WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5r-thymine glycol lesion

  1. Binding of the human nucleotide excision repair proteins XPA and XPC/HR23B to the 5R-thymine glycol lesion and structure of the cis-(5R,6S) thymine glycol epimer in the 5′-GTgG-3′ sequence: destabilization of two base pairs at the lesion site

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kyle L.; Roginskaya, Marina; Zou, Yue; Altamirano, Alvin; Basu, Ashis K.; Stone, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The 5R thymine glycol (5R-Tg) DNA lesion exists as a mixture of cis-(5R,6S) and trans-(5R,6R) epimers; these modulate base excision repair. We examine the 7:3 cis-(5R,6S):trans-(5R,6R) mixture of epimers paired opposite adenine in the 5′-GTgG-3′ sequence with regard to nucleotide excision repair. Human XPA recognizes the lesion comparably to the C8-dG acetylaminoflourene (AAF) adduct, whereas XPC/HR23B recognition of Tg is superior. 5R-Tg is processed by the Escherichia coli UvrA and UvrABC p...

  2. Association of thymine glycol lesioned DNA with repair enzyme endonuclease III-molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The 2 nanoseconds molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been performed for the system consisting of repair enzyme and DNA 30-mer with native thymine at position 16 replaced by thymine glycol (TG) solvated in water environment. After 950 picoseconds of MD the enzyme and DNA associated together to form complex that lasted stable up to 2 ns when simulation was terminated. At the contact area of enzyme and DNA there is glutamic acid located as close as 1.6 A to the C3' atom of phosphodiester bond of TG. Initial B-DNA molecule was bent and kinked at the TG during MD. This distortion caused that phosphodiester bond was easier accessible by amino acids of enzyme. The negative value of electrostatic energy (-26 kcal/mol) discriminates TG from nearly neutral native thymine and contributes to the specific recognition of this lesion. Higher number of close water molecules at TG site before formation of complex (compared with other nucleotides) indicates that glycosyl bond of the lesion is easily approached by repair enzyme during scanning of DNA surface and suggests the importance of specific hydration at the lesion during recognition process. (author)

  3. Glycol chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Thomas; Danielsen, E Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan is a polycationic polysaccharide consisting of β-(1-4)-linked glucosamine units and due to its mucoadhesive properties, chemical derivatives of chitosan are potential candidates as enhancers for transmucosal drug delivery. Recently, glycol chitosan (GC), a soluble derivative of chitosan...

  4. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications called ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and taken by mouth. It ...

  5. Crystallization of toxic glycol solvates of rifampin from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Melgardt M; Caira, Mino R; Li, Jinjing; Strydom, Schalk J; Bourne, Susan A; Liebenberg, Wilna

    2011-06-06

    This study was initiated when it was suspected that syringe blockage experienced upon administration of a compounded rifampin suspension was caused by the recrystallization of toxic glycol solvates of the drug. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and gas chromatography were used to identify the ethylene glycol in the solvate crystals recovered from the suspension. Controlled crystallization and solubility studies were used to determine the ease with which toxic glycol solvates crystallized from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with either ethylene or diethylene glycol. The single crystal structures of two distinct ethylene glycol solvates of rifampin were solved while thermal analysis, GC analysis and solubility studies confirmed that diethylene glycol solvates of the drug also crystallized. Controlled crystallization studies showed that crystallization of the rifampin solvates from glycerin and propylene glycol depended on the level of contamination and changes in the solubility of the drug in the contaminated solvents. Although the exact source of the ethylene glycol found in the compounded rifampin suspension is not known, the results of this study show how important it is to ensure that the drug and excipients comply with pharmacopeial or FDA standards.

  6. Polyethylene Glycol Propionaldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joe M.; Sedaghat-Herati, Mohammad R.; Karr, Laurel J.

    1992-01-01

    New class of compounds derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG's) namely, PEG-propionaldehydes, offers two important advantages over other classes of PEG aldehyde derivatives: compounds exhibit selective chemical reactivity toward amino groups and are stable in aqueous environment. PEG's and derivatives used to couple variety of other molecules, such as, to tether protein molecules to surfaces. Biotechnical and biomedical applications include partitioning of two phases in aqueous media; immobilization of such proteins as enzymes, antibodies, and antigens; modification of drugs; and preparation of protein-rejecting surfaces. In addition, surfaces coated with PEG's and derivatives used to control wetting and electroosmosis. Another potential application, coupling to aminated surfaces.

  7. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  8. Brisk Demand of Neopentyl Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Neopentyl glycol (NPG) is an important chemical raw material. It is mainly used to produce saturated polyester resin for powder coatings,unsaturated polyester resin, polyester polyols, esters for synthetic lubricants, plasticizers and alkyd resins.

  9. Pink lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  10. Supply Deficit of Diethylene Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The output of diethylene glycol as a byproduct of the mono ethylene glycol (MEG) production through ethylene oxide hydration is around 8%-9% of the MEG output. China has 12 MEG producers today. All these producers use the ethylene oxide direct oxidation process. The output was around 1.436 million tons in 2006. With the completion of the 380 thousand t/a MEG unit in Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Ltd. in 2007, (CCR2007, No. 8) China's production capacity of MEG has reached around 2.01 million t/a.

  11. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  12. 21 CFR 184.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylene glycol. 184.1666 Section 184.1666 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1666 Propylene glycol. (a) Propylene glycol (C3H8O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-55-6) is known as 1,2-propanediol. It does not occur in nature. Propylene glycol is...

  13. The effects of increased penetration of betamethasone dipropionate in a propylene glycol base (Diprolene) for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, A

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of betamethasone dipropionate, 0.05% in a propylene glycol base (Diprolene), was investigated in an open, fixed-dose study of thirty-one patients with resistant psoriasis. Clearing of lesions or marked improvement occurred in 97% (thirty out of thirty-one) of patients. Increased penetration of corticosteroid did not cause adrenal suppression or other adverse reactions.

  14. GLYCOLIC - FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.

    2010-11-08

    Flowsheet testing was performed to further develop the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All other processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Eight runs were performed in total, including the baseline run. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run was extremely difficult to process under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. In the nitric/glycolic/formic flowsheet runs, mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. It is recommended that DWPF continue to support development of the nitric/glycolic/formic flowsheet. Although experience is limited at this time, this flowsheet meets or outperforms the current flowsheet in many regards, including off-gas generation, mercury removal, product rheology and general ease of processing. Additional flowsheet testing will allow for a more thorough understanding of the chemistry and effectiveness of the flowsheet over a range of sludge compositions and formic/glycolic ratios. This testing will also show whether the REDOX and metal solubility concerns with this change in the flowsheet can be addressed by just adjusting the volumes of

  15. 21 CFR 582.1666 - Propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.1666 Section 582.1666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1666 Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4666 - Propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol. 582.4666 Section 582.4666 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Propylene glycol. (a) Product. Propylene glycol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W

    2001-01-01

    The ingredients considered in this safety assessment are polyethylene glycol ethers of either propylene glycol itself, propylene glycol stearate, propylene glycol oleate, or propylene glycol cocoate. They function in cosmetic formulations as surfactant--cleansing agents; surfactant-solubilizing agents; surfactant--emulsifying agents; skin conditioning agents--humectant; skin-conditioning agents--emollient; and solvents. Those in current use are used in only a small number of cosmetic formulations. Some are not currently used. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Propylene Glycol Cocoates and PEG Propylene Glycol Oleates are produced by the esterification of polyoxyalkyl alcohols with lauric acid and oleic acid, respectively. Although there is no information available on the method of manufacture of the other polymers, information was available describing impurities, including ethylene oxide (maximum 1 ppm), 1,4-dioxane (maximum 5 ppm), polycyclic aromatic compounds (maximum 1 ppm), and heavy metals-lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic included (maximum 10 ppm combined). In an acute oral toxicity study, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was not toxic. An antiperspirant product containing 2.0% PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was nonirritating to mildly irritating to the eyes of rabbits. This product was also practically nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in single-insult occlusive patch tests. In a guinea pig sensitization test, PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate was classified as nonallergenic at challenge concentrations of 25% and 50% in petrolatum. PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate and PEG-55 Propylene Glycol Oleate were negative in clinical patch tests. Based on the available data, it was concluded that these ingredients are safe as used (concentrations no greater than 10%) in cosmetic formulations. Based on evidence of sensitization and nephrotoxicity in burn patients treated with a PEG-based antimicrobial preparation, the ingredients included in this review

  19. Photoinduced reductive repair of thymine glycol: implications for excess electron transfer through DNA containing modified bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takeo; Kondo, Akiko; Terada, Satoru; Nishimoto, Sei-Ichi

    2006-08-23

    Photoinduced reduction of thymine glycol in oligodeoxynucleotides was investigated using either a reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(-)) as an intermolecular electron donor or covalently linked phenothiazine (PTZ) as an intramolecular electron donor. Intermolecular electron donation from photoexcited flavin (FADH(-)) to free thymidine glycol generated thymidine in high yield, along with a small amount of 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine. In the case of photoreduction of 4-mer long single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides containing thymine glycol by *FADH(-), the restoration yield of thymine was varied depending on the sequence of oligodeoxynucleotides. Time-resolved spectroscopic study on the photoreduction by laser-excited N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) suggested elimination of a hydroxyl ion from the radical anion of thymidine glycol with a rate constant of approximately 10(4) s(-1) generates 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine (6-HOT(*)) as a key intermediate, followed by further reduction of 6-HOT(*) to thymidine or 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymdine (6-HOT). On the other hand, an excess electron injected into double-stranded DNA containing thymine glycol was not trapped at the lesion but was further transported along the duplex. Considering redox properties of the nucleobases and PTZ, competitive excess electron trapping at pyrimidine bases (thymine, T and cytosine, C) which leads to protonation of the radical anion (T(-)(*), C(-)(*)) or rapid back electron transfer to the radical cation of PTZ (PTZ(+)(*)), is presumably faster than elimination of the hydroxyl ion from the radical anion of thymine glycol in DNA.

  20. The world of DNA in glycol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas

    2016-05-23

    The properties of high-molecular-weight DNA are usually investigated in neutral aqueous solutions. Strong acids and strong alkaline solutions are obviously unsuitable, as are corrosive solvents, and DNA is insoluble in most organic solvents; precipitation of DNA from aqueous solution with ethanol or isopropanol is therefore frequently used as a purification step. An exception is the organic solvent glycol (ethylene glycol, 1,2-ethanediol, dihydroxyethane, HOCH2CH2OH) and the similar solvent glycerol. Double-stranded DNA remains soluble in salt-containing glycol, although it precipitates in polyethylene glycol. (DNA also remains soluble in formamide, but the double-helical structure of DNA is much less stable in this solvent than in glycol.) However, DNA in glycol has been little investigated during the last half-century.

  1. [Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers - Reproductive and developmental toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek-Świechowicz, Beata; Starek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively) are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors.

  2. 76 FR 70896 - Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene glycol, when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide...(oxyethylene, minimum number average molecular weight (in amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene...

  3. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  4. Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating.

  5. Enhanced bioconversion of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid by a newly isolated Burkholderia sp. EG13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoxin; Ma, Zhengfei; Yang, Limin; Ma, Jiangquan

    2014-10-01

    Burkholderia sp. EG13 with high ethylene glycol-oxidizing activity was isolated from soil, which could be used for the synthesis of glycolic acid from the oxidation of ethylene glycol. Using the resting cells of Burkholderia sp. EG13 as biocatalysts, the optimum reaction temperature and pH were 30 °C and 6.0, respectively. After 24 h of biotransformation, the yield of glycolic acid from 200 mM ethylene glycol was 98.8 %. Furthermore, an integrated bioprocess for the production of glycolic acid which involved in situ product removal (ISPR) was investigated. Using fed-batch method with ISPR, a total of 793 mM glycolic acid has been accumulated in the reaction mixture after the 4th feed.

  6. Glycolic acid modulates the mechanical property and degradation of poly(glycerol, sebacate, glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Jie; Wu, Lan; Huang, Wei; Chen, Chang; Chen, Yan; Lu, Xi-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Bao-Feng; Dong, De-Li

    2010-01-01

    The development of biodegradable materials with controllable degradation properties is beneficial for a variety of applications. Poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) is a promising candidate of biomaterials; so we synthesize a series of poly(glycerol, sebacate, glycolic acid) (PGSG) with 1:2:0, 1:2:0.2, 1:2:0.4, 1:2:0.6, 1:2:1 mole ratio of glycerol, sebacate, and glycolic acid to elucidate the relation of doped glycolic acid to the degradation rate and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the polymers with different doping of glycolic acid were dissimilar. PGSG with glycolic acid in the ratio of 0.2 displayed an integral degree of ordering, different to those with glycolic acid in the ratio of 0, 0.4, 0.6, and 1, which showed mild phase separation structure. The number, DeltaH(m), and temperature of the PGSG melting peaks tended to decrease with the increasing ratio of doped glycolic acid. In vitro and in vivo degradation tests showed that the degradation rate of PGSG with glycolic acid in the ratio of 0.2 was slowest, but in the ratio range of 0, 0.4, and 0.6, the degradation rate increased with the increase of glycolic acid. All PGSG samples displayed good tissue response and anticoagulant effects. Our data suggest that doping glycolic acid can modulate the microstructure and degree of crosslinking of PGS, thereby control the degradation rate of PGS.

  7. Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Tjandrakusuma, Siska; Rasmussen, Mark A; Reilly, Peter J

    2007-08-22

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h, all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in decreasing order, all increased with incubation time. Addition of any of the three substrates somewhat decreased acetate formation, while addition of either propylene glycol increased propionate formation but decreased that of butyrate. R- and S-propylene glycol did not differ significantly in either their rates of disappearance or the products formed when they were added to the fermentation medium. Fermentations of rumen fluid containing propylene glycol emitted the sulfur-containing gases 1-propanethiol, 1-(methylthio)propane, methylthiirane, 2,4-dimethylthiophene, 1-(methylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl disulfide, 1-(propylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl trisulfide, 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2-ethyl-1,3-dithiane, and 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trithiane. Metabolic pathways that yield each of these gases are proposed. The sulfur-containing gases produced during propylene glycol fermentation in the rumen may contribute to the toxic effects seen in cattle when high doses are administered for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  9. Unique psoriatic lesion versus multiple lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the number of lesions of psoriasis and to find risk factors for multiple lesions. Material and Methods: 1,236 patients (male 54.13%, female 45.87% with psoriasis were seen over a period of 8 years in an Outpatient Clinic. Patients filled out questionnaires containing age at onset, number of lesions and location at the beginning of the disease, gender, type and localization of psoriasis at the time of clinical examination, psoriasis family history, previous treatment, comorbidities, and social status. Results: The number of psoriasis lesions correlates with: onset age of psoriasis (F=8.902, p=0.0029; age at the moment of clinical examination (F=8.902, p=0.0029; residence in rural area (χ2=8.589, p=0.00338, 95%CI; alcohol intake (χ2=16.47, p=0.00005, 95%CI; smoking (χ2=8.408, p=0.00373, 95%CI; occupation: workers/pupils/students (χ2=14.11, p=0.0069, 95%CI. Conclusions: There is a correlation between number of psoriatic lesions and some factors. Multiple lesions were observed in older patients, smokers and drinkers, coming from rural area and social active (workers and pupils/students. No correlation was statistically proved between number of lesions and gender, comorbidities and family history of psoriasis.

  10. Polyethylene Glycol Camouflaged Earthworm Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Selamawit; Nacharaju, Parimala; Roche, Camille; Dantsker, David; Palmer, Andre; Friedman, Joel M.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 21 million components of blood and whole blood and transfused annually in the United States, while on average only 13.6 million units of blood are donated. As the demand for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) continues to increase due to the aging population, this deficit will be more significant. Despite decades of research to develop hemoglobin (Hb) based oxygen (O2) carriers (HBOCs) as RBC substitutes, there are no products approved for clinical use. Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin (LtEc) is the large acellular O2 carrying protein complex found in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. LtEc is an extremely stable protein complex, resistant to autoxidation, and capable of transporting O2 to tissue when transfused into mammals. These characteristics render LtEc a promising candidate for the development of the next generation HBOCs. LtEc has a short half-life in circulation, limiting its application as a bridge over days, until blood became available. Conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG-LtEc) can extend LtEc circulation time. This study explores PEG-LtEc pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. To study PEG-LtEc pharmacokinetics, hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber were subjected to a 40% exchange transfusion with 10 g/dL PEG-LtEc or LtEc and followed for 48 hours. To study the vascular response of PEG-LtEc, hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber received multiple infusions of 10 g/dL PEG-LtEc or LtEc solution to increase plasma LtEc concentration to 0.5, then 1.0, and 1.5 g/dL, while monitoring the animals’ systemic and microcirculatory parameters. Results confirm that PEGylation of LtEc increases its circulation time, extending the half-life to 70 hours, 4 times longer than that of unPEGylated LtEc. However, PEGylation increased the rate of LtEc oxidation in vivo. Vascular analysis verified that PEG-LtEc showed the absence of microvascular vasoconstriction or systemic hypertension. The molecular size of PEG-LtEc did not change the

  11. Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) thermogel as a novel submucosal cushion for endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Xu, Wei; Shen, Wenjia; Cao, Luping; Liu, Yan; Li, Zhaoshen; Ding, Jiandong

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a clinical therapy for early stage neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is, however, faced with a crucial problem: the high occurrence of perforation. The formation of a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) via a fluid injection is the best way to avoid perforation, and thus an appropriate biomaterial is vital for this minimally invasive endoscopic technique. In this study, we introduced an injectable thermogel as a novel submucosal injection substance in ESD. The hydrogel synthesized by us was composed of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers. The polymer/water system was a low-viscosity fluid at room temperature and thus easily injected, and turned into a non-flowing gel at body temperature after injection. The submucosal injection of the thermogel to create SFCs was performed in both resected porcine stomachs and living minipigs. High mucosal elevation with a clear margin was maintained for a long duration. Accurate en bloc resection was achieved with the assistance of the thermogel. The mean procedure time was strikingly reduced. Meanwhile, no obvious bleeding, perforation and tissue damage were observed. The application of the thermogel not only facilitated the ESD procedure, but also increased the efficacy and safety of ESD. Therefore, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel provides an excellent submucosal injection system, and has great potential to improve the ESD technique significantly.

  12. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    . The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  13. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  14. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a colonoscopy ( ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by mouth. ...

  15. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS... 20740, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and...

  16. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were chara

  17. Complete recovery after massive ethylene glycol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L; Kraner, J; Wine, H; Savitt, D; Abuelo, J G

    1992-06-01

    We treated a 64-year-old man who recovered completely from a massive antifreeze ingestion with ethylene glycol levels well above those of previously described survivors. Rapid and aggressive treatment of the patient with recognized methods, including hemodialysis, resulted in the favorable outcome.

  18. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger;

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent...

  19. Stabilization of Polyethylene Glycol in Archaeological Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Nordvig

    Projektet har fokuseret på polythylen glycol (PEG) stabilitet og nedbrydning i træ fra konserverede skibsvrag som Vasa (Stockholm) og Skuldelev skibene. En række avancerede analyseteknikker er anvendt til at undersøge indtrængningsdybden for forskellige molekylstørrelser PEG i ikke-nedbrudt træ fra...

  20. Mechanisms of propylene glycol and triacetin pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laino, Teodoro; Tuma, Christian; Moor, Philippe; Martin, Elyette; Stolz, Steffen; Curioni, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol and triacetin are chemical compounds, commonly used as food additives. Though the usage of the pure chemicals is not considered harmful when used as dietary supplements, little is known about the nature of their thermal degradation products and the impact they may have on human heal

  1. Glycine/Glycolic acid based copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, in 't Peter J.A.; Shen, Zheng-Rong; Takens, Gijsbert A.J.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Glycine/glycolic acid based biodegradable copolymers have been prepared by ring-opening homopolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione, and ring-opening copolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione and glycolide. The homopolymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione was carried out in the melt at 200°C for 3 min u

  2. 21 CFR 178.3760 - Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate. 178.3760... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3760 Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate. Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate containing not more than 0.1 percent by weight of ethylene...

  3. 21 CFR 172.858 - Propylene glycol alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylene glycol alginate. 172.858 Section 172.858... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.858 Propylene glycol alginate. The food additive propylene glycol alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-37-2) may be used as an emulsifier, flavoring adjuvant, formulation...

