebacate) and poly(glycolic acid) belong to the monoclinic and the orthorhombic crystal system, respectively and both have higher crystallinity than the copolyesters. The experimental data of the hydrolytic degradation were fitted with exponential rise to maximum type functions using two-parameter model and four-parameter model. Three regions can been distinguished for the hydrolytic degradation by decreasing the molar feed ratio of sebacic acid, which are correlated with the changes of crystallinity. Two copolyesters are proposed: first the copolyester with high amount of glycolate units (S10G90) having higher hydrolytic degradation than G100 and second the copolyester with equal amount of glycolate and ethylene sebacate units (S50G50), having lower hydrolytic degradation than G100. These hydrolytically degradable copolyesters are soluble in common organic solvents, opposite to poly(glycolic acid) and could have perspectives for biomedical applications.

  3. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    OpenAIRE

    Gürol Açıkgöz; Çağlayan Çağdaş Demirci; Ercan Arca

    2012-01-01

    Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ...

  4. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Tokunaga; Bruno Monguilhott Crozeta; Mariangela Schmitt Bonato; Beatriz Serrato Coelho; Flares Baratto-Filho; Flávia Sens Fagundes Tomazinho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the en...

  5. [Secondary hyperoxaluria and nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, C; Richard, E; Missonnier, S; Rebouissoux, L; Llanas, B; Harambat, J

    2013-08-01

    We report the case of a 3-year-old boy admitted to the pediatric emergency department for ethylene glycol poisoning. During hospitalization, he presented dysuria associated with crystalluria. Blood tests showed metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap. A renal ultrasound performed a few weeks later revealed bilateral medullary hyperechogenicity. Urine microscopic analysis showed the presence of weddellite crystals. Secondary nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol intoxication was diagnosed. Hyperhydration and crystallization inhibition by magnesium citrate were initiated. Despite this treatment, persistent weddellite crystals and nephrocalcinosis were seen more than 2years after the intoxication. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the liver by successive oxidations leading to its final metabolite, oxalic acid. Therefore, metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap is usually found following ethylene glycol intoxication. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition may occur in several organs, including the kidneys. The precipitation of calcium oxalate in renal tubules can lead to nephrocalcinosis and acute kidney injury. The long-term renal prognosis is related to chronic tubulointerstitial injury caused by nephrocalcinosis. Treatment of ethylene glycol intoxication is based on specific inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase and hemodialysis in the most severe forms, and should be started promptly. PMID:23827374

  6. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  7. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  8. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  9. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  10. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations.

  11. Green polymer chemistry VIII: synthesis of halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s via enzymatic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Marcela; Seo, Kwang Su; Kim, Eun Hye; Becker, Matthew L; Puskas, Judit E

    2013-09-01

    Halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) are successfully prepared by the transesterification of alkyl halo-esters with PEGs using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst under the solventless conditions. Transesterifications of chlorine, bromine, and iodine esters with tetraethylene glycol monobenzyl ether (BzTEG) are quantitative in less than 2.5 h. The transesterification of halo-esters with PEGs are complete in 4 h. (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy with MALDI-ToF and ESI mass spectrometry confirm the structure and purity of the products. This method provides a convenient and "green" process to effectively produce halo-ester PEGs. PMID:23877930

  12. Catalysis of Heteropoly Acidic Salts for Synthesis of Diethylene Glycol Ethyl Ether with Diethylene Glycol and Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊峰; 易平贵; 戚蕴石

    2001-01-01

    Ag3PW12O4o and Ag4 SiW12O40 showed high activity and stability in the synthesis of diethylene glycol ethyl ether with diethylene glycol and ethanol, on which the conversion is 80.2%and 78.4%, respectively, and the selectivity of diethylene glycol ether is 75.4% and 80.6%, respectively. After the third reaction cycle, Ag3PW12O40 and Ag4SiW12O4o still showed higher activity and selectivity, on which the conversion is 72.6% and 77.5% respectively. But the activity of Ag3PMo12O40is lower, the conversion is only 21.0%. IR, XRD, TG and n-lutylamine titrimetry showed that the catalysis may be conmected with two kinds of acidic centers owned by heteropoly acidic salt.

  13. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief...... literature survey on the solubility of the acid gases and hydrocarbons in glycols is presented. New experimental solubility data mainly for COS and some limited data for H2S in glycols from 276 to 333K and at elevated pressures are reported. Experimental measurements have been carried out using the “static......-synthetic” method. The reliability and repeatability of the experimental work are demonstrated. The experimental solubility data for COS and glycols, from this work, and those for H2S and CO2 from the literature are modeled using the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA parameters for pure...

  14. Upstream petroleum industry glycol dehydrator benzene emissions status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of dehydrators referred to are located in the Western Sedimentary Basin in northeast British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, and includes units installed at wellsites, compressor stations, gas plants, central crude oil treating facilities, and reservoir or salt cavern gas storage facilities. Benzene emissions from the still column vent on glycol dehydrators occur as a result of glycol's strong affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene. A study was carried out to: 1) develop a list of oil and gas companies operating in Canada, 2) develop an equipment and benzene emissions inventory of glycol dehydrators, 3) develop a database in Microsoft Access format to gather and maintain inventory and emission data, 4) evaluate and validate at least 10% of the reported data, 5) develop a list of companies that manufacture dehydrators and incinerators to determine how many new dehydrators were sold for use in Canada in 1998, and 6) prepare a report summarizing findings and recommendations. The companies included in the survey were the oil and gas companies identified by the Nickels' Oil and Gas Index and others provided by CAPP, CGA, and SEPAC. The project was carried out to gather glycol dehydrator equipment and still column vent benzene emissions information. 8 refs

  15. Structure, depolymerization, and cytocompatibility evaluation of glycol chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Darryl K; Shapka, Stephen N; Amsden, Brian G

    2007-12-01

    Glycol chitosan, a water soluble chitosan derivative being investigated as a new biomaterial, was fractionated via two different methods. Initial characterization of the glycol chitosan with (1)H NMR spectroscopy illustrated the presence of both secondary and tertiary amine groups, contradictory to its widely accepted structure. Fractionation of glycol chitosan with nitrous acid resulted in a significant reduction in the number average molecular weight, specifically, from 170 to approximately 7 kDa for a pH 3 and below. However, the reaction altered its chemical structure, as the secondary amine groups were converted to N-nitrosamines, which are potentially carcinogenic. An increase in the pH of the reaction limited this formation, but not entirely. Free radical degradation initiated with potassium persulfate was not as effective at reducing the molecular weight as the nitrous acid approach, yielding molecular weights around 12 kDa under the same molar ratio of degrading species, but did retain the structural integrity of the glycol chitosan. Additionally, control of the molecular weight appears feasible with potassium persulfate. When assessed in vitro for cytocompatibility, the polymer exhibited no toxicity on monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and in fact stimulated cell growth at low concentrations. PMID:17559127

  16. Direct Routes from Synthesis Gas to Ethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the synthesis of ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using bimetallic catalysts. Although this technology has not been implemented, it illustrates two important future trends, namely, use of bimetallic catalysts and use of coal-derived carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a new feed stock. (JN)

  17. Radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay for circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, S.; Mohimen, A.; Mehra, S. (Calcutta Medical Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Kothari Centre of Gastroenterology)

    1982-12-17

    An assay capable of detecting circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens in amoebiasis is described. This assay utilised a radiolabelled affinity purified rabbit anti-E. histolytica antibody that had been depleted of antibodies that cross-react with human serum proteins, and a polyethylene glycol precipitation step.

  18. Novel approaches for the prediction of density of glycol solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Bahadori; Y Hajizadeh; H.B.Vuthaluru; M.O.Tade; S.Mokhatab

    2008-01-01

    Two new approaches for the accurate prediction of densities of the commonly used glycol solutions in the gas processing industry are presented in the article.The frst approach is based on developing a simple-to-use polynomial corre lation for an appropriate prediction of density of glycol solutions as a function of temperature and weight percent of glycols in water,where the obtained results show very good agreement with the reported experimental data.The second approach,however.is based on the artificial neural networks(ANN)methodology,wherein the results demonstrate the ability of the in troduced method to predict reasonably accurate densities of glycols under operating conditions.Comparisons of the two novel approaches indicated that the simple-to-use correlation appears to be superior owing to its simplicity and clear numerical back ground,wherein the relevant coefficients can be retuned if new and more accurate data are available in the future.The average deviation of the new proposed polynomial correlation results from reported data iS 0.64 kg/m3 whereas the average deviation of artificial neural networks (ANN)methodology from reported data iS 1.1 kg/m3.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF NiO NANOPARTICLES IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Ai; Xiaming Dai; Qingfeng Li; Changsheng Deng; Shinhoo Kang

    2004-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles with well-dispersed property were prepared via a wet chemical method in ethylene glycol (EG) without soluble polymer as a protective agent. The mechanism of chemical process was proposed based on color change during the experiment. The dispersion function of EG was discussed.

  20. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  1. Degradation of Propylene glycol in a stormwatersystem designed to collect deicingfluids

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Deicing fluids based on Propylene glycol are used at Stockholm Arlanda airport to remove or prevent ice on aircrafts. The high oxygen demand of propylene glycol can cause oxygen depletion in rivers downstream from the airport if not collected. Mass balance calculations made by Swedavia indicate that the actual amount of gathered propylene glycol is underestimated. Suspicions that propylene glycol is degraded in the stormwatersystem designed to collect deicingfluids, called the B-glycolsystem,...

  2. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  3. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  4. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  5. Liquid-liquid equilibria for glycols plus hydrocarbons: Data and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for seven binary glycol-hydrocarbon systems have been measured in the temperature range 32 degreesC to 80 degreesC and at the pressure 1 bar. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + heptane, methyleyclohexane (MCH) + hexane, propylene glycol (PG) + hept...

  6. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  7. Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels Based on Branched Poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthoen, Ingrid W.; Tijsma, Edze J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Branched poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLLA-PEG) block copolymers were synthesized from trifunctional PLLA and amine functionalized methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)s. The copolymers in water formed hydrogels that showed thermo-responsive behavior. The hydrogels underwent a gel to sol transitio

  8. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). 172.765 Section 172.765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). The food additive succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol...

  9. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  10. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    -decane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and water) and different types of phase equilibria (vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and LLE) and thermodynamic properties (heat of mixing, activity coefficients). A less extensive investigation has also been performed on tetraethylene glycol (TeEG) containing systems...

  11. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  12. Traumatic lesions of pulmonary parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of post-traumatic pulmonary lesions (contusion, laceration and hematoma) are presented. The pathophysiology, radiological aspects and differential diagnosis are reviewed. The benign evolution showing the absorption in short time, without medical interference is emphasized. (Author)

  13. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined

  14. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    OpenAIRE

    Altmeyer Peter; Paech Volker; Thrandorf Christina; Sand Daniel; Sand Michael; Bechara Falk G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where su...

  15. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  16. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  17. Apraxia in deep cerebral lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Agostoni, E; Coletti, A.; G. Orlando; Tredici, G

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 50 patients with cerebrovascular lesions (demonstrated with CT scan), seven patients had lesions located in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. All these seven patients were apractic. Ideomotor apraxia was present in all patients; five also had constructional apraxia, and one had bucco-facial apraxia. None of the patients had utilisation apraxia. These observations indicated that apraxia is not only a "high cerebral (cortical) function", but may depend also on the integrity of s...

  18. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  19. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  20. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  1. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luzhong; Dou, Sufeng; Li, Yan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yawei; Wang, Yaling; Yang, Yumin

    2013-07-01

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields.

  2. Sorbitol hydrogenolysis to glycols by supported ruthenium catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inmaculada Murillo Leo; Manuel Lopez Granados; Jose Luis Garcia Fierro; Rafael Mariscal

    2014-01-01

    Supported Ru catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation to evaluate the role of different oxide supports (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2) in sorbitol hydrogenolysis to glycols. X-ray diffraction, transmis-sion electron microscopy, hydrogen chemisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption were used to characterize the catalysts, which were active in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol. The support affected both the physicochemical properties and cata-lytic behavior of the supported Ru particles. The characterization results revealed that the Ru/Al2O3 catalyst has a high surface acidity, partially oxidized Ru species on the surface, and a higher surface Ru/Al atomic ratio, which gave it the highest selectivity and yield to glycols.

  3. Micropallet arrays with poly(ethylene glycol) walls†‡

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuli; Salazar, Georgina To'a; Pai, Jeng-Hao; Shadpour, Hamed; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of releasable micropallets with surrounding walls of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were fabricated for the patterning and sorting of adherent cells. PEG walls were fabricated between the SU-8 pallets using a simple, mask-free strategy. By utilizing the difference in UV-transmittance of glass and SU-8, PEG monomer was selectively photopolymerized in the space surrounding the pallets. Since the PEG walls are composed of a cross-linked structure, the stability of the walls is independent of...

  4. Clickable Poly(ethylene glycol)-Microsphere-Based Cell Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Peter K.; Snyder, Christopher G.; Shields, Jason D.; Smith, Amanda W.; Elbert, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Clickable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives are used with two sequential aqueous two-phase systems to produce microsphere-based scaffolds for cell encapsulation. In the first step, sodium sulfate causes phase separation of the clickable PEG precursors and is followed by rapid geleation to form microspheres in the absence of organic solvent or surfactant. The microspheres are washed and then deswollen in dextran solutions in the presence of cells, producing tightly packed scaffolds that ...

  5. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  6. Lubricin is expressed in chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, G; Loreto, C; Carnazza, M L; Coppolino, F; Cardile, V; Leonardi, R

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degenerative changes within joints that involved quantitative and/or qualitative alterations of cartilage and synovial fluid lubricin, a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Modern therapeutic methods, including tissue-engineering techniques, have been used to treat mechanical damage of the articular cartilage but to date there is no specific and effective treatment. This study aimed at investigating lubricin immunohistochemical expression in cartilage explant from normal and OA patients and in cartilage constructions formed by Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) based hydrogels (PEG-DA) encapsulated OA chondrocytes. The expression levels of lubricin were studied by immunohistochemistry: i) in tissue explanted from OA and normal human cartilage; ii) in chondrocytes encapsulated in hydrogel PEGDA from OA and normal human cartilage. Moreover, immunocytochemical and western blot analysis were performed in monolayer cells from OA and normal cartilage. The results showed an increased expression of lubricin in explanted tissue and in monolayer cells from normal cartilage, and a decreased expression of lubricin in OA cartilage. The chondrocytes from OA cartilage after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA) showed an increased expression of lubricin compared with the control cartilage. The present study demonstrated that OA chondrocytes encapsulated in PEGDA, grown in the scaffold and were able to restore lubricin biosynthesis. Thus our results suggest the possibility of applying autologous cell transplantation in conjunction with scaffold materials for repairing cartilage lesions in patients with OA to reduce at least the progression of the disease.

  7. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population. PMID:20876911

  8. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenan, S. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Klein, M.J. (Dept. of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)); Lewis, M.M. (Dept. of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  9. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  10. Lesiones frecuentes en atletas profesionales

    OpenAIRE

    Doyel, Crevecoer

    2015-01-01

    Durante la práctica del atletismo frecuentemente ocurren lesiones, afectando principalmente a los miembros inferiores. Las causas que las originan son muy diversas y tienen diferentes características de acuerdo al tipo de modalidad realizada dentro del atletismo. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las lesiones más frecuentes en miembros inferiores, en atletas corredores profesionales, de diferentes distancias, de ambos sexos, de entre 18 y 40 años de edad, que practican atletismo en...

  11. Flexibilidad y lesiones de futbolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Gocebate, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Cabe destacar que en deporte se requiere de una correcta preparación física y el caso del fútbol no es diferente a cualquier otro. Este es un deporte en equipo que genera un desgaste físico y mental en cada partido en el cual se pueden sufrir diferentes lesiones. Son varios los factores que predisponen a que se produzcan lesiones, por lo que es importante un correcto entrenamiento diario. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los niveles de flexibilidad de la cadena muscula...

  12. Pediatric Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Shea, Kevin G; Ganley, Theodore J

    2016-10-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) can cause knee pain and dysfunction in children. The etiology of OCD remains unclear; theories on causes include inflammation, ischemia, ossification abnormalities, genetic factors, and repetitive microtrauma. Most OCD lesions in skeletally immature patients will heal with nonoperative treatment. The success of nonoperative treatment decreases once patients reach skeletal maturity. The goals of surgical treatment include maintenance of articular cartilage congruity, rigid fixation of unstable fragments, and repair of osteochondral defects with cells or tissues that can adequately replace lost or deficient cartilage. Unsalvageable OCD lesions can be treated with various surgical techniques. PMID:27637663

  13. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  14. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  15. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Açıkgöz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are classified under the macules/papules, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, physiological hyperpigmentation, melanosis and acanthosis nigricans are classified under the patch/plaque. Dermatoscopic examination, which is increasing recently, is very valuable for avoiding possible cosmetic and functional complications of surgical procedures. However, epidermal pigmentations such as vulvar melanosis and vulvar intraepitelyal neoplazi are dermatoscopically indistinguishable. It may also be difficult to diagnose vulvar melanoma clinically and dermatoscopically. Histological examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pigmented vulvar lesions, which are clinically and dermatoscopically indistinguishable. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 39-44

  16. Microbiological aspects of endoperiodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Tokunaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The endoperiodontal lesion occurs when a tooth undergoing endodontic disease is united to a periodontal lesion with apical progression. Many times, the differential diagnosis between the endodontic and periodontal disease can be of difficult execution and the correct diagnosis and planing of the treatment is of main importance for a good prognosis Objective: To identify the main microorganisms within the lesion of endodontic and periodontal origin and correlate them with the endoperiodontal lesion. Literature review: The search strategy comprised the electronic studies of databases such as PubMed and Cochrane on the microbiology of the endodontic and periodontal systems through employing the following keywords: microbiology, endodontics, periodontal pocket. Results: There were similarities in the endodontic and periodontal microflora. However, the number of microorganisms within the cross infection is limited, including Bacteroides, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, spirochaetes, Wolinella. The bacterias forming the red complex are closely related to the severity of the periodontal disease and can also participate in the pathogenesis of the periradicular abscesses. Conclusion: There are many communication routes between the periodontium and pulpal tissue, therefore the contamination from um tissue to another can occur, existing a microbiological inter-relationship between these tissues.

  17. SLAP lesions: a treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Tompkins, Marc; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Tears of the superior labrum involving the biceps anchor are a common entity, especially in athletes, and may highly impair shoulder function. If conservative treatment fails, successful arthroscopic repair of symptomatic SLAP lesions has been described in the literature particularly for young athletes. However, the results in throwing athletes are less successful with a significant amount of patients who will not regain their pre-injury level of performance. The clinical results of SLAP repairs in middle-aged and older patients are mixed, with worse results and higher revision rates as compared to younger patients. In this population, tenotomy or tenodesis of the biceps tendon is a viable alternative to SLAP repairs in order to improve clinical outcomes. The present article introduces a treatment algorithm for SLAP lesions based upon the recent literature as well as the authors' clinical experience. The type of lesion, age of patient, concomitant lesions, and functional requirements, as well as sport activity level of the patient, need to be considered. Moreover, normal variations and degenerative changes in the SLAP complex have to be distinguished from "true" SLAP lesions in order to improve results and avoid overtreatment. The suggestion for a treatment algorithm includes: type I: conservative treatment or arthroscopic debridement, type II: SLAP repair or biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, type III: resection of the instable bucket-handle tear, type IV: SLAP repair (biceps tenotomy/tenodesis if >50 % of biceps tendon is affected), type V: Bankart repair and SLAP repair, type VI: resection of the flap and SLAP repair, and type VII: refixation of the anterosuperior labrum and SLAP repair.

  18. The timing of bowel preparation before colonoscopy determines the quality of cleansing, and is a significant factor contributing to the detection of flat lesions: A randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Parra-Blanco; David Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio Gimeno-García; Bego(n)a Grosso; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan Ortega; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the cleansing quality of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate with different schedules of administration, and to evaluate whether the timing of the administration of bowel preparation affects the detection of polyps.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive outpatients scheduled for colonoscopy were randomized in one of four groups to receive polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution or oral sodium phosphate with two different timing schedules. Quality of cleansing, polyp detection, and tolerance were evaluated.RESULTS: Patients receiving polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the same day as the colonoscopy,obtained good to excellent global cleansing scores more frequently than patients who received polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure (P< 0.001). Flat lesions, but not flat adenomas, were more frequent in patients prepared on the same day (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: The quality of colonic cleansing and the detection of flat lesions are significantly improved when the preparation is taken on the day of the colonoscopy.

  19. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  1. Transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Fan, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-03-15

    Inhibition of neurite growth, which is in large part mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor, affects neural regeneration following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. The tissue engineering scaffold poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) has good histocompatibility and can promote the growth of regenerating nerve fibers. The present study used small interfering RNA to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells, which were subsequently transplanted with poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) into the spinal cord lesion regions in rats. Simultaneously, rats treated with scaffold only were taken as the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, rats had good motor function of the hind limb after treatment with Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells plus the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold compared with rats treated with scaffold only, and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neuron-like cells was also increased. At 8 weeks after transplantation, horseradish peroxidase tracing and transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers, as well as intact regenerating axonal myelin sheath following spinal cord hemisection injury. These experimental findings indicate that transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells plus a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold can significantly enhance axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons and improve motor function of the extremities in rats following spinal cord injury.

  2. Transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Yuhong Fan; Jianjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of neurite growth, which is in large part mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor, affects neural regeneration following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. The tissue engineering scaffold poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) has good histocompatibility and can promote the growth of regenerating nerve fibers. The present study used small interfering RNA to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells, which were subsequently transplanted with poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) into the spinal cord lesion regions in rats. Simultaneously, rats treated with scaffold only were taken as the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, rats had good motor function of the hind limb after treatment with Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells plus the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold compared with rats treated with scaffold only, and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neuron-like cells was also increased. At 8 weeks after transplantation, horseradish peroxidase tracing and transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers, as well as intact regenerating axonal myelin sheath following spinal cord hemisection injury. These experimental findings indicate that transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells plus a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold can significantly enhance axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons and improve motor function of the extremities in rats following spinal cord injury.

  3. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Ethylene Glycol within Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyob, K. M.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is a commonly used organic additive in hydraulic fracturing fluids used for shale gas recovery. Under aerobic conditions, this compound readily biodegrades to acetate and CO2 or is oxidized through the glycerate pathway. In the absence of oxygen, organisms within genera Desulfovibrio, Acetobacterium, and others can transform EG to acetaldehyde, a flammable and suspected carcinogenic compound. Acetaldehyde can then be enzymatically degraded to ethanol or acetate and CO2. However, little is known on how EG degrades in the presence of other organic additives, particularly under anaerobic conditions representative of deep groundwater aquifers. To better understand the fate and attenuation of glycols within hydraulic fracturing fluids we are assessing their biodegradation potential and pathways in batch anaerobic microcosm treatments. Crushed Berea sandstone was inoculated with groundwater and incubated with either EG or a synthetic fracturing fluid (SFF) containing EG formulations. We tracked changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), EG, and its transformation products over several months. Approximately 41% of bulk DOC in SFF is degraded within 21 days, with 58% DOC still remaining after 63 days. By comparison, this same SFF degrades by 70% within 25 days when inoculated with sediment-groundwater microbial communities, suggesting that bulk DOC degradation occurs at a slower rate and to a lesser extent with bedrock. Aerobic biodegradation of EG occurs rapidly (3-7 days); however anaerobic degradation of EG is much slower, requiring several weeks for substantial DOC loss to be observed. Ongoing experiments are tracking the degradation pathways of EG alone and in the presence of SFF, with preliminary data showing incomplete glycol transformation within the complex hydraulic fracturing fluid mixture. This research will help to elucidate rates, processes, and pathways for EG biodegradation and identify key microbial taxa involved in its degradation.

  4. Experimental study on correlation between sound velocity and solute molecular weight in polyethylene glycol solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this study,ultrasound grating was used to measure the sound velocity in solutions of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with molecular weights of 200,600,2000,and 10000.We found Parthasarathy empirical rule,that is,sound velocity is higher in the solution of larger molecules,is invalid in the case of polyethylene glycol solution. We tried to provide a tentative explanation using the Flory-Krigbaum’s chained block cloud model.

  5. The Soret effect of mono-, di- and tri-glycols in ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, M.; Wiegand, S.

    2011-01-01

    We employed thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS) to investigate the chain length dependence of the thermal diffusion behavior of short glycols in ethanol. We studied three glycols, monoethylenglycol (MEG), diethylenglycol (DEG) and triethylenglycol (TEG), in an ethanol solution. In contrast to the polymer polyethylenglycol, the shorter glycols used within the framework of this study are completely soluble in ethanol, at least for low molar fractions. In order to guarantee a go...

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  7. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functional

  8. Effective Antisense Gene Regulation via Noncationic, Polyethylene Glycol Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xueguang; Jia, Fei; Tan, Xuyu; Wang, Dali; Cao, Xueyan; Zheng, Jiamin; Zhang, Ke

    2016-07-27

    Negatively charged nucleic acids are often complexed with polycationic transfection agents before delivery. Herein, we demonstrate that a noncationic, biocompatible polymer, polyethylene glycol, can be used as a transfection vector by forming a brush polymer-DNA conjugate. The brush architecture provides embedded DNA strands with enhanced nuclease stability and improved cell uptake. Because of the biologically benign nature of the polymer component, no cytotoxicity was observed. This approach has the potential to address several long-lasting challenges in oligonucleotide therapeutics. PMID:27420413

  9. Effect of polyethylene glycol on characteristics of chitosan membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthai, W.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG on characteristics of chitosan membranes. Parameters used for membrane characterization were hydraulic permeability (Lp, molecular weight cut off (MWCO, and membrane impedance (Z. The results obtained from LP and Z imply that larger a amount of PEG addition enhances membrane porosity and enlarges the pore size. The prepared membranes were ultrafiltration type, with MWCO slightly greater than 35 kDa. Membranes without PEG additioncould be nanofiltration type with Lp value of 0.4x10-11 m3 N-1 s-1, 10-20 times smaller than the other.

  10. Methyl vinyl glycolate as a diverse platform molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Methyl vinyl glycolate (methyl 2-hydroxybut-3-enoate, MVG) is available by zeolite catalyzed degradation of mono- and disaccharides and has the potential to become a renewable platform molecule for commercially relevant catalytic transformations. This is further illustrated here by the development...... and various long-chain terminal olefins give unsaturated α-hydroxy fatty acid methyl esters in good yields. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements of MVG also proceed in good yields to give unsaturated adipic acid derivatives. Finally, rearrangement of the allylic acetate of MVG proceeds in acceptable yield...

  11. Nanoporous Silicified Phospholipids and Application to Controlled Glycolic Acid Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang SangHwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous silicified phospholipid bilayers assembled inorganic powders. The materials are obtained by silicification process with silica precursor at the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involves the co-assembly of a chemically active phospholipids bilayer within the ordered porosity of a silica matrix and holds promise as a novel application for controlled drug release or drug containers with a high level of specificity and throughput. The controlled release application of the synthesized materials was achieved to glycolic acid, and obtained a zero-order release pattern due to the nanoporosity.

  12. Chemical Modification of Silk Fibers with Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; ZHOU Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Silk fibers have been grafted with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and characteristics of the grafted silk fibers were analyzed in relation to the graft yield on the basis of the tensile properties, dyeing behaviour, durability during laundering and solubility of the specimen in NaOH solution. The amount of the acid dye absorbed by the fibers decreased with increasing graft yield, while the value of rating for washing fastness on silk fibers was almost unchanged by the graft treatment. The breaking loads of the fiber were almost unchanged whereas rigidity of the fibers increased after graft treatment. Graft treatment enhanced silk fiber durability during laundering and in NaOH solution.

  13. Polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid for bowel preparation in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Min; Keum, Bora; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Kim, Myung Gyu; Jo, Sang Kyung

    2016-09-01

    The safety of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid has not been fully investigated in patients with renal insufficiency. High-dose ascorbic acid could induce hyperoxaluria, thereby causing tubule-interstitial nephritis and renal failure. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid in patients with chronic kidney disease.We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (n = 61) and 4 L polyethylene glycol (n = 80). The safety of the 2 groups was compared by assessing the differences in laboratory findings before and after bowel cleansing.The laboratory findings were not significantly different before and after the administration of 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid or 4 L polyethylene glycol. In both groups, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by the administration of the bowel-cleansing agent. Patients' reports on tolerance and acceptability were better in the 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid group than in the 4 L polyethylene glycol group.The 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid solution is a safe choice for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. PMID:27603372

  14. Influence of propylene glycol on aqueous silica dispersions and particle-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Thompson, Michael A; Elliott, Russell P

    2013-05-14

    We have studied the influence of adding propylene glycol to both aqueous dispersions of fumed silica nanoparticles and emulsions of paraffin liquid and water stabilized by the same particles. In the absence of oil, aerating mixtures of aqueous propylene glycol and particles yields either stable dispersions, aqueous foams, climbing particle films, or liquid marbles depending on the glycol content and particle hydrophobicity. The presence of glycol in water promotes particles to behave as if they are more hydrophilic. Calculations of their contact angle at the air-aqueous propylene glycol surface are in agreement with these findings. In the presence of oil, particle-stabilized emulsions invert from water-in-oil to oil-in-water upon increasing either the inherent hydrophilicity of the particles or the glycol content in the aqueous phase. Stable multiple emulsions occur around phase inversion in systems of low glycol content, and completely stable, waterless oil-in-propylene glycol emulsions can also be prepared. Accounting for the surface energies at the respective interfaces allows estimation of the contact angle at the oil-polar phase interface; reasonable agreement between measured and calculated phase inversion conditions is found assuming no glycol adsorption on particle surfaces.

  15. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields. - Highlights: ► Chitosan-g-poly(glycolic acid) copolymer was prepared without using a catalyst. ► Degradation rate of copolymer increased dramatically compared with that of chitosan. ► Degradation rate was controlled by the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. ► In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the copolymer has good biocompatibility. ► The copolymer has a great potential to meet diverse needs in biomedical fields

  16. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Luzhong; Dou, Sufeng [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Li, Yan [College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yawei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Wang, Yaling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Yang, Yumin, E-mail: yangym@ntu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields. - Highlights: ► Chitosan-g-poly(glycolic acid) copolymer was prepared without using a catalyst. ► Degradation rate of copolymer increased dramatically compared with that of chitosan. ► Degradation rate was controlled by the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. ► In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the copolymer has good biocompatibility. ► The copolymer has a great potential to meet diverse needs in biomedical fields.

  17. Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1983-07-01

    A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

  18. Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Mulè, Antonino; Maggiore, Claudia; Miraglia, Antonella; Lauriola, Libero; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Fadda, Guido

    2004-01-01

    The major types of cytologic preparations used in most laboratories to detect the lesions of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) are examined. These methods include sputum, bronchial washing, bronchial brushing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Sputum represents the simplest and most cost-effective sampling method even though fiberoptic bronchoscopy and radiologic guided FNAB are superseding it as the first diagnostic choice in most cases. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each technique:bronchial brushing and FNABs tend to preserve both the cellular details and their architectural arrangement whereas sputum and bronchial washing often cause a variable degree of cellular degeneration and fragmentation. As a result, most pulmonary lesions may be detected and correctly diagnosed if multiple techniques are used to acquire diagnostic material. CT-guided FNAB represents the most effective method to achieve a correct diagnosis in pulmonary tumors. PMID:15852720

  19. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered ...

  20. Symmetrical thalamic lesions in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Eicke, M.; Briner, J; Willi, U; Uehlinger, J; Boltshauser, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical observations and findings on imaging are reported in six newborns with symmetrical thalamic lesions (STL). In three cases the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination. Characteristic observations in this series and 17 previously reported cases include no evidence of perinatal asphyxia, high incidence of polyhydramnios, absent suck and swallow, absent primitive reflexes, appreciable spasticity at or within days of birth, lack of psychomotor development, and death within days ...

  1. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  2. Radiological diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the radiological examination techniques, CT is today, besides scintigraphy, the method of choice as far as the detection of functional adrenal lesions is concerned. In primary aldosteronism, CT classification of the syndrome is based on the detection of an adenoma which can be reliably detected in adenoma sizes up to 8-10 mm. Thus, 70 to 80% of Conn's syndromes can be classified. In adrenal Cushing's syndrome, the distinction between adenoma and carcinoma of the adrenal gland is up to CT and can usually be easily made due to the characteristic morphology of each type of lesion. In case of a typcial adrenal or juxtaadrenal tumor location, detection of a pheochromocytoma is likewise easy. In ectopic and multiple pheochromocytomas or such as occur as part of a MEN-syndrome, the situation is quite different. If lesions of the adrenal gland are found by accident in examinations otherwise indicated, the question arises whether the process is malignant or benign. In this respect, all the traditional imaging methods, including CT, involve a considerable factor or uncertainity, especially if a malignant tumor is anamnestically known and the question of metastases arises. According to recent information, MR-imaging seems to be advantageous concerning this difficult differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Ethylene glycol-assisted coating of titania on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael; Castaneda, Fernando; Joo, Ji Bong; Reyes, Victor; Goebl, James; Yin, Yadong

    2016-06-14

    Coating titania shells onto sub-micron sized particles has been widely studied recently, with success mainly limited to objects with sizes above 50 nm. Direct coating on particles below this size has been difficult to attain especially with good control over properties such as thickness and crystallinity. Here we demonstrate that titanium-glycolate formed by reacting titanium alkoxide and ethylene glycol is an excellent precursor for coating titania on aqueous nanoparticles. The new coating method is particularly useful for its ability to coat materials lacking strong polymers or ligands which are frequently needed to facilitate typical titania coatings. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the process of coating titania on metal nanoparticles ranging from citrate-stabilized gold and silver spheres to gold nanorods and silver nanoplates, and larger particles such as SiO2 microspheres and polymer spheres. Further the thickness of these coatings can be tuned from a few nanometers to ∼40 nm through sequential coatings. These coatings can subsequently be crystallized into TiO2 through refluxing in water or by calcination to obtain crystalline shells. This procedure can be very useful for the production of TiO2 coatings with tunable thickness and crystallinity as well as for further study on the effect of TiO2 coatings on nanoparticles.

  4. Thermophysical properties of ethylene glycol mixture based CNT nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarano, D. M.; Mansur, F. A.; Araújo, T. L. C. F.; Salles, G. C.; Santos, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Nanofluids are produced by dispersing nanometer-scale solid particles into base liquids such as water, ethylene glycol, etc. The thermal quadrupole method is utilized to determine the thermophysical properties of materials. By this technique, the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of different nanofluids containing the surfactants humic acid, sodium salt of humic acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and multi-wall carbon nanotubes were evaluated at room temperature and at 75 oC. Values of thermal diffusivity varying in the range from 9.60x10-8 m2s-1 to 1.46x10-7 m2s-1 and thermal conductivity from 0.26 Wm-1K-1 to 41 Wm-1K-1 were obtained. As main conclusions, it was noted that nanofluids exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics than the conventional heat transfer fluid and the thermal conductivity is enhanced by 50% for the nanofluid containing 0.0275 mg/mL of sodium salt of humic acid + ethylene glycol, at the temperature of 25 oC.

  5. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pejić Miljko A.; Milić Dragan J.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other m...

  6. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  7. CLOUD POINT CURVES OF POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) / POLY(PROPYLENE GLYCOL) MIXTURES AND THEIR THERMODYNAMIC EXPLANATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ruona; CHAI Zhikuan

    1988-01-01

    In the study of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) mixtures not only a bimodal shape but also a reverse trend of the dependence on molecular weight of the cloud point curves were observed.This trend indicates that the miscibility of the studied mixtures decreases as the molecular weight of one component decreases. The excess volumes of the mixtures show that the interaction parameter between two components decreases at first and increases after passing a minimum as the concentration of one component increases. This supports the explanation of Koningsveld on the bimodal shape of cloud point curves. Based on a binary interaction model a formula was derived revealing that the interaction between PPG and the end group of PEG and the hydrogen bonding interaction between ether and hydroxy end group inner or inter PEG molecules are not favorable for mixing. The latter interaction is an "attractive" force in PEG molecules. The two interactions are responsible for the observed abnormal dependence.

  8. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-12-28

    Stimuli triggered polymers provide a variety of applications related with the biomedical fields. Among various stimuli triggered mechanisms, thermoresponsive mechanisms have been extensively investigated, as they are relatively more convenient and effective stimuli for biomedical applications. In a contemporary approach for achieving the sustained action of proteins, peptides and bioactives, injectable depots and implants have always remained the thrust areas of research. In the same series, Poloxamer based thermogelling copolymers have their own limitations regarding biodegradability. Thus, there is a need to have an alternative biomaterial for the formulation of injectable hydrogel, which must remain biocompatible along with safety and efficacy. In the same context, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and composition prospects of smart PEG/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. The manuscript also highlights the synthesis scheme and stability characteristics of these copolymers, which will surely help the researchers working in the same area. We have also emphasized the applied use of these smart copolymers along with their formulation problems, which could help in understanding the possible modifications related with these, to overcome their inherent associated limitations. PMID:24144918

  9. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic solutes in diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol from gas–liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • γ13∞ values reported for 25 organic solutes in the solvents DEG and TEG. • Measurements undertaken using the glc technique at T = (333.2, 348.2, and 363.2) K. • Measurements at elevated temperature possible by pre-saturation of carrier gas. • Comparison of DEG and TEG performance with a number of solvents. -- Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 25 hydrocarbon solutes in diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) were measured using the gas–liquid chromatography technique with pre-saturation of the carrier gas. The hydrocarbon solutes included n-alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, alkylbenzenes and alkanols. At the temperatures at which measurements were conducted, the solvents were volatile, and pre-saturation was considered necessary. The measurements were made at T = (333.2, 348.2 and 363.2) K. Values of the selectivity and capacity relating to DEG and TEG, for two sets of mixtures, which are usually difficult to separate by distillation or solvent extraction, were calculated from the experimental results. The two sets of mixtures were: cyclohexane and benzene; and benzene and methanol. The results obtained in this work were then compared to values for other solvents, at similar temperatures, which were obtained or calculated from literature data

  10. Mixed Micelles made of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Phosphatidylethanolamine Conjugate and D-α-tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate as Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers for Camptothecin

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, L; Elbayoumi, T.A.; Torchilin, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    Micelles from the mixture of poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphatidyl ethanolamine conjugate (PEG-PE) and D-α-tocopheryl polyetheyene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were prepared loaded with the poorly soluble anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT). The solubilization of CPT by the mixed micelles was more efficient than with earlier described micelles made of PEG-PE alone. CPT-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage and dilution and firmly retained the incorporated drug. The cytotoxicity of the CP...

  11. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  12. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  13. Prehospital diagnosis of massive ethylene glycol poisoning and use of an early antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amathieu, Roland; Merouani, Medhi; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Smail, Nadia; Adnet, Frédéric

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a patient suspected of voluntary massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. Prehospital diagnosis was established by portable blood analyser and an early antidote with 4 MP treatment initiated in out-of-hospital setting. Use of portable blood analyser in prehospital care should be considered in case of suspected massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. PMID:16808995

  14. Oligo(ethylene glycol) based architectures for benign bio-resistant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geldrop, J.

    2008-01-01

    Poly- and oligo(ethylene glycol)s are known to suppress the adsorption of biological material on surfaces. In this thesis is shown that when using these chains in either monolayers or polymeric architectures, fouling (undesired growth of biological material on surfaces) could be significantly reduce

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the system (propylene glycol + water + tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Shazad, M.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is an important low toxic glycol, widely used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and the chemical industries. The recovery of PG from aqueous streams using conventional unit operations such as evaporation is highly energy demanding because of the large amounts of water that

  16. 76 FR 31471 - Ethylene Glycol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... (glycolic acid and oxalic acid) are primarily excreted in the urine within 12-18 hours after administration... ethylene glycol. In the Federal Register of July 9, 2008 (73 FR 39291) (FRL-8371-2), EPA issued a notice... comment in response to the notice of filing. Also, in the Federal Register of August 4, 2004 (69 FR...

  17. Structure and mechanism for DNA lesion recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental question in DNA repair is how a lesion is detected when embedded in millions to billions of normal base pairs. Extensive structural and functional studies reveal atomic details of DNA repair protein and nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes seemingly diverse structural motifs used in lesion recognition and suggests a general mechanism to recognize DNA lesion by the poor base stacking. After initial recognition of this shared struc-tural feature of lesions, different DNA repair pathways use unique verification mechanisms to ensure correct lesion identification and removal.

  18. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  19. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...... the previous plethora of terms is covered by the new classification. This may aid physicians and mental health professionals in understanding how the new classification relates to the prior plethora of psychodermatological diagnoses and thereby facilitate the future use of the new classification....

  20. Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulik, Oleg; Cavanagh, Yana; Grossman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU. CONCLUSIONS EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this practice may be associated with an inherently significant risk of misdiagnosis and subsequent unnecessary surgery, as illustrated by this case. Malignancy was initially suspected in our patient and surgical resection was recommended. Endoscopic measures were only pursued to complete staging. We propose that EUS-guided biopsy may be a crucial diagnostic step in the management algorithm

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF MUSA PARADISICA LINN AGAINST ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED RENAL CALCULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of dried roots of Musa paradisica Linn against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats are studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, oxalate, and low urinary magnesium contents. Simultaneous administration of 1ml (1 in 10 Musa paradisica Linn orally for 28 days along with ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v reduced urinary calcium, oxalate and elevated urinary magnesium level. It also increased urinary volume thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction as degenerated glomeruli, necrotic tubule and inflammatory cells was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced; however after treatment with Musa paradisica Linn. These observations enable to conclude that Musa paradisica Linn is effective against ethylene glycol induced renal calculi.

  2. Detection and quantitative determination of diethylene glycol in ethyl alcohol using gamma- ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagani, Chikkappa; Ramesh, Thimmasandra Narayan

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the toxic diethylene glycol contamination in ethyl alcohol demands a rapid, accurate and reliable method. Diethylene glycol (DEG) ingestion, accidental or intentional, can lead to death. Clinical and analytical methods used to detect diethylene glycol in alcohol require several hours to days due to tedious instrument handling and measurements. Enzymatic assays face difficulty due to analytic problems. As an alternative method of data analysis, we have used γ-ray spectroscopic method to estimate the diethylene glycol contamination in alcohol by monitoring the variation in the linear and mass attenuation coefficients. This method is simple, robust, portable and can provide reliable and quantitative information about the ethyl alcohol adulterated with diethylene glycol which is of broader interest to society. PMID:26243958

  3. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagholikar Gajanan D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  4. Polyethylene glycol diffusion in ex vivo skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, V. D.; Tuchina, D. K.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular weight 300 and 400 Dalton was studied ex vivo. The collimated transmittance was measured at the wavelength range 500-900 nm. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight, thickness and area of the samples decreased during PEG penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of PEG is discussed. Taking into account the kinetics of volume and thickness of the skin samples, diffusion coefficient of PEGs in skin tissue has been estimated as (1.83±2.22)×10-6 cm2/s and (1.70±1.47)×10-6 cm2/s for PEG-300 and PEG-400, respectively. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.

  5. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Microencapsulated Polyethylene Glycol Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microencapsulated polyethylene glycol (PEG)with different molecular weight by a fluidized coating method has been prepared and the crystallization behaviors of PEG particles in three-dimensional confined volume were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement.The results showed that the width of the crystallization peak of PEG increases and its height gradually diminishes in case that the PEG particles are microencapsulated. Compared with the non-microencapsulated PEG particles, the proportion of the first crystallization peak of microencapsulated PEG particle increases, and that of the second one decreases. The reason for the difference maybe is that the crystallization process of microencapsulated PEG particles is uniform and the crystallization ends when the spherulites touch the wall,thus the opportunity of producing the second crystallization peak was relatively reduced.

  6. Synthesis of Propargyl-Terminated Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel propargyl-ended heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol (PEG derivatives with hydroxyl, carboxyl, mercapto or hydrazide end groups were synthesized with simplicity yet high efficiency. PEG (Mw = 3500 Da with an α-hydroxyl group and an ω-carboxyl was used as the starting polymer. The carboxyl group of the bifunctional PEG was modified into a propargyl, then carboxyl, mercapto or hydrazide groups were introduced to the other end of the bifunctional PEG by modifying the bifunctional PEG’s hydroxyl group with succinic anhydride, cysteamide or tert-butyl carbazate, respectively. This method can be useful to the development of PEG-based bioconjugates for a variety of biomedical applications.

  7. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid

  8. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  9. Environmental Risk Limits for alcohols, glycols, and some other relatively soluble and/or volatile compounds 1. Ecotoxicological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; Rila JP; Traas TP; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Posthumus R; SEC

    2006-01-01

    In this report, maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), negligible concentrations (NC) and serious risk concentrations (SRCeco) are derived for the following compounds: 1-butanol, 2-butanol, n-butyl acetate, cyclohexylamine, diethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, ethylene glycol, methanol, methyl ethyl

  10. Determination of the Impact of Glycolate on ARP and MCU Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.; Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Shehee, T. C.; Washington, A. L.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similar to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The

  11. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  12. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  13. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously......, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition...... of OEG thiol to monolayers of PEG thiol was followed using X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which indicated the time point of maximum graft density and beyond this time point there was predominant desorption of OEG thiol as indicated by the C/O ratio. The initial increase in graft density was...

  14. Liquid-liquid equilibria for reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol and reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol plus water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2013-01-01

    The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to use advanced methods to increase oil recovery, such as increasing the use of various chemicals...... for critical temperature, pressure and acentric factor. This work presents new phase equilibrium data for binary MEG/reservoir fluid and ternary MEG/water/reservoir fluid systems, where two reservoir fluids from Statoil operated fields are used. The solubility data are reported over a range of temperatures....... Promising results are also obtained with CPA EoS for ternary mixtures, with some deviations for the solubility of MEG/water in the hydrocarbon phase and for the hydrocarbons in the polar phase....

  15. Imaging findings of various calvarial bone lesions witha focus on osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Young Hee; Moon, Won Jin; An, Hyeong Su; Cho, Joon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this review, we present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of various calvarial lesions on the basis of their imaging patterns and list the differential diagnoses of the lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 256 cases of calvarial lesion (122 malignant neoplasms, 115 benign neoplasms, and 19 non-neoplastic lesions) seen in our institutions, and classified them into six categories based on the following imaging features: generalized skull thickening, focal skull thickening, generalized skull thinning, focal skull thinning, single lytic lesion, and multiple lytic lesions. Although bony lesions of the calvarium are easily identified on CT, bone marrow lesions are better visualized on MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging or fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. Careful interpretation of calvarial lesions based on pattern recognition can effectively narrow a range of possible diagnoses.

  16. [Management of the meniscal lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, B; Cermak, K; Vancabeke, M

    2011-01-01

    About 1,5 million arthroscopies are each year performed in the world, 50 % for meniscal affections. The menisci participate in the femoro-tibial load transmission and in the joint shock absorption; they contribute to the knee stability and play a role in the joint lubrication. The menisci are therefore important structures, and, in the case of a lesion, surgical abstention or repair should be favoured. When a meniscectomy has to be performed, it should be economical, preserving the meniscal wall. Meniscectomy is contra-indicated in the child and in the case of knee osteoarthrosis. Meniscal healing is compromised if the knee is unstable. If after total meniscectomy a patient presents symptomatic early osteoarthrosis, without marked loss of alignment, meniscal allografting is a therapeutic option, especially at the lateral compartment.

  17. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  18. Evaluation of ElectrochemicalTreatment in Degradation of Wastewater Contaminated by Propylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Talaiekhozani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Propylene glycol is applied in many industries as raw material and can be released to the environment through wastewater of such industries. The biological treatment of solutions containing high concentration of propylene glycol is difficult and some problems can be observed during this process. The main objective of this study was the investigation of electrochemical degradation of propylene glycol and the parameters influencing on improving removal efficiency."nMaterials and Methods: In this study the degradation of propylene glycol was made by passing an electrical current though the synthetic wastewater containing propylene glycol. In order to investigate this process several types of electrode with applied voltage ranging between 5 to 50 V was used. Due to the effect of NaCl concentration on removal efficiency which was mentioned in the literature, the experiment was performed for different NaCl concentrations."nResults: In optimum condition, the maximum removal efficiency of propylene glycol (based onCOD was obtained equal to 90%. The results showed that rising applied voltage, NaCl concentrationand retention time increase the removal efficiency. The optimum retention time was obtained equalto 50 min. The maximum removal was obtained when aluminum electrode was used. It can beattributed to the production of coagulant material such as Al+3 during this process."nConclusion: The results revealed that this process can be useful for treating the industrial wastewatercontaining propylene glycol.

  19. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  20. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve A mechanical analysis*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yu; Changfu Zhao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Min Luo

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study col ected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, fol owing which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) con-duit-repaired sciatic nerve fol owing tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Fol owing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogen-ous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  1. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  2. Abnormal vulval lesions: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Kothari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulval symptoms are commonly found and cause considerable distress for women. Symptoms are often chronic and can significantly affect the quality of womens lives including sexual function and wellbeing. Despite the frequency of vulval symptoms, women often find it difficult to seek medical advice due to multiple reasons, mostly cultural and emotional. This part is not easily self-observable neither are women aware of the fact that a vulvar lesion could also be a manifestation of a systemic disease. The idea behind this study was to identify whether presenting vulval lesion is dermatological or non-dermatological and to control the symptoms, to identify nature of the various vulvar lesions (inflammatory or neoplastic and to identify those skin lesions not responding to treatment which require biopsy and further management. It was a clinical descriptive study. Cases included women with vulvar lesions who attended Gynaec OPD at Dhiraj General Hospital affiliated to S.B.K.S. Medical Institute and Research Centre of Vadodara. After taking their informed consent ,all the women who had symptoms like vaginal discharge, itching or discomfort associated a with vulvar lesion, visible lesion or growth over vulva were thoroughly investigated to rule out any systemic illness causing vulvar lesion following which biopsy was taken if solid growth or a non-healing lesion was present. Treatment was done according to the lesions. In the presence of vulvar complains, a diagnostic pathway including systematic physical examination is always mandatory to detect SCC early. A non-healing lesion must be subjected to biopsy mandatorily. Women should be educated to avoid ODC drugs or creams when they face vulval lesions. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3242-3248

  3. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  4. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction.