  4. Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boles, Erin E.; Gaines, Cameryn L.; Tillman, Emma M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients.

  5. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  6. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and......

  7. Skin strain and its influence on systemic exposure to a glycol ether in offset printing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, G; Göen, T; Lakemeyer, M; Broding, H C; Drexler, H

    2003-11-01

    Under workplace conditions, it is difficult to prove the influence of skin lesions on skin penetration by chemical substances. The aim of the present study was to show whether systemic exposure to glycol ether increases due to lesions of the skin in printing workers. 28 male printers, exposed to 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE), were interviewed about the workplace exposure by a standardized questionnaire. The systemic exposure in printers was determined by biological monitoring of the main metabolite of BEE butoxyethoxyacetic acid (BEAA) in urine. Furthermore, clinical examination of the skin, transepidermal water loss, capacitance and skin surface pH measurements were carried out. Erythema and scaliness were the most important factors showing an effect on dermal absorption. The mean urinary BEAA excretions for printers with skin lesions on the hands were higher (20.62 mg/l for scaliness and 14.40 mg/l for erythema) compared to that for printers without detectable skin lesions (12.08 mg/l for scaliness and 13.03 mg/l for erythema). Bioengineering measurements to predict skin strain and percutaneous absorption were only supportive. We were able to show that by using a multiple spectrum of methods an enhancement of percutaneous absorption of BEE could be demonstrated in workers with skin lesions.

  8. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  9. Hydration of polyethylene glycol-grafted liposomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tirosh, O; Barenholz, Y.; Katzhendler, J; Priev, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of polyethylene glycol of 2000 molecular weight (PEG2000) attached to a dialkylphosphatidic acid (dihexadecylphosphatidyl (DHP)-PEG2000) on the hydration and thermodynamic stability of lipid assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry, densitometry, and ultrasound velocity and absorption measurements were used for thermodynamic and hydrational characterization. Using a differential scanning calorimetry technique we showed that each molecule of PEG...

  10. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: jafeli@iq.unesp.br [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  11. Andersson Lesion in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai N, KrishnanKutty K, Panchapakesa Rajendran C, Rukmangatharajan S, Rajeswari S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Andersson lesions are destructive foci that appear at the discovertebral junction in ankylosingspondylitis. We report three cases of ankylosing spondylitis with such lesions. These lesions simulatean infection and in our country, mimic spinal tuberculosis.

  12. Dewatering coal gas by means of triethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravets, P.D.; Zhila, N.P.; Govurun, A.A.; Skripchenko, N.P.; Kiseleva, O.I. (Yuzhniigiprogaz (USSR))

    1991-05-01

    Coal gas from the Avdeevka coking plant was dewatered using an absorption method (diethylene glycol process). Flowsheets of the dewatering system are shown. Dewatering efficiency was insufficient and resulted in increased corrosion of a pipeline used for coal gas transport. Increasing efficiency of coal gas dewatering by replacing diethylene glycol with triethylene glycol is analyzed. The dewatering system using the triethylene glycol was developed and tested on a commercial scale. Dewatering conditions were the following: coal gas pressure 1.2-1.3 MPa, temperature from 27 to 38 C, dewatering capacity 43,000-69,000 m{sup 3}/h. Moisture content in coal gas was reduced from 3.0 to 0.62-0.45 g/m{sup 3} (more than 5 times). Spraying intensity was 58-69 l/1,000 m{sup 3} gas, triethylene glycol dissolution with water was 1.5-5.0%. Content of triethylene glycol after regeneration ranged from 95 to 96%. Losses of triethylene glycol were 1.6 times lower than losses of diethylene glycol. Replacing diethylene glycol with triethylene glycol was not associated with extra investment or extra operating cost. 5 refs.

  13. POLYMERIZATION OF ETHYLENE METHYL PHOSPHATE IN THE PRESENCE OF SODIUM POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL)ATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wen; Ren-xi Zhuo; Lu Wang

    1999-01-01

    Poly(ethylene methyl phosphate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethylene methyl phosphate) triblock copolymers carrying hydroxyl group at both chain ends were synthesized with sodium poly(ethylene glycol)ate as initiator. The effects of the factors such as solvent, amount of the initiator and reaction time were investigated. The copolymers were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 1H{31p}-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P{1H}-NMR, and DSC. High molecular weight of the copolymer and high yield of the polymerization were achieved within 3 min at 25℃. The polymerization process was studied by 31P{1H}-NMR and transesterification was found during longer polymerization time.

  14. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  15. Sorption interactions between ethylene glycol and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrskaya, E. V.; Belyakova, N. V.; Nechaeva, L. S.; Shaposhnik, V. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2017-03-01

    The adsorption of ethylene glycol by carbon nanoparticles is studied. Carbon nanoparticles with the highest affinity to ethylene glycol are identified, and an adsorption isotherm is constructed. Based on quantum chemical calculations of the energies of interaction between the sorbate and nanotubes with (4,4) and (6,6) chirality, a change in mechanism is revealed upon the monomolecular adsorption of ethylene glycol on carbon nanotubes, and the adsorption isotherm is thus interpreted.

  16. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  17. Marangoni effects in aqueous polypropylene glycol foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Su Nee; Fornasiero, Daniel; Sedev, Rossen; Ralston, John

    2005-06-15

    The foam behavior of three polypropylene glycols covering the molecular weight range between 192 and 725 g/mol has been examined. Static and dynamic surface tension data, as well as bubble size distribution and retention time in the foam, were incorporated into a simple model of foam stability. The latter clearly indicates that surface tension differences between the plateau border and lamellar region adjacent to the bubble surface are the dominant factor in controlling foamability, causing liquid flow in the direction opposite to liquid drainage, a process termed the Marangoni effect.

  18. The effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on the partition coefficient of benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, C J

    2007-01-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related deleterious effects. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on dermal absorption of oxybenzone by studying their effects on its partition coefficient. The partition coefficient was evaluated in a chloroform-water system at room temperature. It was found that glycerol and propylene glycol decreased the partition coefficient of oxybenzone, while an increase in partition coefficient was observed with polyethylene glycol 400. The findings suggest that polyethylene glycol 400 in contrast to glycerol and propylene glycol has the potential of increasing the vehicle-skin partition coefficient of oxybenzone when cosmetic products containing such an UV absorber are topically applied to the skin.

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  1. Traumatic plexus lesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, R.T.M. van; Cohen, S.P.; Kleef, M. van; Mekhail, N.; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pain, motor, and sensory deficits characterize patients with a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus. Frequently, more severe injuries co-exist that require immediate surgical attention. Early rehabilitation and physical therapy are the cornerstones of treatment. Pharmacological management can be

  2. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  4. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; da Silva, Sebastião William; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; de Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90-120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron-iron oxide were 145 emu g-1 and 131 emu g-1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  5. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  6. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under this... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amidoamine modified...

  8. Stabilization of distearoylphosphatidylcholine lamellar phases in propylene glycol using cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard D; Ara, Nargis; Heenan, Richard K; Barlow, David J; Quinn, Peter J; Lawrence, M Jayne

    2013-12-02

    Phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) formed in pharmaceutically acceptable nonaqueous polar solvents such as propylene glycol are of interest in drug delivery because of their ability to improve the bioavailability of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. We have demonstrated a stabilizing effect of cholesterol on lamellar phases formed by dispersion of distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in water/propylene glycol (PG) solutions with glycol concentrations ranging from 0 to 100%. The stability of the dispersions was assessed by determining the effect of propylene glycol concentration on structural parameters of the lamellar phases using a complementary combination of X-ray and neutron scattering techniques at 25 °C and in the case of X-ray scattering at 65 °C. Significantly, although stable lamellar phases (and liposomes) were formed in all PG solutions at 25 °C, the association of the glycol with the liposomes' lamellar structures led to the formation of interdigitated phases, which were not thermostable at 65 °C. With the addition of equimolar quantities of cholesterol to the dispersions of DSPC, stable lamellar dispersions (and indeed liposomes) were formed in all propylene glycol solutions at 25 °C, with the significant lateral phase separation of the bilayer components only detectable in propylene glycol concentrations above 60% (w/w). We propose that the stability of lamellar phases of the cholesterol-containing liposomes formed in propylene glycol concentrations of up to 60% (w/w) represent potentially very valuable drug delivery vehicles for a variety of routes of administration.

  9. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-e...

  10. Lesiones en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Gimeno, Silvio

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmente del sistema músculo- esquelético.
    Se exponen en este trabajo consideraciones históricas, la epidemiología de la lesión deportiva y se describen, concisamente, algunas de las lesiones más habituales y significativas que afectan a músculos, tendones y sistema esquelético.

  11. Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2013-08-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.

  12. Anaerobic treatability of wastewater contaminated with propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Naim; Tonuk, Gulseven Ubay

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradability of propylene glycol in anaerobic conditions by using methanogenic culture. A master reactor was set up to develop a culture that would be acclimated to propylene glycol. After reaching steady-state, culture was transferred to serum bottles. Three reactors with same initial conditions were run for consistency. Propylene glycol was completely biodegradable under anaerobic methanogenic conditions. Semi-continuous reactors operated at a temperature of 35°C had consistently achieved a propylene glycol removal of higher than 95 % based on chemical oxygen demand (COD). It was found that in semi-continuous reactors, anaerobic treatment of propylene glycol at concentrations higher than 1,500 mg COD m(-3) day(-1) was not convenient due to instable effluent COD.

  13. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, ...

  14. Separation of polyethylene glycols and maleimide-terminated polyethylene glycols by reversed-phase liquid chromatography under critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanzhen; Zhuo, Renxi; Jiang, Xulin

    2016-11-01

    The separation of polyethylene glycols and maleimide-substituted polyethylene glycol derivatives based on the number of maleimide end-groups under critical liquid chromatography conditions has been investigated on a reversed-phase column. The critical solvent compositions for nonfunctional polyethylene glycols and bifunctional maleimide-substituted polyethylene glycols were determined to be identical at about 40% acetonitrile in water on a reversed-phase octadecyl carbon chain-bonded silica column using mixtures of acetonitrile and water of varying composition as the mobile phase at 25°C. The maleimide-functionalized polyethylene glycols were successfully separated according to maleimide functionality (with zero, one, two, or three maleimide end-groups, respectively) under the critical isocratic elution conditions without obvious effect of molar mass. The separation was mainly due to the hydrophobic interaction between the maleimide end-groups and the column packing. Off-line matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify the repeating units and, especially, the end-groups of the maleimide-substituted polyethylene glycols. Liquid chromatography analysis at critical conditions could provide useful information to optimize the synthesis of functional polyethylene glycols. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the baseline separation of maleimide-functionalized polyethylene glycols based on the functionality independent of the molar mass without derivatization by isocratic elution.

  15. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H M; Feijen, Jan

    2004-07-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were characterized by determination of the PEG surface concentration, zeta-potential, size, and morphology. Under optimized grafting conditions, a dense "brush-like" PEG layer was formed. A PEG surface concentration of approximately 60 pmol/cm2, corresponding with an average distance between grafted PEG chains of approximately 17 A can be realized. It was shown that grafting of PEG onto PS-COOH reduced the adsorption of proteins from human plasma (85 vol %) in phosphate-buffered saline up to 90%.

  16. Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma Padhye; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2014-09-01

    Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost.

  17. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Triethylene Glycol Dinitrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Pei(陈沛); ZHAO,Feng-Qi(赵凤起); LUO,Yang(罗阳); HU,Rong-Zu(胡荣祖); LI,Shang-Wen(李上文); GAO,Yin(高茵)

    2004-01-01

    The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of the decomposition reaction of triethylene glycol dinitrate (TEGDN) in a temperature-programmed mode at different pressures (0.1, 2, 4 and 6 MPa) have been investigated by means of DSC and TG-DTG. The results show that the properties of the thermal decomposition of TEGDN are affected by the change of pressure, and the kinetic model function, the apparent activation energy Ea and TEGDN obtained by the values Teo and Tpo of the onset temperature Te and the peak temperature TP when the heating rate tends to zero are 191.05,209.86 ℃ at 0.1 MPa, 207.59 and 221.65 ℃ at 2 MPa, respectively.

  18. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  19. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  20. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol.

  1. Identification of polypropylene glycols and polyethylene glycol carboxylates in flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Rosenblum, James; Linden, Karl; Ryan, Joseph N

    2017-02-05

    The purpose of the study was to separate and identify the unknown surfactants present in flowback and produced water from oil and gas wells in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (Niobrara Formation) in Weld County, Colorado, USA. Weld County has been drilled extensively during the last five years for oil and gas between 7000-8000 feet below land-surface. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and polyethylene glycols carboxylates (PEG-Cs) were found for the first time in these flowback and produced water samples. These ethoxylated surfactants may be used as friction reducers, clay stabilizers, and surfactants. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) was used to separate and identify the different classes of PPGs, PEG-Cs, and their isomers. The Kendrick mass scale was applied along with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with accurate mass for rapid and unequivocal identification. The PPGs and their isomers occur at the ppm concentration range and may be useful as "fingerprints" of hydraulic-fracturing. Comparing these detections to the compounds used in the fracturing process from FracFocus 3.0 (https://fracfocus.org), it appears that both PPGs and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly named as additives, but the PEG-Cs have not been reported. The PEG-Cs may be trace impurities or degradation products of PEGs.

  2. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  3. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  4. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 4. Alternating polyetheresteramides based on glycols (4NTglycol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Polyetheresteramides (PEEAs) have been synthesised in the melt from 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and ethylene or propylene glycols. The ethylene glycols were ethylenediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol. The propylene glycols were 1,3-propanediol and the mixtures of 1

  5. Atrichia with Papular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Lamba, Sachin; Pandey, SS

    2011-01-01

    Atrichia with papular lesions (APL) is a rare autosomal recessive form of irreversible alopecia with onset at few months of age with papular keratin cysts over the body. It is associated with mutation in the Zinc finger domain of the human hairless gene on chromosome region 8p12. An eleven-year-old male presented with extensive alopecia starting at six months of age refractory to the treatment along with keratotic papules on the face and trunk. Biopsy from a papule showed mid-dermal keratin c...

  6. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  7. Lesiones en el deporte

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmen...

  8. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  9. Klatskin-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, M P; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5-15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  10. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  11. Reduced expression of glycolate oxidase leads to enhanced disease resistance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawsheng Chern

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycolate oxidase (GLO is a key enzyme in photorespiration, catalyzing the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate. Arabidopsis GLO is required for nonhost defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae and for tobacco Pto/AvrPto-mediated defense responses. We previously described identification of rice GLO1 that interacts with a glutaredoxin protein, which in turn interacts with TGA transcription factors. TGA transcription factors are well known to participate in NPR1/NH1-mediated defense signaling, which is crucial to systemic acquired resistance in plants. Here we demonstrate that reduction of rice GLO1 expression leads to enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo. Constitutive silencing of GLO1 leads to programmed cell death, resulting in a lesion-mimic phenotype and lethality or reduced plant growth and development, consistent with previous reports. Inducible silencing of GLO1, employing a dexamethasone-GVG (Gal4 DNA binding domain-VP16 activation domain-glucocorticoid receptor fusion inducible system, alleviates these detrimental effects. Silencing of GLO1 results in enhanced resistance to Xoo, increased expression of defense regulators NH1, NH3, and WRKY45, and activation of PR1 expression.

  12. Thermodynamics of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol Containing Systems Described by the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A thorough investigation of triethylene glycol (TEG) containing systems has been performed. The introduction of a new six-site association scheme for the TEG molecule has shown to be advantageous. Glycols are often modeled using a four-site scheme (abbreviated as 4C) hence ignoring the internal......-decane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and water) and different types of phase equilibria (vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and LLE) and thermodynamic properties (heat of mixing, activity coefficients). A less extensive investigation has also been performed on tetraethylene glycol (TeEG) containing systems...

  13. Green polymer chemistry VIII: synthesis of halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s via enzymatic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Marcela; Seo, Kwang Su; Kim, Eun Hye; Becker, Matthew L; Puskas, Judit E

    2013-09-01

    Halo-ester-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) are successfully prepared by the transesterification of alkyl halo-esters with PEGs using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst under the solventless conditions. Transesterifications of chlorine, bromine, and iodine esters with tetraethylene glycol monobenzyl ether (BzTEG) are quantitative in less than 2.5 h. The transesterification of halo-esters with PEGs are complete in 4 h. (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy with MALDI-ToF and ESI mass spectrometry confirm the structure and purity of the products. This method provides a convenient and "green" process to effectively produce halo-ester PEGs.

  14. 40 CFR 721.7255 - Polyethyleneamine crosslinked with substituted polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). 721.7255 Section 721.7255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted polyethylene glycol with substituted polyethylene glycol (PMN P-01-833) is subject to...

  15. Effect of polyethylene glycol on electrochemically deposited trivalent chromium layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo-Yul LEE; Man KIM; Sik-Chol KWON

    2009-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the trivalent chromium deposits and their interfacial behavior in the plating solution with and without polyethylene glycol molecules were observed by using various electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry, open circuit potential transition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. It is shown that the polyethylene glycol molecules make the reductive current density lower in the trivalent chromium plating system and promote a hydrogen evolution reaction through their adsorption on the electrode surface. And the trivalent chromium layer formed from the polyethylene glycol-containing solution has somewhat higher density of cracks on its surface and results in a lower film resistance, lower polarization resistance, and higher capacitance in a corrosive atmosphere. It is also revealed that the formation of chromium carbide layer is facilitated in the presence of polyethylene glycol, which means easier electrochemical codeposition of chromium and carbon, not single chromium deposition.

  16. Measurement of diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Vadim D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of propylene glycol was studied ex vivo. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight and thickness of the samples decreased during propylene glycol penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of propylene glycol is discussed. Diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue ex vivo has been estimated as (1.35±0.95)×10-7 cm2/s with the taking into account of kinetics of both weight and thickness of skin samples. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.

  17. Optical clearing of muscle with propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Clemente, Manuel Pais; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    Skeletal muscle presents an internal fibrous structure. The existence of muscle fibers surrounded by interstitial fluid originates an internal step refractive index profile that causes light scattering. One way to minimize this effect inside a muscle is to perform an optical clearing treatment, using an adequate solution that presents a refractive index higher than the interstitial fluid. We have studied muscle spectral transmittance during sample immersion in propylene glycol. With the collection of transmittance spectra registered during a period of 20 minutes of immersion we could represent spectral transmittance evolution for several wavelengths and verify that the tissue samples have become more translucent. The optical clearing effect created in the tissue samples was characterized by an increase of 45% above the natural transmittance and the variations observed in tissue mass, pH and global refractive index. We also identified the initial mechanisms of agent diffusion into the tissue and consequent tissue dehydration from the spectral transmittance evolution. The histological analysis of variations caused in the internal structure of the tissues permitted to better explain the optical clearing effect created. Considering a mathematical model developed in previous studies, we could estimate the amount of agent that was inserted into the tissue samples.

  18. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  19. Deicing/Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology Environment, Energy Security, & Sustainability (E2S2) Symposium & Exhibition Ernest N...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology 5a. CONTRACT...Issues C. PG Remediation Project D. Summary E. Questions 2 3 Background • Aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) work planes fly in the winter o Military

  20. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  1. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  2. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran H. S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Benign or malignant lesions presenting as mass in the breast causes anxiety to the patients and the family members. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To classify different types of lesions of breast, both benign and malignant. 2. Histomorphological study of various types of benign and malignant breast lesions. 3. To study spectrum of lesions associated with benign and malignant breast diseases. SETTING AND DESIGN All the breast biopsies, lumpectomies, and mastectomy specimens presenting to Department of Pathology of our institution between June 2012 to June 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS A sample size of 100 cases are included in this study. Clinical details are taken from records. The specimens of breast sent to the Department of Pathology are processed by routine histopathological techniques. Histopathological features are studied on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistically, the test of proportion is used to obtain the frequency of all lesions. Chi-square test, which is used to find the association between the spectrum of lesions showed a p value of 0.0438 and hence the study was considered significant. RESULTS In our study, out of 100 cases, malignant breast lesions constituted the majority of the lesions comprising of 49 cases (49%, followed by benign lesions comprising 46 cases (46% and the inflammatory lesions comprising 5 cases (5%. Among benign lesions, fibrocystic disease was the predominant lesion comprising of 39 cases (41%, followed by fibroadenoma comprising 26 cases (28%, which is followed by 13 cases (14% of fibrocystic disease with columnar cell change and 8 cases (9% of sclerosing adenosis. Among malignant lesions, invasive ductal carcinoma (NST type was the most common lesion comprising 31 cases (61% followed by 11 cases (21% of invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma

  3. Mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Markus; Thiruveedhi, Krishnaveni; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Kebeish, Rashad; Hirsch, Heinz-Josef; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate is an important reaction step in photorespiration. Land plants and charophycean green algae oxidize glycolate in the peroxisome using oxygen as a co-factor, whereas chlorophycean green algae use a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH) with organic co-factors. Previous analyses revealed the existence of a GDH in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGDH). In this study, the contribution of AtGDH to photorespiration was characterized. Both RNA abundance and mitochondrial GDH activity were up-regulated under photorespiratory growth conditions. Labelling experiments indicated that glycolate oxidation in mitochondrial extracts is coupled to CO(2) release. This effect could be enhanced by adding co-factors for aminotransferases, but is inhibited by the addition of glycine. T-DNA insertion lines for AtGDH show a drastic reduction in mitochondrial GDH activity and CO(2) release from glycolate. Furthermore, photorespiration is reduced in these mutant lines compared with the wild type, as revealed by determination of the post-illumination CO(2) burst and the glycine/serine ratio under photorespiratory growth conditions. The data show that mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants. This indicates the conservation of chlorophycean photorespiration in streptophytes despite the evolution of leaf-type peroxisomes.