  5. Polypoid Lesions of the Gallbladder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneck, Debra; Bostwick, Howard E.

    1997-01-01

    Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder in children are rare. We report a case of a gallbladder polyp in a 14-year-old boy who presented with recurrent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed a polypoid lesion of the gallbladder. His symptoms resolved after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Histological examination of the gallbladder demonstrated a benign adenomatous polyp. Although the experience with polypoid lesions of the gallbladder in children is limited, we currently recommend cholecystectomy because these lesions are associated with acalculous cholecystitis, and because their long-term effects are unknown. PMID:9876680

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

  7. Recent progress in alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells are one of the most promising power sources for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a sustainable fuel and the key materials that constitute the fuel cell are relatively inexpensive. This review article summarizes and discusses the past investigations on the development of alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, including the physical and chemical processes through the fuel cell structure, the electrocatalytic oxidation and electrocatalysts of ethylene glycol, the singe-cell performance, and innovative system designs.

  8. A Case of Chronic Ethylene Glycol Intoxication Presenting without Classic Metabolic Derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

  9. Study of Synthesis of Copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) by Direct Melt Polycondensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Ping; GAO Qin-wei; SHAO Hui-li; HU Xue-chao

    2005-01-01

    A two steps direct copolymerisation process was developed. The first step is to produce oligomer and then the oligomer of lactic acid/glycolic acid (90/10) is polymerized with binary catalyst tin chloride dihydrate/ptoluenesulfonic acid. In this way, the direct synthesis of copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) without any organic solvent was investigated. The properties and structures of products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that comparatively high molecular weight copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid can be prepared by direct processing under appropriate technological conditions.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON ARP AND MCU OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Peters, T.; Shehee, T.

    2012-06-04

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5,000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similarly to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The presence of glycolate did not change the lack

  11. Gastrointestinal Polypoid Lesions: The Albanian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Cekodhima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrointestinal polypoid lesions are a well-known cause of possible future malignant lesions. Screening for these lesions, especially for colon polyps, has reduced morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors. To our best knowledge, no screening program on gastrointestinal polypoid lesions exists in Albania and no former study has been performed to check the distribution of these lesions. Therefore, our aim was to study the distribution of gastrointestinal polypoid lesions in a symptomatic outpatient population. Methods: This study included five hundred seventy five consecutive patients referred to perform an endoscopic examination, regardless of their specific complains and of their possible diagnosis, to one of the two Endoscopy Centers in Tirana in the period between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2013. At least one polyp was resected and histologically examined in all included patients. Results: A total of 575 patients, of which 345 males (60.0%, aged 51.9 years (standard deviation 16.97 years, were examined and their data inserted in the statistical analysis. In total, 88 cases were identified with malignant pathologies of which 50 cases (56.8% were males. No case of malignancy was diagnosed among the nine esophageal specimens, but among the specimens resected from the stomach, small intestine and large intestine, were respectively diagnosed 21 (20.0%, 9 (40.9% and 58 (13.2% malignant lesions. Patients with malignant lesions were older (57.4 ± 16.8 years old in contrast to those with benign lesions (50.5 ± 17.0 years old (p = 0.004. Conclusion: Our study is the first one to offer figures on the polypoid lesions distribution and characteristics in the Albanian population. Large intestine is the main site where such lesions occur, but anyhow the small intestine presented a larger proportion of malignancy.

  12. Evaluation of hepatobiliary scintigraphy as an indicator of hepatic function in domestic pigeons (Columba livia) before and after exposure to ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Tarah L; Daniel, Gregory B; Rotstein, David S; Avenell, James S; Zagaya, Nancy; Jones, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess liver function in 14 white Carneaux pigeons (Columba livia). Liver scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin was performed and liver function was quantified using deconvolutional analysis and the area under the normalized heart time-activity curve as previously described in the dog and horse. Liver biopsies were performed in all birds before and after toxin-induced liver damage with ethylene glycol. Before the induction of liver disease, all biopsy specimens showed varying degrees of granulomatous inflammation. After ethylene glycol administration, hepatic lesions were scored and compared with scintigraphic findings. Scintigraphic results showed a significant decrease (P = 0.04) in hepatic function using the area under the normalized time-activity curve. There was good correlation between the overall histologic score posttoxin exposure and scintigraphic measures of liver function (P hepatic extraction as a measure of hepatic parenchymal cell function. The results also showed that worsening hepatic cellular function correlated with increased histologic damage to the liver. The use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin to determine liver function in pigeons has not been previously reported. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the application of this technique in clinical patients and to establish the sensitivity of this technique. PMID:17385376

  13. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness of PEG's allergenic potential remains low, due to a general lack of suspicion towards excipients and insufficient product labelling. Information on immediate-type reactions to PEG is limited to anecdotal reports, and the potential for PEG sensitization and cross-sensitization to PEGylated drugs and structurally related derivatives is likely underestimated. Most healthcare professionals have no knowledge of PEG and thus do not suspect PEG's as culprit agents in hypersensitivity reactions. In consequence, patients are at risk of misdiagnosis and commonly present with a history of repeated, severe reactions to a range of unrelated products in hospital and at home. Increased awareness of PEG prevalence, PEG hypersensitivity, and improved access to PEG allergy testing, should facilitate earlier diagnosis and reduce the risk of inadvertent re-exposure. This first comprehensive review provides practical information for allergists and other healthcare professionals by describing the clinical picture of 37 reported cases of PEG hypersensitivity since 1977, summarizing instances where PEG hypersensitivity should be considered and proposing an algorithm for diagnostic management. PMID:27196817

  14. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Song, Qing-Wen [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). State Key Lab. of Elemento-Organic Chemistry

    2012-11-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functionalized catalysts for efficient transformation of CO2 and PEG-functionalized absorbents for efficient CO2 capture. Furthermore, they describe carbon capture and utilization strategy as an alternative approach to address the energy penalty problem in carbon capture and storage. Interestingly, the authors also discuss PEG radical chemistry in dense CO2 as rather creative and unusual use of PEG, presumably serves as a reaction medium and a radical initiator for radical chemistry.

  15. Air dehumidification by triethylene glycol desiccant in a packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of an air dehumidifier using triethylene glycol (TEG) as desiccant under hot and humid conditions was investigated. The performance of the dehumidifier was evaluated and expressed in terms of the moisture removal rate and the dehumidifier effectiveness. A packed bed column (dehumidifier) was employed, with low packing density (77 m2/m3), to provide direct contact between the air and the TEG. Two different structured packings were used, wood and aluminum. The experiments covered a wide range of parameter space that included the air and TEG flow rates, air and TEG inlet temperatures, inlet air humidity and inlet TEG concentration. The liquid flow rate investigated is much less than that covered in previous studies (2 s). The trend of the dehumidifier performance was similar to that reported in the literature using high density and random packing. The results were compared to the Chung and Luo correlation, which over predicted the effectiveness. The Martin and Goswami correlation failed to predict the effectiveness under the conditions of this study. In the present study, it was found that the moisture removal rate increased with increasing inlet TEG concentration, TEG flow rate and air flow rate. This was seen for both the wood and the aluminum packings. In addition, the moisture removal rate is increased with increasing the inlet air temperature for the aluminum packing only. The effectiveness of the column was increased by increasing the TEG flow rate and inlet TEG temperature for the two packings

  16. Air dehumidification by triethylene glycol desiccant in a packed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurigat, Y.H.; Abu-Arabi, M.K.; Abdul-Wahab, S.A. E-mail: sabah1@squ.edu.om

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an air dehumidifier using triethylene glycol (TEG) as desiccant under hot and humid conditions was investigated. The performance of the dehumidifier was evaluated and expressed in terms of the moisture removal rate and the dehumidifier effectiveness. A packed bed column (dehumidifier) was employed, with low packing density (77 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}), to provide direct contact between the air and the TEG. Two different structured packings were used, wood and aluminum. The experiments covered a wide range of parameter space that included the air and TEG flow rates, air and TEG inlet temperatures, inlet air humidity and inlet TEG concentration. The liquid flow rate investigated is much less than that covered in previous studies (<1 kg/m{sup 2} s). The trend of the dehumidifier performance was similar to that reported in the literature using high density and random packing. The results were compared to the Chung and Luo correlation, which over predicted the effectiveness. The Martin and Goswami correlation failed to predict the effectiveness under the conditions of this study. In the present study, it was found that the moisture removal rate increased with increasing inlet TEG concentration, TEG flow rate and air flow rate. This was seen for both the wood and the aluminum packings. In addition, the moisture removal rate is increased with increasing the inlet air temperature for the aluminum packing only. The effectiveness of the column was increased by increasing the TEG flow rate and inlet TEG temperature for the two packings.

  17. On the Structure of Holographic Polymer-dispersed Polyethylene Glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnkrant,M.; McWilliams, H.; Li, C.; Natarajan, L.; Tondiglia, V.; Sutherland, R.; Lloyd, P.; Bunning, T.

    2006-01-01

    Holographic polymerization (H-P) has been used to fabricate polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and pattern inert nanoparticles. In this article, one-dimensional grating structures of Norland resin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using the H-P technique. Both reflection and transmission grating structures were fabricated. The optical properties of the reflection grating structures (also known as Bragg reflectors, BRs) are thermosensitive, which is attributed to the formation and crystallization of PEG crystals. The thermal switching temperature of the BR can be tuned by using different molecular weight PEG samples. The hierarchical structure and morphology of the BR were studied using synchrotron X-ray, polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. PEG crystals were found to be confined in {approx}60 nm thick layers in the BR. Upon crystallization, the PEG lamellae were parallel to the BR surfaces and PEG chains were parallel to the BR normal, resembling the confined crystallization behavior of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in PEO-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) block copolymers. This observation suggests that the tethering effect in the block copolymer systems does not play a major role in PEG chain orientation in the confined nanoenvironment.

  18. Ethylene glycol reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole composite for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel EG-RGO/PPy composite for supercapacitor application is well constructed. ► The well-soluble GO was dispersed in aqueous polymerisable aniline monomer solution to form stable GO/PPy structure. ► The EG reduced RGO/PPy can retain the PPy conductive conjugative frameworks. ► The EG-RGO/PPy electrode exhibits superior electrochemical capability as supercapacitor electrode. -- Abstract: A promising supercapacitor material based on graphene/polypyrrole (PPy) has been successfully synthesized via in situ oxidation polymerization of pyrrole monomers in aqueous graphene oxide (GO) solutions, followed by chemical reduction using ethylene glycol (EG). Unlike the commonly employed hydrazine reduction, the moderate EG reductant does not destruct the PPy conjugative structures, thus facilitating utilization of the electroactive conductive polymer. The morphologies and the structures of the as-prepared materials are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). And the electrochemical performance of the fabricated electrodes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EG-RGO/PPy electrode shows large specific capacitance, high rate performance, and good charge–discharge stability as well. The excellent electrochemical capability is mainly accounted for the sound composite construction that improves the effective utilization of electroactive PPy component, accelerates shuttling the charged carriers, and alleviates the swelling/shrinkage of polymer chains

  19. Prediction of scale potential in ethylene glycol containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandengen, Kristian; Oestvold, Terje

    2006-03-15

    This work presents a method for scale prediction in MEG (Mono Ethylene Glycol / 1,2-ethane-diol) containing solutions. It is based on an existing PVT scale model using a Pitzer ion interaction model for the aqueous phase. The model is well suited for scale prediction in saline solutions, where the PVT part is necessary for calculating CO{sub 2} phase equilibria being critical for carbonate scale. MEG influences the equilibria contained in the model, and its effect has been added empirically. Thus the accuracy of the model is limited by the amount of available experimental data. The model is applicable in the range 0-99wt% MEG and includes a wide variety of salts. In addition to the aspects of scale modelling in MEG+water solutions, this work presents new experimental data on CaSO4 solubility (0-95wt% MEG and 22-80 deg.C). CaSO4 solubility is greatly reduced by MEG to an extent that ''Salting-out'' is possible. (author) (tk)

  20. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  1. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  2. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... milk or preparations intended for addition to milk, as follows: (1) As a coating, binder, plasticizing... dispersing vitamin and/or mineral preparations. (4) As a coating on sodium nitrite to inhibit hygroscopic... glycol in milk....

  3. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, G; Wang, J.; CHENG, T.; Chen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy.

  4. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION FOR DWPF NITRIC-GLYCOLIC ACID - LITERATURE REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-06-05

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction.  For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 C.  For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 C).  For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available.  For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the

  6. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates... in calf-milk replacer formulations....

  7. The Nature of Acid-Catalyzed Acetalization Reaction of 1,2-Propylene Glycol and Acetaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chen; Chen, Hui; Li, Xia; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Baochen [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-08-15

    We investigated catalytic activity of ion-exchange resins in acetalization of 1,2-propylene glycol with acetaldehyde. The impacts of reaction variables, such as temperature, reaction time, catalyst loading and feedstock composition, on the conversion of 1,2-propylene glycol were measured. The life of the catalyst was also studied. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of 1,2-propylene glycol acetalization was studied. It was found that reaction rate followed the first order kinetics to acetaldehyde and 1,2-propylene glycol, respectively. Therefore, overall acetalization reaction should follow the second-order reaction kinetics, expressed as r - kC{sup nA}{sub A}C{sup nB}{sub B} = 19.74e{sup -650/T}C{sup 1}{sub A}C{sup 1}{sub B}.

  8. Amended safety assessment of formaldehyde and methylene glycol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ivan J; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact. In hair-smoothing products, however, in the present practices of use and concentration, formaldehyde and methylene glycol are unsafe. Methylene glycol is continuously converted to formaldehyde, and vice versa, even at equilibrium, which can be easily shifted by heating, drying, and other conditions to increase the amount of formaldehyde. This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments). PMID:24335968

  9. Material compatibility evaluataion for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid - literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid. The reported corrosion rates and degradation characteristics have shown the following for the materials of construction: For C276 alloy, the primary material of construction for the CPC vessels, corrosion rates of either 2 or 20 mpy were reported up to a temperature of 93 deg C; For the austenitic stainless steels, 304L and 316L, variable rates were reported over a range of temperatures, varying from 2 mpy up to 200 mpy (at 100 deg C); For 690, G30, Allcorr, Ultimet and Stellite alloys no data were available; and, For relevant polymers where data are available, the data suggests that exposure to glycolic acid is not detrimental. The literature data had limited application to the DWPF process since only the storage and feed vessels, pumps and piping used to handle the glycolic acid are directly covered by the available data. These components are either 304L or 316L alloys for which the literature data is inconsistent (See Bullet 2 above). Corrosion rates in pure glycolic acid solutions also are not representative of the DWPF process streams. This stream is complex and contains aggressive species, i.e. chlorides, sulfates, mercury, as well as antifoaming agents which cumulatively have an unknown effect on the corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Therefore, testing is recommended to investigate any synergistic effects of the aggressive

  10. Ethylene glycol aluminum as a novel catalyst for the synthesis of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Xiao; Li Ping Wang; Ren Hao Mei; Gong Ying Wang

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene glycol aluminum was prepared efficiently and characterized by FT-IR and NMR. It exhibited higher catalytic activity and had profitable effect than titanium glycolate and ethylene glycol antimony for the synthesis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). It was only used as polycondensation catalyst because it was sensitive to water. For this catalyst, the degree of esterification of the theoretical amount of water was produced up to 95% at 260 ℃, while the intrinsic viscosity and content of terminal carboxyl groups of the corresponding PET polyester, polymerized at 280℃, 70 Pa for 39 min, was 0.87 dL/g and 23.0 μmol/g, respectively. Ethylene glycol aluminum was a promising catalyst for the synthesis of PET polyester.

  11. Preparation of Fe3O4Spherical Nanoporous Particles Facilitated by Polyethylene Glycol 4000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much interest has been attracted to the magnetic materials with porous structure because of their unique properties and potential applications. In this report, Fe3O4nanoporous particles assembled from small Fe3O4nanoparticles have been prepared by thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000. The size of the spherical nanoporous particles is 100–200 nm. Surface area measurement shows that these Fe3O4nanoporous particles have a high surface area of 87.5 m2/g. Magnetization measurement and Mössbauer spectrum indicate that these particles are nearly superparamagnetic at room temperature. It is found that the morphology of the products is greatly influenced by polyethylene glycol concentration and the polymerization degree of polyethylene glycol. Polyethylene glycol molecules are believed to facilitate the formation of the spherical assembly.

  12. Influence of Ethylene Glycol on the Formation of Calcium Phosphate Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZUO; Yubao LI; Jie WEI; Yonggang YAN

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis route of using calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 with ethylene glycol solvent and orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4)as reagents is described. Three ratios of ethylene glycol to distilled water 1:0, 1:1 and 0:1 are used as diluting media for Ca(OH)2. Crystals of different morphology and composition are formed under weak alkaline circumstance at pH 7.0~8.0. Acicular calcium phosphate nanocrystals are prepared in pure ethylene glycol while rod-like calcium phosphate nanocrystals form in pure distilled water. The nanograde size of the former is smaller than that of the latter. Calcium-deficient apatite (CDAP) is obtained with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.66. Therefore, it was deduced that the usage of ethylene glycol solvent could influence the formation of calcium phosphate crystal lattice.

  13. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions: part II--an approach to intradermal proliferations and horizontally oriented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes show a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional nevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies, and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may either be a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either due to its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion due to a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified; however, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions may reliably be resolved through this standard approach, problem areas do exist for the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. With this review (part II of II), we complete our discussion of spindle cell melanocytic lesions, in order to: (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions; and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions which either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  14. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  15. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.

  16. The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Buchholz, Noor; Farin, Erik;

    2014-01-01

    The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3....

  17. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  18. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  19. Molecular interactions and structures in ethylene glycol-ethanol and ethylene glycol-water solutions at 303 K on densities, viscosities, and refractive indices data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Ghatbandhe, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular interactions and structural fittings in binary ethylene glycol + ethanol (EGE, x EG = 0.4111-0.0418) and ethylene glycol + water (EGW, x EG = 0.1771-0.0133) mixtures were studied through the measurement of densities (ρ), viscosities (η), and refractive indices ( n D ) at 303.15 K. Excess viscosities (η E ), molar volumes ( V m ), excess molar volumes ( V {/m E }), and molar retractions ( R M ) of the both binary systems were computed from measured properties. The measured and computed properties have been used to understand the molecular interactions in unlike solvents and structural fittings in these binary mixtures.

  20. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    OpenAIRE

    I. D. Gil; L. C. García; Rodríguez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFr...

  1. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  2. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tao; ZHAO, CHANGFU; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  3. Lubricin is expressed in chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Musumeci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degenerative changes within joints that involved quantitative and/or qualitative alterations of cartilage and synovial fluid lubricin, a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Modern therapeutic methods, including tissue-engineering techniques, have been used to treat mechanical damage of the articular cartilage but to date there is no specific and effective treatment. This study aimed at investigating lubricin immunohistochemical expression in cartilage explant from normal and OA patients and in cartilage constructions formed by Poly (ethylene glycol (PEG based hydrogels (PEG-DA encapsulated OA chondrocytes. The expression levels of lubricin were studied by immunohistochemistry: i in tissue explanted from OA and normal human cartilage; ii in chondrocytes encapsulated in hydrogel PEGDA from OA and normal human cartilage. Moreover, immunocytochemical and western blot analysis were performed in monolayer cells from OA and normal cartilage. The results showed an increased expression of lubricin in explanted tissue and in monolayer cells from normal cartilage, and a decreased expression of lubricin in OA cartilage. The chondrocytes from OA cartilage after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA showed an increased expression of lubricin compared with the control cartilage. The present study demonstrated that OA chondrocytes encapsulated in PEGDA, grown in the scaffold and were able to restore lubricin biosynthesis. Thus our results suggest the possibility of applying autologous cell transplantation in conjunction with scaffold materials for repairing cartilage lesions in patients with OA to reduce at least the progression of the disease.

  4. Mechanical evaluation of newly developed mouthpiece using polyethylene terephthalate glycol for transoral robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS), performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), has been classified as a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a three-dimensional magnified view, ability to see and work around curves or angles, and the availability of two or three robotic arms. At present, however, the da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. The potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury, and mandibular fracture. To prevent such intra-operative tooth injuries, we created a mouthpiece made of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) individually shaped for the patient's teeth. We compared the safety and efficacy of the PETG mouthpiece with those of a conventional mouthpiece made of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). To determine the difference in tooth injury resulting from the two types of mouthpiece, we constructed an experimental system to measure load and strain. We measured the dynamic load and the strain from the rod to the tooth using the PETG and EVA mouthpiece. The rod was pressed against the tooth model outfitted with two types of mouthpiece and the dynamic load was measured with a load cell and the strain with a strain gage. The maximum dynamic load was 1.29 ± 0.03 kgf for the PETG mouthpiece and 2.24 ± 0.05 kgf for the EVA mouthpiece. The load against the tooth was thus less for the EVA mouthpiece. The strain was -166.84 ± 3.94 and 48.24 ± 7.77 με, respectively, while the load direction was parallel to that of the tooth axis for the PETG mouthpiece and perpendicular to the tooth axis for the EVA mouthpiece. The PETG mouthpiece reduced the tooth load compared with the EVA mouthpiece and the load direction was in parallel to the tooth axis. The PETG mouthpiece thus enhances tooth safety for TORS. PMID:26530849

  5. Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Tatli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp., followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%, precancerous lesions (6.9%, and odontogenic cysts (4.4%. Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay.

  6. Macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our studies of the interaction of densely ionizing particles with macromolecules in the living cell may be divided into four parts: characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the unmodified Bragg ionization curve; characterization of lesions to cellular DNA in the spread Bragg curve as used in radiation therapy; elucidation of the cellular radiation chemistry characteristic of high vs. low LET radiation qualities; and the introduction of novel techniques designed to give a better understanding of the fundamental properties of induction of lesions and their repair potentials in high LET radiation

  7. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  8. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... expression. Basal-type oncocytic cells reacted with antibodies against CK 5/6, CK 7, CK 8, CK 13, CK 14, CK 17, CK 18 and CK 19, and suprabasal cells with CK 4, CK 7, CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19. Antibodies against CK 1+10 and CK 20 showed no reaction. Conclusions: Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region most...

  9. 发酵法转化乙二醇制备乙醇酸%Preparation of glycolic acid by the fermentation of ethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏胜华; 孟娜; 郑长龙; 李婉珍

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the fermentation process of glycolic acid from ethylene glycol by Gluconobacter oxydans is studied.The results showed that the optimal fermentation condition was as follows:the ethylene glycol concentration was 80 g/L,adding 40 g/L of sorbitol to the medium as supplement carbon source in order to promote cell growth,1.0mol/L of sodium hydroxide and ammonia mixture was the neutralizer used in the fermentation process to maintain pH of 5.5.After 40hrs fermentation,the production of glycolic acid was 97.4 g/L,the yield was 96.8%.The method established the foundation for the biological production of glycolic acid.%研究了以乙二醇为底物,利用氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌发酵法制备乙醇酸的工艺过程。研究结果表明,当乙二醇浓度为80 g/L,添加40 g/L山梨醇为外加碳源促进菌体生长,以1.0 mol/L的氢氧化钠与氨水混合液为中和剂,控制过程的pH值为5.5,是最佳的发酵条件。经过40 h发酵,乙醇酸产量为97.4 g/L,乙醇酸得率达到96.8%。该方法为生物法生产乙醇酸打下了基础。

  10. Potentiation of aquatic pollution by ethylene glycol with regard to the aquatic angiosperm, Lemna gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.A.; Barber, J.T.; Yatsu, L.Y.; Ensley, H.E. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology

    1995-12-31

    Ethylene glycol is usually thought of as a benign component of urban runoff. Thus, its EC50 value, with regard to the vegetative growth of axenically grown Lemna gibba, is relatively high, viz. 164 mM. Ethylene glycol is not metabolized by Lemna but growth is demonstrably stimulated at concentrations below 75 mM. In the presence of ethylene glycol, the fronds of duckweed are dark green, translucent and the growth medium contains gas bubbles of carbon dioxide which result from an enhanced uptake of sucrose from the growth medium and its subsequent respiration. The uptake is a non-specific effect since the uptake of various other compounds, including water, is enhanced when duckweed is grown in the presence of ethylene glycol. The increased uptake of water, sucrose, inorganic ions and organic compounds results from an increased permeability due to the creation of intercellular holes in the aerenchymatous tissues of the ethylene glycol-treated plants. The mechanism by which ethylene glycol causes the holes is unknown but may involve a disruption in lipid metabolism since the hydrophobicity of the fronds is altered and their lipid composition is changed. The significance of this phenomenon is that toxicants, just like innocuous substances, are taken up in increased amounts by treated plants and as a result their toxicities are increased with regard to duckweed as evidenced by a decrease in their effective concentrations, often of more than 3-fold. These results suggest that although ethylene glycol itself may be benign, its presence in polluted waters containing other toxicants may potentiate the effects of those pollutants.

  11. Design and synthesis of multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s using enzymatic catalysis for multivalent cancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwang Su

    The objective of this research was to design and synthesize multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s using enzyme-catalyzed reactions for multivalent targeted drug delivery. Based on computer simulation for optimum folate binding, a four-arm PEG star topology with Mn = 1000 g/mol was proposed. First, a four-functional core based on tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was designed and synthesized using transesterification and Michael addition reactions in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst. The four-functional core (HO)2-TEG-(OH)2 core was successfully prepared by the CALB-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl acrylate (VA) with TEG and then Michael addition of diethanolamine to the resulting TEG diacrylate with/without the use of solvent. The functional PEG arms with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and folic acid (FA) were prepared using both traditional organic chemistry and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. FITC was reacted with the amine group of H2N-PEG-OH in the presence of triethylamine via nucleophilic addition onto the isothiocyanate group. Then, divinyl adipate (DVA) was transesterified with the FITC-PEG-OH product in the presence of CALB to produce the FITC-PEG vinyl ester that will be attached to the four-functional core via CALC-catalyzed transesterification. For the synthesis of FA-PEG vinyl ester arm, DVA was first reacted with PEG-monobenzyl ether (BzPEG-OH) in bulk in the presence of CALB. The BzPEG vinyl ester was then transesterified with 12-bromo-1-dodecanol in the presence of CALB. Finally, BzPEG-Br was attached to FA exclusively in the gamma position using a new method. The thesis also discusses fundamental studies that were carried out in order to get better understanding of enzyme catalyzed transesterification and Michael addition reactions. First, in an effort to investigate the effects of reagent and enzyme concentrations in transesterification, vinyl methacrylate (VMA) was reacted with 2-(hydroxyethyl) acrylate (2

  12. Lesion Expansion in Experimental Demyelination Animal Models and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Veldmann, René; Becker, Birte; Amor, Sandra; van der Valk, Paul; Beyer, Cordian; Kipp, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Gray matter pathology is an important aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and disease progression. In a recent study, we were able to demonstrate that the higher myelin content in the white matter parts of the brain is an important variable in the neuroinflammatory response during demyelinating events. Whether higher white matter myelination contributes to lesion development and progression is not known. Here, we compared lesion size of intra-cortical vs. white matter MS lesions. Furthermore, dynamics of lesion development was compared in the cuprizone and lysophosphatidylcholine models. We provide clear evidence that in the human brain, white matter lesions are significantly increased in size as compared to intra-cortical gray matter lesions. In addition, studies using the cuprizone mouse model revealed that the autonomous progression of white matter lesions is more severe compared to that in the gray matter. Focal demyelination revealed that the application of equal amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine results in more severe demyelination in the white compared to the gray matter. In summary, lesion progression is most intense in myelin-rich white matter regions, irrespective of the initial lesion trigger mechanism. A better understanding of myelin debris-triggered lesion expansion will pave the way for the development of new protective strategies in the future. PMID:26363796

  13. Arthroscopy in the diagnosis of meniscus lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Taser, Omer

    2004-01-01

    Approaches and their specialities in diagnostic arthroscopy have been presented. The things which should be noticed in the inspection of the menisci during arthroscopy have been put formend and indirect signs of meniscus lesion and their importance have been emphasized.

  14. [Traumatic and iatrogenic lesions of abdominal vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, I; Tarabula, P; Voirin, L; Magne, J L; Delannoy, P; Gattaz, F; Guidicelli, H

    1997-01-01

    Gravity of abdominal vessels traumatisms is secondary to multiple factors. It depends on the type of injured vessels, aetiology and associated lesions. Between September 1984 and March 1995, 22 abdominal vessel traumatisms in 16 patients (mean age: 39 years) were treated. At surgical exploration, 4 aortic and 2 renal vein lesions, 7 iliac artery and 3 renal artery contusions, 2 superior mesenteric artery dissections; 3 infra-renal vena cava ruptures and 1 superior mesenteric vein dilaceration were found. All lesions were caused by penetrant wounds secondary to firearm or blade injury or secondary to injuries due to ski or traffic accidents. In 5 cases, lesions were iatrogenic. There was no mortality in the post-operative period, 14 patients out of the 16 patients operated on have been followed during a period from 1 to 120 months.

  15. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  16. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Das, A L; Vaishampayan, S S; Vaidya, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory. PMID:16394461

  17. Approximate Lesion Localization in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00357.x

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, automated analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. Border detection is often the first step in this analysis. Methods: In this article, we present an approximate lesion localization method that serves as a preprocessing step for detecting borders in dermoscopy images. In this method, first the black frame around the image is removed using an iterative algorithm. The approximate location of the lesion is then determined using an ensemble of thresholding algorithms. Results: The method is tested on a set of 428 dermoscopy images. The localization error is quantified by a metric that uses dermatologist determined borders as the ground truth. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the method presented here achieves both fast and accurate localization of lesions in dermoscopy images.

  18. Common Adult Skin and Soft Tissue Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Jeffrey G; Applebaum, Danielle S; Orengo, Ida

    2016-08-01

    A strong foundational knowledge of dermatologic disease is crucial for a successful practice in plastic surgery. A plastic surgeon should be able to identify and appreciate common dermatologic diseases that may require medical and/or surgical evaluation and management. In this article, the authors describe epidermal/dermal, infectious, pigmented, and malignant cutaneous lesions that are commonly encountered in practice. Descriptions include the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and management options for each type of lesion. PMID:27478418

  19. Laser Treatment of Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Patrick D.; Sonabend, Michael L.; Levy, Moise L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1967, laser therapy has benefited patients and physicians alike. After the first clinical application by Goldman (Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Science 1983;220:524–527), laser therapy has become indispensable in the management of vascular birthmarks. In selecting a proper balance of wavelength, pulse duration, and energy density (fluence), the physician can mold laser energy to effectively manage lesions once considered untreatable. Now, the vast array of lesions amenabl...

  20. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  1. The enigma of reversible spinal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalendra Kumar Misser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Focal reversible lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum have been described in a number of clinical paradigms. Epilepsy and related conditions are the most commonly reported underlying clinical association. Sudden anti-epileptic therapy withdrawal or seizure activity may be presumed to be the predisposing cause, however an individual susceptibility must also be considered. Herein, we present the findings in two patients with similar, completely reversible splenial lesions.

  2. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Verma Rajesh; Das A; Vaishampayan S.; Vaidya Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathol...

  3. FNAC ACCURACY IN DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST LESIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal; Pratap; Nikshita

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignancy of breast imposes significant reduction in life span. The prognosis of breast cancer is primarily dependent on the extent of disease and also early diagnosis in important. FNAC is a widely accepted cytological technique in the early diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. There have been many studies of accuracy of FNAC, which has been shown to be high in many centres. AIMS: To compare cytological and histopathological diagnosis of breast lesions and to ...

  4. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  5. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  6. SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokito, Steven E; Myers, Kevin R; Ryu, Richard K N

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete remains a challenge for the sports medicine specialist due to variable anatomy, changes with aging, concomitant pathology, lack of dependable physical findings on examination, and lack of sensitivity and specificity with imaging studies. This article presents a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, relevant anatomy, proposed pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and outcomes of nonoperative and operative management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

  7. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  8. Clinical usefulness of TSAb assay with high polyethylene glycol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Y; Inui, T; Kouki, T; Yamashiro, K; Takasu, N; Kajita, Y; Sato, Y; Nagata, A

    1999-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the stimulatory effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb)-IgG-stimulated cAMP production (thyroid stimulating (TS) index) in porcine thyroid cell (PTC) assay. In the present study the clinical usefulness of the practical method using high PEG concentrations was examined. TS activity using PEG 22.5% precipitated fraction (PF) was significantly higher compared to standard TSAb activity using 12.5% PF from TSAb-positive serum, but the maximum TS activity was observed with PEG 12.5% PF + 4% PEG or PEG 22.5% PF + 2% PEG. In all cases of untreated Graves' patients, TSAb activity determined by PEG 22.5% PF was higher compared to standard TSAb activity using PEG 12. 5% PF from test serum, but the highest TSAb activity was observed by PEG 12.5% PF + 4% PEG without increased cAMP production to normal serum. TSAb was positive in 85% (40/47), 98% (46/47) and 100% (47/47) of untreated Graves' patients by the method of PEG 12.5% PF, PEG 22.5% PF and PEG 12.5% + 4% PEG, respectively. Increased TSAb activity by PEG 12.5% PF + 4% PEG method was also observed even if the standard TSAb activity using PEG 12.5% PF method was negative in the euthyroid states of Graves' patients during antithyroid drug therapy. The stimulatory effect of PEG on TS activity was not found in other thyroidal diseases [thyroiditis chronica (with high serum TSH), thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb)-positive sera (with low serum TSH), adenomatous goiter, subacute thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer]. The stimulatory effect of 5% PEG on TS activity produced directly by small amounts of Graves' serum (50 microl) was also found, although the sensitivity was lower than with PEG-precipitated IgG from 0.2 ml serum. The clinical usefulness of the sensitive TSAb assay using PEG-precipitated IgG or direct serum assay in the presence of high PEG concentrations was demonstrated. PMID:10461020

  9. Engineering Poly(ethylene glycol) Materials to Promote Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda Walker

    Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the current costs of treatment put a significant economic burden on our societies. After an infarction, fibrotic tissue begins to form as part of the heart failure cascade. Current options to slow this process include a wide range of pharmaceutical agents, and ultimately the patient may require a heart transplant. Innovative treatment approaches are needed to bring down costs and improve quality of life. The possibility of regenerating or replacing damaged tissue with healthy cardiomyocytes is generating considerable excitement, but there are still many obstacles to overcome. First, while cell injections into the myocardium have demonstrated slight improvements in cardiac function, the actual engraftment of transplanted cells is very low. It is anticipated that improving engraftment will boost outcomes. Second, cellular differentiation and reprogramming protocols have not yet produced cells that are identical to adult cardiomyocytes, and immunogenicity continues to be a problem despite the advent of autologously derived induced pluripotent stem cells. This dissertation will explore biomaterials approaches to addressing these two obstacles. Tissue engineering scaffolds may improve cell engraftment by providing bioactive factors, preventing cell anoikis, and reducing cell washout by blood flow. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used as a coating to reduce implant rejection because it is highly resistant to protein adsorption. Because fibrosis of a material in contact with the myocardium could cause arrhythmias, PEG materials are highly relevant for cardiac tissue engineering applications. In Chapter 2, we describe a novel method for crosslinking PEG microspheres around cells to form a scaffold for tissue engineering. We then demonstrate that HL-1 cardiomyocyte viability and phenotype are retained throughout the fabrication process and during the first 7 weeks of culture. In the third chapter of the

  10. Computerized lesion detection on breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L; Horsch, Karla; Kupinski, Matthew A; Vyborny, Carl J; Mendelson, Ellen B

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the use of a radial gradient index (RGI) filtering technique to automatically detect lesions on breast ultrasound. After initial RGI filtering, a sensitivity of 87% at 0.76 false-positive detections per image was obtained on a database of 400 patients (757 images). Next, lesion candidates were segmented from the background by maximizing an average radial gradient (ARD) index for regions grown from the detected points. At an overlap of 0.4 with a radiologist lesion outline, 75% of the lesions were correctly detected. Subsequently, round robin analysis was used to assess the quality of the classification of lesion candidates into actual lesions and false-positives by a Bayesian neural network. The round robin analysis yielded an Az value of 0.84, and an overall performance by case of 94% sensitivity at 0.48 false-positives per image. Use of computerized analysis of breast sonograms may ultimately facilitate the use of sonography in breast cancer screening programs. PMID:12148724

  11. Papillary lesions of the breast diagnosed using core needle biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    TOKINIWA, HIDEAKI; Horiguchi, Jun; TAKATA, DAISUKE; Kikuchi, Mami; ROKUTANDA, NANA; NAGAOKA, RIN; Sato, Ayako; Odawara, Hiroki; TOZUKA, KATSUNORI; Oyama, Tetsunari; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, from benign papillomas to papillary carcinomas. It is difficult to determine whether a lesion is benign or malignant based on the fragmented material of a core needle biopsy (CNB). This study evaluated patients with papillary lesions examined using CNB. We retrospectively reviewed 31 papillary lesions diagnosed using CNB between 2004 and 2007. The clinical findings of benign and malignant papillary lesions were compared. The...

  12. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  13. [Determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ghengyun; Zhang, Weiya; Li, Lixia; Shen, Yalei; Lin, Junfeng; Xie, Tangtang; Chu, Naiqing

    2014-08-01

    An effective method was established for the simultaneous determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Glycol ethers in leather and leather products were ultrasonically extracted at 45 °C, using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The content of each analyte was calibrated by external standard method. The limit of detection of ethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE) was 0. 10 mg/kg under the condition of signal to noise (S/N) of 3 and the limits of the other 11 glycol ethers were all less than 0.05 mg/kg. The spiked recoveries varied from 81. 2% to 95. 5% at three different spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.4% to 6. 6%. The proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate, with the limits of detection much less than the requirements of the Regulation Concerning Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) of European Union. It is applicable to the determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products, and provides a reference for the relevant testing standards.

  14. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy in ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)], E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com; Fatayerji, M.Z. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based alloy AZ91D was investigated in ethylene glycol-water solutions using electrochemical techniques i.e. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) and surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. This can provide a basis for developing new coolants for magnesium alloy engine blocks. Corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy by coolant is important in the automotive industry. It was found that the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy decreased with increasing concentration of ethylene glycol. For AZ91D alloy in chloride >0.05 M or fluoride <0.05 M containing 30% ethylene glycol solution, they are more corrosive than the blank (30% ethylene glycol-70% water). However, at concentrations <0.05 for chloride or >0.05 M for fluoride containing ethylene glycol solution, some inhibition effect has been observed. The corrosion of AZ91D alloy in the blank can be effectively inhibited by addition of 0.05 mM paracetamol that reacts with AZ91D alloy and forms a protective film on the surface at this concentration as confirmed by surface examination.

  15. Oligoethylene glycol-substituted aza-BODIPY dyes as red emitting ER-probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkaew, Anyanee; Thavornpradit, Sopida; Puangsamlee, Thamon; Xin, Dongyue; Wanichacheva, Nantanit; Burgess, Kevin

    2015-08-14

    This study features aza-BODIPY (BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene) dyes with two aromatic substituents linked by oligoethylene glycol fragments to increase hydrophilicity of aza-BODIPY for applications in intracellular imaging. To prepare these, two chalcones were attached α,ω onto oligoethylene glycol fragments, then reacted with nitromethane anion. Conjugate addition products from this reaction were then subjected to typical conditions for synthesis of aza-BODIPY dyes (NH4OAc, (n)BuOH, 120 °C); formation of boracycles in this reaction was concomitant with creation of macrocycles containing the oligoethylene glycol fragments. Similar dyes with acyclic oligoelythene glycol substituents in the same position were used to compare the efficiencies of the intra- and inter-molecular aza-BODIPY forming reactions, and the characteristics of the products. All the fluors with oligoethylene glycol fragments, i.e. cyclic or acyclic, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of a fibroblast cell line (WEHI-13VAR), the human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1, rough ER predominates) and human liver cancer cell line (HepG2, smooth ER prevalent). These fluors are potentially useful for near IR (λmax emis at 730 nm) ER staining probes.

  16. Crystallization Kinetics of Indomethacin/Polyethylene Glycol Dispersions Containing High Drug Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tu Van; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-07-01

    The reproducibility and consistency of physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical performance are major concerns during preparation of solid dispersions. The crystallization kinetics of drug/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions, an important factor that is governed by the properties of both drug and polymer has not been adequately explored, especially in systems containing high drug loadings. In this paper, by using standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, we describe the influence of drug loading on crystallization behavior of dispersions made up of indomethacin and polyethylene glycol 6000. Higher drug loading increases the amorphicity of the polymer and inhibits the crystallization of PEG. At 52% drug loading, polyethylene glycol was completely transformed to the amorphous state. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of the solubilization effect of a low molecular weight drug on a semicrystalline polymer in their dispersions. In mixtures containing up to 55% indomethacin, the dispersions exhibited distinct glass transition events resulting from amorphous-amorphous phase separation which generates polymer-rich and drug-rich domains upon the solidification of supercooled polyethylene glycol, whereas samples containing at least 60% drug showed a single amorphous phase during the period in which crystallization normally occurs. The current study demonstrates a wide range in physicochemical properties of drug/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions as a result of the complex nature in crystallization of this system, which should be taken into account during preparation and storage.

  17. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chengdong; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Kun

    2013-11-25

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  18. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengdong Piao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  19. Advantages of using glycolic acid as a retardant in a brushite forming cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Faleh Tamimi; Torres, Jesús; Hamdan, Mohammad; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2007-11-01

    In this study we have compared the effect of using acetic, glycolic, and citric acids on the brushite cement setting reaction and the properties of the resultant cement. The cement solid phase was made by mixing beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), monocalcium dihydrogen phosphate anhydrate (MCPA), and sodium pyrophosphate, whereas the cement liquid phase consisted of aqueous solutions of carboxy acids at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.5M. Cements were prepared by mixing the solid phase with the liquid phase to form a workable paste. The cement setting time was longer for glycolic and citric acids. The best mechanical properties in dry environments were obtained using glycolic and citric acid liquid phases. In a wet environment at 37 degrees C, the cement set with glycolic acid was the strongest one. Brushite cement diametral tensile strength seems to be affected by the calcium-carboxyl phase produced in the setting reaction. The acceptable setting time and mechanical properties of cements set in glycolic acid solutions are attributed to the additional hydrophilic groups in the carboxylic acid and the low solubility in water of the calcium salt produced in the reaction. Moreover, at high concentrations, carboxylic acids add chemically to the cement matrix becoming reactants themselves.

  20. Relationship between laser fluorescence and bacterial invasion in arrested dentinal carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between caries assessment using a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent), and bacterial invasion in arrested carious dentin detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ten extracted human molars used in this study had black or dark brown, hard occlusal carious lesions, and were found to be only weakly stained or unstained with a caries detector dye of 1% acid red in propylene glycol. In those extracted human molars, dentin was removed in the direction of the pulp chamber at 150-μm intervals. During each removal (104 sections in total), the dentin surface was assessed with DIAGNOdent, and a dentinal tissue sample was taken with a round bur. Bacterial DNA of each tissue sample was examined using PCR and primers based on the nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of bacterial 16S rDNA. Rates of bacterial detection increased as the DIAGNOdent values increased. When the DIAGNOdent values were DIAGNOdent values was 0.87. These results indicate that the DIAGNOdent values of arrested dentinal carious lesion were closely related to the rates of bacterial detection.

  1. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  2. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Malini; Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hopkins, Kenneth P. [Department of Surgery, Division of Dentistry, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  3. Laser processing of polyethylene glycol derivative and block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.C.; Grigorescu, S.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania); Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ionescu, O.S.; Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41A, Iasi (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Material Science, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We report the deposition by MAPLE of: (i) a novel polyethylene glycol derivative with carboxyl functional groups and (ii) a block copolymer: poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether. We used a KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns, {nu} = 5 Hz). The laser fluence was set within the 200-700 mJ/cm{sup 2} range. The deposited thin films have been investigated by FTIR and AFM. We have concluded that the main functional groups of starting materials are present in the transferred film. We also examined the influence of laser fluence on both thin film structure and morphology.

  4. Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Based Backbones with High Peptide Loading Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife O'Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-peptide conjugates are a promising class of compounds, where polymers can be used to overcome some of the limitations associated with peptides intended for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. Linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol can be conjugated through terminal moieties and have therefore limited loading capacities. In this research, functionalised linear poly(ethylene glycols are utilised for peptide conjugation, to increase their potential loading capacities. These poly(ethylene glycol derivatives are conjugated to peptide sequences containing representative side-chain functionalised amino acids, using different conjugation chemistries, including copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, amide coupling and thiol-ene reactions. Conjugation of a sequence containing the RGD motif to poly(allyl glycidyl ether by the thiol-ene reaction, provided a conjugate which could be used in platelet adhesion studies.

  5. Preparation and Thermo-Physical Properties of Fe2O3-Propylene Glycol Nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylaja, A; Manikandan, S; Suganthi, K S; Rajan, K S

    2015-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared from ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate by precipitation reaction. Fe2O3-propylene glycol nanofluid was prepared by dispersing Fe2O3 nanoparticles in propylene glycol through stirred bead milling, shear homogenization and probe ultrasonication. The nanofluid was characterized through measurement of viscosity, particle size distribution and thermal conductivity. The interactions between Fe2O3 nanoparticles and propylene glycol on the nanoparticle surfaces lead to reduction in viscosity, the magnitude of which increases with nanoparticle concentration (0-2 vol%) at room temperature. The thermal conductivity enhancement for 2 vol% nanofluid was about 21% at room temperature, with liquid layering being the major contributor for thermal conductivity enhancement. PMID:26353708

  6. Highly conductive polymer electrolyte membranes modified with polyethylene glycol-bis-carbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guopeng; Dempsey, Janel; Kyu, Thein

    By virtue of its non-flammability and chemical stability, polyethylene glycol (PEG) networks have shown potential application in all solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM). However, room temperature ionic conductivity of these PEG based PEMs is inherently low. Plasticization of these PEMs is needed to improve the ionic conductivity. It was demonstrated by this group that small-molecule plasticizers such as succinonitrile, ethylene carbonate, or urea-carbamate can boost ionic conductivity of solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes. Polyethylene glycol bis-carbamate (PEGBC) was synthesized via condensation reaction of polyethylene glycol diamine and ethylene carbonate. The PEGBC modified PEM has shown higher ionic conductivity relative to the unmodified PEM. Moreover, PEGBC modified PEM has a better thermal stability relative to ethylene carbonate based liquid electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070, 1502543 and REU 1359321.

  7. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  8. Analyzing solubility of acid gas and light alkanes in triethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Bahadori; Had B.Vuthaluru; Saeid Mokhatab

    2008-01-01

    Physical solvents such as ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are commonly used in wet gas dehydration processes with TEG being the most popular due to ease of regeneration and low solvent losses. Unfortunately, TEG absorbs significantly more hydrocarbons and acid gases than EG or DEG. Quantifying this amount of absorption is therefore critical in order to minimize hydrocarbon losses or to optimize hydrocarbon recovery depending on the objective of the process. In this article, a new correlation that fully covers the operating ranges of TEG dehydration units is developed in order to determine the solubility of light alkanes and acid gases in TEG solvent. The influence of several parameters on hydrocarbon and acid gas solubility including temperature, pressure, and solvent content is also examined.

  9. Tetraethylene glycol thermooxidation and the influence of certain compounds relevant to conserved archaeological wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig; Egsgaard, Helge; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was studied at 70 °C under dry air and nitrogen. Degradation products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). They were mono-, di- and tri-ethylene glycol, mono- and di-formates of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-ethylene glycol...... and formic acid. The rate of TEG degradation was significantly decreased by approximately 10 mmol/l KI, FeCl3, Cu(CH3COO)2, MnO2 and CuSO4, small amounts of fresh oak wood sawdust and gypsum-containing scrapings from the wood surface of the Vasa ship in Stockholm. Thus certain salts and natural components...

  10. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  12. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  13. Degradation and miscibility of poly(DL-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) composite films: Effect of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhigang Ma; Na Zhao; Chengdong Xiong

    2012-08-01

    The in vitro degradation behaviour of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and its composite films containing poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PDLGA) were investigated via mass loss, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All the films were prepared by solution casting, using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. Since the degradation rate of PDLLA is lower than that of PGA, those of the PDLLA/PGA composite films decreased. As a compatibilizer, PDLGA improved the compatibility and hydrolytic stability of PDLLA/PGA composite films. Changes in the composite films indicate that this kind of PGA-based composite biomaterial may be applicable to device design for clinical application in the future.

  14. Physical properties of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) and poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles for drug delivery using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrostatic nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Fedin, Igor; Nedashkivska, Victoria; Lyuksyutova, Caterina; Geldenhuys, Werner; Sutariya, Vijay

    2010-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) of biodegradable polymers poly(lactic-co-glycolic)(PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are potential drug delivery components for biomedical applications. The NP based on PLGA or PEG can be directed to accumulate in cancer tumor cells with the use of anti-bodies which are conjugated to the NP. The NP's size distribution is the critical property for biochemical affinity and therefore delivery to the specific target organs. We used an atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the NP size and AFM electrostatic nanolithography (AFMEN) to study the behavior of PEG-PLGA NP under the extreme electric fields exceeding 10^9 V m-1. AFMEN allows the displacement of molecules along the lines of the electric field due to electrostatic polarization. This study has an important practical application for the optimum design of NP with the correct characteristics for drug delivery.