  4. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Triethylene Glycol and Tetraethylene Glycol by Ditelluratoargentate (III in Alkaline Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol by ditelluratoargentate (III (DTA in alkaline liquids has been studied spectrophotometrically in the temperature range of 293.2 K–313.2 K. The reaction rate showed first-order dependence in DTA and fractional order with respect to triethylene glycol or tetraethylene glycol. It was found that the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs increased with an increase in concentration of OH− and a decrease in concentration of H4TeO6 2−. There was a negative salt effect and no free radicals were detected. A plausible mechanism involving a two-electron transfer was proposed, and the rate equations derived from the mechanism explained all the experimental results and observations. The activation parameters along with the rate constants of the rate-determining step were calculated.

  5. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET FINAL REPORT FOR DOWNSELECTION DECISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2011-03-10

    Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic-formic acid flowsheet (referred to as the glycolic-formic flowsheet throughout the rest of the report) as an alternative to the nitric/formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be removed in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) with minimal hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Forty-six runs were performed in total, including the baseline run and the melter feed preparation runs. Significant results are summarized. The baseline nitric/formic flowsheet run, using the SB6 simulant produced by Harrell was extremely difficult to process successfully under existing DWPF acceptance criteria with this simulant at the HM levels of noble metals. While nitrite was destroyed and mercury was removed to near the DWPF limit, the rheology of the SRAT and SME products were well above design basis and hydrogen generation far exceeded the DWPF SRAT limit. In addition, mixing during the SME cycle was very poor. In this sense, the nitric/glycolic/formic acid flowsheet represents a significant upgrade over the current flowsheet. Mercury was successfully removed with almost no hydrogen generation and the SRAT and SME products yield stresses were within process limits or previously processed ranges. The glycolic-formic flowsheet has a very wide processing window. Testing was completed from 100% to 200% of acid stoichiometry and using a glycolic-formic mixture from 40% to 100% glycolic acid. The testing met all processing requirements throughout these processing windows. This should allow processing at an acid stoichiometry of 100% and a glycolic-formic mixture of 80% glycolic acid with minimal hydrogen generation. It should also allow processing endpoints in the SRAT and SME at significantly higher

  6. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

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    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  7. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  8. Thermodynamical Study of Alcoholic Solutions of Poly (ethylene glycol Diacrylate and Poly (ethylene glycol Dimethacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the behaviour of polymer solutions, density and ultrasonic velocity of binary mixtures of pentanol with polyethylene glycol diacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate have been investigated at 293.15 K, 303.15 K and 313.15 K, under atmospheric pressure. Thermophysical parameters viz. intermolecular free length, internal pressure and pseudo-Grüneisen parameter have been calculated which infer about the interactions and structural changes on mixing pentanol with these polymers. Enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow at different concentrations of polymer solution have been reported. Excess molar volume, deviation in isentropic compressibility, deviation in ultrasonic velocity, excess acoustic impedance and excess molar enthalpy have been calculated and results have been correlated with Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Density and ultrasonic velocity data have been fitted by third order polynomial equation.

  9. [Determination of ethylene glycol in biological fluids--propylene glycol interferences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka, Ewa; Cudzich-Czop, Sylwia; Sulka, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Many laboratories in Poland do not use gas chromatography (GC) method for determination of ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol in blood of poisoned patients, they use non specific spectrophotometry methods. One of the interfering substances is propylene glycol (PG)--compound present in many medical and cosmetic products: drops, air freshens, disinfectants, electronic cigarettes and others. In Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology and Drug Monitoring in Krakow determination of EG is made by GC method. The method enables to distinguish and make resolution of (EG) and (PG) in biological samples. In the years 2011-2012 in several serum samples from diagnosed patients PG was present in concentration from several to higher than 100 mg/dL. The aim of the study was to estimate PG interferences of serum EG determination by spectrophotometry method. Serum samples containing PG and EG were used in the study. The samples were analyzed by two methods: GC and spectrophotometry. Results of serum samples spiked with PG with no EG analysed by spectrophotometry method were improper ("false positive"). The results were correlated to PG concentration in samples. Calculated cross-reactivity of PG in the method was 42%. Positive results of EG measured by spectrophotometry method must be confirmed by reference GC method. Spectrophotometry method shouldn't be used for diagnostics and monitoring of patients poisoned by EG.

  10. Fast determination of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid in blood serum and urine for emergency and clinical toxicology by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, Tomáš; Bursová, Miroslava; Čabalaa, Radomír

    2014-12-01

    A simple, cost effective, and fast gas chromatography method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid was developed and validated for clinical toxicology purposes. This new method employs a relatively less used class of derivatization agents - alkyl chloroformates, allowing the efficient and rapid derivatization of carboxylic acids within seconds while glycols are simultaneously derivatized by phenylboronic acid. The entire sample preparation procedure is completed within 10 min. To avoid possible interference from naturally occurring endogenous acids and quantitation errors 3-(4-chlorophenyl) propionic acid was chosen as an internal standard. The significant parameters of the derivatization have been found using chemometric procedures and these parameters were optimized using the face-centered central composite design. The calibration dependence of the method was proved to be quadratic in the range of 50-5000 mg mL(-1), with adequate accuracy (92.4-108.7%) and precision (9.4%). The method was successfully applied to quantify the selected compounds in serum of patients from emergency units.

  11. "Hybrid" lesion of the maxilla

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    S Sankaranarayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign but aggressive fibroosseous lesion that affects the craniofacial skeleton. Their distinct clinical and histopathological features warrant the lesion to be considered as a separate entity from other fibro-osseous group of lesions such as fibrous dysplasia and cemento ossifying fibroma. Concomitant development of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst may rarely occur, which makes the lesion more aggressive and difficult to treat. We report a case of a 6 year old girl who was diagnosed with aneurysmal bone cyst during her earlier presentation at a private hospital and was treated for the same. The lesion recurred within 6 months. The second incisional biopsy specimen revealed features of trabecular variant of juvenile ossifying fibroma along with areas of aneurysmal bone cyst.

  12. Pain in osteochondral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Rasch, Helmut; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Valderrabano, Victor

    2011-04-01

    Pain is the key symptom of patients suffering from osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle joint. Routine radiographic imaging methods for diagnosis and staging of OCL fail to visualize the pain-inducing focus within the joint. SPECT-CT (Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography) is a new hybrid imaging technique allowing exact digital fusion of scintigraphic and computer tomographic images. This allows precise localization and size determination of an OCL within the joint. Using this novel imaging method, we conducted a study to evaluate the correlation between pathological uptake within an OCL and pain experienced by patients suffering from this condition; 15 patients were assessed in the orthopaedic ambulatory clinic for unilateral OCL of the ankle joint. Pain status was measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A SPECT-CT was performed. All patients underwent CT-guided ankle injection with a local anesthetic and iodine contrast medium. The VAS score assessed immediately postinfiltration was compared with the preinterventional VAS score obtained in the outpatient clinic. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of the VAS score to ≤50% of the preinterventional score, if expected immediately after infiltration. Pain relief was found in all 15 patients. The results of our study show that there is a highly significant correlation between pain and pathological uptake seen on SPECT-CT, indicating that pathologically remodeled bone tissue is an important contributor to pain in OCL. Adequate addressing of involved bone tissue needs to be taken into consideration when choosing a surgical treatment method.

  13. Injectable silk-polyethylene glycol hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Partlow, Benjamin; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Su, Bo; Wang, Yansong; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    Silk hydrogels for tissue repair are usually pre-formed via chemical or physical treatments from silk solutions. For many medical applications, it is desirable to utilize injectable silk hydrogels at high concentrations (>8%) to avoid surgical implantation and to achieve slow in vivo degradation of the gel. In the present study, injectable silk solutions that formed hydrogels in situ were generated by mixing silk with low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG), especially PEG300 and 400 (molecular weight 300 and 400g mol(-1)). Gelation time was dependent on the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. When the concentration of PEG in the gel reached 40-45%, gelation time was less than 30min, as revealed by measurements of optical density and rheological studies, with kinetics of PEG400 faster than PEG300. Gelation was accompanied by structural changes in silk, leading to the conversion from random coil in solution to crystalline β-sheets in the gels, based on circular dichroism, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The modulus (127.5kPa) and yield strength (11.5kPa) determined were comparable to those of sonication-induced hydrogels at the same concentrations of silk. The time-dependent injectability of 15% PEG-silk hydrogel through 27G needles showed a gradual increase of compression forces from ∼10 to 50N within 60min. The growth of human mesenchymal stem cells on the PEG-silk hydrogels was hindered, likely due to the presence of PEG, which grew after a 5 day delay, presumably while the PEG solubilized away from the gel. When 5% PEG-silk hydrogel was subcutaneously injected in rats, significant degradation and tissue in-growth took place after 20 days, as revealed by ultrasound imaging and histological analysis. No significant inflammation around the gel was observed. The features of injectability, slow degradation and low initial cell attachment suggests that these PEG-silk hydrogels are of interest

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolytically degradable copolyester biomaterials based on glycolic acid, sebacic acid and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, J; Soulis, S; Triantou, D; Zoumpoulakis, L; Zotali, P

    2011-12-01

    Copolyesters of glycolic acid (G) combined with sebacic acid (S) and ethylene glycol were synthesized in different molar ratios (G: 0-100% and S: 100-0%) and their hydrolytic degradation was studied and correlated with their structures. Based on the FTIR spectra of the homopolyesters and copolyesters and the normalized peak intensity of the I(2918), I(2848) and I(1087) for the corresponding wavenumbers, it is concluded that the I(2918) and the I(2848) are in accordance with the mean number degree of polymerization of ethylene sebacate units and the I(1087) is in accordance with the mean number degree of polymerization of glycolate units. Based on the XRD diffractograms, poly(ethylene sebacate) and poly(glycolic acid) belong to the monoclinic and the orthorhombic crystal system, respectively and both have higher crystallinity than the copolyesters. The experimental data of the hydrolytic degradation were fitted with exponential rise to maximum type functions using two-parameter model and four-parameter model. Three regions can been distinguished for the hydrolytic degradation by decreasing the molar feed ratio of sebacic acid, which are correlated with the changes of crystallinity. Two copolyesters are proposed: first the copolyester with high amount of glycolate units (S10G90) having higher hydrolytic degradation than G100 and second the copolyester with equal amount of glycolate and ethylene sebacate units (S50G50), having lower hydrolytic degradation than G100. These hydrolytically degradable copolyesters are soluble in common organic solvents, opposite to poly(glycolic acid) and could have perspectives for biomedical applications.

  15. Pulmonary surfactant adsorption is increased by hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeusch, H William; Dybbro, Eric; Lu, Karen W

    2008-04-01

    In acute lung injuries, inactivating agents may interfere with transfer (adsorption) of pulmonary surfactants to the interface between air and the aqueous layer that coats the interior of alveoli. Some ionic and nonionic polymers reduce surfactant inactivation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested directly whether an ionic polymer, hyaluronan, or a nonionic polymer, polyethylene glycol, enhanced adsorption of a surfactant used clinically. We used three different methods of measuring adsorption in vitro: a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer; a King/Clements device; and a spreading trough. In addition we measured the effects of both polymers on surfactant turbidity, using this assay as a nonspecific index of aggregation. We found that both hyaluronan and polyethylene glycol significantly increased the rate and degree of surfactant material adsorbed to the surface in all three assays. Hyaluronan was effective in lower concentrations (20-fold) than polyethylene glycol and, unlike polyethylene glycol, hyaluronan did not increase apparent aggregation of surfactant. Surfactant adsorption in the presence of serum was also enhanced by both polymers regardless of whether hyaluronan or polyethylene glycol was included with serum in the subphase or added to the surfactant applied to the surface. Therefore, endogenous polymers in the alveolar subphase, or exogenous polymers added to surfactant used as therapy, may both be important for reducing inactivation of surfactant that occurs with various lung injuries.

  16. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  17. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers – Reproductive and developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Starek-Świechowicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. Med Pr 2015;66(5:725–737

  18. Sources of Propylene Glycol and Glycol Ethers in Air at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol and glycol ether (PGE in indoor air have recently been associated with asthma and allergies as well as sensitization in children. In this follow-up report, sources of the PGEs in indoor air were investigated in 390 homes of pre-school age children in Sweden. Professional building inspectors examined each home for water damages, mold odour, building’s structural characteristics, indoor temperature, absolute humidity and air exchange rate. They also collected air and dust samples. The samples were analyzed for four groups of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and semi-VOCs (SVOCs, including summed concentrations of 16 PGEs, 8 terpene hydrocarbons, 2 Texanols, and the phthalates n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. Home cleaning with water and mop ≥ once/month, repainting ≥ one room prior to or following the child’s birth, and “newest” surface material in the child’s bedroom explained largest portion of total variability in PGE concentrations. High excess indoor humidity (g/m3 additionally contributed to a sustained PGE levels in indoor air far beyond several months following the paint application. No behavioral or building structural factors, except for water-based cleaning, predicted an elevated terpene level in air. No significant predictor of Texanols emerged from our analysis. Overall disparate sources and low correlations among the PGEs, terpenes, Texanols, and the phthalates further confirm the lack of confounding in the analysis reporting the associations of the PGE and the diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively.

  19. Comparison of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol for the vitrification of immature porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Nakai, Michiko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Egerszegi, István; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to optimize a cryoprotectant treatment for vitrification of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG. After warming, the COCs were in vitro matured (IVM), and surviving oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cultured. The mean survival rate of vitrified oocytes in 35% PG (73.9%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in 35% EG (27.8%). Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among vitrified and non-vitrified control groups. Blastocyst formation in the vitrified EG group (10.8%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in the vitrified PG group (2.0%) but was lower than that in the control group (25.0%). Treatment of oocytes with 35% of each cryoprotectant without vitrification revealed a higher toxicity of PG on subsequent blastocyst development compared with EG. The combination of EG and PG resulted in 42.6% survival after vitrification. The maturation and fertilization rates of the surviving oocytes were similar in the vitrified, control and toxicity control (TC; treated with EG+PG combination without cooling) groups. Blastocyst development in the vitrified group was lower (P<0.05) than that in the control and TC groups, which in turn had similar development rates (10.7%, 18.1% and 23.3%, respectively). In conclusion, 35% PG enabled a higher oocyte survival rate after vitrification compared with 35% EG. However, PG was greatly toxic to oocytes. The combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG yielded reasonable survival rates without toxic effects on embryo development.

  20. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  1. Factitious lesions of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of a lesion with atypical presentation, obscure clinical history, which does not improve with classic treatments, shall raise the red flag of the medical team. In such cases, the hypothesis of a factitious lesion shall be considered. Many times the correct diagnosis on the initial assessment may avoid high-cost diagnostic tests, unnecessary treatments, and time consumption of the medical team. We present here two classic cases of factitious lesions that, similar to those described in the literature, is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

  2. Lesiones debido a un rayo

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Oliveira; Andriy Bal

    2012-01-01

    Lesiones debido a un rayo Mujer de 72 años, fue admitida en urgências con dolor abdominal y lipotimia después de ser golpeada por un rayo mientras abría una ventana. En la exploracion presentaba lesiones, localizadas en el tronco, dolorosas a la palpación. Las lesiones abdominales en forma de estrella eran muy sugestivas de imágenes de Lichtenberg (figura A), mientras en la región pélvica (figura B) y en la nalga derecha (figura C) eran más lineales y compatibles con quemaduras de pri...

  3. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  4. Propylene Glycol Toxicity in Adolescent with Refractory Myoclonic Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara A. Bjur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene glycol (PG is a solvent commonly used in medications that, while benign at low doses, may cause toxicity in adults and children at high doses. We describe a case and the physiologic sequelae of propylene glycol toxicity manifested in a critically ill adolescent male with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus aggressively treated with multiple PG-containing medications (lorazepam, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital—all within accepted dosing guidelines and a total daily PG exposure previously recognized to be safe. Hemodynamic measurements by bedside echocardiography during clinical toxicity are also reported. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for propylene glycol toxicity in patients treated with PG-containing medications even when the total PG exposure is lower than currently accepted limits.

  5. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  6. Pediatric sellar and suprasellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason W; Vezina, L Gilbert

    2011-03-01

    Masses arising in the sella turcica and the suprasellar region are common in children. The type and frequency of the various lesions encountered in childhood differ from the adult presentation. This article reviews the embryology of the pituitary gland and its normal appearance in childhood as well as the imaging and clinical findings of the common and some of the uncommon lesions arising in the sella turcica, the pituitary stalk, the suprasellar cistern and the lower third ventricle in the pediatric population.

  7. Catalysis of Heteropoly Acidic Salts for Synthesis of Diethylene Glycol Ethyl Ether with Diethylene Glycol and Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊峰; 易平贵; 戚蕴石

    2001-01-01

    Ag3PW12O4o and Ag4 SiW12O40 showed high activity and stability in the synthesis of diethylene glycol ethyl ether with diethylene glycol and ethanol, on which the conversion is 80.2%and 78.4%, respectively, and the selectivity of diethylene glycol ether is 75.4% and 80.6%, respectively. After the third reaction cycle, Ag3PW12O40 and Ag4SiW12O4o still showed higher activity and selectivity, on which the conversion is 72.6% and 77.5% respectively. But the activity of Ag3PMo12O40is lower, the conversion is only 21.0%. IR, XRD, TG and n-lutylamine titrimetry showed that the catalysis may be conmected with two kinds of acidic centers owned by heteropoly acidic salt.

  8. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  9. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  10. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  11. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  12. Experimental study and phase equilibrium modeling of systems containing acid gas and glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Waheed; Breil, Martin P.; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study phase equilibria of systems containing acid gases and glycols. The acid gases include carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon dioxide (CO2) while glycols include monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). A brief...... literature survey on the solubility of the acid gases and hydrocarbons in glycols is presented. New experimental solubility data mainly for COS and some limited data for H2S in glycols from 276 to 333K and at elevated pressures are reported. Experimental measurements have been carried out using the “static......-synthetic” method. The reliability and repeatability of the experimental work are demonstrated. The experimental solubility data for COS and glycols, from this work, and those for H2S and CO2 from the literature are modeled using the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA parameters for pure...

  13. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  14. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol on a single instrument with rapid switch-over from alcohols to glycols analysis. In addition to the novel HS-GC method, a retrospective analysis of patient specimens containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was also described. A total of 36 patients ingested ethylene glycol, including 3 patients who presented with two separate admissions for ethylene glycol toxicity. Laboratory studies on presentation to hospital for these patients showed both osmolal and anion gap in 13 patients, osmolal but not anion gap in 13 patients, anion but not osmolal gap in 8 patients, and 1 patient with neither an osmolal nor anion gap. Acidosis on arterial blood gas was present in 13 cases. Only one fatality was seen; this was a patient with initial serum ethylene glycol concentration of 1282 mg/dL who died on third day of hospitalization. Propylene glycol was common in patients being managed for toxic ingestions, and was often attributed to iatrogenic administration of propylene glycol-containing medications such as activated charcoal and intravenous lorazepam. In six patients, propylene glycol contributed to an abnormally high osmolal gap. The common presence of propylene glycol in hospitalized patients emphasizes the importance of being able to identify both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol by chromatographic methods.