  15. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  16. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases

  17. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  18. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  19. Producing Uniform Lesion Pattern in HIFU Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Kargl, Steven G.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a modality for treatment of solid tumors. The temperature at the focus can reach over 65° C denaturing cellular proteins resulting in coagulative necrosis. Typically, HIFU parameters are the same for each treated spot in most HIFU control systems. Because of thermal diffusion from nearby spots, the size of lesions will gradually become larger as the HIFU therapy progresses, which may cause insufficient treatment of initial spots, and over-treatment of later ones. It is found that the produced lesion pattern also depends on the scanning pathway. From the viewpoint of the physician creating uniform lesions and minimizing energy exposure are preferred in tumor ablation. An algorithm has been developed to adaptively determine the treatment parameters for every spot in a theoretical model in order to maintain similar lesion size throughout the HIFU therapy. In addition, the exposure energy needed using the traditional raster scanning is compared with those of two other scanning pathways, spiral scanning from the center to the outside and from the outside to the center. The theoretical prediction and proposed algorithm were further evaluated using transparent gel phantoms as a target. Digital images of the lesions were obtained, quantified, and then compared with each other. Altogether, dynamically changing treatment parameters can improve the efficacy and safety of HIFU ablation.

  20. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  1. Engineering of poly(ethylene glycol) chain-tethered surfaces to obtain high-performance bionanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yukio Nagasaki

    2010-01-01

    A poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] block copolymer possessing a reactive acetal group at the end of the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain, that is, acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, was synthesized by a proprietary polymerization technique. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using the thus-synthesized acetal-PEG-b-PAMA block copolymer. The PEG-b-PAMA not only acted as a reducing agent of aurate ions but also attached to the nanoparticle surface. The GNPs obtained ha...

  2. Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide in Binary Mixture of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether and Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新学; 刘迎新; 魏雄辉

    2005-01-01

    The solubility and hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in binary mixture of diethylene glycol diethyl ether and water are studied as a function of composition. The use of an aqueous solution of diethylene glycol diethyl ether enhances the solubility and hydrolysis rate of carbonyl sulfide compared with that in pure water. The composition of the mixture with maximum hydrolysis rate varies with temperature. The thermophysical properties including density, viscosity, and surface tension as a function of composition at 20℃ under atmospheric pressure as well as liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data over the temperature range from 28℃ to 90℃ are also measured for the binary mixture.

  3. Thermodynamic study of the solubility of triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres R. Holguín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the van't Hoff and Gibbs equations the apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution for triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures were evaluated from solubility data determined at temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15 K. The drug solubility was greatest in the mixture with 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol and lowest in neat propylene glycol at almost all the temperatures studied. Non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation is found indicating apparently different mechanisms of the solution process according to the mixtures composition.

  4. Thermodynamic study of the solubility of triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Andres R. Holguín; Daniel R. Delgado; Fleming Martínez

    2012-01-01

    By using the van't Hoff and Gibbs equations the apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution for triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures were evaluated from solubility data determined at temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The drug solubility was greatest in the mixture with 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol and lowest in neat propylene glycol at almost all the temperatures studied. Non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation is found indicating...

  5. Preparation of Iminodiacetic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol for Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis route was investigated and optimized for the preparation of iminodiacetic acid polyethylene glycol (IDA-PEG) for immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phaze systems. IDA PEG was synthesized from PEG in two steps by the reaction of iminodiacetic acid with a monosubetituted derivative of epichlorohydrin-activated PEG. The Cu2+ content combined with IDA-PEG was determined by atomic absorp tion spectrometry as 0.5 mol.mol-1 (PEG). Furthermore, the affinity partitioning behavior of lactate dehydrogenase in polyethylene glycol/hydroxypropyl starch aqueous two-phaze systems was studied to clarify the affinity effect of the Cu(Ⅱ)-IDA-PEG.

  6. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  7. Oral White Lesions: Presentation and Comparison of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Other Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare oral submucous fibrosis with other white oral lesions for presentation and associated factors. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Departments of Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Karachi, from May 2008 to May 2009. Methodology: Patients presenting with oral white lesions were selected by consecutive non-purposive sampling and clinico-demographic data was collected. For patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), additional information like duration of habits, maximal incisal opening (MIO), presence of any other associated lesion were noted. OSF was compared with other white lesions for any association between characteristic of subjects. Chi-square and independent t-tests for determining the statistical significance at p < 0.05. Results: OSF was present in 59.6% (n = 106) of the 178 patients; other white lesions were 40.4% (n = 72). The mean age of patients with OSF was 34 +- 12.7 years and 45.81 +- 16.2 years in patients with other white lesions, (p < 0.0001). Items containing areca nut were consumed more by patients with OSF, with a significant (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with other white lesions. Conclusion: OSF was the predominant white lesion in patients examined at DIKIOHS. Areca nut was found to be chewed more by patients with OSF and still longer by patients with SCC. (author)

  8. Rapid treatment of mild acne with a novel skin care system containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid, and botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ashish C; Jimenez, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    The biggest hurdle in the treatment of acne vulgaris is patient non-compliance that is due in large part to poor tolerability to common acne medications. As such, new acne treatments must be developed that balance good anti-acne efficacy with excellent tolerability in order to ensure patient adherence and by extension ensure good clinical outcomes. The goal of the present study was to determine the tolerability and efficacy of a novel skin care system, composed of a cleanser, containing 1% salicylic acid and botanical ingredients, and a treatment gel, containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid and botanical ingredients for the treatment of mild acne. In this single-center, open-label clinical study, 25 male and female volunteers used the test cleanser and test gel twice daily over six weeks. Tolerability assessments showed that the skin care regimen was very well tolerated by all study volunteers. Acne severity was significantly reduced by two acne grades at six weeks. Inflammatory lesion counts were significantly reduced, on average, by 59.06% (P ≤ 0.0001), 91.62% (P ≤ 0.0001), 90.85% (P ≤ 0.0001) and by 98.55% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Non-inflammatory lesion counts were reduced, on average, by 13.54% (ns), 38.95% (P ≤ 0.0001), 44.48% (P ≤ 0.0001), and by 56.10% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Standardized photography also demonstrated a progressive reduction in acne lesions over time. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that the tested skin care regimen offers rapid acne clearance and excellent tolerability that together may help to improve patient adherence as well as treatment outcome.

  9. Scintigraphic localization of bone lesions during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harcke, H.T.; MacEwen, G.D.; Conway, J.J.; Tachdjian, M.O.; Dias, L.S.; Noble, H.B.; Weiss, S.

    1985-03-01

    Nuclear medicine provides several methods for increasing the accuracy of surgical removal of bone lesions with focally increased uptake. In this paper, three intraoperative procedures are discussed: remote control by imaging, intraoperative control by imaging, and intraoperative control by scintillation probe. All techniques require preoperative injection of bone imaging tracer. Remote operative control calls for a gamma camera to mark the skin over the lesion prior to surgery, providing optimal preoperative localization and imaging of the excised lesion to ensure complete removal. Intraoperative control procedures require that a portable camera or a scintillation probe be used in the operating room; these permit direct monitoring of localization and resection. Our experience with 18 procedures performed on 15 patients suggests that these techniques are worthy of continued use.

  10. Endoscopic management of orbital apex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, D S; Lau, D P

    1997-01-01

    Lesions of the orbital apex often present a diagnostic dilemma. Clinical assessment and imaging studies are helpful but a tissue biopsy is often required. The morbidity associated with transcranial approaches to the orbital apex may outweigh the benefits of obtaining a biopsy by these routes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of orbital apex lesions can be performed but there are disadvantages with this method. We describe a transnasal endoscopic technique to biopsy the orbital apex. The technique was used successfully to obtain a tissue diagnosis in six patients with orbital apex lesions. This enabled commencement of definitive treatment. There were no significant complications. The transnasal approach to the orbital apex using the endoscopes is reliable. Endoscopes provide excellent illumination, magnification, and a panoramic view of the operative field. PMID:9438058

  11. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management. PMID:25192328

  12. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  13. The Determination of Polyethylene Glycol in Untreated Urine Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Intestinal Permeability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Philipsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol in urine samples has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weights ranged from 634 to 1338. The urine samples were applied to the chromatographic system without any pre-treatment. For samples with a concentration of 0.2% polyethylene glycol...

  14. In vitro degradation of porous poly(propylene fumarate)/poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedberg, E.L.; Shih, C.K.; Lemoine, J.J.; Timmer, M.D.; Liebschner, M.A.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro degradation of porous poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF-based) composites incorporating microparticles of blends of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) during a 26-week period in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C. Us

  15. Decoding diffusivity in multiple sclerosis: analysis of optic radiation lesional and non-lesional white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klistorner

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage.Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR.Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD, which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI.This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our results suggest that, at

  16. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions – A Pictorial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhara, S.H.; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  17. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions - A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhara, S H; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  18. MR findings of the spinal epidural lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Shin, Myung Jin; Rhim, Seung Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Midicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Tae [Dongguk Univ. College of Midicine, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    The spinal canal takes the form of a series of cylinders designated by their relationship to the meninges and is divided by the dura mater into the epidural or extradural space and intradural space. The epidural space is composed of spinal ligaments, connective and areolar tissue, the epidural venous plexus, lymphatic channels and supporting elements, and various pathologic entities are found there. MR imaging can accurately depict the extent and characteristics of lesions, and in some cases specific diagnosis is possible. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a variety of spinal epidural lesions and their MR findings.

  19. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  20. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J;

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  1. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  2. A Crystallographic Study of the Role of Sequence Context in Thymine Glycol Bypass by a Replicative DNA Polymerase Serendipitously Sheds Light on the Exonuclease Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, Pierre; Duclos, Stéphanie; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie (Vermont)

    2012-06-27

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. and Doublie S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors - including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg - influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.

  3. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Erel

    2010-01-01

    Benign breast lesions (BBL) includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly incre...

  4. The wide spectrum of hyperechoic lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, A., E-mail: annalinda33@gmail.co [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, C.; Lorenzon, M.; Furlan, A.; Londero, V. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Machin, P. [Institute of Pathology, Ospedale De Gironcoli, Conegliano (Italy); Bazzocchi, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Although breast lesions are commonly detected because of their hypoechogenicity, some lesions may present with hyperechogenicity due to their histological components. Hyperechogenicity has been shown to be highly predictive of benignity; however, hyperechoic lesions can occasionally be malignant. This article reviews hyperechoic lesions of the breast, describes the underlying histological causes associated with hyperechogenicity, and the sonographic features useful for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant hyperechoic lesions.

  5. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Miljko A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other miscellaneous lesions. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. Cholesterol polyps are the most common pseudotumors of the gallbladder. The polyps can be single or multiple, usually less than 10 mm in size. They have no predilection for any particular gallbladder site, and usually are attached to the gallbladder wall by a delicate, narrow pedicle. No malignant potential has been identified for this type of pseudotumor. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. They have no predilection site in the gallbladder, and may also be associated with gallstones or cholecystitis. The premalignant nature of adenomas remains controversial. Ultrasonography (US has been demonstrated to be significantly better in detecting polypoid lesions of the gallbladder as compared with computed tomography and cholecystography. A mass fixed to the gallbladder wall of normal thickness, without shadowing, is seen in case of gallbladder polyp. Since gallbladder cancers usually present as polypoid lesions, differentiation between benign polypoid lesion and malignant lesion can be very difficult, even with high-resolution imaging techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS Retrospectively we have analyzed 38 patients with ultrasonographicaly detected gallbladder polyps during the period from January 1995 to December 2000, who were treated at surgical department of Health Centre in Uzice and at Surgical clinic of Clinical Centre in Nis. We have analyzed

  6. The comparison of excisionel biopsies between wire-guided and radioguided occult lesion localization in nonpalpable breast lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Kağan Karabulut

    2011-01-01

    The development of breast imaging methodsincreased frequent of nonpalpable breast lesions.Consequently, diagnosis of early breast cancer increasedand breast cancer mortality decreased. Several techniqueswere described for excisional biopsy of nonpalpablebreast lesions. Wire guided localization is currentlythe most commonly used localization method for nonpalpablebreast lesions. ROLL is a possible alternative tothe commonly used wire guided localization of non palpablebreast lesions and ROLL i...

  7. Glycolic acid chemical peeling improves inflammatory acne eruptions through its inhibitory and bactericidal effects on Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Takeda, Mikiko; Ashikaga, Sayaka; Kawashima, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Glycolic acid chemical peeling is effective for treating comedones, and some clinical data show that it also improves inflammatory eruptions. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of glycolic acid chemical peeling to improve inflammatory acne. To assess growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects of glycolic acid on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro, we used an agar diffusion method and a time-kill method. To reveal bactericidal effects in vivo, we established an agar-attached method which correlated well with the ordinary swab-wash method, and we used the agar-attached method to compare the numbers of propionibacteria on the cheek treated with glycolic acid chemical peeling. Our results show that 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5, 3.5 and 5.5) formed growth inhibitory circles in the agar diffusion method, but the diameters of those circles were smaller than with 1% nadifloxacin lotion or 1% clindamycin gel. In the time-kill method, 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5 and 3.5) or 1% nadifloxacin lotion reduced the number of P. acnes to less than 100 CFU/mL within 5 min. In contrast, in 30% glycolic acid (at pH 5.5) or in 1% clindamycin gel, P. acnes survived for more than 4 h. Chemical peeling with 35% glycolic acid (at pH 1.2) decreased the number of propionibacteria on the cheeks of patients compared with untreated controls (P glycolic acid has moderate growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects on P. acnes, and that chemical peeling with glycolic acid works on inflammatory acne via those effects.

  8. Glycol methacrylate embedding for light microscopy : Basic principles and trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, PO; Horobin, RW

    1996-01-01

    Acrylic resin mixtures are now widely used as embedding media for the preparation of tissue sections. Most of these mixtures are based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (glycol methacrylate, GMA). Resin embedding preserves tissue components far better than paraffin, celloidin or frozen sections. The pr

  9. A Coarse-Grained Model for Polyethylene Oxide and Polyethylene Glycol : Conformation and Hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hwankyu; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Pastor, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    A coarse-grained (CG) model for polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) developed within the framework of the MARTINI CG force field (FF) using the distributions of bonds, angles, and dihedrals from the CHARMM all-atom FF is presented. Densities of neat low molecular weight PEO agree

  10. Detection of ethylene glycol - toward W51/e2 and G34.3+0.02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Julie M.; Favre, Cécile

    2014-07-01

    Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), also commenly known as antifreeze, is the reduced alcohol version of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO). Glycoladehyde - the simplest possible aldehyde sugar (Marstokk and Møllendal 1973) - is the first intermediate step in the path toward forming more complex and biologically relevant molecules through the the formose reaction, which begins with formaldehyde (H2CO) and ends with the formation of sugars and ultimately ribose, the backbone of RNA (e.g., Larralde et al. 1995). The presence of glycolaldehyde is therefore an important indication that processes leading to biologically relevant molecules are taking place. It is however, still unclear as to how glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol are formed in the ISM. It has been proposed that they share a common formation pathway through UV-irradiation of methanol (CH3OH) ices mixed with CO (Öberg et al. 2009). So far, ethylene glycol, in its lower energy con-former (g’Ga(CH2OH)2), has been detected toward SgrB2 (N) by Hollis et al. (2002), tentatively toward IRAS 16293-2422 (Jørgensen et al. 2012) and marginally by Kalenskii and Johansson (2010) toward W51 e1/e2. Here we present a firm detection of ethylene glycol toward W51/e2 as well as a first detection toward G34.3+0.02 at 1mm and 3mm using the IRAM 30m telescope.

  11. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  12. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekblad, T.; Bergström, G.; Ederth, T.; Conlan, S.L.; Mutton, R.; Clare, A.S.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Liedberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on polystyrene-co

  13. Transport and degradation of propylene glycol in the vadose zone: model development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, D.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Lissner, H.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K.U.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transport and degradation of de-icing chemical (containing propylene glycol, PG) in the vadose zone were studied with a lysimeter experiment and a model, in which transient water flow, kinetic degradation of PG and soil chemistry were combined. The lysimeter experiment indicated that aerobic as well

  14. Insights on cryoprotectant toxicity from gene expression profiling of endothelial cells exposed to ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rui Martins; Stirling, Soren; Fahy, Gregory M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation consists of preserving living cells or tissues generally at -80 °C or below and has many current applications in cell and tissue banking, and future potential for organ banking. Cryoprotective agents such as ethylene glycol (EG) are required for successful cryopreservation of most living systems, but have toxic side effects whose mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of ethylene glycol in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model of the vascular endothelium in perfused organs. Exposing cells to 60% v/v EG for 2 h at 4 °C resulted in only a slight decrease in subsequent cell growth, suggesting only modest toxicity of EG for this cell type. Gene expression analysis with whole genome microarrays revealed signatures indicative of a generalized stress response at 24 h after EG exposure and a trend toward partial recovery at 72 h. The observed changes involved signalling pathways, glycoproteins, and genes involved in extracellular and transmembrane functions, the latter suggesting potential effects of ethylene glycol on membranes. These results continue to develop a new paradigm for understanding cryoprotectant toxicity and reveal molecular signatures helpful for future experiments in more completely elucidating the toxic effects of ethylene glycol in vascular endothelial cells and other cell types. PMID:26471925

  15. Poly(L-lactide)-Poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Copolymers: Synthesis and Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Poly (L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymers with predetermined block lengths were synthesized by polycondensation of PLA diols and PEG diacids. These copolymers presented special properties, such as better miscibility between the two components, low crystallinity and better hydrophilicity, which can be modulated by adjusting the block lengths of the two components.

  16. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  17. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. Osmotic pressure and aggregate shape in BSA/Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Lipid/Dextran solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W.; Clifton, Luke. A.; Green, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    Osmotic pressure and aggregate shape in BSA/Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Lipid/Dextran solutions correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 113 343 7595; fax: +44 113 343 6551. (Castelletto, Valeria) (Castelletto, Valeria) School of Chemistry--> , Food Biosciences and Pharmacy--> , The University of Reading--> , P.O. Box 226--> , Whiteknights--> , Reading--> - UNIT...

  19. Aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol - Role of intermediates in catalyst performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, de D.J.M.; Mojet, B.L.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid product formation during the aqueous catalytic reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) was studied up to 450 °C and 250 bar pressure. Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid were the main liquid by-products during EG reforming in the presence of alumina-supported Pt and Pt–Ni catalysts. The effect of th

  20. Production of 2,3-butylene glycol from citrus wastes. II. The Bacillus polymyxa fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S K; Patrick, R

    1965-11-01

    The conditions required for production of levo 2,3-butylene glycol by Bacillus polymyxa from citrus molasses were studied. Starter cultures required acclimatization to the substrate prior to inoculation of the fermentation medium. Maximal production of butylene glycol with minimal residual sugar was obtained with a medium consisting of molasses, diluted to 20 degrees Brix, and 0.4% urea. Optimal environmental conditions included aeration at 0.11 volumes of air per volume of medium per minute, maintenance of pH at 6.0 to 6.2, a fermentation temperature of 30 C, and a stirring rate of 420 rev/min. The concentration of butylene glycol obtained in the fermentation beer ranged from 2.3 to 4.4%. The optical rotation of the glycol ranged from [alpha](D) (23 degrees ) = -1.01 degrees to -10.45 degrees . The variation in rotation was probably due to the presence of contaminating substances in the distillate. PMID:5866043

  1. Increased permeability for polyethylene glycols through skin compromised by sodium lauryl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Jakasa; M.M. Verberk; A.L. Bunge; J. Kruse; S. Kezic

    2006-01-01

    In this in vivo human study we assessed the influence of skin damage by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on percutaneous penetration of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weights (MW). Percutaneous penetration of PEGs was determined using tape stripping of the stratum corneum (SC). The f

  2. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  3. ANTI-CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACID IN WATER-GLYCOL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASHKIRCEVA N.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium salts of carboxylic acids were investigated to evaluate the corrosion properties of the water-glycol solutions. Corrosion tests were performed by methods of gravimetry and galvanostatic dissolution with metals used in cooling systems. The compositions of anticorrosion systems and their concentration that provide the most effective inhibition of metals were determined.

  4. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, Saskia G A; Houweling, Martin; Bouman, Marina; Koets, Ad P; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene

  5. Effect of Butanol and Propylene Glycol in Amorphous MnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson HENRY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous MnO2 are synthesized using KMnO4, butanol, and propylene glycol in an aqueous solution by using the precipitation method, under ambient conditions. The structure, molecular vibrations, surface morphological and optical properties of MnO2 powders are studied using XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. From the XRD patterns, it is clear that both butanol and propylene glycol assisted MnO2 particles are amorphous in nature. While the strong peak is noticed at 1384 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra, which is due to the characteristic peak of MnO2. SEM photographs show spherical shapes of MnO2 particles, and the average size of a particle is about 200 nm for butanol assisted samples and is around 500 nm for propylene glycol assisted samples. Butanol assisted MnO2 particles exhibit higher optical absorption in the visible region than propylene glycol. However, the estimated optical band gap of both the samples is found around 2.33 eV.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.22

  6. Stainless steel modified with poly(ethylene glycol) can prevent protein adsorption but not bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jiang; Bagge, Dorthe; Gram, Lone;

    2003-01-01

    The surface of AISI 316 grade stainless steel (SS) was modified with a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (molecular weight 5000) with the aim of preventing protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion. Model SS substrates were first modified to introduce a very high density of reactive amine grou...

  7. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  8. Effect of Rotula aquatica Lour. on ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A.J.M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica (Boraginaceae against ethylene glycolinduced urolithiasis in albino rats is summarized in this study. Lithiasis was induced in rats by administrating 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine and low urinary magnesium content. The alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica was administered in 200 mg/kg body weight orally for 28 days along with 1% ethylene glycol. Urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine was reduced and urinary magnesium level was elevated. It also increased the urine volume, thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction of lithiasis as microcrystal deposition was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced, however, after treatment with the extract. These observations enable us to conclude that alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica is effective against ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in albino rats.

  9. Preparation of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate Using a Tubular Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振云; 卢祖国; 李小波

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEA), an excellent solvent, is prepared with ethylene oxide (EO) and ethyl acetate (EA) in a tubular reactor under suitable reaction condition. The single circulation yield can reach 81%. This technology is not only safe but also makes it possible to continuously produce EGEA in industry,with low content of high boiling point by-products.

  10. Electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thermoelectric films from a nonaqueous electrolyte using ethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Wu, M.; Su, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol was studied as an electrolyte for the electrodeposition of thermoelectric bismuth telluride films by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring disk electrode and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). The reduction of both Bi3+ and Te4+ ions proceeds in one step without the form

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SPIRULINA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED UROLITHIASIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sunitha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our present study is to assess the effects of spirulina as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis model in rats. Rats were induced to produce kidney stone by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol (v/v (EG for 6 weeks. In additiion to this, spirulina extract 20mg/kg, were administered along with ethylene glycol for 6 weeks. On 24 hours after 6 weeks, the blood was collected from individual rats and used for the estimation of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine. The ethylene glycol feeding resulted in an increased level of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea and creatinine, with a decreased level of phosphorus, compared to normal rats. All these conditions were reversed on spirulina treatment. Histopathological analysis also showed that rats treated with ethylene glycol had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals, and that deposits were reduced in rats treated with spirulina. These data suggest that spirulina has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  12. Diethylamine functionalized polyethylene glycol as a novel and efficient catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Ye; Hong Jiang; Xian-Cao Yang

    2011-05-01

    The Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with active methylene is an efficient reaction for carbon-carbon double bond formation. A rapid, efficient, and ecofriendly protocol for the Knoevenagel condensation of active methylene compounds with aldehydes has been developed with diethylamine functionalized polyethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as catalyst with good to excellent yields at room temperature without solvent.

  13. Physicochemical properties and applications of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) for use in bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanao, R.P.; Jonker, A.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Hest, J.C. van; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most often used synthetic polymer within the field of bone regeneration owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. As a consequence, a large number of medical devices comprising PLGA have been approved for clinical use in humans by the American Fo

  14. Near-infrared laser-induced generation of three rare conformers of glycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Anna; Lapinski, Leszek; Reva, Igor; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2014-07-31

    Structural transformations were induced in conformers of glycolic acid by selective excitation with monochromatic tunable near-infrared laser light. For the compound isolated in Ar matrixes, near-IR excitation led to generation of two higher-energy conformers (GAC; AAT) differing from the most stable SSC form by 180° rotation around the C-C bond. A detailed investigation of this transformation revealed that one conformer (GAC) is produced directly from the near-IR-excited most stable conformer. The other higher-energy conformer (AAT) was effectively generated only upon excitation of the primary photoproduct (GAC) with another near-IR photon. Once these higher-energy conformers of glycolic acid were generated in an Ar matrix, they could be subsequently transformed into one another upon selective near-IR excitations. Interestingly, no repopulation of the initial most stable SSC conformer occurred upon near-IR excitation of the higher-energy forms of the compound isolated in solid Ar. A dramatically different picture of near-IR-induced conformational transformations was observed for glycolic acid isolated in N2 matrixes. In this case, upon near-IR excitation, the most stable SSC form converted solely into a new conformer (SST), where the acid OH group is rotated by 180°. This conformational transformation was found to be photoreversible. Moreover, SST conformer, photoproduced in the N2 matrix, spontaneously converted to the most stable SSC form of glycolic acid, when the matrix was kept at cryogenic temperature and in the dark.

  15. Biocompatibility and degradation of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/calcium phosphate cement composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhe, P.Q.; Hedberg, E.L.; Padron, N.T.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Injectable calcium phosphate (Ca-P) cement materials exhibit favorable osteocompatible behavior but are resorbed slowly because of a lack of a bone ingrowth-enabling macroporosity. In this study, poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (average size 66 +/- 25 microm) were incorporated

  16. Classification of breast lesions presenting as mass and non-mass lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Martel, Anne L.

    2014-03-01

    We aim to develop a CAD system for robust and reliable di erential diagnosis of breast lesions, in particular non-mass lesions. A necessary prerequisite for the development of a successful CAD system is the selection of the best subset of lesion descriptors. But an important methodological concern is whether the selected features are in uenced by the model employed rather than by the underlying characteristic distribution of descriptors for positive and negative cases. Another interesting question is how a particular classi er exploits the relationships between descriptors to increase the accuracy of the classi cation. In this work we set to: (1) Characterize kinetic, morphological and textural features among mass and non-mass lesions; (2) Examine feature spaces and compare selection of subset of features based on similarity of feature importance across feature rankings; (3) Compare two classi er performances namely binary Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) for the task of di erentiating between positive and negative cases when using binary classi cation for mass and non-mass lesions separately or when employing a multi-class classi cation. Breast MRI datasets consists of 243 (173 mass and 70 non-mass) lesions. Results show that RF variable importance used with RF-binary based classi cation optimized for mass and non-mass lesions separately o ers the best classi cation accuracy.

  17. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye

  18. CYTOHISTOLOGICAL CORRELATIVE STUDY OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast lump is fairly common complaint in females for which patient seeks medical advice and becomes anxious about the diagnosis. Quick diagnosis by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC relieves patient’s anxiety and assists in their pre - operative management a nd overall treatment . AIMS : To study the cytological spectrum of breast lesions in correlation with histological appearances to evaluate the utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Total of 180 cases were studied by FNAC of which 42 cases specimen was received for histopathology examination (HPE. Diagnostic accuracy was studied by statistical analysis. RESULTS : In this study of 42 cases of correlation , maximum cases were obtained for fibroadenoma followed by malignancy. FNAC diagnosis was consistent with HPE in 41 cases and inconsistent in one case. CONCLUSION : FNAC can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant conditions , neoplastic and non - neoplastic conditions. The result compared with other studies substantiate the findings of the series that FNAC of breast is a sensitive and specific modality that assist in diagnosis and management of breast lesions. KEYWORDS: FNAC ; breast lesions; HPE.

  19. DEGENERATED SOFT TISSUE LESION RESEMBLING A CHONDROMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 42 year old male fisherman presented with a tender mass in the right side groin/root of the thigh. The entire episode followed a trauma. A biopsy specimen revealed a chondroma like lesion with necrosis. The final diagnosis made was Necrosis of Tendon.

  20. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first...

  1. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  2. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Aron K Barbey; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Barbey et al. investigate the neurobiology of social problem solving and its relation to psychometric intelligence, emotional intelligence, and personality in 144 patients with focal lesions. Results reveal the neural architecture of social problem solving and provide an integrative framework for understanding the social, psychometric, and emotional foundations of human intelligence.

  3. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  4. Circumscribed lytic lesions of the thalassaemic skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzincolo, C.; Corcione, S.; Castaldi, G.; Bariani, L.; Franceschini, F.; Scutellari, P.N.

    1988-07-01

    Solitary or multiple circumscribed osteolytic areas are described in seven patients, selected from 250 patients with homozygous ..beta..-thalassaemia (Cooley's anaemia). On X-ray examinations, these areas appear as purely osteolytic lesions with well-defined margins not associated with sclerosis. The possible mechanisms are discussed.

  5. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  6. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for furt...

  7. Pleural Mass Lesion Containing Calcium Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kurkcuoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   A 30 year-old man was admitted with of chest pain. Had a x-ray and computed tomography showed calcified pleural mass . Lesions in the white-colored, dense mud was the consistency of the material.

  8. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  9. Otoendoscopic treatment of hidden lesions in otomastoiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; SUN Jian-jun; LIN Yong-sheng; ZHAO Dan-heng; ZHAO Jing; LEI Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical treatments for chronic suppurative and cholesteatoma otitis media have been discussed for several decades, but recurrences still occur because of the complex dissection required and hidden lesions associated with otomastoiditis. This study investigated the technology and strategy behind the use of otoendoscopic-assisted otosurgery.Methods We reported on hidden lesions in 32 ears of patients with otomastoiditis between November 2006 and January 2009. All the patients were treated with the aid of an otoendoscope. The advantages of otoendoscopy, including multi-angle light scattering, aperture illumination, and magnification of the local operative field, were utilized in otologic microsurgery, and otoendoscopic operative techniques were introduced for operative sites such as the epitympanum, aditus of the antrum, facial recess, sinus tympani and the mastoid tip.Results All patients were followed up from 3 months to 2 years after surgery. All patients recovered well within 3 months following surgery, except for one case of epithelialization of the mastoid cavity occurring 6 months after surgery for cholesteatoma on the cerebellar surface and another case with Bezold's abscess, hyperplastic granulation tissue developed at the antrum.Conclusions Otoendoscopy can overcome the technical deficiency of rectilinearity of the visual axis associated with otomicroscopic illumination, which presents a problem when dealing with otomastoiditis lesions in hidden areas. This technique allows such lesions within the complex three-dimensional structure to be visualized and cleaned. Otoendoscopy thus has significant potential for improving the quality of surgery and reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence.

  10. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert ...

  11. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  12. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions--part I: an approach to compound naevoidal pattern lesions with spindle cell morphology and Spitzoid pattern lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-04-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes reveal a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional naevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may be either a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either because of its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion because of a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified. However, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions can reliably be resolved with this standard approach, problem areas do exist and cause no end of grief to the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. In this review, the authors present their algorithmic approach to spindle cell melanocytic lesions and discuss each entity in turn, in order to (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions, and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions that either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  13. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography. PMID:17966782

  14. Supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions: MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joo; Son, Young Bo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To describe MR findings and differential points of supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the MR findings of 59 patients with supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions, and classified them as follows : tumor-associated cyst, infectious cyst, ex-vacuo type cyst, and congentital/developmental cyst. Among 59 patients, 47 tumor-associated cysts were seen in 17, 42 infectious cysts in 13, 17 ex-vacuo type cysts in 10, and 19 congenital/developmental cysts in 19. In 44 of 47 tumor-associate cysts, increased or inhomogeneous internal signal intensity was seen on T1-weighted image, 37 of 47 showed thick uneven walls ; 37 of 47 had enhancing solid components and there was variable perifocal edema and mass effect. Infectious cysts were multiple (11 of 13). In cases of brain abscess, increased internal signal intensity on T1-weighted image, low signal intensity of abscess wall on T2-weighted image, thick even enhancing wall, and marked perifocal edema (4 of 4) were seen in all four cases. Cysts in cysticercosis were variable in appearance depending on the stage, but were smaller than other cystic lesions. Ex vacuo type cysts were of uniform CSF signal intensity in all pulse sequences and there was no identifiable wall or enhancement associated with enlarged adjacent ventricle and encephalomalacia (17 of 17). Congenital/developmental cysts showed a single lesion (19 of 19), a signal intensity similar to CSF in all pulse sequences (15 of 19), no identifiable wall (16 of 19), no enhancement (17 of 19), and no perifocal edema (19 of 19). MR was used to categorize supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions into four groups on the basis of their number, size, internal homogeneity of signal intensity on T1-weighted image, enhancing pattern, perifocal edema and mass effect, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management.

  15. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  16. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  17. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nRadiology (imaging plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Furthermore, they are frequently difficult to definitively characterize by imaging methods, due to their small size, and difficult to biopsy percutaneously. Often clinical follow-up is the only recourse for these lesions. "nTo formulate a practical approach to these patients, several factors must be incorporated into a clinical decision-making algorithm (figure below, including: the particular clinical setting (e.g., known co-morbidities, underlying cirrhosis or a known primary neoplasm, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, and the critical information provided by imaging studies. "nDue to a combination of high spatial resolution and inherent soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, and wide availability, ultrasonography (US is frequently the first-line imaging modality for the study of the liver. "nMulti-detector row CT (MDCT has become the most commonly used modality in the preoperative diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with known or suspected hepatic tumors. "nTo maximize the detection and characterization of liver tumors, the CT protocol must be designed according to the diagnostic task. To increase the attenuation difference (i.e., conspicuity between the hepatic parenchyma and liver tumors,3 several injection factors need to be optimized, including the volume and iodine concentration of contrast media, the injection rate (4-5mL/s, and the scanning delay from the start of contrast

  18. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems containing glycols, aromatic hydrocarbons, and water: Experimental measurements and modeling with the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2006-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of four binary glycol + aromatic hydrocarbon systems and three ternary systems containing water have been measured at atmospheric pressure. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + benzene or toluene, triethylene glycol (TEG) + benzene or toluene, MEG + ...

  19. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  20. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  1. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  2. The radio-pathological correlation of spleen lesions; Correlacion radioanatomopatologica de la lesion esplenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Cespedes, M.; Camacho, F. I. [Hosptial Virgen de la Salud. Toledo (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To review the spectrum of spleen lesions, by correlating the radiologic images with the anatomopathological findings. A retrospective study was carried out on 180 patients with splenic lesions, whose diagnosis had been confirmed by the anatomopathological unit. The iconography was studied, distinguishing between the following categories: inflammatory/infectious pathology, cystic and vascular lesions, benign diffuse infiltration illnesses, tumours and development abnormalities. We showed the distribution of the lesions observed in our series and the correlation of the radiologic images with those of the pathologic study of the most significant ones. The current imaging methods allow for a reliable diagnostic approach to the splenic processes, however, the anatomopathological correlation, when possible, has been proven o be very useful. Currently computed tomography is still the technique chosen to evaluate the spleen, especially due to its availability. The arrival of the helical computed tomography has significantly improved the characterisation and the detection of lesions. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be especially useful for small lesions and for some diffuse infiltrations, such as hemochromatosis. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. [Onychomatricoma, a rare lesion of the nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommepuy, Isabelle; Roblet, Denis; Blaise, Sophie; Delage-Corre, Manuela; Bonnetblanc, Jean-Marie; Fayol, Jacqueline; Labrousse, François

    2004-09-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare fibroepithelial lesion of the nail matrix with peculiar clinical and histological features. Clinically, it is characterized by a longitudinal band of yellow thickening of the nail plate with transverse overcurvature and splinter hemorrhages. Nail avulsion exposes a villous tumor of the matrix with filamentous digitations extending into multiple holes of the nail plate. Histologically, a thick keratogenous zone forms a thickened nail plate. The lesion in its proximal portion is characterized by deep epithelial invaginations and by a stroma organized in two layers. The distal zone corresponds to multiple fibroepithelial projections extending into the nail plate. The diagnosis can be difficult in the presence of misleading clinical features or when the specimen is incomplete or examined with an improper orientation. Surgical resection is the recommended treatment. PMID:15567955

  4. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  5. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  6. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8......Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...

  7. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...

  8. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  9. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  10. Isolated, relative aproverbia without focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cora; Smith-Benjamin, Sarah; Patira, Riddhi; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    We have seen a patient with a profound, isolated, and quite selective deficit in proverb interpretation-aproverbia. The patient presented to us after an anoxic brain injury with aproverbia. Interestingly, the aproverbia appeared to be premorbid to the presenting event. Furthermore, the patient had no brain lesion that has been associated or even proposed as a cause of deficit in proverb or metaphor interpretation. The patient did have acute bilateral hippocampi lesions and associated severe anterograde amnesia, but he retained good retrograde memory with which he is able to give good, logical but concrete explanations for proverbs. This case highlights the need, importance, and interest in further neuropsychologic, imaging and functional studies of proverb and interpretation in patients and normal subjects populations. PMID:26836570

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GLYCOLIC-FORMIC FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ACTUAL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2011-11-07

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  12. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  13. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  14. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  15. Cameron lesion: An unusual cause of anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Ivan; Alempijević Tamara; Popović Dragan; Kovačević Nada; Krstić Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cameron lesions are linear gastric ulcers or erosions positioned on the crests of mucosal folds at the diaphragmatic impression, in patients with large hiatal hernia, and can cause iron deficiency anaemia. Case report. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who was referred to our institution for further investigation after she was examined in gastroenterology emergency room (GER) for signs and symptoms of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia without signs of acute gastr...

  16. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  17. Oral vesiculobullous lesions: Consider the platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Steel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral vesiculobullous lesions or "blood blisters" can be found on a routine dental examination and may have many causes. Trauma is often the first diagnosis followed by a variety of bullous conditions, such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Using a case report, we highlight the other, more serious, possibility of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP to raise awareness to the General Dental Practitioners and the need for prompt treatment.

  18. Implant periapical lesion: Diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  19. Tendon lesion and VEGF-111 injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Janssen, Lauriane; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon lesion is one of the most frequent pathology in sports and by physical workers. This pathology often becomes chronic. For this reason, it is of interest to develop new treatments. Injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a promising one by releasing growth factors (GF) locally. Among all the GF released by activated platelets, the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is known to induce positive effects on vascular function and angiogenesis, and could b...

  20. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Sniya; Gibikote, Sridhar [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Mistry, Yogesh [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pathology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Dastidar, Arindam; Sen, Sudipta [Christian Medical College Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-15

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  1. Calcifying fibrous tumour: an unusual omental lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifying fibrous tumour (CFT) is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by calcifying lesions usually occurring in soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum of children and adults. Most reported cases involving the peritoneum have been in adults. We present the imaging, surgical and pathology findings of CFT in a 7-year-old child who presented with an incidental finding of a large omental mass. (orig.)

  2. Cytopathologic diagnosis of liver mass lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Castelino-Prabhu, Shobha; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2013-03-01

    The liver is a common site for metastatic malignancies, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. It also may be involved by primary neoplasms, both benign and malignant. Cytopathologic examination of mass lesions of the liver with pertinent use of ancillary studies is a useful method of establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. The authors reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to cytologic characteristics of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical markers and pertinent molecular studies, differential diagnoses and pitfalls.

  3. Cytopathologic diagnosis of liver mass lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Rachel; Castelino-Prabhu, Shobha; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2013-01-01

    The liver is a common site for metastatic malignancies, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. It also may be involved by primary neoplasms, both benign and malignant. Cytopathologic examination of mass lesions of the liver with pertinent use of ancillary studies is a useful method of establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. The authors reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to cytologic characteristics of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical ma...

  4. VS38 immunostaining in melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, J H; Banerjee, S S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the immunoreactivity of a range of melanocytic lesions, both benign and malignant, with the monoclonal antibody VS38. This was recently described as a marker of reactive/neoplastic plasma cells and, therefore, is useful in the diagnosis of plasmacytoma/myeloma and lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation. This study was prompted by the recent observation that a plasmacytoid melanoma arising in the nasal cavity was strongly immunoreactive with VS38, which was therefore a potential source of major diagnostic error. METHODS: The Streptavidin-peroxidase complex technique was used on paraffin wax embedded sections of 167 melanocytic lesions. Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was used as chromogen for non-pigmented or lightly pigmented lesions and nickel/DAB for more heavily pigmented lesions. RESULTS: Positive immunostaining for VS38 was seen in 14.5% (10/69) of benign naevi (including 40% (four of 10) of Spitz naevi), 10.5% (two of 19) of dysplastic naevi/in situ melanomas, 92% (35/38) of primary cutaneous melanomas, 100% (four of four) of primary mucosal melanomas, 91.7% (33/36) of recurrent/metastatic melanomas, and 100% (one of one) of clear cell sarcomas of soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS: VS38 immunostaining is frequently positive in primary and recurrent/metastatic malignant melanoma and is also reactive less commonly with benign naevi. These results should be borne in mind when this recently described marker of normal/neoplastic plasma cells is used to identify tumour lineage, particularly in tumours arising at unusual sites, such as in the nasal cavity. The possibility of malignant melanoma should be actively considered and excluded in any undifferentiated tumour which shows VS38 immunoreactivity. Images PMID:8675729

  5. Endometriosis: A Highly Unexpected Skin Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Tolga Dinc

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis: A highly unexpected skin lesion Endometriosis is the presence of functional endometrium in anywhere outside of uterin cavity. This clinical entity is relatively common, that 10-15% of fertile women and 6% of post-menopausal women are affected [1,2] . Cutaneous endometriosis is a form of endometriosis and it usually occurs in the incision scar, after gynecological surgeries, cesarean sections and episiotomies [3]. Cutaneous endometriosis is characterized with painful, bluish ...

  6. [Corneal lesions in ichthyosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, W; Meiers, H G; Haensch, R

    1975-06-01

    The authors report about observations they made in two sisters. One sister showed a fibroid degeneration of the cornea, the other a band-shaped keratopathy respectively, together with an ichthyosis and an alopecia as a result of capillary fractures due to pili torti. An autosomal recessive hereditary transmission could be determined. The cutaneous lesion is either an ichthyosis vulgaris, the hereditary transmission of which could not yet be confirmed, or it is a transition form of ichthyosis vulgaris and congenita.

  7. Intracranial lesions in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis of 85 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) that underwent complete necropsy, including gross examination of the brain, was conducted. Grossly identifiable intracranial lesions were present in 17 dogs. Twelve of 85 dogs (14.2%) had brain metastases. Four of 85 dogs (4.7%) had hemorrhagic lesions and/or ischemic necrosis without identifiable tumor. One dog had a primary central nervous system tumor. Signs of intracranial disease were present in six of 85 dogs (7.1%) with HSA; four had brain metastases and two had nonneoplastic lesions. Metastases had a propensity for cerebrum and gray matter. Dogs with brain metastases had more widely disseminated disease than dogs without brain metastases (P less than 0.001). Dogs with pulmonary metastases were at greater risk for developing brain metastases than dogs without pulmonary metastases (odds ratio = 8.31). Although thoracic radiography accurately identified ten of 12 dogs (83%) with pulmonary metastases, too few cases were available to assess the applicability/accuracy of thoracic radiography in predicting the presence or absence of brain metastases in dogs with malignancy and signs of intracranial disease

  8. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  9. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  10. CT images of unilateral sinus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic images of 49 cases of unilateral sinus lesions were examined, and 4 findings were obtained as follows; 1) On the C.T. images of malignant tumors, detection of bone destruction was easy, but its early erosion was difficult. 2) Fungus infections and papilloma of paranasal sinuses demonstrated bone thickness as well as destruction, and this finding would serve as a differential point from malignant diseases. 3) From the C.T. values of soft tissue shadows in the maxillary sinus, it was impossible to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. However, a calcified or non-homogenous soft tissue shadow was seen only in cases of fungus infections and maxillary adenocarcinoma in malignant tumors, and it would be clinically a very important differential point. 4) Many of the unilateral sinus lesions will prove to be indications for surgery, except acute and allergic sinusitis. The paranasal C.T. examinations should be performed if the case does not respond to a conservative therapy over a month, and a case showing bone destruction by the C.T. images would require an exploratory Caldwell-Luc operation. (author)

  11. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  12. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.

  13. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2004-11-01

    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  14. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  15. Orbital space-occupying lesions in Denmark 1974-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sven; Heegaard, Steffen; Bøgeskov, Lars;

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion......ophthalmology, orbit, neoplasm, tumor, Denmark, histopathology, SNOMED codes, prevalence-database, space-occupying lesion...

  16. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  17. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2011-01-01

    and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized......Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs...... by focal microabscesses without observable bacteria. Chronic lesions were characterized by astrocytosis and focal accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes. An infarct was observed in one animal. Perivascular inflammation was seen in 14 cases, mostly as two or three lesions, while focal leptomeningitis...

  18. Biocompatibility Assessment of Polyethylene Glycol-Poly L-Lysine-Poly Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liting; Chen, Baoan; Liu, Ran; Xia, Guohua; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Wei, Chen; Wang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hulin

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nanoparticles polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly L-lysine (PLL)-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) (PEG-PLL-PLGA) before clinical application. We applied some tests to assess the safety of PEG-PLL-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs). There was low cytotoxicity of PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs in vitro as detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of PEG-PLL-PLGA were determined by FCM assay. The apoptotic rate induced by nanoparticles and the fluorescence intensity of intracellular daunorubicin (DNR) demonstrated that DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA could be taken up by the mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells). Hemolysis test and micronucleus (MN) assay demonstrated that the nanoparticles have no obviously blood toxicity and genotoxicity. DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs were injected into mice through tail vein to calculate the median lethal dose (LD50), the results showed that they had a wide safe scale. Blood was taken by removing the eyeball of mice to study the influence of DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA in hepatic and renal functions. The results revealed that there was no significant difference as compared with the control group. Interestingly, the pathologic changes of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney were observed in nanoparticles treated mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs appear to be highly biocompatible and safe nanoparticles that can be suitable for further application in the treatment of tumor.

  19. Biodegradable Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid)-Polyethylene Glycol Nanocapsules: An Efficient Carrier for Improved Solubility, Bioavailability, and Anticancer Property of Lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Ranganathan; Prashanth, Keelara Veerappa Harish; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2015-06-01

    Lutein bioavailability is limited because of its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, lutein-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocapsules were prepared to improve the solubility, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lutein. The scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering examination revealed that the nanocapsules are smooth and spherical with size ranging from 80 to 500 nm (mean = 200 nm). In vitro lutein release profile from nanocapsules showed controlled sustainable release (66%) up to 72 h. Aqueous solubility of lutein nanocapsules was much higher by 735-fold than the lutein. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses showed no chemical interaction among PLGA, PEG, and lutein, indicating possible weak intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction revealed lutein is distributed in a disordered amorphous state in nanocapsules. Postprandial plasma kinetics (area under the curve) of an oral dose of lutein from nanocapsules was higher by 5.4-fold compared with that of micellar lutein (control). The antiproliferative effect of lutein from nanocapsules (IC50 value, 10.9 μM) was higher (43.6%) than the lutein (IC50 value, 25 μM). Results suggest that PLGA-PEG nanocapsule is an efficient carrier for enhancing hydrophilicity, bioavailability, and anticancer property of lipophilic molecules such as lutein.

  20. A new venture with sclerotherapy in an oral vascular lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Sitra, G.; Kayalvizhi, E. B.; Sivasankari, T.; Vishwanath, R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular malformations are one of the most common lesions of the oral cavity. The lesion may be a congenital malformation observed in neonates or arteriovenous malformation observed in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which include surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, β-blockers and steroid therapy. Here we report a case of oral vascular lesion where intralesional injection wit...

  1. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen-Chiung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Li, Chao-Shiang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Tsun-Hou; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-te...

  2. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensit...

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitrez, Eduardo Hennemann, E-mail: epitrez@terra.com.b [Clinica Radiologica Osorio Lopes, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Roberto Campos; Silva, Mariana Eltz; Holz, Gustavo Garcia; Hertz, Felipe Teixeira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Hoefel Filho, Joao Rubiao [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Center of Imaging Diagnosis

    2010-09-15

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a degloving injury of the interface between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. This lesion is characterized by the development of a fluid collection that, although originally described in the thigh, it has also been described in other anatomical sites. The authors report the case of a patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee after trauma and describe the main characteristics of the lesion. (author)

  4. Poly(ethylene glycol) grafted chitosan as new copolymer material for oral delivery of insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Thanh Ha; Thanh Le, Thi Nu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-09-01

    A new scheme of grafting poly (ethylene glycol) onto chitosan was proposed in this study to give new material for delivery of insulin over oral pathway. First, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) amine (mPEGa MW 2000) were grafted onto chitosan (CS) through multiples steps to synthesize the grafting copolymer PEG-g-CS. After each synthesis step, chitosan and its derivatives were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR Then, insulin loaded PEG-g-CS nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking of CS with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Same insulin loaded nanoparticles using unmodified chitosan were also prepared in order to compare with the modified ones. Results showed better protecting capacity of the synthesized copolymer over original CS. CS nanoparticles (10 nm of size) were gel like and high sensible to temperature as well as acidic environment while PEG-g-CS nanoparticles (200 nm of size) were rigid and more thermo and pH stable.

  5. Effect of under-inhibition with methanol and ethylene glycol on the hydrate control process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrate control can be achieved by chemical injection. Currently, methanol and ethylene glycol are the most widely used inhibitors in offshore hydrate control operations. To achieve effective hydrate inhibition, a sufficient amount of inhibitor must be injected to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium condition for hydrate formation outside the pipeline operating pressure and temperature. Recently published field experiments showed that hydrate blockages form more readily in under-inhibited systems than in systems completely without inhibitor. A laboratory study is conducted to determine the effect of low concentration (1--5wt%) methanol and ethylene glycol on the hydrate formation process. The results show that, although these chemicals are effective hydrate inhibitors when added in sufficient quantities, they actually enhance the rate of hydrate formation when added at low concentrations to the water. Furthermore, the presence of these chemicals seems to affect the size of the forming hydrate particles.