  15. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  16. Direct Routes from Synthesis Gas to Ethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the synthesis of ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using bimetallic catalysts. Although this technology has not been implemented, it illustrates two important future trends, namely, use of bimetallic catalysts and use of coal-derived carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a new feed stock. (JN)

  17. SYNTHESIS OF NiO NANOPARTICLES IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Ai; Xiaming Dai; Qingfeng Li; Changsheng Deng; Shinhoo Kang

    2004-01-01

    NiO nanoparticles with well-dispersed property were prepared via a wet chemical method in ethylene glycol (EG) without soluble polymer as a protective agent. The mechanism of chemical process was proposed based on color change during the experiment. The dispersion function of EG was discussed.

  18. Methyl vinyl glycolate as a diverse platform molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Methyl vinyl glycolate (methyl 2-hydroxybut-3-enoate, MVG) is available by zeolite catalyzed degradation of mono- and disaccharides and has the potential to become a renewable platform molecule for commercially relevant catalytic transformations. This is further illustrated here by the developmen...

  19. Glycolate oxidation in A. thaliana chloroplasts improves biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eMaier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete glycolate catabolic cycle was established in chloroplasts of the C3-model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by which one molecule of glycolate is completely oxidized within the chloroplast to two molecules of CO2. Genes coding for glycolate oxidase, malate synthase, and catalase were introduced into the nuclear genome of A. thaliana by step-wise transformation. Other genes required for a fully operational pathway are the endogenous NADP-malic enzyme and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transgenic lines expressing the complete novel pathway produced rossettes with more leaves and higher fresh and dry weight but individual leaves were flatter and thinner than the wild type. The photosynthetic rates of the transgenic plants were higher on a dry weight and chlorophyll basis, but there were no differences in the compensation point. In addition, transgenic plants showed a lower glycine/serine ratio than the wild type indicating a reduction of the flux through the photorespiratory pathway. In this way, due to the increased oxidation of glycolate inside the chloroplasts, a photorespiratory bypass was created, which resulted in higher CO2 assimilation and enhanced biomass production.

  20. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothfuss, K. S.; Bode, J.C.; Stange, E.F.;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor...

  1. Simulation of polyethylene glycol and calcium-mediated membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; De Jong, Djurre H.; Raudino, Antonio; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Ca2+ by means of a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach. Our data provide a detailed view on the role of cations and polymer in modulating the interaction between negatively charged apposed membr

  2. Radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay for circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, S.; Mohimen, A.; Mehra, S. (Calcutta Medical Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Kothari Centre of Gastroenterology)

    1982-12-17

    An assay capable of detecting circulating Entamoeba histolytica antigens in amoebiasis is described. This assay utilised a radiolabelled affinity purified rabbit anti-E. histolytica antibody that had been depleted of antibodies that cross-react with human serum proteins, and a polyethylene glycol precipitation step.

  3. Broadband terahertz dynamics of propylene glycol monomer and oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Shota; Mori, Tatsuya; Kojima, Seiji

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the broadband terahertz spectra (0.1-5.0 THz) of glass-forming liquids, propylene glycol (PG), its oligomers poly (propylene glycol)s (PPGs), and poly (propylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PPG-de) using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman scattering. The numerical value of the dielectric loss at around 1.5 THz, which is the peak position of broad peaks in all samples, decreased as the molecular weight increased. Furthermore, the peak at around 1.5 THz is insensitive to the molecular weight. For PPGs, the side chain effect of the oligomer was observed in the terahertz region. Based on the experimental and calculation results for the PPGs and PPG-de, whose end groups are epoxy groups, the beginnings of the increases in the observed dielectric loss above 3.5 THz of the PPGs are assigned to the OH bending vibration. The higher value of the dielectric loss in the terahertz region for the PPG-de can be the tail of a broad peak located in the MHz region. The difference between the Raman susceptibility and dielectric loss reflects the difference in the observable molecular dynamics between the infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  4. Severe lactic acidosis after an iatrogenic propylene glycol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, Amy; Egelhoff, Elizabeth; Heard, Kennon

    2010-02-01

    Propylene glycol is a diluent found in many intravenous and oral drugs, including phenytoin, diazepam, and lorazepam. Propylene glycol is eliminated from the body by oxidation through alcohol dehydrogenase to form lactic acid. Under normal conditions, the body converts lactate to pyruvate and metabolizes pyruvate through the Krebs cycle. Lactic acidosis has occurred in patients, often those with renal dysfunction, who were receiving prolonged infusions of drugs that contain propylene glycol as a diluent. We describe a 50-year-old man who experienced severe lactic acidosis after receiving an accidental overdose of lorazepam, which contains propylene glycol. The patient was acutely intoxicated, with a serum ethanol concentration of 406 mg/dl. He had choked on a large piece of meat and subsequently experienced pulseless electrical activity with ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. He was brought to the emergency department; within 2 hours, he was admitted to the intensive care unit for initiation of the hypothermia protocol. The patient began to experience generalized tonic-clonic seizures 12 hours later, which resolved after several boluses of lorazepam. A lorazepam infusion was started; however, it was inadvertently administered at a rate of 2 mg/minute instead of the standard rate of 2 mg/hour. Ten hours later, the administration error was recognized and the infusion stopped. The patient's peak propylene glycol level was 659 mg/dl, pH 6.9, serum bicarbonate level 5 mEq/L, and lactate level 18.6 mmol/L. Fomepizole was started the next day and was continued until hospital day 3. Continuous renal replacement therapy was started and then replaced with continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for the remainder of the hospital stay. The patient's acidosis resolved by day 3, when his propylene glycol level had decreased to 45 mg/dl. Fomepizole was discontinued, but the patient's prognosis was poor (anoxic brain injury); thus care was withdrawn and the patient died

  5. Nodular lesions and mesangiolysis in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takashi; Shimizu, Miho; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Furuichi, Kengo

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure all over the world. Advanced human diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the presence of specific lesions including nodular lesions, doughnut lesions, and exudative lesions. Thus far, animal models precisely mimicking advanced human diabetic nephropathy, especially nodular lesions, remain to be fully established. Animal models with spontaneous diabetic kidney diseases or with inducible kidney lesions may be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Based on pathological features, we previously reported that diabetic glomerular nodular-like lesions were formed during the reconstruction process of mesangiolysis. Recently, we established nodular-like lesions resembling those seen in advanced human diabetic nephropathy through vascular endothelial injury and mesangiolysis by administration of monocrotaline. Here, in this review, we discuss diabetic nodular lesions and its animal models resembling human diabetic kidney lesions, with our hypothesis that endothelial cell injury and mesangiolysis might be required for nodular lesions.

  6. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  7. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  8. 76 FR 69659 - Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Methacrylate Graft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether... residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate- polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate graft... permissible level for residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol monomethyl...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3750 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9..., PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3750 Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene glycol identified in this section may be safely used as...

  10. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9... ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.820 Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene glycol identified in this section may be safely used in food...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  12. Liquid-liquid equilibria for glycols plus hydrocarbons: Data and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for seven binary glycol-hydrocarbon systems have been measured in the temperature range 32 degreesC to 80 degreesC and at the pressure 1 bar. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + heptane, methyleyclohexane (MCH) + hexane, propylene glycol (PG...

  13. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.856 Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6180 - Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6180 Polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (generic). (a... generically as polyalkylene glycol polyamide ester phosphate (PMN P-98-0903) is subject to reporting...

  15. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  16. 76 FR 38026 - Diethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... butyl ether, also a glycol ether differing in only one ethyl group from DEGBE. These data were used to... monobutyl ether, also a glycol ether differing only in one ethyl group. This data was used to assess the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Diethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether; Exemption From the Requirement of a...

  17. Impact of scaling on the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is considering using glycolic acid as a replacement for formic acid in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Catalytic decomposition of formic acid is responsible for the generation of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas, during processing. To prevent the formation of a flammable mixture in the offgas, an air purge is used to dilute the hydrogen concentration below the 60% of the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL). The offgas is continuously monitored for hydrogen using Gas Chromatographs (GCs). Since formic acid is much more volatile and toxic than glycolic acid, a formic acid spill would lead to the release of much larger quantities to the environment. Switching from formic acid to glycolic acid is expected to eliminate the hydrogen flammability hazard leading to lower air purges, thus downgrading of Safety Significant GCs to Process Support GCs, and minimizing the consequence of a glycolic acid tank leak in DWPF. Overall this leads to a reduction in process operation costs and an increase in safety margin. Experiments were completed at three different scales to demonstrate that the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet scales from the 4-L lab scale to the 22-L bench scale and 220-L engineering scale. Ten process demonstrations of the sludge-only flowsheet for SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed using Sludge Batch 8 (SB8)-Tank 40 simulant. No Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product or strip effluent was added during the runs. Six experiments were completed at the 4-L scale, two experiments were completed at the 22-L scale, and two experiments were completed at the 220-L scale. Experiments completed at the 4-L scale (100 and 110% acid stoichiometry) were repeated at the 22-L and 220-L scale for scale comparisons.

  18. [Percutaneous diagnostic angioscopy. Primary lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, C; Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Cécile, J P

    1993-01-01

    Efficacy of percutaneous treatments of arterial affections requires the correct choice of indications, necessitating precise knowledge of elementary arterial lesions. Arterial endoscopy appears to be more specific than angiography for this use, since it allows direct vision in vivo of the lesion, a histopathologic approach compared with the non univocal images produced by angiography (for example, an arterial obstruction can result from varied causes). Different accidents to the endothelial surface can be observed: golden yellow atheromatous elevations on a straw yellow background, intimal flaps, mobile intra-luminal vegetations. Established atheromatous stenosis are smooth and regular, or on the contrary ulcerated and edged with irregular flaps capable of provoking an eccentric residual lumen. The vegetating atheromatous lesions may project into the lumen, often as calcified and thus pearly white scales adhering to the wall, or as larger occlusive lesions. When capable of being isolated, a thrombus often completes the stenosis: its recognition is therefore fundamental since its removal exposes the subjacent lesions to be treated. The fresh clot is coral shaped, bright red and mobile in the blood flow. Established clots are compact and greenish brown. At an advanced stage of atheroma the surface of the occluding clot is covered with a regular straw yellow endothelium. In the presence of a dissecting vessel the fibroscope may be introduced into the false channel, no longer showing typical endothelium but a coagulated mass interspersed with fibrous bands. Prosthetic stenosis result from either intimal hyperplasia or a suturing fault with plication.

  19. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  20. Liquid-liquid equilibria for reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol and reservoir fluids plus monoethylene glycol plus water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2013-01-01

    The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to use advanced methods to increase oil recovery, such as increasing the use of various chemica...

  1. Pediatric Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Shea, Kevin G; Ganley, Theodore J

    2016-10-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) can cause knee pain and dysfunction in children. The etiology of OCD remains unclear; theories on causes include inflammation, ischemia, ossification abnormalities, genetic factors, and repetitive microtrauma. Most OCD lesions in skeletally immature patients will heal with nonoperative treatment. The success of nonoperative treatment decreases once patients reach skeletal maturity. The goals of surgical treatment include maintenance of articular cartilage congruity, rigid fixation of unstable fragments, and repair of osteochondral defects with cells or tissues that can adequately replace lost or deficient cartilage. Unsalvageable OCD lesions can be treated with various surgical techniques.

  2. Lesiones frecuentes en atletas profesionales

    OpenAIRE

    Doyel, Crevecoer

    2015-01-01

    Durante la práctica del atletismo frecuentemente ocurren lesiones, afectando principalmente a los miembros inferiores. Las causas que las originan son muy diversas y tienen diferentes características de acuerdo al tipo de modalidad realizada dentro del atletismo. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las lesiones más frecuentes en miembros inferiores, en atletas corredores profesionales, de diferentes distancias, de ambos sexos, de entre 18 y 40 años de edad, que practican atletismo en...

  3. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  4. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  5. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luzhong; Dou, Sufeng; Li, Yan; Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yawei; Wang, Yaling; Yang, Yumin

    2013-07-01

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields.

  6. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  7. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  8. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...

  9. SLAP lesions: a treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Tompkins, Marc; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Tears of the superior labrum involving the biceps anchor are a common entity, especially in athletes, and may highly impair shoulder function. If conservative treatment fails, successful arthroscopic repair of symptomatic SLAP lesions has been described in the literature particularly for young athletes. However, the results in throwing athletes are less successful with a significant amount of patients who will not regain their pre-injury level of performance. The clinical results of SLAP repairs in middle-aged and older patients are mixed, with worse results and higher revision rates as compared to younger patients. In this population, tenotomy or tenodesis of the biceps tendon is a viable alternative to SLAP repairs in order to improve clinical outcomes. The present article introduces a treatment algorithm for SLAP lesions based upon the recent literature as well as the authors' clinical experience. The type of lesion, age of patient, concomitant lesions, and functional requirements, as well as sport activity level of the patient, need to be considered. Moreover, normal variations and degenerative changes in the SLAP complex have to be distinguished from "true" SLAP lesions in order to improve results and avoid overtreatment. The suggestion for a treatment algorithm includes: type I: conservative treatment or arthroscopic debridement, type II: SLAP repair or biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, type III: resection of the instable bucket-handle tear, type IV: SLAP repair (biceps tenotomy/tenodesis if >50 % of biceps tendon is affected), type V: Bankart repair and SLAP repair, type VI: resection of the flap and SLAP repair, and type VII: refixation of the anterosuperior labrum and SLAP repair.

  10. Sorbitol hydrogenolysis to glycols by supported ruthenium catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inmaculada Murillo Leo; Manuel Lopez Granados; Jose Luis Garcia Fierro; Rafael Mariscal

    2014-01-01

    Supported Ru catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation to evaluate the role of different oxide supports (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2) in sorbitol hydrogenolysis to glycols. X-ray diffraction, transmis-sion electron microscopy, hydrogen chemisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption were used to characterize the catalysts, which were active in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol. The support affected both the physicochemical properties and cata-lytic behavior of the supported Ru particles. The characterization results revealed that the Ru/Al2O3 catalyst has a high surface acidity, partially oxidized Ru species on the surface, and a higher surface Ru/Al atomic ratio, which gave it the highest selectivity and yield to glycols.

  11. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  12. Antidotes for alcohol and glycol toxicity: translating mechanisms into treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K E

    2010-09-01

    Translational toxicology can be defined as the movement of potential antidotes for the treatment of poisonings from basic mechanistic research to the marketplace. Because poisonings are infrequent, the clinical development of antidotes is fraught with trials and tribulations. Academic scientists often conduct basic mechanistic work with antidotes but are infrequently involved in further drug development. This article presents the development of 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) (fomepizole) as an antidote against toxic alcohol poisonings, particularly by methanol and ethylene glycol (EG).

  13. Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Noonberg, Sarah; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Lynch, Maryellen; Kovelesky, Rosemary A; Rodríguez, Carlos A; Sprugel, Katherine; Turner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporine inhalation solution has the potential to improve outcomes following lung transplantation by delivering high concentrations of an immunosuppressant directly to the allograft while minimizing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicity. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the potential toxicity of aerosolized cyclosporine formulated in propylene glycol when given by inhalation route to rats and dogs for 28 days. Sprague-Dawley rats received total inhaled doses of 0 (air), 0 (vehicle, propylene glycol), 7.4, 24.3, and 53.9 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. In a separate study, beagle dogs were exposed to 0, 4.4, 7.7, and 9.7 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. Endpoints used to evaluate potential toxicity of inhaled cyclosporine were clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, respiratory functions, toxicokinetics, and clinical/anatomic pathology. Daily administration of aerosolized cyclosporine did not result in observable accumulation of cyclosporine in blood or lung tissue. Toxicokinetic analysis from the rat study showed that the exposure of cyclosporine was approximately 18 times higher in the lung tissue compared to the blood. Systemic effects were consistent with those known for cyclosporine. There was no unexpected systemic toxicity or clinically limiting local respiratory toxicity associated with inhalation exposure to cyclosporine inhalation solution at exposures up to 2.7 times the maximum human exposure in either rats or dogs. There were no respiratory or systemic effects of high doses of propylene glycol relative to air controls. These preclinical studies demonstrate the safety of aerosolized cyclosporine in propylene glycol and support its continued clinical investigation in patients undergoing allogeneic lung transplantation.

  14. Lubricin is expressed in chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, G; Loreto, C; Carnazza, M L; Coppolino, F; Cardile, V; Leonardi, R

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degenerative changes within joints that involved quantitative and/or qualitative alterations of cartilage and synovial fluid lubricin, a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Modern therapeutic methods, including tissue-engineering techniques, have been used to treat mechanical damage of the articular cartilage but to date there is no specific and effective treatment. This study aimed at investigating lubricin immunohistochemical expression in cartilage explant from normal and OA patients and in cartilage constructions formed by Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) based hydrogels (PEG-DA) encapsulated OA chondrocytes. The expression levels of lubricin were studied by immunohistochemistry: i) in tissue explanted from OA and normal human cartilage; ii) in chondrocytes encapsulated in hydrogel PEGDA from OA and normal human cartilage. Moreover, immunocytochemical and western blot analysis were performed in monolayer cells from OA and normal cartilage. The results showed an increased expression of lubricin in explanted tissue and in monolayer cells from normal cartilage, and a decreased expression of lubricin in OA cartilage. The chondrocytes from OA cartilage after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA) showed an increased expression of lubricin compared with the control cartilage. The present study demonstrated that OA chondrocytes encapsulated in PEGDA, grown in the scaffold and were able to restore lubricin biosynthesis. Thus our results suggest the possibility of applying autologous cell transplantation in conjunction with scaffold materials for repairing cartilage lesions in patients with OA to reduce at least the progression of the disease.

  15. Effects of sulpiride and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on endometrial carcinogenicity in Donryu rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Sakamoto, Yohei; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-06-01

    Sulpiride and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) are known ovarian toxicants that stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion, resulting in hypertrophy of the corpora lutea and increased progesterone (P4) production. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how the PRL stimulatory agents affected uterine carcinogenesis and to clarify the effects of PRL on endometrial adenocarcinoma progression in rats. Ten-week-old female Donryu rats were treated once with N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (20 mg kg(-1) ), followed by treatment with sulpiride (200 ppm) or EGME (1250 ppm) from 11 weeks of age to 12 months of age. Sulpiride treatment inhibited the incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, whereas EGME had no effect on uterine carcinogenesis. Sulpiride markedly prevented the onset of persistent estrus throughout the study period, and EGME delayed and inhibited the onset of persistent estrus. Moreover, sulpiride-treated animals showed high PRL and P4 serum levels without changes in the levels of estradiol-17β, low uterine weights and histological luteal cell hypertrophy. EGME did not affect serum PRL and P4 levels. These results suggest that the prolonged low estradiol-17β to P4 ratio accompanied by persistent estrous cycle abnormalities secondary to the luteal stimulatory effects of PRL may explain the inhibitory effects of sulpiride on uterine carcinogenesis in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-11-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m-3 for benzene, 3 mg m-3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m-3 for benzene and 6 g m-3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

  17. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  18. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  20. 99mTc-3PRGD2 Scintimammography in Palpable and Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol,PEG4-RGD2 (99mTc-3PRGD2 scintimammography (SMM in patients with either palpable or nonpalpable breast lesions and compare SMM to mammography to assess the possible incremental value of SMM in breast cancer detection. We also investigated the αvβ3 expression in malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety-four patients with 110 lesions were included in this study. Mammograms were evaluated according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS by a specialized imaging radiologist. Prone SMM was performed 1 hour after injection of 99mTc-3PRGD2. Scintigraphic images were interpreted independently by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a three-point system, and the kappa value was calculated to determine the interreader agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare SMM and mammography with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Diagnostic values for breast cancer detection were evaluated for each lesion. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate integrin αvβ3 expression. Histopathology revealed 46 malignant lesions and 64 benign lesions. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SMM were 83%, 73%, 77%, 69%, and 85%, respectively. The kappa value between the two reviewers was 0.63. The diagnostic values of SMM were higher than those of mammography in evaluating overall breast lesions. A sensitivity of 91% was achieved when SMM and mammography results were combined with 60% of all false-negative mammography findings classified as true-positive results by SMM. Integrin αvβ3 expression was positively identified using SMM imaging. SMM is a promising tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies when used in addition to mammography and can be used to image αvβ3 expression in breast cancer with good image quality.

  1. The timing of bowel preparation before colonoscopy determines the quality of cleansing, and is a significant factor contributing to the detection of flat lesions: A randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Parra-Blanco; David Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio Gimeno-García; Bego(n)a Grosso; Alejandro Jiménez; Juan Ortega; Enrique Quintero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the cleansing quality of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate with different schedules of administration, and to evaluate whether the timing of the administration of bowel preparation affects the detection of polyps.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive outpatients scheduled for colonoscopy were randomized in one of four groups to receive polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution or oral sodium phosphate with two different timing schedules. Quality of cleansing, polyp detection, and tolerance were evaluated.RESULTS: Patients receiving polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the same day as the colonoscopy,obtained good to excellent global cleansing scores more frequently than patients who received polyethylene glycol or sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure (P< 0.001). Flat lesions, but not flat adenomas, were more frequent in patients prepared on the same day (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION: The quality of colonic cleansing and the detection of flat lesions are significantly improved when the preparation is taken on the day of the colonoscopy.

  2. Implant periapical lesion. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Venetis, Fotis Iordanidis, Paraskevi Giovani, Lambros Zouloumis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ιmplant periapical lesion (IPL is probably not a uniform entity in all cases presented in the literature. Asseptic bone necrosis may be a cause for some of the IPLs, whilst the presence of microorganisms is not always detectable with conventional methods. A case of IPL in a male patient who underwent an extraction of 12 tooth and an immediate implantation at this site is presented. Eight months postoperatively, an IPL was revealed on radiologic examination. After surgical exploration, the IPL was removed and examined histologically and microbiologically. The implant was replaced with a longer one and a bone regeneration procedure was simultaneously carried out. From the study of the lesion and the patient’s followup, infection cannot be considered as primary cause information of presented IPL, but literature data suggests that classic histology and microbiology cannot exclude infection from IPL causatives.

  3. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  4. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  5. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  6. Transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Fan, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-03-15

    Inhibition of neurite growth, which is in large part mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor, affects neural regeneration following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. The tissue engineering scaffold poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) has good histocompatibility and can promote the growth of regenerating nerve fibers. The present study used small interfering RNA to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells, which were subsequently transplanted with poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) into the spinal cord lesion regions in rats. Simultaneously, rats treated with scaffold only were taken as the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, rats had good motor function of the hind limb after treatment with Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells plus the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold compared with rats treated with scaffold only, and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neuron-like cells was also increased. At 8 weeks after transplantation, horseradish peroxidase tracing and transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers, as well as intact regenerating axonal myelin sheath following spinal cord hemisection injury. These experimental findings indicate that transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells plus a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold can significantly enhance axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons and improve motor function of the extremities in rats following spinal cord injury.

  7. Transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Yuhong Fan; Jianjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of neurite growth, which is in large part mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor, affects neural regeneration following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. The tissue engineering scaffold poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) has good histocompatibility and can promote the growth of regenerating nerve fibers. The present study used small interfering RNA to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells, which were subsequently transplanted with poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) into the spinal cord lesion regions in rats. Simultaneously, rats treated with scaffold only were taken as the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, rats had good motor function of the hind limb after treatment with Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells plus the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold compared with rats treated with scaffold only, and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neuron-like cells was also increased. At 8 weeks after transplantation, horseradish peroxidase tracing and transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers, as well as intact regenerating axonal myelin sheath following spinal cord hemisection injury. These experimental findings indicate that transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells plus a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold can significantly enhance axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons and improve motor function of the extremities in rats following spinal cord injury.

  8. The Soret effect of mono-, di- and tri-glycols in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Wiegand, Simone

    2011-04-21

    We employed thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS) to investigate the chain length dependence of the thermal diffusion behavior of short glycols in ethanol. We studied three glycols, monoethylenglycol (MEG), diethylenglycol (DEG) and triethylenglycol (TEG), in an ethanol solution. In contrast to the polymer polyethylenglycol, the shorter glycols used within the framework of this study are completely soluble in ethanol, at least for low molar fractions. In order to guarantee a good solubility of the glycols, the measurements were limited to molar fractions of 10% and 20%. As the different glycols only differ by their chain length it will be possible to deduce its influence on the thermal diffusion properties. Due to the fairly short persistence length of the glycols, D(T) reaches already for the dimer a plateau value. This finding agrees with simulation results. Furthermore, the thermal expansion and the kinematic viscosity are measured to investigate if empirical correlations seen for other systems could be confirmed.

  9. Phase Equilibria Measurement of Binary Mixture for the Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Experimental data are reported on the phase equilibrium of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide. Phase equilibria data were measured in static method at a temperature of (313.2, 333.2, 353.2, 373.2 and 393.2) K and at pressures up to 27.82 MPa. At a constant pressure, the solubility of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system increases as temperature increases. The (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system exhibits type-I phase behavior. The experimental result for the (carbon dioxide + propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate) system is correlated with Peng- Robinson equation of state using mixing rule. The critical property of propoxylated neopentyl glycol diacrylate is predicted with Joback and Lyderson method.

  10. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  11. A new ethylene glycol-silane monolayer for highly-specific DNA detection on Silicon Chips

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Monolayer thin films with ethylene-glycol function onto gold surfaces by using thiols have been extensively investigated. They have been proposed as precursors for applications to bio-detection, where their hydrophilic character improves both specificity and sensitivity. The aim of this letter is to characterize ethylene-glycol monolayer precursors formed onto silicon chips by using silanes. The importance of the ethylene-glycol function is demonstrated by comparing with the well known 3-Amin...

  12. Experimental study on correlation between sound velocity and solute molecular weight in polyethylene glycol solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this study,ultrasound grating was used to measure the sound velocity in solutions of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with molecular weights of 200,600,2000,and 10000.We found Parthasarathy empirical rule,that is,sound velocity is higher in the solution of larger molecules,is invalid in the case of polyethylene glycol solution. We tried to provide a tentative explanation using the Flory-Krigbaum’s chained block cloud model.

  13. Experimental study on correlation between sound velocity and solute molecular weight in polyethylene glycol solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN XiangYu; SONG Hao; ZHOU HuiJun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, ultrasound grating was used to measure the sound velocity in solutions of ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with molecular weights of 200, 600, 2000, and 10000. We found Parthasarathy empirical rule, that is, sound velocity is higher in the solution of larger molecules, is invalid in the case of polyethylene glycol solution. We tried to provide a tentative explanation using the Flory-Krigbaum's chained block cloud model.

  14. Echogenic Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Triggered Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun Su; You, Dong Gil; Son, Sejin; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Seulki; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles hold great promise for simultaneous diagnosis of diseases, targeted drug delivery with minimal toxicity, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. However, one of the current challenges in developing theranostic nanoparticles is enhancing the tumor-specific targeting of both imaging probes and anticancer agents. Herein, we report the development of tumor-homing echogenic glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles (Echo-CNPs) that concurrently execute cancer-targeted ultrasound (US) imaging and US-triggered drug delivery. To construct this novel Echo-CNPs, an anticancer drug and bioinert perfluoropentane (PFP), a US gas precursor, were simultaneously encapsulated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles using the oil in water (O/W) emulsion method. The resulting Echo-CNPs had a nano-sized particle structure, composing of hydrophobic anticancer drug/PFP inner cores and a hydrophilic glycol chitosan polymer outer shell. The Echo-CNPs had a favorable hydrodynamic size of 432 nm, which is entirely different from the micro-sized core-empty conventional microbubbles (1-10 μm). Furthermore, Echo-CNPs showed the prolonged echogenicity via the sustained microbubble formation process of liquid-phase PFP at the body temperature and they also presented a US-triggered drug release profile through the external US irradiation. Interestingly, Echo-CNPs exhibited significantly increased tumor-homing ability with lower non-specific uptake by other tissues in tumor-bearing mice through the nanoparticle's enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusively, theranostic Echo-CNPs are highly useful for simultaneous cancer-targeting US imaging and US-triggered delivery in cancer theranostics.

  15. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Ethylene Glycol within Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyob, K. M.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is a commonly used organic additive in hydraulic fracturing fluids used for shale gas recovery. Under aerobic conditions, this compound readily biodegrades to acetate and CO2 or is oxidized through the glycerate pathway. In the absence of oxygen, organisms within genera Desulfovibrio, Acetobacterium, and others can transform EG to acetaldehyde, a flammable and suspected carcinogenic compound. Acetaldehyde can then be enzymatically degraded to ethanol or acetate and CO2. However, little is known on how EG degrades in the presence of other organic additives, particularly under anaerobic conditions representative of deep groundwater aquifers. To better understand the fate and attenuation of glycols within hydraulic fracturing fluids we are assessing their biodegradation potential and pathways in batch anaerobic microcosm treatments. Crushed Berea sandstone was inoculated with groundwater and incubated with either EG or a synthetic fracturing fluid (SFF) containing EG formulations. We tracked changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), EG, and its transformation products over several months. Approximately 41% of bulk DOC in SFF is degraded within 21 days, with 58% DOC still remaining after 63 days. By comparison, this same SFF degrades by 70% within 25 days when inoculated with sediment-groundwater microbial communities, suggesting that bulk DOC degradation occurs at a slower rate and to a lesser extent with bedrock. Aerobic biodegradation of EG occurs rapidly (3-7 days); however anaerobic degradation of EG is much slower, requiring several weeks for substantial DOC loss to be observed. Ongoing experiments are tracking the degradation pathways of EG alone and in the presence of SFF, with preliminary data showing incomplete glycol transformation within the complex hydraulic fracturing fluid mixture. This research will help to elucidate rates, processes, and pathways for EG biodegradation and identify key microbial taxa involved in its degradation.

  16. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  17. Triphasic computed tomography enterography with polyethylene glycol to detect renal cell carcinoma metastases to the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chian-Sem; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Wu, Chin-Chu; Lin, Yu-Min; Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Hsin

    2011-09-01

    Enteroclysis was first used to diagnose small bowel obstruction in 1996. However, nasojejunal intubation required during enteroclysis causes discomfort to the patient. Triphasic computed tomography (CT) enterography, a noninvasive procedure that does not require intubation, was found to be an efficient method to diagnose small bowel lesions. We describe our experience of using triphasic CT enterography with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the small intestine. RCC can metastasize to many organs and can cause variable clinical presentations. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with RCC who had psoas muscle involvement and lung metastasis. The patient presented with melena and intermittent abdominal pain. Two conventional CT and small bowel series examinations had shown no obstructive lesion in the small intestine. However, triphasic CT enterography with PEG detected two enhanced masses suggestive of small bowel metastasis. The patient underwent laparotomy and segmental resection of the jejunum with primary anastomosis. Histologic examination was compatible with RCC. This is the first report where RCC metastasis to the small bowel was diagnosed using triphasic CT enterography. Our study emphasizes the importance of triphasic CT enterography in cases of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients suspected of having small bowel metastasis.

  18. Triphasic Computed Tomography Enterography with Polyethylene Glycol to Detect Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastases to the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Sem Chua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteroclysis was first used to diagnose small bowel obstruction in 1996. However, nasojejunal intubation required during enteroclysis causes discomfort to the patient. Triphasic computed tomography (CT enterography, a noninvasive procedure that does not require intubation, was found to be an efficient method to diagnose small bowel lesions. We describe our experience of using triphasic CT enterography with polyethylene glycol (PEG for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma (RCC metastases to the small intestine. RCC can metastasize to many organs and can cause variable clinical presentations. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with RCC who had psoas muscle involvement and lung metastasis. The patient presented with melena and intermittent abdominal pain. Two conventional CT and small bowel series examinations had shown no obstructive lesion in the small intestine. However, triphasic CT enterography with PEG detected two enhanced masses suggestive of small bowel metastasis. The patient underwent laparotomy and segmental resection of the jejunum with primary anastomosis. Histologic examination was compatible with RCC. This is the first report where RCC metastasis to the small bowel was diagnosed using triphasic CT enterography. Our study emphasizes the importance of triphasic CT enterography in cases of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients suspected of having small bowel metastasis.

  19. Polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid for bowel preparation in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Min; Keum, Bora; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Kim, Myung Gyu; Jo, Sang Kyung

    2016-09-01

    The safety of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid has not been fully investigated in patients with renal insufficiency. High-dose ascorbic acid could induce hyperoxaluria, thereby causing tubule-interstitial nephritis and renal failure. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid in patients with chronic kidney disease.We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (n = 61) and 4 L polyethylene glycol (n = 80). The safety of the 2 groups was compared by assessing the differences in laboratory findings before and after bowel cleansing.The laboratory findings were not significantly different before and after the administration of 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid or 4 L polyethylene glycol. In both groups, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by the administration of the bowel-cleansing agent. Patients' reports on tolerance and acceptability were better in the 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid group than in the 4 L polyethylene glycol group.The 2 L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid solution is a safe choice for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in patients with impaired renal function.

  20. Influence of propylene glycol on aqueous silica dispersions and particle-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Thompson, Michael A; Elliott, Russell P

    2013-05-14

    We have studied the influence of adding propylene glycol to both aqueous dispersions of fumed silica nanoparticles and emulsions of paraffin liquid and water stabilized by the same particles. In the absence of oil, aerating mixtures of aqueous propylene glycol and particles yields either stable dispersions, aqueous foams, climbing particle films, or liquid marbles depending on the glycol content and particle hydrophobicity. The presence of glycol in water promotes particles to behave as if they are more hydrophilic. Calculations of their contact angle at the air-aqueous propylene glycol surface are in agreement with these findings. In the presence of oil, particle-stabilized emulsions invert from water-in-oil to oil-in-water upon increasing either the inherent hydrophilicity of the particles or the glycol content in the aqueous phase. Stable multiple emulsions occur around phase inversion in systems of low glycol content, and completely stable, waterless oil-in-propylene glycol emulsions can also be prepared. Accounting for the surface energies at the respective interfaces allows estimation of the contact angle at the oil-polar phase interface; reasonable agreement between measured and calculated phase inversion conditions is found assuming no glycol adsorption on particle surfaces.

  1. Influence of nanoparticle concentration on thermo-physical properties of CuO-propylene glycol nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, Kuppusamy Swaminathan; Radhakrishnan, Anju K; Anusha, Natarajan; Rajan, Kalpoondi Sekar

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were performed on the preparation and characterization of CuO-propylene glycol nanofluids. The influence of nanoparticle concentration and temperature on nanofluid viscosity reveals existence of a range of nanoparticle concentration and temperature in which the viscosity of nanofluid is lower than that of propylene glycol, possibly due to interactions between nanoparticles and propylene glycol. A temperature-independent, thermal conductivity enhancement of 38% was obtained for nanoparticle concentration of 1.5 vol% over a temperature range of 10-60 degrees C. We believe that particle clustering contributes to the thermal conductivity enhancement in CuO-propylene glycol nanofluids.

  2. Degradation and compatibility behaviors of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Luzhong; Dou, Sufeng [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Li, Yan [College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yuan, Ying; Ji, Yawei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Wang, Yaling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Yang, Yumin, E-mail: yangym@ntu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The films of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan were prepared without using a catalyst to improve the degradable property of chitosan. The films were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The degradation of the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films were investigated in the lysozyme solution. In vitro degradation tests revealed that the degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films increased dramatically compared with chitosan. The degradation rate of poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films gradually increased with the increasing of the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. Additionally, the poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan films have good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity of the extraction fluids. The biocompatible and biodegradable poly(glycolic acid) grafted chitosan would be an effective material with controllable degradation rate to meet the diverse needs in biomedical fields. - Highlights: ► Chitosan-g-poly(glycolic acid) copolymer was prepared without using a catalyst. ► Degradation rate of copolymer increased dramatically compared with that of chitosan. ► Degradation rate was controlled by the molar ratio of glycolic acid to chitosan. ► In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the copolymer has good biocompatibility. ► The copolymer has a great potential to meet diverse needs in biomedical fields.

  3. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

  4. Nanoporous Silicified Phospholipids and Application to Controlled Glycolic Acid Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang SangHwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous silicified phospholipid bilayers assembled inorganic powders. The materials are obtained by silicification process with silica precursor at the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involves the co-assembly of a chemically active phospholipids bilayer within the ordered porosity of a silica matrix and holds promise as a novel application for controlled drug release or drug containers with a high level of specificity and throughput. The controlled release application of the synthesized materials was achieved to glycolic acid, and obtained a zero-order release pattern due to the nanoporosity.

  5. Chemical Modification of Silk Fibers with Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; ZHOU Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Silk fibers have been grafted with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and characteristics of the grafted silk fibers were analyzed in relation to the graft yield on the basis of the tensile properties, dyeing behaviour, durability during laundering and solubility of the specimen in NaOH solution. The amount of the acid dye absorbed by the fibers decreased with increasing graft yield, while the value of rating for washing fastness on silk fibers was almost unchanged by the graft treatment. The breaking loads of the fiber were almost unchanged whereas rigidity of the fibers increased after graft treatment. Graft treatment enhanced silk fiber durability during laundering and in NaOH solution.

  6. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functional

  7. Effect of polyethylene glycol on characteristics of chitosan membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthai, W.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG on characteristics of chitosan membranes. Parameters used for membrane characterization were hydraulic permeability (Lp, molecular weight cut off (MWCO, and membrane impedance (Z. The results obtained from LP and Z imply that larger a amount of PEG addition enhances membrane porosity and enlarges the pore size. The prepared membranes were ultrafiltration type, with MWCO slightly greater than 35 kDa. Membranes without PEG additioncould be nanofiltration type with Lp value of 0.4x10-11 m3 N-1 s-1, 10-20 times smaller than the other.

  8. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  9. Structure and mechanism for DNA lesion recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental question in DNA repair is how a lesion is detected when embedded in millions to billions of normal base pairs. Extensive structural and functional studies reveal atomic details of DNA repair protein and nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes seemingly diverse structural motifs used in lesion recognition and suggests a general mechanism to recognize DNA lesion by the poor base stacking. After initial recognition of this shared struc-tural feature of lesions, different DNA repair pathways use unique verification mechanisms to ensure correct lesion identification and removal.

  10. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... of existing visible and radiographical systems to monitor lesions over time. Using low-cost intra-oral cameras facilitates the recording of lesion appearance in the patient record and may be of significant benefit in monitoring early lesions over time following their detection. This benefit extends...

  11. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagholikar Gajanan D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  12. Stability of glycol nanofluids -- the consensus between theory and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Musina, Zenfira; Ding, Yulong

    2012-01-01

    Formulation of stable nanofluids containing ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and 50wt% mixtures of PG and EG in water (WPG, WEG) were investigated, with and without the presence of surfactants. Nanofluid samples of particle concentrations 1-9wt% were prepared by dispersive method. Surfactant presence was in the range of 0-1wt%/wt% of nanoparticles. Visual observation, particle size measurement and zeta potential analysis were performed to evaluate the dispersion stability. In overall the PG-based samples were found to be the most stable suspensions. The effect of base fluid on particle size and the effect of day light on nanofluid stability were also examined as a function of time. TiO2-PG samples showed a colour change when exposed to sunlight. Sunlight also caused the PG based TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluid to increase their particle sizes by up to 45% in the course of 3 days. As for stability, the sedimentation velocity was observed to be a key parameter. Finally b...

  13. Ethylene glycol-assisted coating of titania on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael; Castaneda, Fernando; Joo, Ji Bong; Reyes, Victor; Goebl, James; Yin, Yadong

    2016-06-14

    Coating titania shells onto sub-micron sized particles has been widely studied recently, with success mainly limited to objects with sizes above 50 nm. Direct coating on particles below this size has been difficult to attain especially with good control over properties such as thickness and crystallinity. Here we demonstrate that titanium-glycolate formed by reacting titanium alkoxide and ethylene glycol is an excellent precursor for coating titania on aqueous nanoparticles. The new coating method is particularly useful for its ability to coat materials lacking strong polymers or ligands which are frequently needed to facilitate typical titania coatings. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the process of coating titania on metal nanoparticles ranging from citrate-stabilized gold and silver spheres to gold nanorods and silver nanoplates, and larger particles such as SiO2 microspheres and polymer spheres. Further the thickness of these coatings can be tuned from a few nanometers to ∼40 nm through sequential coatings. These coatings can subsequently be crystallized into TiO2 through refluxing in water or by calcination to obtain crystalline shells. This procedure can be very useful for the production of TiO2 coatings with tunable thickness and crystallinity as well as for further study on the effect of TiO2 coatings on nanoparticles.