  6. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  7. Protective effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Sakhaee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum essential oil on ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in mice. Methods: The study comprised of the following four different groups of six mice: ethylene glycol group, C. cyminum group, treatment group and normal group. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were analyzed and the kidney samples from all the animals of each group were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: Treatment group revealed mild tubular degeneration without formation of calcium oxalate crystals and protein deposition. There were no significant differences between serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in treatment and normal groups. Conclusions: It seems that C. cyminum essential oil significantly decreased formation of calcium oxalate crystals and the growth of renal calculi in different parts of the tubules.

  8. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Glycol by Dihydroxyditelluratoargentate(Ⅲ) with Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of the oxidation of glycol by dihydroxyditelluratoargentate (Ⅲ) complex(DDA) was studied in alkaline medium with spectrophotometry(in a temperature range of 16.6-40 ℃).The first-order rates with respect to glycol and Ag(Ⅲ) were all found.The rates increased with the increase in [OH-] and decreased with the increase in [TeO2-4].No effect was found with the addition of KNO3 and no free radical was detected.In view of this,the dihydroxymonotelluratoargentate(Ⅲ) species(DMA) is assumed to be the active species.A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer is proposed,and the rate equation derived from the mechanism can explain all experimental observations.Activation parameters of the rate-determining step and constants are evaluated.

  9. Binding Reaction of Hemin with Chloroquine, Quinine and Quinidine in Water-propylene Glycol Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAVAKALA,B.K; NLANDU,B.B.; MPIANA,P.T.; GUSHIMANA,Z.Y.; 尉志武

    2003-01-01

    the interaction of hemin with chloroquine,quinine and quinidine was investigated in 50% water-propylene glycol mixture at pH=9,8.1,7.4 and 6.8using a spectrophotometric method.The data could be well fitted into a model consistent with the formation of a 1:1 complex between the reacting partners.In addition,the results indicated that hemin complexed more strongly with quinidine than with chloroquine and quinine,and the binding constants were pH-dependent.Moreover,it was proved that the water-propylene glycol mixture is well suitable to the study of the systems containing hemin and quinolinebased drugs.

  10. Corrosion of AISI 4130 Steel Alloy under Hydrodynamic Condition in Ethylene Glycol + Water + NO2-Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. Danaee; M. Niknejad Khomami; A.A. Attar

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of steel alloy in ethylene glycol-water mixture at different solution rotating speeds was investigated by polarization curves and AC impedance measurements (EIS).The results obtained showed that corrosion rate was not changed significantly at different rotating speeds and was decreased with increasing ethylene glycol concentration.The effect of nitrite as an inhibitor was studied and high inhibition efficiency was obtained.It was found that surface passivation occurred in the presence of inhibitor.The inhibiting effect of the nitrite was explained on the basis of the competitive adsorption between the inorganic anions and the aggressive Cl-ions and the adsorption isotherm basically obeys the Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm.Thermodynamic parameters for steel corrosion and inhibitor adsorption were determined,which revealed that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  11. IONIC CONDUCTIVITY OF EPOXY NETWORK /POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL- LITHIUM PERCHLORATE COMPLEX IPN SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xinsheng; SONG Yongxian; QI Yuchen; WU Shuyun; LI Lixia; CHEN Donglin

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to prepare a polymeric solid electrolyte with both high ionic conductivity at ambient temperature and adequate mechanical strength, an ionic conducting IPN composed of bisphenol A epoxy resin/polyethylene glycol containing LiClO4 was synthesized. The dependence of conductivity was investigated as a function of salt content, composition and temperature. It has been revealed that a maximum of conductivity appeared when EO/Li=25, where EO denotes the -(CH2CH2O )- unit in polyethylene glycol, and that the temperature dependence of conductivity followed VTF equation,suggesting that the motion of ionic carriers resulted from the segmental motion of the polymer. When glycerol epoxy resin was used instead of bisphenol A epoxy, the ambient temperature (25 ℃ ) conductivity could somewhat further be raised up to 3×10-5 S/cm.

  12. Density and viscosity of magnesium sulphate in formamide + ethylene glycol mixed solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ali; A K Nain; N Kumar; M Ibrahim

    2002-10-01

    Densities () and viscosities () of different strengths of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in varying proportions of formamide (FA) + ethylene glycol as mixed solvents were measured at room temperature. The experimental values of and were used to calculate the values of the apparent molar volume, (), partial molar volume, (°) at infinite dilution, - and $B$-coefficients of the Jones-Dole equation and free energies of activation of viscous flow, ($\\Delta \\mu^{0\\ast}_{1}$) and ($\\Delta \\mu^{0\\ast}_{2}$), per mole of solvent and solute respectively. The behaviour of these parameters suggests strong ion-solvent interactions in these systems and also that MgSO4 acts as structure-maker in FA + ethylene glycol mixed solvents.

  13. Dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol-based nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Witharana, Sanjeeva; Ding, Yulong; 10.1007/s11051-011-0485-x

    2012-01-01

    The dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol based nanofluids containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were studied in the temperature range of 20 to 80 {\\deg}C. Nanofluids with different concentrations of nanoparticles were formulated by the two-step method without use of dispersants. In contrast to the common belief the average particle size of nanofluids was observed to decrease with increasing temperature. The nanofluids showed excellent stability over the temperature range of interest. Thermal conductivity enhancement for both of studied nanofluids was a non-linear function of concentration while was temperature independent. Theoretical analyses were performed using existing models and comparisons were made with experimental results. The model based on the aggregation theory appears to yield the best fit. Keywords: Nanofluids, Propylene glycol, Alumina nanoparticles, Titania nanoparticles, Thermal conductivity, Dispersion stability.

  14. Variations in polyethylene glycol brands and their influence on the preparation process of hydrogel microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhl-Bruhn, Stefanie; Bertz, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith;

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel microspheres, e.g. for the use as protein carriers, can be prepared without the use of organic solvents via an emulsified aqueous two phase system (ATPS) that is based on two immiscible polymer solutions. The type and concentration of the polymers can affect the ATPS and finally the dist......Hydrogel microspheres, e.g. for the use as protein carriers, can be prepared without the use of organic solvents via an emulsified aqueous two phase system (ATPS) that is based on two immiscible polymer solutions. The type and concentration of the polymers can affect the ATPS and finally...... the distribution of incorporated drugs between the aqueous phases. For the preparation of hydrogel microspheres based on hydroxyethyl starch-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HES-HEMA), hydroxyethyl starch-methacrylate (HES-MA), and hydroxyethyl starch-polyethylene glycol methacrylate (HES-P(EG)6MA), polyethylene glycol...... of hydrogel microspheres by an aqueous-two-phase preparation process....

  15. Characteristic of hyaluronic acid derivative films cross-linked by polyethylene glycol of low water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jinghua; Chen Jingtao; Xu Zheng; Gu Qisheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the characteristics of byaluronic acid (HA) derivative cross-linked by polyethylene glycol films of low water content. Methods: The cross-linked HA film with 200 μm thickness was got at atmospheric pressure at 25℃ for 5 d. After dried, cross-linked films of 10 mm×10 mm were weighed and immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS pH 7.45) at 37℃ for 24 h. Then the solution fraction and water content were estimated. Meanwhile, cross-linked HA derivative films were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS: pH 7.45) at 37℃ for determined time and then implanted subcutaneously in the back of white rats to test in vitro or in vivo degradation characteristic. Results and Conclusion: HA hydrogel cross-linked by polyethylene glycol with water content is as low as 60% and this kind of HA derivative has a slow degradation rate.

  16. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...... content of 8.4% (w/w). Almost spherical 50–90 nm nanoparticles were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy upon drying. Drug linking to glycol chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and proton NMR. Particles were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide......-angle X-ray diffraction studies. In vitro vitamin D2 release studies performed in water at acid pH indicated a drug release dependence on the solution acidity. Almost constant release rate was observed during the first 8 h. These results indicate that the obtained nanoparticles could be good candidates...

  17. IMMOBILIZATION OF POTENTIALLY BIOACTIVE MOIETIES ONTO POLYETHER WITH POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)-SULFONATE SPACER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jian; FENG Linxian; QIU Yongxin; YU Xiaojie; YANG Shilin

    1997-01-01

    A new reactive graft copolymer, poly(tetramethylene glycol)-graft-ω-propyl sodium sulfonate-poly(ethylene glycol) (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+), was synthesized by the cationic polymerization of α-ω-bifunctional PEG macromonomer ((o)CH2-PEG--CH2CH2CH2SO3Na ) and THF. The obtained copolymer exhibits the expected structure as indicated by the result of characterization. Two amino acids (L-arginine, L-tyrosine) were covalently attached to the copolymer after converting the sulfonate group to sulfonyl chloride. So the new reactive graft copolymer (PTMG-g-PEG-CH2CH2CH2SO-3Na+) is expected to be very useful in attachment of potentially bioactive moieties to polymer via a hydrophilic PEG spacer.

  18. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF POLY (LACTIC ACID-CO-GLYCOL TEREPHTHALIC ACID) COPOLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Cuili; JI Quan; KONG Qingshan; XIA Yanzhi

    2006-01-01

    To obtain a kind of biodegradable polymer material with satisfactory properties, a new biodegradable copolyester poly(lactic acid-co-glycol terephthalate) (PETA), was synthesized from three monomers of lactic acid, glycol and terephthalic acid. The resulting copolyesters, PETA, were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, DSC, TGA and by the ways of weight loss rate to characterize their biodegradability. The findings in this work indicated that, the TmS and TdS of copolyesters PETA increased with increasing contents of the terephthalic acid units. From the biodegradation tests in natural soil, boiling water, acid buffer solution and alkali buffer solution, it was shown that the biodegradability of copolyesters PETA decreased with increasing contents of the terephthalic acid units.

  19. Brφnsted Acidic Ionic Liquids as Efficient Reaction Medium for Cyclodehydration of Diethylene Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Yuan; LI Wei; DAI Li-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Cyclodehydration of diethylene glycol using various Brφnsted acidic ionic liquids as dual solvent-catalysts was studied for the first time. Better results were obtained in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([SPmim]HSO4) than other Brφnsted acidic ionic liquids. The effects of reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of ionic liquid/diethylene glycol were investigated. Good conversion rate and high selectivity were obtained in ionic liquid [SPmim]HSO4 under the optimum conditions. A Hammett method was used to determine the acidity order of these ionic liquids and the results were consistent with the catalytic ac-tivities observed in the cyclodehydration reaction.

  20. POLYMER NETWORK-POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) COMPLEXES WITH SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Qin Zhang; Qiang Fu

    2003-01-01

    The complexes of poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) network with poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized by hydrogen bonds were prepared. By introducing the poly(ethylene glycol), a large difference in storage modulus below and above the glass transition temperature occurred and the complexes exhibited shape memory behaviors. The morphology of complexes was studied by using DSC, WAXD, and DMA. The results indicate that the fixed phase of this kind of novel shape memory materials is the network, and the reversible phase is the amorphous state of PEG:PMAA complex phase. The shape recoverability almost reaches 100%. This type of complexes can be regarded as a novel shape memory network.

  1. CLAY CATALYZED SYNTHESIS OF BIO-DEGRADABLE POLY(GLYCOLIC ACID)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Durai Murugan; S. Radhika; I. Baskaran; R. Anbarasan

    2008-01-01

    Glycolic acid was polymerized under vacuum in the presence and absence of nano sized clay. The added clay catalyzed the condensation polymerization which can be confirmed by recording FT1R spectroscopy and intrinsic viscosity (Ⅳ) values. The relative intensity of C =O/CH is increased while increasing the amount of clay. DSC showed the appearance of multiple endotherms of poly(glycolic acid). TGA showed the percentage weight residue remain above 750℃ for polymer-nano composite system was 21% and hence proved the flame retardancy (char forming) nature. TEM confirmed the nano size of the clay used to catalyze the condensation reaction. The intrinsic viscosity value was increased with the increase of percentage weight of Hectorite type clay.

  2. Solubility of clonazepam and diazepam in binary and ternary mixtures of polyethylene glycols 400 or 600, propylene glycol and water at 298.2K - experimental data and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bastami Zahra; Soltanpour Shahla; Panahi-Azar Vahid; Jouyban Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    Experimental molar solubilities of clonazepam and diazepam in binary and ternary mixtures of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) 400 or 600, propylene glycol (PG) and water (138 data points) along with the density of the saturated solutions at 298.2K were reported. The Jouyban-Acree model was used to fit to the measurements for providing a computational method. Employing the solubilities in the mono-solvents, the measured solubilities in mixed solvents were back-ca...

  3. Ultrafiltration – an alternative method to polyethylene glycol precipitation for macroprolactin detection

    OpenAIRE

    Beda-Maluga, Karolina; Pisarek, Hanna; Romanowska, Irena; Komorowski, Jan; Świętosławski, Jacek; Winczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate two methods of macroprolactin (MaPRL) detection – precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ultrafiltration and to compare these techniques with “gold standard” – gel filtration chromatography (GFC). Material and methods The study was conducted on 245 patients – 45 with organic and 200 with functional hyperprolactinaemia. In all the subjects MaPRL was detected by precipitation with PEG and ultrafiltration. Additionally, gel filtration c...

  4. Synthesis of chlorine - containing ethylene glycol esters in the presence of nano-heterogeneous catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The esterification reactions on the basis of ethylene glycol and monotrichloroacetic acid in the presence of catalyst nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) of anatase modification have been carried out. The significant advantages of nano - catalyst uses have been shown in comparison with traditional proton acid catalysts. The main esters have been obtained with high yield for comparatively short time. The constitution of the esters obtained has been confirmed by IR - spectroscopy and chemical methods of analysis

  5. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    B S Chandrashekar; K R Ashwini; Vani Vasanth; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoi...

  6. Overexpression of Glycolate Oxidase Confers Improved Photosynthesis under High Light and High Temperature in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Li-li; Lu, Yu-Sheng; Li, Yong; Yang, Chengwei; Peng, Xin-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While glycolate oxidase (GLO) is well known as a key enzyme for the photorespiratory metabolism in plants, its physiological function and mechanism remains to be further clarified. Our previous studies have shown that suppression of GLO in rice leads to stunted growth and inhibited photosynthesis (Pn) which is positively and linearly correlated with decreased GLO activities. It is, therefore, of interest to further understand whether Pn can be improved when GLO is up-regulated? In this study,...

  7. Development of methodologies for dimethylaminoethanol glycolate assay in association with sunscreens in dermocosmetic formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Soares Deccache; Elisabete Pereira dos Santos; Lúcio Mendes Cabral; Carlos Rangel Rodrigues; Valéria Pereira de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    DMAE glycolate (DG) and sunscreens have been used associated in anti-aging dermocosmetic formulations. Despite extensive use of these substances, methods for quantification of DG as raw material and in cosmetic formulations, especially when associated, are not described in the literature. RP-HPLC and non-aqueous titration methods, with determination potentiometric end-point (PT), were developed and validated for rapid assay of DG as raw material and in a topic emulsion in association with sun...

  8. Preparation and evaluation of cosmetic patches containing lactic and glycolic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi H.; Kermani Z; Faghihi G; Asilian A; Hamishehkar H; Jamshidi A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Alpha-hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid (GA) and lactic acid (LA), are used in cosmetic patches. The important fact in cosmetic patches is its suitable adhesion and peel properties. Aim: The objective of this study was to prepare LA- and GA-containing cosmetic patches and evaluate in-vitro/in-vivo correlation of adhesion properties. Methods: Pressure-sensitive adhesives with different concentrations of GA and LA were cast on a polyethylene terephthalate film. The patches we...

  9. Effect of Unex on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Edwin Jarald; Pankaj Kushwah; Sheeja Edwin; Suhail Asghar; Showkat Ahmad Patni

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent against the development of kidney stones. The Unex capsule is a marketed product of Unijules Life Sciences, Nagpur, containing the extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and Tribulus terrestris. Activity of Unex was studied using the ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model. Standard drug used was Cystone. Several parameters were used including urinary volume, urine pH, urine analysis, and se...

  10. In Situ Visualization of Lipid Raft Domains by Fluorescent Glycol Chitosan Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yao-Wen; Guo, Hao-Yue; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Wang, Zhifei; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-07-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered small microdomains mainly composed of glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and protein receptors. Optically distinguishing lipid raft domains in cell membranes would greatly facilitate the investigations on the structure and dynamics of raft-related cellular behaviors, such as signal transduction, membrane transport (endocytosis), adhesion, and motility. However, current strategies about the visualization of lipid raft domains usually suffer from the low biocompatibility of the probes, invasive detection, or ex situ observation. At the same time, naturally derived biomacromolecules have been extensively used in biomedical field and their interaction with cells remains a long-standing topic since it is closely related to various fundamental studies and potential applications. Herein, noninvasive visualization of lipid raft domains in model lipid bilayers (supported lipid bilayers and giant unilamellar vesicles) and live cells was successfully realized in situ using fluorescent biomacromolecules: the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled glycol chitosan molecules. We found that the lipid raft domains in model or real membranes could be specifically stained by the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules, which could be attributed to the electrostatic attractive interaction and/or hydrophobic interaction between the probes and the lipid raft domains. Since the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules do not need to completely insert into the lipid bilayer and will not disturb the organization of lipids, they can more accurately visualize the raft domains as compared with other fluorescent dyes that need to be premixed with the various lipid molecules prior to the fabrication of model membranes. Furthermore, the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules were found to be able to resist cellular internalization and could successfully visualize rafts in live cells. The present work provides a new way to achieve the imaging of lipid rafts and also

  11. Synthesis of 2-methylpyrazine from cyclocondensation of ethylene diamine and propylene glycol over promoted copper catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Li Jing; Wei Chu; Yuan Yuan Zhang; Ye Qiang Chen; Shi Zhong Luo

    2008-01-01

    The 2-methylpyrazine was synthesized by catalytic reaction of ethylene diamine and propylene glycol at 380℃. The alumina supported copper catalysts with promoter were prepared by impregnation method, characterized by ICP-AES, BET and TPR. The results demonstrated that the dehydrogenation was improved by addition of chromium promoter. The selectivity of 2-methylpyrazine reached 84.75%, while the conversions of reactants were also enhanced.

  12. Polyethylene glycol, unique among laxatives, suppresses aberrant crypt foci, by elimination of cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Taché, Sylviane; Parnaud, Géraldine; van Beek, Erik; Corpet, Denis E

    2006-01-01

    International audience OBJECTIVE: Polyethylene glycol (PEG), an osmotic laxative, is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer in rats. In a search for the underling mechanisms, the hypothesis that fecal bulking and moisture decrease colon carcinogenesis was tested. We also investigated the PEG effects on crypt cells in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fischer 344 rats (n=272) were injected with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. They were then randomized to a standard AIN76 diet containing one of 19...

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films by modification with polyethylene glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro A. Ramírez-Santos; Próspero Acevedo-Peña; Elcy M. Córdoba

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide porous thin films on the Anatase phase were deposited onto glass slides by the sol-gel method assisted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The dip-coated films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG), UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalytic activity of the films was determined by means of methyl-orange oxidation tests. The resultant PEG-modified films were crack-free and developed a poro...

  14. Structure and Function of Chitosan (V). Conformations of Ethylene Glycol Derivatives of Chitin and Chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    YUI, Toshifumi; NAKATA, Kunihiko; OGAWA, Kozo

    1996-01-01

    Molecular structures of ethylene glycol derivatives of chitin and chitosan, where 0-6 of chitin chain was etherified and both 0-3 and 0-6 of chitosan were substituted, were studied by X-ray fiber diffraction methods coupled with conformational analyses. The extended two-fold helical conformations of both chitin and chitosan chains were retained even by the etherifications. Possible molecular conformations of these derivatives were proposed.

  15. Towards benchmarking of multivariable controllers in chemical/biochemical industries: Plantwide control for ethylene glycol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Bialas, Dawid Jan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a simple yet realistic benchmark plant for evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable control for chemical and biochemical processes. The benchmark plant is based on recycle-separator-recycle systems for ethylene glycol production and implemented in Matlab-Simuli...... for education purposes (operator training, student education, etc) as well as scientific research into chemical process control where it enables rapid evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable controllers as demonstrated in this study....

  16. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2014-09-30

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids and salts as the molybdenum-containing multi-functional catalysts for biomass conversion. In embodiments of the invention, the reactions employ successive hydrolysis, retro-aldol fragmentation, and selective oxidation in a noble metal-free system.

  17. Highly Efficient and Versatile Acetalization of Glycol Catalyzed by Cupric p-Toluenesulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Cai-Hua; YU,Xin-Yu; LIANG,Xue-Zheng; WANG,Wen-Juan; YANG,Jian-Guo; HE,Ming-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Acetalization of glycol with carbonyl compounds was carried out catalyzed by cupric p-toluenesulfonate. These carbonyl compounds included cyclohexanone, propionoaldehyde, n-butyraldehyde, iso-butyraldehyde, n-valeraldehyde, benzaldehyde and butanone. Satisfactory results were obtained: the conversions of these carbonyl compounds were more than 90%, the selectivities were higher than 99.1%, only 0.1% mole ratio of catalyst to substrate and 90 min were sufficient in most cases. The catalyst and products were separated easily by phase separation.

  18. Exploiting Poly(ethylene glycol as a Matrix for Liquid-Phase Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Janda

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Soluble polymer-supported chemistry is a technology that allows the blending of the benefits of polymer-supported synthesis and solution-phase chemistry. Herein, we describe our recent efforts in this area targeted at exploring the scope of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG as the matrix. Specifically we describe the use of PEG as a support for triphenyl phosphine and for the Stille reaction.

  19. Polyethylene glycol in water: A simple, efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of quinoxalines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant V Chavan; Laxman K Adsul; Babasaheb P Bandgar

    2011-07-01

    A variety of biologically important quinoxaline derivatives has been efficiently synthesized in excellent yields under extremely mild conditions using PEG-600 and water. This inexpensive, non-toxic, ecofriendly and readily available system efficiently condensed several aromatic as well as aliphatic 1,2-diketones with aromatic and aliphatic 1,2-diamines to afford the products in excellent yield. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be recovered and recycled.

  20. Biodegradability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) after femtosecond laser irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Akimichi Shibata; Shuhei Yada; Mitsuhiro Terakawa

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradation is a key property for biodegradable polymer-based tissue scaffolds because it can provide suitable space for cell growth as well as tailored sustainability depending on their role. Ultrashort pulsed lasers have been widely used for the precise processing of optically transparent materials, including biodegradable polymers. Here, we demonstrated the change in the biodegradation of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) following irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at diffe...

  1. Biocompatibility Evaluation of a New Hydrogel Dressing Based on Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Polyethylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Biazar; Ziba Roveimiab; Gholamreza Shahhosseini; Mohammadreza Khataminezhad; Mandana Zafari; Ali Majdi

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the dressings is based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and agar. The electron beam irradiation technique has been used to prepare hydrogel wound dressings. The in vitro biocompatibility of the hydrogel was investigated by check samples (hydrocolloid Comfeel), antibacterial test (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia Coli k12), anti fungal test (Candida Albicans) and cytotoxicity test (Fibroblast L929...

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of Polysubstituted Cyclopropanes from Poly(ethylene glycol)Supported Pyridinium Ylide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Pan; LU Cui-fen; YANG Gui-chun; CHEN Zu-xing; DONG Nian-guo; SHI Jia-wei

    2011-01-01

    Polysubstituted cyclopropanes were efficiently prepared with poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)as soluble support.The reaction of PEG-supported pyridinium ylide with arylidenemalononitrile(R=CN)or ethyl arylidenecyanoacetate(R=COOEt)in the presence of triethylamine(TEA)afforded PEG-supported cyclopropanecarboxylates,which were cleaved by 1% KCN/EtOH to obtain polysubstituted cyclopropanes with exclusive trans-selectivity and good yields.

  3. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-09

    The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

  4. Fibrin-Loaded Porous Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels as Scaffold Materials for Vascularized Tissue Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bin; Waller, Thomas M.; Larson, Jeffery C.; Appel, Alyssa A.; Eric M Brey

    2012-01-01

    Vascular network formation within biomaterial scaffolds is essential for the generation of properly functioning engineered tissues. In this study, a method is described for generating composite hydrogels in which porous poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels serve as scaffolds for mechanical and structural support, and fibrin is loaded within the pores to induce vascularized tissue formation. Porous PEG hydrogels were generated by a salt leaching technique with 100–150-μm pore size and thrombi...

  5. Cell fusion and intramembrane particle distribution in polyethylene glycol-resistant cells

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of intramembrane particles (IMP) as revealed by freeze- fracture electron microscopy has been analyzed following treatment of mouse L cells and fusion-deficient L cell derivatives with several concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG). In cell cultures treated with concentrations of PEG below the critical level for fusion, no aggregation of IMP was observed. When confluent cultures of the parental cells are treated with 50% PEG, greater than 90% of the cells fuse, and cold-...