  14. Reactive Hyperplastic Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Kadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral reactive lesions of soft tissue are common oral lesions that dentists face during routine examinations. Diagnosis and development of a treatment plan is difficult if dentists are not aware of the prevalence and clinical symptoms of these lesions. The frequency of these lesions differs across various populations. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral reactive lesions over a period of 7 years (2006–2012.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, available records from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Dental School and the two main hospitals in southeast of Iran (Zahedan over a period of 7 years (2006–2012 were reviewed. Information relating to the type of reactive lesion, age, gender and location was extracted and recorded on data forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (V.18 using the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.   Results: Of 451 oral lesions, 91 cases (20.2% were reactive hyperplastic lesions. The most common lesions were pyogenic granuloma and irritation fibroma, respectively. These lesions were more frequent in women (60% than men (40%. The most common locations of involvement were the gingiva and alveolar mucosa of the mandible, and lesions were more common in the 21–40-year age group. The relationship between age group and reactive lesions was statistically significant (P=0.01.   Conclusion:  The major findings in this study are broadly similar to the results of previous studies, with differences observed in some cases. However, knowledge of the frequency and distribution of these lesions is beneficial when establishing a diagnosis and treatment plan in clinical practice.

  15. Noncovalent pegylation by dansyl-poly(ethylene glycol)s as a new means against aggregation of salmon calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Capelle, Martinus A H; Arvinte, Tudor; Seyrek, Emek; Borchard, Gerrit

    2011-05-01

    During all stages of protein drug development, aggregation is one of the most often encountered problems. Covalent conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), also called PEGylation, to proteins has been shown to reduce aggregation of proteins. In this paper, new excipients based on PEG are presented that are able to reduce aggregation of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Several PEG polymers consisting of a hydrophobic dansyl-headgroup attached to PEGs of different molecular weights have been synthesized and characterized physicochemically. After addition of dansyl-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) 2 kDa to a 40 times molar excess of sCT resulted in an increase in dansyl-fluorescence and a decrease in 90° light scatter suggesting possible interactions. The aggregation of sCT in different buffer systems in presence or absence of the different dansyl-PEGs was measured by changes in Nile red fluorescence and turbidity. Dansyl-mPEG 2 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio to sCT strongly reduced aggregation. Reduction of sCT aggregation was also measured for the bivalent dansyl-PEG 3 kDa in a 1:1 molar ratio. Dansyl-mPEG 5 kDa deteriorated sCT aggregation. Potential cytotoxicity and hemolysis were investigated. This paper shows that dansyl-PEGs are efficacious in reducing aggregation of sCT.

  16. CLOUD POINT CURVES OF POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) / POLY(PROPYLENE GLYCOL) MIXTURES AND THEIR THERMODYNAMIC EXPLANATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ruona; CHAI Zhikuan

    1988-01-01

    In the study of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) mixtures not only a bimodal shape but also a reverse trend of the dependence on molecular weight of the cloud point curves were observed.This trend indicates that the miscibility of the studied mixtures decreases as the molecular weight of one component decreases. The excess volumes of the mixtures show that the interaction parameter between two components decreases at first and increases after passing a minimum as the concentration of one component increases. This supports the explanation of Koningsveld on the bimodal shape of cloud point curves. Based on a binary interaction model a formula was derived revealing that the interaction between PPG and the end group of PEG and the hydrogen bonding interaction between ether and hydroxy end group inner or inter PEG molecules are not favorable for mixing. The latter interaction is an "attractive" force in PEG molecules. The two interactions are responsible for the observed abnormal dependence.

  17. Imaging findings of various calvarial bone lesions witha focus on osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Young Hee; Moon, Won Jin; An, Hyeong Su; Cho, Joon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this review, we present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of various calvarial lesions on the basis of their imaging patterns and list the differential diagnoses of the lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 256 cases of calvarial lesion (122 malignant neoplasms, 115 benign neoplasms, and 19 non-neoplastic lesions) seen in our institutions, and classified them into six categories based on the following imaging features: generalized skull thickening, focal skull thickening, generalized skull thinning, focal skull thinning, single lytic lesion, and multiple lytic lesions. Although bony lesions of the calvarium are easily identified on CT, bone marrow lesions are better visualized on MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging or fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. Careful interpretation of calvarial lesions based on pattern recognition can effectively narrow a range of possible diagnoses.

  18. [Management of the meniscal lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, B; Cermak, K; Vancabeke, M

    2011-01-01

    About 1,5 million arthroscopies are each year performed in the world, 50 % for meniscal affections. The menisci participate in the femoro-tibial load transmission and in the joint shock absorption; they contribute to the knee stability and play a role in the joint lubrication. The menisci are therefore important structures, and, in the case of a lesion, surgical abstention or repair should be favoured. When a meniscectomy has to be performed, it should be economical, preserving the meniscal wall. Meniscectomy is contra-indicated in the child and in the case of knee osteoarthrosis. Meniscal healing is compromised if the knee is unstable. If after total meniscectomy a patient presents symptomatic early osteoarthrosis, without marked loss of alignment, meniscal allografting is a therapeutic option, especially at the lateral compartment.

  19. Oligo(ethylene glycol) based architectures for benign bio-resistant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geldrop, J.

    2008-01-01

    Poly- and oligo(ethylene glycol)s are known to suppress the adsorption of biological material on surfaces. In this thesis is shown that when using these chains in either monolayers or polymeric architectures, fouling (undesired growth of biological material on surfaces) could be significantly reduce

  20. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the system (propylene glycol + water + tetraoctyl ammonium 2-methyl-1-naphthoate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Chavez, L.Y.; Shazad, M.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is an important low toxic glycol, widely used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and the chemical industries. The recovery of PG from aqueous streams using conventional unit operations such as evaporation is highly energy demanding because of the large amounts of water that

  1. Glycolate adsorption at gold and platinum electrodes: A theoretical and in situ spectroelectrochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Manuel; Blanco, Raquel; Orts, Jose Manuel; Perez, Juan Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Rodes, Antonio, E-mail: Antonio.Rodes@ua.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The adsorption of glycolate anions at sputtered gold thin-film electrodes was studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry experiments combined with in situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS). Theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies and band intensities obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d) calculations for glycolate species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation were used to interpret the experimental spectra. Vibrational data confirm the bidentate bonding of glycolate anions through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, in a bridge configuration with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. The DFT calculations show no significant effect of the total charge of the metal cluster-adsorbate adduct on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed glycolate species. The infrared experimental study is extended to platinum films electrochemically deposited onto sputtered gold thin-film electrodes showing the potential-dependent formation of adsorbed CO upon dissociative adsorption of glycolate anions. As in the case of gold, the reversible adsorption of glycolate anions takes place in a bidentate configuration as predicted by DFT calculations for glycolate adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) clusters. At low glycolic acid concentration, the in situ ATR-SEIRA spectra evidence the formation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intermediate.

  2. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  3. Glycols modulate terminator stem stability and ligand-dependency of a glycine riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachi, Kokoro; Hayashi, Hikari; Shimamura, Miyuki; Yamaji, Yuiha; Kaneko, Ai; Fujisawa, Aruma; Umehara, Takuya; Tamura, Koji

    2013-08-01

    The Bacillus subtilis glycine riboswitch comprises tandem glycine-binding aptamers and a putative terminator stem followed by the gcvT operon. Gene expression is regulated via the sensing of glycine. However, we found that the riboswitch behaves in a "glycine-independent" manner in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ethylene glycol. The effect is related to the formation of a terminator stem within the expression platform under such conditions. The results revealed that increasing PEG stabilized the structure of the terminator stem. By contrast, the addition of ethylene glycol destabilized the terminator stem. PEG and ethylene glycol have opposite effects on transcription as well as on stable terminator stem formation. The glycine-independency of the riboswitch and the effects of such glycols might shed light on the evolution of riboswitches.

  4. Kinetics of anaerobic degradation of glycol-based type I aircraft deicing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, T; Veltman, S; Switzenbaum, M

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic degradation of glycol-based Type I aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) were characterized using suspended-growth fill-and-draw reactors. Both Type I ADFs tested showed near-complete anaerobic degradability. First-order degradation rate constants of 3.5 d(-1) for the propylene glycol-based Type I ADF and 5.2 d(-1) for the ethylene glycol-based Type I ADF were obtained through continuous-culture means under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). Fill-and-draw operation at lower temperatures affected anaerobic degradability only minimally down to 25 degrees C but substantially below 25 degrees C. High Type I ADF feed concentrations substantially affected degradability. Batch testing of fill-and-draw reactors resulted in first-order degradation rate constants of 1.9 d(-1) for propylene glycol-based Type I ADF and 3.5 d(-1) for ethylene glycol-based Type I ADF.

  5. Polyethylene glycol-hirudin conjugates, process for preparing them and their use for the treatment of thromboses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Transgene, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for preparing a polyethylene glycol (or derivatives)-hirudin conjugate. It also relates to the polyethylene glycol (or derivatives)-hirudin conjugate obtained and its use as medicinal product for the..

  6. Environmental Risk Limits for alcohols, glycols, and some other relatively soluble and/or volatile compounds 1. Ecotoxicological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; Rila JP; Traas TP; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Posthumus R; SEC

    2006-01-01

    In this report, maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), negligible concentrations (NC) and serious risk concentrations (SRCeco) are derived for the following compounds: 1-butanol, 2-butanol, n-butyl acetate, cyclohexylamine, diethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, ethylene glycol, methanol, methyl ethyl

  7. Endo-periodontal lesion – endodontic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; C. Ionescu

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal t...

  8. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  9. The clinical spectrum of pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, J V; Bolognia, J L

    2000-07-01

    This article presents the clinical features of a spectrum of pigmented lesions. It begins with benign lesions that may be confused with melanocytic nevi, such as lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, and dermatofibromas. The next section focuses on the various types of melanocytic nevi, including congenital, blue, and Spitz nevi. A description of atypical nevi is provided, followed by an outline of the clinical characteristics of each subtype of cutaneous melanoma. The clinical characteristics of various pigmented lesions are illustrated.

  10. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  11. Obstructive Lesions of the Pediatric Subglottis

    OpenAIRE

    Ida, Jonathan B.; Guarisco, J. Lindhe; Rodriguez, Kimsey H.; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compile information regarding obstructive subglottic lesions in children, including anatomy, pathogenesis, prevention, evaluation, and treatment options, required for implementation of a multi-faceted treatment plan.

  12. Comet Lesions in Patients with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Tatlıpınar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a genetic multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. Basic fundoscopic findings in PXE result from Bruch’s membrane involvement. The most important fundoscopic findings are angioid streaks. Other significant ocular findings are peau d’orange appearance, optic disc drusen, pattern dystrophy-like macular appearance, comet lesions, and choroidal neovascularization. Comet lesions are a pathognomonic ocular finding for PXE. The presence of both angioid streaks in the fundus and typical skin lesions should alert clinicians to PXE. Herein, we present two PXE cases with comet lesions.

  13. Rheological profile of boron nitride–ethylene glycol nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żyła, Gaweł, E-mail: gzyla@prz.edu.pl [Department of Physics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Rzeszów (Poland); Witek, Adam; Gizowska, Magdalena [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    The paper presents the complete rheological profile of boron nitride (BN)–ethylene glycol (EG) nanofluids. Nanofluids have been produced by two-step method on the basis of commercially available powder of plate-like grains of nanometrical thickness. Viscoelastic structure has been determined in oscillatory measurements at a constant frequency and temperature. Viscosity and flow curves for these materials have been measured. Studies have shown that the Carreau model can be used for the modeling of dynamic viscosity curves of the material. The samples were tested for the presence of thixotropy. The dependence of viscosity on temperature was also examined. The effect of temperature on the dynamic viscosity of BN-EG nanofluids can be modelled with the use of Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann expression.

  14. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  15. Synthesis of Propargyl-Terminated Heterobifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel propargyl-ended heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol (PEG derivatives with hydroxyl, carboxyl, mercapto or hydrazide end groups were synthesized with simplicity yet high efficiency. PEG (Mw = 3500 Da with an α-hydroxyl group and an ω-carboxyl was used as the starting polymer. The carboxyl group of the bifunctional PEG was modified into a propargyl, then carboxyl, mercapto or hydrazide groups were introduced to the other end of the bifunctional PEG by modifying the bifunctional PEG’s hydroxyl group with succinic anhydride, cysteamide or tert-butyl carbazate, respectively. This method can be useful to the development of PEG-based bioconjugates for a variety of biomedical applications.

  16. Hansen solubility parameters for polyethylene glycols by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Katarzyna; Voelkel, Adam

    2006-11-03

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been applied to determine solubility parameter and its components for nonionic surfactants--polyethylene glycols (PEG) of different molecular weight. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi) and solubility parameter (delta(2)) were calculated according to DiPaola-Baranyi and Guillet method from experimentally collected retention data for the series of carefully selected test solutes. The Hansen's three-dimensional solubility parameters concept was applied to determine components (delta(d), delta(p), delta(h)) of corrected solubility parameter (delta(T)). The molecular weight and temperature of measurement influence the solubility parameter data, estimated from the slope, intercept and total solubility parameter. The solubility parameters calculated from the intercept are lower than those calculated from the slope. Temperature and structural dependences of the entopic factor (chi(S)) are presented and discussed.

  17. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Microencapsulated Polyethylene Glycol Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The microencapsulated polyethylene glycol (PEG)with different molecular weight by a fluidized coating method has been prepared and the crystallization behaviors of PEG particles in three-dimensional confined volume were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement.The results showed that the width of the crystallization peak of PEG increases and its height gradually diminishes in case that the PEG particles are microencapsulated. Compared with the non-microencapsulated PEG particles, the proportion of the first crystallization peak of microencapsulated PEG particle increases, and that of the second one decreases. The reason for the difference maybe is that the crystallization process of microencapsulated PEG particles is uniform and the crystallization ends when the spherulites touch the wall,thus the opportunity of producing the second crystallization peak was relatively reduced.

  18. On the structure of an aqueous propylene glycol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys, Natasha H.; Gillams, Richard J.; Collins, Louise E.; Callear, Samantha K.; Lawrence, M. Jayne; McLain, Sylvia E.

    2016-12-01

    Using a combination of neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement computational modelling, the interactions in a 30 mol. % aqueous solution of propylene glycol (PG), which govern both the hydration and association of this molecule in solution, have been assessed. From this work it appears that PG is readily hydrated, where the most prevalent hydration interactions were found to be through both the PG hydroxyl groups but also alkyl groups typically considered hydrophobic. Hydration interactions of PG dominate the solution over PG self-self interactions and there is no evidence of more extensive association. This hydration behavior for PG in solutions suggests that the preference of PG to be hydrated rather than to be self-associated may translate into a preference for PG to bind to lipids rather than itself, providing a potential explanation for how PG is able to enhance the apparent solubility of drug molecules in vivo.

  19. Ethylene glycol contamination effects on first surface aluminized mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Patrick; Probst, Ronald G.; Evatt, Matthew; Reddell, Larry; Sprayberry, David

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction for installation on the Mayall 4 Meter telescope. The use of a liquid cooling system is proposed to maintain the DESI prime focus assembly temperature within ±1°C of ambient. Due to concerns of fluid deposition onto optical surfaces from possible leaks, systematic tests were performed of the effects on first surface aluminized mirrors of ethylene glycol and two other candidate coolants. Objective measurement of scattering and reflectivity was an important supplement to visual inspection. Rapid cleanup of a coolant spill followed by a hand wash of the mirror limited surface degradation to the equivalent of a few months of general environmental exposure. Prolonged exposure to corrosive coolants dissolved the aluminum, necesitating mirror recoating.

  20. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  1. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid

  2. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  3. Determination of the Impact of Glycolate on ARP and MCU Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.; Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Shehee, T. C.; Washington, A. L.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU). Sorption testing was performed using both MST and modified MST (mMST) in the presence of 5000 and 10,000 ppm (mass basis) glycolate. 10,000 ppm is the estimated bounding concentration expected in the DWPF recycle stream based on DWPF melter flammable gas model results. The presence of glycolate was found to slow the removal of Sr and Pu by MST, while increasing the removal rate of Np. Results indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. There was no measurable effect on U removal at either glycolate concentration. The slower removal rates for Sr and Pu at 5000 and 10,000 ppm glycolate could result in lower DF values for these sorbates in ARP based on the current (12 hours) and proposed (8 hours) contact times. For the highest glycolate concentration used in this study, the percentage of Sr removed at 6 hours of contact decreased by 1% and the percentage of Pu removed decreased by nearly 7%. The impact may prove insignificant if the concentration of glycolate that is returned to the tank farm is well below the concentrations tested in this study. The presence of glycolate also decreased the removal rates for all three sorbates (Sr, Pu, and Np) by mMST. Similar to MST, the results for mMST indicate that the impact is a kinetic effect, and the overall capacity of the material is not affected. The

  4. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  5. Novel chitosan hydrogel formed by ethylene glycol chitosan, 1,6-diisocyanatohexan and polyethylene glycol-400 for tissue engineering scaffold: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Kang; Wan, Yuqing; Li, Xudong; Feng, Gang

    2014-08-01

    Traditional chitosan hydrogels were prepared by chemical or physical crosslinker, and both of the two kinds of hydrogels have their merits and demerits. In this study, researchers attempted to prepare one kind of chitosan hydrogel by slightly crosslinker, which could combine the advantages of the two kinds of hydrogels. In this experiment, the crosslinker was formed by a reaction between the isocyanate group of 1,6-diisocyanatohexan and the hydroxyl group of polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), then the crosslinker reacted with the amidine and the hydroxyl group of ethylene glycol chitosan to form the network structure. Physical properties of the hydrogel were tested by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and biodegradation. Biocompatibility was assessed by cell implantation in vitro and the scaffold was used as a cartilage tissue engineering scaffold to repair a defect in rabbit knee joints in vivo. FTIR results show the formation of a covalent bond during thickening of the ethylene glycol chitosan. SEM and degradation experiments showed that the ethylene glycol chitosan hydrogel is a 3-D, porous, and degradable scaffold. The hydrogel contained 2% ethylene glycol chitosan and 10 μl crosslinker was selected for the biocompatibility experiment in vitro and in vivo. After chondrocytes were cultured in the ethylene glycol chitosan hydrogel scaffold for 1 week cells exhibited clustered growth and had generated extracellular matrix on the scaffold in vitro. The results in vivo showed that hydrogel-chondrocytes promoted the repair of defect in rabbits. Based on these results, it could be concluded that ethylene glycol chitosan hydrogel is a scaffold with excellent physicochemical properties and it is a promising tissue engineering scaffold.

  6. Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0098 TITLE: Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...software developed for these maps will also be used to enhance tract-based FA and mean-diffusivity measurements in FSL, as originally proposed. The

  7. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  8. Children's cranial lesions from Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbat, A; Smrcka, V

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal material from the neolithic settlement at Makotrasy, county Kladno, were analysed two children's craniums (identification numbers Ao 8218 and Ao 4184) with pathological cases. Case 1 (Object 127, Ao 8218) is the individual about 4 to 5 years old. There is oval aperture with the diameter 25 x 20 mm in the area of anthropometrical point bregma, with vertical, multiple knurled edges. Bevelled and rounded segment in the left frontal part of the aperture with diameter 10 mm is imitating healing process. We suggest this case is the trephination with the marks of the healing process in the period of 1 to 2 weeks after the surgery took over. Case 2 (Pit 25, Ao 4184) is child with age determined about 4 years old. Cranium was found buried separately. There is oval defect located at os occipitale and os parietale sin and goes through sutura lambdoidea. Caudal part of defect is missing. The edge of the defect is sharp and inward bevelled with exposed diploe. Traces of any vital reaction were not identified. Diameter is around 50 mm. Perimortal trephination leading to death, or postmortal taking of the trephinational amulet must be considered. There were several pathological lesions on the same skull. Defect of oval shape sized 8 x 12 mm is located at the os parietale dex. Defect interferes mostly with lamina externa and less with lamina interna. Exposed diploe is without any vital reaction.

  9. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah; A; Algarni; Abdullah; H; Alshuhri; Majed; M; Alonazi; Moustafa; Mabrouk; Mourad; Simon; R; Bramhal

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a commonfinding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service.They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis,colorectal cancer,incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting.Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis;hepatitis,alcohol consumption,substance exposure or use of oral con-traceptive pills and metabolic syndromes.Full blood count,liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease.Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound.If available,contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible,safe,cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis.Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next.It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation.Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity.If doubt still remains,the options are biopsy or surgical excision.

  10. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  11. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected.

  12. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  13. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  14. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  15. The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Buchholz, Noor; Farin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3....

  16. Pediatric multifocal liver lesions evaluated by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Almotairi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with MRI evaluation of multifocal liver lesions in children and describe the MRI characteristics of these lesions. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive MRI exams performed for the evaluation of multiple liver lesions between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 was done to note the number of lesions, the size of the largest lesion, MR signal characteristics, and background liver. Final diagnosis was assigned to each case based on pathology in the available cases and a combination of clinical features, imaging features, and follow-up in the remaining cases. Results: A total of 48 children (22 boys, 26 girls; age between 3 months and 18 years with average age 10.58 years and median age 11 years were included in the study. Totally 51 lesion diagnoses were seen in 48 children that included 17 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 8 hemangiomas, 7 metastases, 6 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 abscesses, and one each of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, focal fatty infiltration, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic infarction, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatic cyst. Background liver was normal in 33, cirrhotic in 10, fatty in 3, and siderotic in 2 children. Most FNH, hemangiomas, and regenerative nodules showed characteristic MRI features, while metastases were variable in signal pattern. Conclusion: Many commonly seen multifocal liver lesions in children have characteristic MRI features. MRI can help to arrive at reasonable differential diagnoses for multifocal liver lesions in children and guide further investigation and management.

  17. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  18. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions: part II--an approach to intradermal proliferations and horizontally oriented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes show a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional nevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies, and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may either be a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either due to its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion due to a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified; however, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions may reliably be resolved through this standard approach, problem areas do exist for the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. With this review (part II of II), we complete our discussion of spindle cell melanocytic lesions, in order to: (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions; and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions which either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  19. Evaluation of ElectrochemicalTreatment in Degradation of Wastewater Contaminated by Propylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Talaiekhozani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Propylene glycol is applied in many industries as raw material and can be released to the environment through wastewater of such industries. The biological treatment of solutions containing high concentration of propylene glycol is difficult and some problems can be observed during this process. The main objective of this study was the investigation of electrochemical degradation of propylene glycol and the parameters influencing on improving removal efficiency."nMaterials and Methods: In this study the degradation of propylene glycol was made by passing an electrical current though the synthetic wastewater containing propylene glycol. In order to investigate this process several types of electrode with applied voltage ranging between 5 to 50 V was used. Due to the effect of NaCl concentration on removal efficiency which was mentioned in the literature, the experiment was performed for different NaCl concentrations."nResults: In optimum condition, the maximum removal efficiency of propylene glycol (based onCOD was obtained equal to 90%. The results showed that rising applied voltage, NaCl concentrationand retention time increase the removal efficiency. The optimum retention time was obtained equalto 50 min. The maximum removal was obtained when aluminum electrode was used. It can beattributed to the production of coagulant material such as Al+3 during this process."nConclusion: The results revealed that this process can be useful for treating the industrial wastewatercontaining propylene glycol.

  20. Influence of polyethylene glycol-300 addition on nanostructured lead sulfide thin films properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Trari, M.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Guerbous, L.

    2010-09-01

    The concentration of polyethylene glycol-300 was found to play a crucial role in the formation of nanoparticles in PbS-chemical bath deposition process. We report here an endeavor to set up a relation between the variation of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystalline thin film properties, grown by (CBD) process at room temperature on corning glass and Si(100) substrates, with amount fluctuations of polyethylene glycol-300 in the solution. The transmittance of the films, for a fixed reaction time, increased up to ˜ 80% with the increase of % polyethylene glycol-300 in the solution, indicating the formation of very thin films due to the decrease of reaction rate with the increase of the concentration of polyethylene glycol-300. The optical band gaps were found to strongly rely on the composition of the bath deposition and increase with the increase of the polyethylene glycol-300 amount in the solution. Particle sizes between 2.8 and 8.7 nm were obtained by varying the % of polyethylene glycol-300 from 0.2 to 1.5. The concentration of polyethylene glycol-300 not only affects the reaction rate but also the morphology of the obtained films. PbS nanoparticles were found to be oriented preferentially along the plane. The absorption shifts towards short wavelength indicating a blue-shifting as a consequence of quantum confinement.

  1. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve A mechanical analysis*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yu; Changfu Zhao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Min Luo

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study col ected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, fol owing which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) con-duit-repaired sciatic nerve fol owing tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Fol owing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogen-ous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  2. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Zhao, Changfu; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-07-25

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transplanted. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the axon and myelin sheath were torn, and the vessels of basilar membrane were obstructed in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit-repaired sciatic nerve following tensile testing. There were no significant differences in tensile tests with autogenous nerve graft-repaired sciatic nerve. Following poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation for sciatic nerve repair, tensile test results suggest that maximum tensile load, maximum stress, elastic limit load and elastic limit stress increased compared with autogenous nerve grafts, but elastic limit strain and maximum strain decreased. Moreover, the tendencies of stress-strain curves of sciatic nerves were similar after transplantation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts. Results showed that after transplantation in vitro for sciatic nerve injury, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits exhibited good intensity, elasticity and plasticity, indicating that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits are suitable for sciatic nerve injury repair.

  3. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... were collected and re-evaluated using a monoclonal antimitochondrial antibody (MU213-UC). Clinical data were registered. Immunohistochemical characterization was performed with a panel of anti-CK antibodies. Results: A total of 34 oncocytic lesions were identified and reviewed. The incidence...... that required surgical intervention in the Danish population could be approximated to 0.3 lesions per million capita per year. Patient ages ranged from 45 years to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the eighth decade. Female patients were twice as common as male. Lesions were typically described as red...

  4. Spatially well-defined binary brushes of poly(ethylene glycol)s for micropatterning of active proteins on anti-fouling surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F J; Li, H Z; Li, J; Teo, Y H Eric; Zhu, C X; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2008-12-01

    We report a novel method for micropatterning of active proteins on anti-fouling surfaces via spatially well-defined and dense binary poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) brushes with controllable protein-docking sites. Binary brushes of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate), or P(PEGMA-co-PEGMEMA), and poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate), or P(PEGMEMA), were prepared via consecutive surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerizations (SI-ATRPs) from a resist-micropatterned Si(100) wafer surface. The terminal hydroxyl groups on the side chains of PEGMA units in the P(PEGMA-co-PEGMEMA) microdomains were activated directly by 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) for the covalent coupling of human immunoglobulin (IgG) (as a model active protein). The resulting IgG-coupled PEG microdomains interact only and specifically with target anti-IgG, while the other PEG microregions effectively prevent specific and non-specific protein fouling. When extended to other active biomolecules, microarrays for specific and non-specific analyte interactions with a high signal-to-noise ratio could be readily tailored.

  5. A Case of Chronic Ethylene Glycol Intoxication Presenting without Classic Metabolic Derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethylene glycol ingestion classically presents with high anion gap acidosis, elevated osmolar gap, altered mental status, and acute renal failure. However, chronic ingestion of ethylene glycol is a challenging diagnosis that can present as acute kidney injury with subtle physical findings and without the classic metabolic derangements. We present a case of chronic ethylene glycol ingestion in a patient who presented with acute kidney injury and repeated denials of an exposure history. Kidney biopsy was critical to the elucidation of the cause of his worsening renal function.

  6. Study of Synthesis of Copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) by Direct Melt Polycondensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Ping; GAO Qin-wei; SHAO Hui-li; HU Xue-chao

    2005-01-01

    A two steps direct copolymerisation process was developed. The first step is to produce oligomer and then the oligomer of lactic acid/glycolic acid (90/10) is polymerized with binary catalyst tin chloride dihydrate/ptoluenesulfonic acid. In this way, the direct synthesis of copoly (lactic acid/glycolic acid) without any organic solvent was investigated. The properties and structures of products were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that comparatively high molecular weight copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid can be prepared by direct processing under appropriate technological conditions.

  7. Recent progress in alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells are one of the most promising power sources for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a sustainable fuel and the key materials that constitute the fuel cell are relatively inexpensive. This review article summarizes and discusses the past investigations on the development of alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, including the physical and chemical processes through the fuel cell structure, the electrocatalytic oxidation and electrocatalysts of ethylene glycol, the singe-cell performance, and innovative system designs.

  8. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  9. Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol: preparation, characterization, interaction with bovine serum albumin and near infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Feng; Cao, Bo; Cui, Yanli; Liu, Tianjun

    2012-05-25

    Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging in vivo, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the in vivo process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation in vivo by a real-time noninvasive method.

  10. Colon preneoplastic lesions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-12-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions.

  11. Sport lesions caused by athletics practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernandes Feitoza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a highly physical demanding sports, athletics depends on efficient training to overcome all physical demands without lesions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the types of lesions and their causes. The sample was constituted by forty-three athletes, sixteen males and twenty-seven females, 23.2 years of average age. A questionnaire containing five open questions and five closed questions was used as an instrument to determine the major lesions caused by athletics practice. The results showed that 84% of the athletes had already had some kind of lesions: 77% of which occurred during training and 23% during contest. The most frequent lesions were distension, tendinitis, twisting, contraction and inflammation. Legs were the most affected parts: 85% for jumpers, 85% for runners and 60% for throwers. When the lesions occurred, 76% of the jumpers, 84% of the runners and 85% of the throwers had no other health problem, but 52.7% of the athletes were in a state of anxiety before the contest and 13.8% had difficulties in concentrating on the contest. As for treatment 55.5% went to see a physiotherapist, and 16.6% went to see the medical doctor and the physiotherapist. The consequences of the lesions for the athletes’ performance were the following: 75% missed important contest events and 70% missed training for several months while they recuperated from their lesions. The results led to the conclusion that the best means to prevent lesions is to use adequate sites and equipments, efficient and individualized training coached by qualified specialists.

  12. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17 received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL. Group 2 (n = 12 only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested.

  13. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  14. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. 78 FR 48618 - Propylene Glycol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... route did not cause systemic toxicity in rats or dogs in studies conducted for up to 2 years at doses as... skin tumor incidence at concentrations up to 100% (~100,000 mg/kg/day) propylene glycol in...

  16. FTIR studies on the effect of concentration of polyethylene glycol on polimerization of Shellac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin; Pramono, E.; Utomo, S. B.; Wulandari, V.; Zahrotul W, A.; Clegg, F.

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, it was reported the FTIR studies on the efect of polyethylene glycol on polimerization of shellac. The shellac was shellac waxfree, and the solvent was ethanol 96%. The shellac films were were prepared by solvent- evaporation method. The concentrations of polyethylene glycol having molecular weight of 400 were 10, 30, 60, and 90 w/w %. Three peak intensity bands of C= O stretching of ester at 1709 cm-1, O-H stretching of hydroxyl group at 3400 cm-1, and C-H stretching vibration at 2942 cm-1 were observed and related to polimerization of shellac. It was found that polymerization of shellac was slowed down by polyethyelene glycol, and the degree of polymerization of shellac decreased with increasing the concentration of polyethyelene glycol.

  17. Miscibility studies of Polyethylene Glycol with Polystyrene in Toluene by Various Physical and Advanced Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, R.; Venkatramanan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a chemical that has an extensive variety of applications in the world of medicine. It is used as a base to manufacture certain medicines, assist in drug delivery, and is also used as an agent in some medical procedures. It is an osmotic laxative. Polyethylene glycol works by retaining water in the stool, resulting in softer stools and more frequent bowel movements. Polyethylene glycol does not affect glucose and electrolytes in the body. PEG refers to a hydrocarbon molecule that can have a variable size, and different sizes can have different physical properties, giving this compound a great deal of flexibility in its application. In the present study, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) (Molar mass: 1500) is blended with Polystyrene (PS) (Molar mass: 35000) in Toluene. The miscibility nature of the poly blend is analyzed by Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and refractive index techniques at 303K. The compatibility nature of the blend is confirmed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies.

  18. A new ethylene glycol-silane monolayer for highly-specific DNA detection on Silicon Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sandro; Cavallini, Andrea; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Monolayer thin films with ethylene-glycol function onto gold surfaces by using thiols have been extensively investigated. They have been proposed as precursors for applications to bio-detection, where their hydrophilic character improves both specificity and sensitivity. The aim of this letter is to characterize ethylene-glycol monolayer precursors formed onto silicon chips by using silanes. The importance of the ethylene-glycol function is demonstrated by comparing with the well known 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The different nano-scale structures of the two precursor monolayers are investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Longer, wider, and deeper grooves were measured in the images acquired on 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Fluorescence investigation demonstrates that the presence of ethylene-glycol function improves target hybridization onto silicon chips, assuring highly-specific detection of DNA.

  19. Heat-transfer tests of aqueous ethylene glycol solutions in an electrically heated tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Everett; Eian, Carroll S

    1945-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the cooling characteristics of liquid-cooled engines, tests were conducted with an electrically heated single-tube heat exchanger to determine the heat-transfer characteristics of an-e-2 ethylene glycol and other ethylene glycol-water mixtures. Similar tests were conducted with water and commercial butanol (n-butyl alcohol) for check purposes. The results of tests conducted at an approximately constant liquid-flow rate of 0.67 pound per second (Reynolds number, 14,500 to 112,500) indicate that at an average liquid temperature 200 degrees f, the heat-transfer coefficients obtained using water, nominal (by volume) 30 percent-70 percent and 70 percent-30 percent glycol-water mixtures are approximately 3.8, 2.8, and 1.4 times higher, respectively, than the heat-transfer coefficients obtained using an-e-2 ethylene glycol.

  20. Evaluation of activated sludge for biodegradation of propylene glycol as an aircraft deicing fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, Justin D; Racz, LeeAnn

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft deicing fluid used at airport facilities is often collected for treatment or disposal in order to prevent serious ecological threats to nearby surface waters. This study investigated lab scale degradation of propylene glycol, the active ingredient in a common aircraft deicing fluid, by way of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor containing municipal waste water treatment facility activated sludge performing simultaneous organic carbon oxidation and nitrification. The ability of activated sludge to remove propylene glycol was evaluated by studying the biodegradation and sorption characteristics of propylene glycol in an activated sludge medium. The results indicate sorption may play a role in the fate of propylene glycol in AS, and the heterotrophic bacteria readily degrade this compound. Therefore, a field deployable bioreactor may be appropriate for use in flight line applications.

  1. Preparation of Fe3O4Spherical Nanoporous Particles Facilitated by Polyethylene Glycol 4000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much interest has been attracted to the magnetic materials with porous structure because of their unique properties and potential applications. In this report, Fe3O4nanoporous particles assembled from small Fe3O4nanoparticles have been prepared by thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000. The size of the spherical nanoporous particles is 100–200 nm. Surface area measurement shows that these Fe3O4nanoporous particles have a high surface area of 87.5 m2/g. Magnetization measurement and Mössbauer spectrum indicate that these particles are nearly superparamagnetic at room temperature. It is found that the morphology of the products is greatly influenced by polyethylene glycol concentration and the polymerization degree of polyethylene glycol. Polyethylene glycol molecules are believed to facilitate the formation of the spherical assembly.

  2. Influence of Ethylene Glycol on the Formation of Calcium Phosphate Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZUO; Yubao LI; Jie WEI; Yonggang YAN

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis route of using calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 with ethylene glycol solvent and orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4)as reagents is described. Three ratios of ethylene glycol to distilled water 1:0, 1:1 and 0:1 are used as diluting media for Ca(OH)2. Crystals of different morphology and composition are formed under weak alkaline circumstance at pH 7.0~8.0. Acicular calcium phosphate nanocrystals are prepared in pure ethylene glycol while rod-like calcium phosphate nanocrystals form in pure distilled water. The nanograde size of the former is smaller than that of the latter. Calcium-deficient apatite (CDAP) is obtained with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.66. Therefore, it was deduced that the usage of ethylene glycol solvent could influence the formation of calcium phosphate crystal lattice.

  3. 76 FR 31471 - Ethylene Glycol; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... undiluted ethylene glycol (0.092 millimeter (mm) mercury (Hg) @ 25 C) acute inhalation concerns are not... water for the chronic dietary risk assessments for parent compound. These values were directly...

  4. The Nature of Acid-Catalyzed Acetalization Reaction of 1,2-Propylene Glycol and Acetaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chen; Chen, Hui; Li, Xia; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Baochen [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-08-15

    We investigated catalytic activity of ion-exchange resins in acetalization of 1,2-propylene glycol with acetaldehyde. The impacts of reaction variables, such as temperature, reaction time, catalyst loading and feedstock composition, on the conversion of 1,2-propylene glycol were measured. The life of the catalyst was also studied. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of 1,2-propylene glycol acetalization was studied. It was found that reaction rate followed the first order kinetics to acetaldehyde and 1,2-propylene glycol, respectively. Therefore, overall acetalization reaction should follow the second-order reaction kinetics, expressed as r - kC{sup nA}{sub A}C{sup nB}{sub B} = 19.74e{sup -650/T}C{sup 1}{sub A}C{sup 1}{sub B}.

  5. Rheological behavior of fumed silica suspension in polyethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The rheological behavior of fumed silica suspensions in polyethylene glycol(PEG) was studied at steady and oscillatory shear stress using AR 2000 stress controlled rheometer. The systems show reversible shear thickening behavior and the shear-thickening behavior can be explained by the clustering mechanism. The viscosity and the degree of shear-thickening of the systems strongly depend on the mass fraction of the silica, the molecular weigh of PEG and the frequency used in the rheological measurement. The silica volume fraction of the systems is 1.16 %-3.62%, corresponding to the mass fraction of 4%- 9 %. The shear-thickening taking place in the low volume fraction may contribute to the fractal nature of the silica. At oscillatory shear stress, when the shear stress is less than the critical stress, the storage modulus decreases significantly, meanwhile the loss modulus and the complex viscosity almost remain unchanged; when the shear stress is larger than the critical stress, the storage modulus, the loss modulus and the complex viscosity increase with the increase of shear stress. The loss modulus is larger than the storage modulus in the range of stress studied and both moduli depend on frequency.

  6. Crystallization studies of polyethylene -poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, P. R.; Hovey, G. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emerick, T.

    2006-03-01

    Structure and crystallization behavior of three copolymers obtained by grafting poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to polyethylene (PE) main chain was investigated by variable temperature x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that PEG side chains and PE main chains crystallize into separate domains. This is especially true when grafted chains are long (50 and 100 repeat units), in which the PEG domains are same as in PEG homopolymer both in structure and in melting behavior. In the copolymer with shorter chains (25 repeat units), the PEG crystals are not distinct and melting is broad. The PEG domains can be dissolved in water or ethanol without altering the mechanical integrity of the film. PE crystallites in both samples are similar to that in PE homopolymer. For instance, the thermal expansion of the basal cell plane (a- and b-axes) of the PE domains agrees well with that of PE homopolymer over the entire temperature range from ambient to melt. However, the chain-axis dimension PE-lattice in the copolymer is shorter by ˜ 0.05 å and the basal dimensions are larger by ˜ 0.05 å. The changes in these dimensions due to the changes in the length of the grafted PEG chains were investigated.

  7. Preliminary investigation of a polyethylene glycol hydrogel "nerve glue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Candice

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyethylene glycol (PEG hydrogel is a biocompatible semi-adherent gel like substance that can potentially augment nerve repair much like a fibrin sealant. Potential advantages of this substance include fast preparation and set up time, as well as adhesion inhibiting properties. The purpose of this study was to perform an initial evaluation of PEG hydrogel in this application. Methods The sciatic nerves of 29 rats were transected and repaired using two 10-0 nylon sutures and either PEG hydrogel or fibrin glue. After 10 weeks, contraction forces of the reinnervated muscles were evaluated and histological assessment of scar tissue performed. Results Muscle strength testing revealed the average ratio of experimental to control sides for the fibrin glue group was 0.75 and for the PEG hydrogel group was 0.72 (no significant difference. Longitudinal sections through the nerve repair site showed no significant difference in nerve diameter but did demonstrate a significant reduction in scar thickness in the PEG hydrogel group (p Conclusion Though further study is necessary to fully evaluate, PEG hydrogel results in less scar tissue formation and equivalent muscle recovery as fibrin sealant when applied as a nerve glue in a rodent sciatic nerve repair model.