  6. In Situ Visualization of Lipid Raft Domains by Fluorescent Glycol Chitosan Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yao-Wen; Guo, Hao-Yue; Chen, Zhan; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Wang, Zhifei; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-07-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered small microdomains mainly composed of glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and protein receptors. Optically distinguishing lipid raft domains in cell membranes would greatly facilitate the investigations on the structure and dynamics of raft-related cellular behaviors, such as signal transduction, membrane transport (endocytosis), adhesion, and motility. However, current strategies about the visualization of lipid raft domains usually suffer from the low biocompatibility of the probes, invasive detection, or ex situ observation. At the same time, naturally derived biomacromolecules have been extensively used in biomedical field and their interaction with cells remains a long-standing topic since it is closely related to various fundamental studies and potential applications. Herein, noninvasive visualization of lipid raft domains in model lipid bilayers (supported lipid bilayers and giant unilamellar vesicles) and live cells was successfully realized in situ using fluorescent biomacromolecules: the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled glycol chitosan molecules. We found that the lipid raft domains in model or real membranes could be specifically stained by the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules, which could be attributed to the electrostatic attractive interaction and/or hydrophobic interaction between the probes and the lipid raft domains. Since the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules do not need to completely insert into the lipid bilayer and will not disturb the organization of lipids, they can more accurately visualize the raft domains as compared with other fluorescent dyes that need to be premixed with the various lipid molecules prior to the fabrication of model membranes. Furthermore, the FITC-labeled glycol chitosan molecules were found to be able to resist cellular internalization and could successfully visualize rafts in live cells. The present work provides a new way to achieve the imaging of lipid rafts and also

  7. Efficacy and Complications of Polyethylene Glycols for Treatment of Constipation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Si-Le; Cai, Shi-Rong; Deng, Liang; Zhang, Xin-hua; Luo, Te-Dong; Peng, Jian-Jun; Xu, Jian-bo; Wen-feng LI; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Ma, Jin-ping; He, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Constipation is a common childhood complaint. In 90% to 95% of children, constipation is functional, which means that there is no objective evidence of an underlying pathological condition. Polyethylene glycol (PEG or macrogol) solution is an osmotic laxative agent that is absorbed in only trace amounts from the gastrointestinal tract and routinely used to treat chronic constipation in adults. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis of PEG-based laxatives compared with lactulo...

  8. Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized...

  9. Smart poly(oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate) hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suljovrujic, E., E-mail: edin@vinca.rs; Micic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation induced synthesis of POPGMA hydrogel is reported for the first time. • High sol–gel conversion was observed even for small absorbed doses. • POPGMA hydrogel exhibits a volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) around 15 °C. • POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel has good cell viability and low haemolytic activity. • OPGMA based hydrogels promise to be interesting for various applications. - Abstract: The synthesis of poly(oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate) (POPGMA) from functionalised oligo(propylene glycol) methacrylate (OPGMA) monomers by gamma radiation-induced radical polymerisation is reported for the first time; POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel with oligo(propylene glycol) (OPG) pendant chains, as a non-linear PPGMA-analogue, was synthesised from an monomer–solvent (OPGMA{sub 375}–water/ethanol) mixture at different irradiation doses (5, 10, 25, and 40 kGy). Determination of the gel fraction was conducted after synthesis. The swelling properties of the POPGMA hydrogel were preliminarily investigated over wide pH (2.2–9.0) and temperature (4–70 °C) ranges. Additional characterisation of structure and properties was conducted by UV–vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In order to evaluate the potential for biomedical applications, biocompatibility (cytocompatibility and haemolytic activity) studies were performed as well. Sol–gel conversion was relatively high for all irradiation doses, indicating radiation-induced synthesis as a good method for fabricating this hydrogel. Thermoresponsiveness and variations in swelling capacity as a result of thermosensitive OPG pendant chains with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were mainly observed below room temperature; thus, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of POPGMA homopolymeric hydrogel is about 15 °C. Furthermore, POPGMA has satisfactory biocompatibility. The results indicate

  10. Radiation-grafting of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rojas, G. G.; Bucio, E.

    2016-10-01

    Silicone rubber (SR) was modified with a graft of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) using either gamma-radiation or azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The graft efficiency was evaluated as a function of monomer concentration, absorbed dose, reaction temperature, and concentration of AIBN. The hydrophilicity of the grafted films was measured by contact angle and their equilibrium swelling time in ethanol. Additional characterization by infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is also reported.

  11. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-yang; YAO Yuan-zhang; WANG Tao; FEI Jun; SHEN Yue; CHEN Yong-hua; ZONG Zhao-wen

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 (Forlax(R)) on adult patients with functional constipation due to posttraumatic confinement to bed.Methods: A total of 201 posttraumatic bedridden patients were studied in this prospective,open-labeled, singlegroup study. Polyethylene glycol 4000 was administered orally for 14 days and the dosage was adjusted according to the Bristol stool types. Demographic characteristics, disease status, treatment period and factors affecting clinical outcome, especially the concomitant medications, were recorded.Results:After administration of polyethylene glycol 4000, 194 cases (96.52%) showed remission of constipation,including 153 (76.12%)persistent remission. The average defecation frequency increased significantly after treatment and the percentage of patients with stools of normal types (Bristol types 3-5) increased as well. Genders, ages and concomitant medications showed no significant influence on the persistent remission rate. After consecutive treatment for two weeks, patients with slight movement showed a significantly higher remission rate than those without movement (95% vs 80%). At the end of treatment, most accompanying symptoms were relieved obviously. Patients with a medical history of constipation or ever taking laxatives showed a lower remission rate. Sixty cases (29.85%) developed diarrhea during the observational period, among whom 6 (10%) withdrew from the clinical observation voluntarily at the first onset of diarrhea. Two cases suffered from abdominal pain.Conclusions:Polyethylene glycol 4000 (Forlax(R)) has efficacy on functional constipation in posttraumatic bedridden patients. Furthermore, patients with milder symptoms,more movement in bed, and longer duration of treatment but without accompanying symptoms can achieve a higher remission rate.

  12. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon [Purdue

    2016-02-01

    Air–water interfacial monolayers of poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA–PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure–area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air–water monolayers formed by a PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL–PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA–PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA–PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the “n-cluster” effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the “n-cluster” effects.

  13. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-12-29

    Air-water interfacial monolayers of poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure-area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air-water monolayers formed by a PLGA-PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA-PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA-PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the "n-cluster" effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the "n-cluster" effects.

  14. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  15. Multidetector computed tomography of jaw lesions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings

  16. A residual cystic lesion in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, T. [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Nagara (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics; Imai, T. [Kyoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Paediatrics

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a residual cystic lesion on MRI. This seemed to be induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. Despite complete clinical improvement with high-dose steroid therapy, the cystic lesion has persisted for 3 years on MRI. There have been no previous reports of residual cystic lesions in ADEM. (orig.)

  17. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...

  18. Skin lesions in renal transplant recipients: A single center analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic use of immunosuppressants in renal transplant recipients (RTRs predisposes them to a variety of skin manifestations. Studies on skin lesions in RTRs from India have been limited. Aim: To study the prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin diseases in RTR in patients attending the Nephrology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods: Between October 2002 and June 2003, 365 RTRs were evaluated for skin lesions, including 280 examined after renal transplant (group A and 85 examined once before and then monthly after transplant for a period of 6 months (group B. Results: A total of 1163 skin lesions were examined in 346 RTRs (94.7% including lesions of aesthetic interest (LAI [62.3%] followed by infections [27.3%]. All LAI were drug-related manifestations, making it the most common skin lesion, while fungal (58.7% and viral (29.3% infections constituted majority of lesions caused by infection. Lesions related to neoplasms were relatively uncommon (2.1% and all lesions were benign. Miscellaneous lesions constituted 8.3% of skin lesions, which included vaccine-induced necrobiotic granulomas at the site of Hepatitis B vaccination and acquired perforating dermatoses. Conclusion: Skin lesions among RTRs from India consist predominantly of drug-related LAI and infections and are different from the West in view of the paucity of neoplastic lesions.

  19. Sonographic Findings of Morel-Lavalle'e Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yu Jin; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Jung, Ah Young; Jeh, Su Kyung [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We reviewed the sonographic features of Morel-Lavalle'e lesions by correlating the US image findings with a lesion's age. We obtained the sonography reports of 20 Morel-Lavalle'e lesions of the hip and extremities from 18 patients with a history of trauma. The US images were reviewed to characterize the echogenicity, shape, homogeneity, margins, location and size of the lesions. The results were correlated with the age of the lesions and the clinical histories. All the Morel-Lavalle'e lesions were hypoechoic or anechoic fluid collections located between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. Regarding the shape of the fluid collections, the lobular shaped lesions were all less than 21 days for the lesion's age, and the flat fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. Regarding the homogeneity, the heterogeneous fluid collections were all less than 25 days of age, and the homogeneous fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. A Morel-Lavalle'e lesion is seen as a posttraumatic fluid collection in the potential space between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia on an ultrasound examination. Acute Morel-Lavalle'e lesions tended to be heterogeneous and lobular, and they became more homogeneous and flat in shape as the lesions evolved. Awareness of these imaging findings will help us to properly diagnose Morel- Lavalle'e lesions

  20. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the...

  1. Thermodynamic study of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol (2,4,6 and 8% by weight of propylene glycol at 303.15 K with the help of density measurements. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volumes was also analysed for these salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol. Results obtained have been analysed by Masson’s equation and the experimental values of slopes and partial molar volumes of these transition metals sulphates have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. Limiting molar expansibilities ( have also been determined which is interpreted in terms of structure making or breaking capacities of transition metal sulphates. The transition metal sulphates have been found as structure promoter in water and binary aqueous mixture of propylene glycol.

  2. Polyethylene Glycol as Support and Phase Transfer Catalyst in Aqueous Palladium-catalyzed Liquid-phase Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Excellent yields and purity were obtained in the aqueous medium Suzuki, Sonogashira, Stille and Heck reactions using palladium (Ⅱ) as catalyst in liquid phase synthesis. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) acted as soluble polymeric support and phase transfer catalyst as well.

  3. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  4. Investigation on injury of liver and kindey among the workers exposed to terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol and (or) dowtherm A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study injury of liver and kidney among the workers exposed to terephthalic acid (TPA), ethylene glycol(EG) and (or) dowtherm A(DOW), and to research for the early biological monitoring indexes.

  5. Antifreeze in the hot core of Orion - First detection of ethylene glycol in Orion-KL

    CERN Document Server

    Brouillet, N; Lu, X -H; Baudry, A; Cernicharo, J; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Crovisier, J; Biver, N

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of their chemical compositions shows, to first order, a good agreement between the cometary and interstellar abundances. However, a complex O-bearing organic molecule, ethylene glycol (CH$_{2}$OH)$_{2}$, seems to depart from this correlation because it was not easily detected in the interstellar medium although it proved to be rather abundant with respect to other O-bearing species in comet Hale-Bopp. Ethylene glycol thus appears, together with the related molecules glycolaldehyde CH$_{2}$OHCHO and ethanol CH$_{3}$CH$_{2}$OH, as a key species in the comparison of interstellar and cometary ices as well as in any discussion on the formation of cometary matter. We focus here on the analysis of ethylene glycol in the nearest and best studied hot core-like region, Orion-KL. We use ALMA interferometric data because high spatial resolution observations allow us to reduce the line confusion problem with respect to single-dish observations since different molecules are expected to exhibit different spatial ...

  6. Kinetic modeling of Pt catalyzed and computation-driven catalyst discovery for ethylene glycol decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salciccioli, M.; Vlachos, D. G.

    2011-10-07

    Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms controlling oxygenate catalytic decomposition to synthesis gas can lead to the design of better catalysts and reactors, enabling the utilization of biomass feedstock for fuels and chemicals. This work studies the decomposition of ethylene glycol, as a simple surrogate to biomass-derived polyols, through the analysis of two catalytic kinetic models. First, a density functional theory (DFT) and statistical mechanical parametrized model of 81 reversible, elementary-like reactions is used to predict and understand ethylene glycol decomposition on Pt. Reaction path analysis indicates that while the majority of decomposition occurs through initial O–H bond breaking, initial C–H bond breaking is active at temperatures around 500 K. Further, sensitivity analysis shows that early dehydrogenation reactions (specifically HOCH₂CH₂O* → HOCH₂CHO* + H*) are kinetically important reactions, rather than C–C bond breaking. We show that steady state reactor conditions open up new reaction pathways not seen in surface science (temperature programmed desorption) experiments. The second model, parametrized based on semiempirical linear scaling and linear free energy relationships, consists of 250 reversible, elementary-like reactions and maps the dependence of ethylene glycol decomposition rate and selectivity to various products versus atomic binding energy descriptors. The results show that an optimal catalyst that maximizes the H₂ production rate should have binding energies of 58, 116, and 145 kcal/mol for atomic hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, respectively. These models can be used to guide future experimental efforts in developing catalysts for polyol reforming.

  7. Lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan gels enhance skin delivery of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Chun; Huang, Yan-Ling; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Chou, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Palmitoyl glycol chitosan (GCP) hydrogel has been reported as erodible controlled-release systems for the delivery of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. In this study we prepared lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan (GCL/GCP) in gel form and evaluated their application for skin delivery of the hydrophilic compound, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), which is widely used in cosmetic formulations. Release of MAP from the polymer gels was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of GCL/GCP in the formulations in comparison with glycol chitosan (GC). In both aqueous and 10% ethanol vehicles, MAP flux was increased 1.58- to 3.96-fold of 1% GC from 1% GCL/GCP. Increase in MAP flux was correlated to the increase in GCL/GCP concentration prepared in 10% ethanol vehicle. GCL/GCP, in either water or 10% ethanol vehicles, increased the skin penetration and skin deposition of MAP in comparison with GC, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and carbopol, while sustaining its release from the polymer gels. Both the enhancement in skin penetration/deposition and sustained release of MAP were depended on polymer concentration. Also, with increase in polymer concentration, epidermal to dermal drug deposition ratio tended to increase, which will be beneficial to its activity in the epidermis, such as inhibition of tyrosinase and protection from UV damage. These data suggested both GCL and GCP can be applied as delivery vehicles to improve percutaneous absorption of MAP. PMID:23931090

  8. ANTILITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF Saccharum spontaneum Linn. ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL – INDUCED LITHIASIS IN RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sathya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of roots of Saccharum spontaneum Linn. was evaluated for its antilithiatic activity in rats. Lithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycolated water (0.75% in adult male wistar albino rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol (EG, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions, viz. calcium, phosphorus and protein thereby contributing to renal stone formation. However treatment with ethanolic root extract of S.spontaneum (200 and 300 mg / kg bodyweight in group III and IV significantly (p<0.05 reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. The levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly increased (p < 0.05 in urolithiatic rats. Treatment with plant extract restored the levels and it brought back the values to near normal range in urolithiatic rats. All these observations revealed that ethanolic root extract of S.spontaneum has curative effect on stone formation induced by ethylene glycol.

  9. Hydrogen bonding interactions between ethylene glycol and water: density, excess molar volume, and spectral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianBin; ZHANG PengYan; MA Kai; HAN Fang; CHEN GuoHua; WEI XiongHui

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the density and the excess molar volume of ethylene glycol (EG)-water mixtures were carried out to illustrate the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water at different temperatures, The re-sults suggest that a likely complex of 3 ethylene glycol molecules bonding with 4 water molecules in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (EGW) is formed at the maximal excess molar volume, which displays stronger absorption capabilities for SO2 when the concentration of SO2 reaches 400×106 (volume ratio) in the gas phase. Meanwhile, FTIR and UV spectra of EGWs were recorded at various EG concentra-tions to display the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water. The FTIR spectra show that the stretching vibrational band of hydroxyl in the EGWs shifts to a lower frequency and the bending vibra-tional band of water shifts to a higher frequency with increasing the EG concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the UV spectra show that the electron transferring band of the hydroxyl oxygen in EG shows red shift with increasing the EG concentration. The frequency shifts in FTIR spectra and the shifts of absorption bands in UV absorption spectra of EGWs are interpreted as the strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the hydrogen atoms in water with the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EG.

  10. Transport properties of nano manganese ferrite-propylene glycol dispersion (nanofluids): new observations and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aishwarya, V.; Suganthi, K. S.; Rajan, K. S., E-mail: ksrajan@chem.sastra.edu [SASTRA University, Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), School of Chemical and Biotechnology (India)

    2013-07-15

    Experiments were conducted on the preparation of manganese ferrite nanoparticles and their surface modification for dispersion in propylene glycol. The appropriate concentrations of ferrous sulphate and manganese sulphate (precursors) for synthesis of uniform Mn{sub 0.43}Fe{sub 2.57}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (size range {approx}20-25 nm) were found to be 0.05 and 0.025 M, respectively. These nanoparticles were coated with citric acid and dispersed in propylene glycol for the preparation of nanofluids. The effects of temperature and nanoparticle concentration on nanofluid viscosity and thermal conductivity have been studied. Our study on the influence of nanoparticle concentration on viscosity reveals the existence of a viscosity minimum for 0.25 vol% of citric acid-modified Mn{sub 0.43}Fe{sub 2.57}O{sub 4}-propylene glycol nanofluid. A thermal conductivity enhancement of 68 % was observed for 2 vol% nanofluid. Correlating viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements, particle clustering seems to be the major factor responsible for thermal conductivity enhancement.

  11. Actual Waste Demonstration of the Nitric-Glycolic Flowsheet for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Testing performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown glycolic acid to be effective in replacing the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the catalytic generation of hydrogen and ammonia which could allow purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective rheology adjustment, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. In order to implement the new flowsheet, SRAT and SME cycles, designated SC-18, were performed using a Sludge Batch (SB) 9 slurry blended from SB8 Tank 40H and Tank 51H samples. The SRAT cycle involved adding nitric and glycolic acids to the sludge, refluxing to steam strip mercury, and dewatering to a targeted solids concentration. Data collected during the SRAT cycle included offgas analyses, process temperatures, heat transfer, and pH measurements. The SME cycle demonstrated the addition of glass frit and the replication of six canister decontamination additions. The demonstration concluded with dewatering to a targeted solids concentration. Data collected during the SME cycle included offgas analyses, process temperatures, heat transfer, and pH measurements. Slurry and condensate samples were collected for subsequent analysis

  12. Application of glycolic acid in dermatology%果酸在皮肤科的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珏敏; 项蕾红

    2016-01-01

    果酸是一种天然无毒的酸,可以降低角质形成细胞的黏着性,加速表皮细胞脱落与更新,同时刺激真皮胶原合成、黏多糖增加及弹力纤维的修复,对抗光老化,改善皮肤干燥,修复屏障功能,已被广泛应用于美容护肤领域。本文就果酸的历史发展、化学种类、作用机制、临床应用、不良反应进行综述。%Glycolic acid is one organic hydroxyacid which can diminish cohesion of keratinocyte, accelerate desquamation and renewal of the stratum corneum, as well as increase the synthesis of collagen, elastic fiber and glycosaminoglycans. Glycolic acids also play a role in the prevention of photoaging, improvement of dry skin condition and repair of skin barrier function, which has been used widely in dermatology. The history of glycolic, species, mechanisms of action, clinical application and adverse reaction were reviewed in this pa ̄per.

  13. Ethylene glycol causes acyl chain disordering in liquid-crystalline, unsaturated phospholipid model membranes, as measured by 2H NMR

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLAY K; Smaal, E B; de Kruijff, B.

    1986-01-01

    2H NMR has been used to probe the effects of ethylene glycol at the level of the acyl chains in liposomes prepared from dioleoylphosphatidic acid or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, labeled with 2H at the 11-position of both oleic acid chains. Increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol lead to a proportional and substantial decrease in the quadrupolar splittings, measured from the 2H NMR spectra of both liposomal systems, indicative of acyl chain disordering.

  14. Ethylene glycol causes acyl chain disordering in liquid-crystalline, unsaturated phospholipid model membranes, as measured by 2H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2H NMR has been used to probe the effects of ethylene glycol at the level of the acyl chains in liposomes prepared from dioleoylphosphatidic acid or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, labeled with 2H at the 11-position of both oleic acid chains. Increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol lead to a proportional and substantial decrease in the quadrupolar splittings, measured from the 2H NMR spectra of both liposomal system, indicative of acyl chain disordering. (Auth.)

  15. INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL, PROPYLENE GLYCOL, POLYSORBATE-80 AND SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE ON THE PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF QUETIAPINE FUMARATE

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, C. J.; C. E. Chigozie

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 and sodium lauryl sulfate on the lipophilic character of quetiapine fumarate by studying their effects on the partition coefficient of the drug. The partition coefficient was evaluated in n-hexane-water system at room temperature. Of the vehicles investigated, it was found that glycerol, propylene glycol, polysorbate-80 decreased the partition coefficient of quetiapine fumarate, whi...

  16. 生物法制备乙醇酸的研究%Preparation of glycolic acid by biotransformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹秀莲; 游庆红; 蒋中海

    2011-01-01

    目的:对氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌生物转化乙二醇生产乙醇酸的工艺进行研究.方法:首先采用单因素试验优化了氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌生物转化乙二醇生成乙醇酸的工艺,在此基础上通过正交试验对转化工艺进行了进一步探讨.结果:氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌生物转化乙二醇生成乙醇酸的最优工艺为12.6%静息细胞、5.6%乙二醇维持pH5.84转化48h,乙二醇单体转化率可达60.886%.结论:应用氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌生物转化乙二醇生产乙醇酸的工艺的切实可行.%Objective: Study on transformation technology of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid by Gluconobater oxydans.Methods: Biotransformation from ethylene glycol to glycolic acid by G.oxydans was optimized with single factor experiments and further study with orthogonal experiment.Results: the optimum conditions for ethylene glycol transformation were as follows: concentration of resting cells 12.6%, ethylene glycol 5.6%, pH 5.84,48h.Transformation rate reached 60.886% under the optimum conditions.Conclusion: biotransformation of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid by G.oxydans is practicable.

  17. Acute toxicity evaluation of in situ gel-forming controlled drug delivery system based on biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Fang; Gong Changyang; Dong Pengwei; Fu Shaozhi; Gu Yingchun; Guo Gang; Zhao Xia; Wei Yuquan; Qian Zhiyong, E-mail: anderson-qian@163.co, E-mail: zhiyongqian@scu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymer was synthesized, and was characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and GPC. The PCL-PEG-PCL/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution displayed in situ gelling behavior when subcutaneously injected into the body. Toxicity tests and a histopathological study were performed in BALB/c mice. We focused mainly on acute organ toxicity of BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. In the acute toxicity test, the dose of subcutaneous injection was 5 g/kg body weight (b.w.), and the mice were observed continuously for 14 days. For the histopathological study, samples including heart, lung, liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach and intestine were histochemically prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. No mortality or significant signs of toxicity were observed during the whole observation period, and there is no significant lesion to be shown in histopathological study of major organs in the mice. Therefore, the maximal tolerance dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer by subcutaneous injection was calculated to be higher than 5 g/kg b.w. Therefore, the PCL-PEG-PCL/DMSO system was thought to be non-toxic after subcutaneous injection, and it might be a candidate for an in situ gelling controlled drug delivery system.

  18. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation. PMID:24718110

  19. Difference of carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties in altering hydrophobic interactions: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing; White, Andrew D; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Polycarboxybetaine and poly(ethylene glycol) materials resist nonspecific protein adsorption but differ in influencing biological functions such as enzymatic activity. To investigate this difference, we studied the influence of carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties on hydrophobic interactions using molecular simulations. We employed a model system composed of two non-polar plates and studied the potential of mean force of plate-plate association in carboxybetaine, (ethylene glycol)4, and (ethylene glycol)2 solutions using well-tempered metadynamics simulations. Water, trimethylamine N-oxide, and urea solutions were used as reference systems. We analyzed the variation of the potential of mean force in various solutions to study how carboxybetaine and oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties influence the hydrophobic interactions. To study the origin of their influence, we analyzed the normalized distributions of moieties and water molecules using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results showed that oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties repel water molecules away from the non-polar plates and weaken the hydrophobic interactions. Carboxybetaine moieties do not repel water molecules away from the plates and therefore do not influence the hydrophobic interactions.

  20. Biological Removal of Propylene Glycol from Wastewater and its Degradation in Soil by the Activated Sludge Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R Moussavi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives : Propylene glycol is the main compound of anti-freezing chemicals. A significant amount of propylene glycol is released to the environment after application and contaminates the soil. The main objective of this study was to determine the biological removal of propylene glycol from wastewater and its degradation in soil by the isolated bacteria from activated sludge process."nMaterials and Methods: In the present study, the sludge taken from the return flow in a local activated sludge treatment system was used as the initial seed. The performance of the bioreactor in treating the wastewater was evaluated at four different retention times of 18, 12, 6 and 4 h all with the inlet COD concentration of 1000 mg/L. This phase lasted around 4 months. Then, a part of the adapted microorganisms were transported from the bioreactor to the soil which was synthetically contaminated to the propylene glycol."nResults: The average of propylene glycol removal efficiency from the wastewater in detention times of 18, 12, 8 and 4 h in steady state conditions was 98.6%, 97.1%, 86.4% and 62.2% respectively. Also, the maximum degradation in soil was found to be 97.8%."nConclusion: According to the results obtained from this study, it appears that propylene glycol is inherently well biodegradable and can be biodegraded in liquid phase and soil after a short period of adaptation.