  8. Biological properties of adrenomedullin conjugated with polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keishi; Tokashiki, Mariko; Kuwasako, Kenji; Tamura, Masaji; Tsuda, Shugo; Kubo, Shigeru; Yoshizawa-Kumagaye, Kumiko; Kato, Johji; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasodilator peptide with pleiotropic effects, including cardiovascular protection and anti-inflammation. Because of these beneficial effects, AM appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for human diseases, while intravenous injection of AM stimulates sympathetic nerve activity due to short-acting potent vasodilation, resulting in increased heart rate and renin secretion. To lessen these acute reactions, we conjugated the N-terminal of human AM peptide with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and examined the biological properties of PEGylated AM in the present study. PEGylated AM stimulated cAMP production, an intracellular second messenger of AM, in cultured human embryonic kidney cells expressing a specific AM receptor in a dose-dependent manner, as did native human AM. The pEC50 value of PEGylated AM was lower than human AM, but no difference was noted in maximum response (Emax) between the PEGylated and native peptides. Intravenous bolus injection of 10nmol/kg PEGylated AM lowered blood pressure in anesthetized rats, but the acute reduction became significantly smaller by PEGylation as compared with native AM. Plasma half-life of PEGylated AM was significantly longer than native AM both in the first and second phases in rats. In summary, N-terminal PEGylated AM stimulated cAMP production in vitro, showing lessened acute hypotensive action and a prolonged plasma half-life in comparison with native AM peptide in vivo.

  9. Prediction of scale potential in ethylene glycol containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandengen, Kristian; Oestvold, Terje

    2006-03-15

    This work presents a method for scale prediction in MEG (Mono Ethylene Glycol / 1,2-ethane-diol) containing solutions. It is based on an existing PVT scale model using a Pitzer ion interaction model for the aqueous phase. The model is well suited for scale prediction in saline solutions, where the PVT part is necessary for calculating CO{sub 2} phase equilibria being critical for carbonate scale. MEG influences the equilibria contained in the model, and its effect has been added empirically. Thus the accuracy of the model is limited by the amount of available experimental data. The model is applicable in the range 0-99wt% MEG and includes a wide variety of salts. In addition to the aspects of scale modelling in MEG+water solutions, this work presents new experimental data on CaSO4 solubility (0-95wt% MEG and 22-80 deg.C). CaSO4 solubility is greatly reduced by MEG to an extent that ''Salting-out'' is possible. (author) (tk)

  10. Mechanistic insights into acyclovir-polyethylene glycol 20000 binary dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateskumar, Krishnamoorthy; Parasuraman, Subramani; Gunasunderi, Raju; Sureshkumar, Krishnan; Nayak, M. Muralidhar; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Kassen, Khoo; Kai, Heng Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to provide a mechanistic insight into solubility enhancement and dissolution of acyclovir (ACY) by polyethylene glycol20000 (PEG20000). Materials and Methods: Solid dispersions with differing ratios of drug (ACY) and carrier (PEG20000) were prepared and evaluated by phase solubility, in vitro release studies, kinetic analysis, in situ perfusion, and in vitro permeation studies. Solid state characterization was also done by Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and surface morphology was assessed by Polarizing Microscopic Image (PMI) analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. Results: Thermodynamic parameters proved the solubilization effect of carrier. The aqueous solubility and dissolution of ACY were increased in all samples. Formation of solid solution, crystallinity reduction, and absence of interaction between drug and carrier was proved by XRD, DSC, and FTIR analysis. The particle size reduction and change in surface morphology were confirmed by SEM and AFM and analysis. The permeation coefficient and amount of drug diffused was higher in samples as compared to ACY. The stability was high in dispersions, and it was proved by NMR analysis. Conclusion: The mechanical insights into the enhancement of solubility and dissolution could be used as a platform to improve the aqueous solubility for other poor water soluble drugs. PMID:28123988

  11. Aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Cavalca, Lucia; Letizia Colarieti, M; Scelza, Rosalia; Scotti, Riccardo; Rao, Maria A; Andreoni, Vincenza; Ciccazzo, Sonia; Greco, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component of aircraft deicing fluids and its extensive use in Northern airports is a source of soil and groundwater contamination. Bacterial consortia able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source were selected from soil samples taken along the runways of Oslo Airport Gardermoen site (Norway). DGGE analysis of enrichment cultures showed that PG-degrading populations were mainly composed by Pseudomonas species, although Bacteroidetes were found, as well. Nineteen bacterial strains, able to grow on PG as sole carbon and energy source, were isolated and identified as different Pseudomonas species. Maximum specific growth rate of mixed cultures in the absence of nutrient limitation was 0.014 h(-1) at 4 °C. Substrate C:N:P molar ratios calculated on the basis of measured growth yields are in good agreement with the suggested values for biostimulation reported in literature. Therefore, the addition of nutrients is suggested as a suitable technique to sustain PG aerobic degradation at the maximum rate by autochthonous microorganisms of unsaturated soil profile.

  12. Natural and enhanced biodegradation of propylene glycol in airport soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Colarieti, M Letizia; Anton, Attila; Greco, Guido; Biró, Borbála

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft de-icing fluids (ADF) are a source of water and soil pollution in airport sites. Propylene glycol (PG) is a main component in several commercial formulations of ADFs. Even though PG is biodegradable in soil, seasonal overloads may result in occasional groundwater contamination. Feasibility studies for the biostimulation of PG degradation in soil have been carried out in soil slurries, soil microcosms and enrichment cultures with and without the addition of nutrients (N and P sources, oligoelements), alternative electron acceptors (nitrate, oxygen releasing compounds) and adsorbents (activated carbon). Soil samples have been taken from the contaminated area of Gardermoen Airport Oslo. Under aerobic conditions and in the absence of added nutrients, no or scarce biomass growth is observed and PG degradation occurs by maintenance metabolism at constant removal rate by the original population of PG degraders. With the addition of nutrient, biomass exponential growth enhances aerobic PG degradation also at low temperatures (4 ° C) that occur at the high season of snowmelt. Anaerobic PG degradation without added nutrients still proceeds at constant rate (i.e. no biomass growth) and gives rise to reduced fermentation product (propionic acid, reduced Fe and Mn, methane). The addition of nitrate does not promote biomass growth but allows full PG mineralization without reduced by-products. Further exploitation on the field is necessary to fully evaluate the effect of oxygen releasing compounds and adsorbents.

  13. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Ghaee, Azadeh

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H2 and O2 plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37°C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant.

  14. Protein diffusion in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engberg, Kristin; Frank, Curtis W, E-mail: curt.frank@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 381 North-South Mall, Stauffer III, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In this study, protein diffusion through swollen hydrogel networks prepared from end-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) was investigated. Hydrogels were prepared via photopolymerization from PEG-DA macromonomer solutions of two molecular weights, 4600 Da and 8000 Da, with three initial solid contents: 20, 33 and 50 wt/wt% PEG. Diffusion coefficients for myoglobin traveling across the hydrogel membrane were determined for all PEG network compositions. The diffusion coefficient depended on PEG molecular weight and initial solid content, with the slowest diffusion occurring through lower molecular weight, high-solid-content networks (D{sub gel} = 0.16 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}) and the fastest diffusion occurring through higher molecular weight, low-solid-content networks (D{sub gel} = 11.05 {+-} 0.43 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). Myoglobin diffusion coefficients increased linearly with the increase of water content within the hydrogels. The permeability of three larger model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G) through PEG(8000) hydrogel membranes was also examined, with the observation that globular molecules as large as 10.7 nm in hydrodynamic diameter can diffuse through the PEG network. Protein diffusion coefficients within the PEG hydrogels ranged from one to two orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficients in free water. Network defects were determined to be a significant contributing factor to the observed protein diffusion.

  15. Polyethylene glycol rapidly restores axonal integrity and improves the rate of motor behavior recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Joshua M; Kane, Jacqueline R; Spaeth, Christopher S; Zuzek, Aleksej; Robinson, Garrett L; Gbanaglo, Melengor Y; Estler, Cody J; Boydston, Elaine A; Schallert, Timothy; Bittner, George D

    2010-08-01

    The inability to rapidly (within minutes to hours) improve behavioral function after severance of peripheral nervous system axons is an ongoing clinical problem. We have previously reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can rapidly restore axonal integrity (PEG-fusion) between proximal and distal segments of cut- and crush-severed rat axons in vitro and in vivo. We now report that PEG-fusion not only reestablishes the integrity of crush-severed rat sciatic axons as measured by the restored conduction of compound action potentials (CAPs) and the intraaxonal diffusion of fluorescent dye across the lesion site, but also produces more rapid recovery of appropriate hindlimb motor behaviors. Improvement in recovery occurred during the first few postoperative weeks for the foot fault (FF) asymmetry test and between week 2 and week 3 for the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) based on analysis of footprints. That is, the FF test was the more sensitive indicator of early behavioral recovery, showing significant postoperative improvement of motor behavior in PEG-treated animals at 24-48 h. In contrast, the SFI more sensitively measured longer-term postoperative behavioral recovery and deficits at 4-8 wk, perhaps reflecting the development of fine (distal) motor control. These and other data show that PEG-fusion not only rapidly restores physiological and morphological axonal continuity, but also more quickly improves behavioral recovery.

  16. Lubricin is expressed in chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritic cartilage encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Musumeci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degenerative changes within joints that involved quantitative and/or qualitative alterations of cartilage and synovial fluid lubricin, a mucinous glycoprotein secreted by synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes. Modern therapeutic methods, including tissue-engineering techniques, have been used to treat mechanical damage of the articular cartilage but to date there is no specific and effective treatment. This study aimed at investigating lubricin immunohistochemical expression in cartilage explant from normal and OA patients and in cartilage constructions formed by Poly (ethylene glycol (PEG based hydrogels (PEG-DA encapsulated OA chondrocytes. The expression levels of lubricin were studied by immunohistochemistry: i in tissue explanted from OA and normal human cartilage; ii in chondrocytes encapsulated in hydrogel PEGDA from OA and normal human cartilage. Moreover, immunocytochemical and western blot analysis were performed in monolayer cells from OA and normal cartilage. The results showed an increased expression of lubricin in explanted tissue and in monolayer cells from normal cartilage, and a decreased expression of lubricin in OA cartilage. The chondrocytes from OA cartilage after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA showed an increased expression of lubricin compared with the control cartilage. The present study demonstrated that OA chondrocytes encapsulated in PEGDA, grown in the scaffold and were able to restore lubricin biosynthesis. Thus our results suggest the possibility of applying autologous cell transplantation in conjunction with scaffold materials for repairing cartilage lesions in patients with OA to reduce at least the progression of the disease.

  17. Microbial dynamics in a glycolate fed biogas reactor influenced by abiotic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Reinert, Susann

    2015-01-01

    Much research was performed in order to find alternative energy sources. In the new concept presented in this thesis, methane was produced by a microbial consortium which is fed only by glycolate excreted by photosynthetic algae. It was unknown how the biogas production and the process stability are influenced by certain parameter shifts in glycolate feed, pH of the feed, oxygen input and temperature. Therefore, different parameter changes were applied to the reactor...

  18. Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Kuang; Yibing Yu; Yunzhong Tu; Ling Zhang; Fulong Ning; Guosheng Jiang; Tianle Liu

    2011-01-01

    Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na 2 CO 3 , 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% ...

  19. A simple and robust method for pre-wetting poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Bernice; Parmar, Nina; Bozec, Laurent; Aguayo, Sebastian D; Day, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres are amenable to a number of biomedical procedures that support delivery of cells, drugs, peptides or genes. Hydrophilisation or wetting of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid are an important pre-requisites for attachment of cells and can be achieved via exposure to plasma oxygen or nitrogen, surface hydrolysis with NaOH or chloric acid, immersion in ethanol and water, or prolonged incubation in phosphate buffered saline or cell culture medium. The aim o...

  20. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Nitschke, L; Boehmer, S; Kiranoglu, M; Göen, T

    2013-03-01

    Glycol ethers are a class of semi-volatile substances used as solvents in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, paints, cosmetics as well as chemical intermediates. We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals after exposure to glycol ethers during cleaning activities (exposure study). In the study on the background exposure, methoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) could be detected in each urine sample with median (95th percentile) values of 0.11 mgL(-1) (0.30 mgL(-1)) and 0.80 mgL(-1) (23.6 mgL(-1)), respectively. The other metabolites were found in a limited number of samples or in none. In the exposure study, 5-8 rooms were cleaned with a cleaner containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGBE), or ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE). During cleaning the mean levels in the indoor air were 7.5 mgm(-3) (EGBE), 3.0 mgm(-3) (PGBE), and 3.3 mgm(-3) (EGPE), respectively. The related metabolite levels analysed in the urine of the residents of the rooms at the day of cleaning were 2.4 mgL(-1) for butoxyacetic acid, 0.06 mgL(-1) for 2-butoxypropionic acid, and 2.3 mgL(-1) for n-propoxyacetic acid. Overall, our study indicates that the exposure of the population to glycol ethers is generally low, with the exception of PhAA. Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents.

  1. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  2. Synthesis and characterization of alternating fluorene–thiophene copolymers bearing ethylene glycol side-chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Elisabeth; Pein, Andreas; Fischereder, Achim; Trimmel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New alternating fluorene–thiophene copolymers are introduced bearing polar ethylene glycol-carboxylate functionalities on the thiophene ring to achieve enhanced solubility in polar solvents. Suzuki polycondensation was applied to synthesize a set of three polymers with differing lengths of the ethylene glycol side-chains. The polymers are thermally stable up to temperatures of 300 °C. Solutions of the polymers in CHCl3 show an absorption maximum at approximately 397 nm and a luminesc...

  3. Biodegradation of Propylene Glycol-Based MIL-A-8243D Aircraft Deicer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    anaerobic culture developed a slightly sweet odor described as fruity, similar to that in bread making and beer fermentation . By the end of the test, the...Biodegradation of deicers also has the potential to produce objectionable odors due to the release of aldehydes . (1) D** u u ?A e^[al fish kil,s have...ethylene and propylene glycol via the glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid cycles. Glycol also may be metabolized to the corresponding aldehyde . The aldehyde

  4. Natural course of keratoacanthoma and related lesions after partial biopsy: clinical analysis of 66 lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshihiro; Misago, Noriyuki; Murata, Yozo

    2015-04-01

    There is some confusion regarding the classification of keratoacanthoma (KA) and related lesions that have crateriform architecture. We examined the clinical courses of 66 KA lesions and related lesions after a partial biopsy to clarify the nosological concept of KA. We histopathologically classified these lesions into five types: (i) KA at various stages (53 lesions); (ii) KA-like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3 lesions); (iii) KA with malignant transformation (3 lesions); (iv) infundibular SCC (5 lesions); and (v) crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis (2 lesions). We analyzed the clinical course in each group. The regression rate of KA was 98.1% and that of KA-like SCC/KA with malignant transformation was 33.3%. No regression was observed in either infundibular SCC or crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis. Thus, KA is a distinct entity that should be distinguished from other types of SCC with crateriform architecture based on the high frequency of regression. The regression rate of 33.3% in KA-like SCC/KA with malignant transformation indicated that KA lesions with an SCC component still have the potential for regression. However, this result also indicated that KA is biologically unstable, and some KA tend to evolve into conventional SCC with a gradual loss of the capacity for the spontaneous regression. Infundibular SCC and crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis are fundamentally different from KA, not only according to the histopathological findings but also based on the biological properties.

  5. Influence of SLAP lesions on chondral lesions of the glenohumeral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, Thilo; Lichtenberg, Sven; Kircher, Jörn; Magosch, Petra; Habermeyer, Peter

    2010-07-01

    From 2004 to 2008 we evaluated 431 SLAP lesions during 3,395 shoulder arthroscopies and compared two groups of patients, one with SLAP lesion as group I and one without SLAP lesions as group II. Exclusion of type I SLAP lesions, rotator cuff tears and history of dislocation of the shoulder in both groups left 182 cases in group I, and additionally, exclusion of all-type SLAP lesions left 251 patients in group II. In group I, SLAP lesion-associated chondral lesions were present in 20% at the humerus (4% group II, p = 0.005), 18% at the glenoid (5% in group II, p = 0.05) and 14% glenohumeral (3% group II, p = 0.04). We observed a pattern of typical localization of SLAP-associated chondral lesions at the humerus underneath the biceps tendon (78%) and at the anterior half of the glenoid (63%) in group I in contrast to the central region of the humerus (82%) and the central region at the glenoid (55%) in group II. The association of SLAP and chondral lesions was not influenced by the presence of trauma or age of the patients. SLAP lesions seem to be a risk factor for subsequent early onset of osteoarthritis either caused by a bicipital chondral print or glenohumeral instability or a combination of both.

  6. Approximate Lesion Localization in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00357.x

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, automated analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. Border detection is often the first step in this analysis. Methods: In this article, we present an approximate lesion localization method that serves as a preprocessing step for detecting borders in dermoscopy images. In this method, first the black frame around the image is removed using an iterative algorithm. The approximate location of the lesion is then determined using an ensemble of thresholding algorithms. Results: The method is tested on a set of 428 dermoscopy images. The localization error is quantified by a metric that uses dermatologist determined borders as the ground truth. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the method presented here achieves both fast and accurate localization of lesions in dermoscopy images.

  7. Post-mortal lesions in freshwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Stefano; Zancaner, Silvano

    2011-10-10

    Postmortem animal feeding activity may cause considerable damage to bodies resulting in the modification of wounds, loss of identifying features and injury. Certain postmortem lesions may appear inflicted or non-inflicted antemortem injuries. At present, apart from cases in sea water, no data are available about post mortal lesions performed by aquatic organisms. This note that represents the first report concerning colonisation of a dead body by crustaceans a few hours after death, describes injuries caused by the amphipod Niphargus elegans on the face, and in particular on the eye region, of a young man dead by drowning. The lesions recorded in this case are comparable with the lesions caused by ants. The high plasticity in the food choice can allow Amphipoda to colonise drowning bodies in every moment after dead, however the benthonic behaviour of these animals suggests a more important role in the colonisation during post-mortem submersion periods.

  8. PERONEAL TENDON LESIONS IN ATHLETES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Achkasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyzed scientific literature in respect of various issues in treatment of athletes with peroneal muscles lesions starting from 1987 till 2016. Key search and publications selection was made in PubMed and russian national electronic scientific library eLIBRARY. Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint. Untreated lesions of peroneal tendons can result in chronic ankle pain and significant functional disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to improve the current comprehension of anatomy, to identify factors contributing to pathology, to perform diagnostic evaluation of peroneal tendons and to review current treatment options of such lesions.

  9. [Traumatic and iatrogenic lesions of abdominal vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, I; Tarabula, P; Voirin, L; Magne, J L; Delannoy, P; Gattaz, F; Guidicelli, H

    1997-01-01

    Gravity of abdominal vessels traumatisms is secondary to multiple factors. It depends on the type of injured vessels, aetiology and associated lesions. Between September 1984 and March 1995, 22 abdominal vessel traumatisms in 16 patients (mean age: 39 years) were treated. At surgical exploration, 4 aortic and 2 renal vein lesions, 7 iliac artery and 3 renal artery contusions, 2 superior mesenteric artery dissections; 3 infra-renal vena cava ruptures and 1 superior mesenteric vein dilaceration were found. All lesions were caused by penetrant wounds secondary to firearm or blade injury or secondary to injuries due to ski or traffic accidents. In 5 cases, lesions were iatrogenic. There was no mortality in the post-operative period, 14 patients out of the 16 patients operated on have been followed during a period from 1 to 120 months.

  10. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  11. Self-inflicted lesions in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieler, Uwe; Consoli, Sylvie G; Tomás-Aragones, Lucía;

    2013-01-01

    The terminology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of self-inflicted dermatological lesions are subjects of open debate. The present study is the result of various meetings of a task force of dermatologists, psychiatrists and psychologists, all active in the field of psychodermatology, aimed...... at clarifying the terminology related to these disorders. A flow chart and glossary of terms and definitions are presented to facilitate the classification and management of self-inflicted skin lesions. Several terms are critically discussed, including: malingering; factitious disorders; Münchausen's syndrome...... excoriations. Self-inflicted skin lesions are often correlated with mental disorders and/or patho-logical behaviours, thus it is important for dermatologists to become as familiar as possible with the psychiatric and psychological aspects underlying these lesions....

  12. Carbon nanotube glycol nanofluids: Photo-thermal properties, thermal conductivities and rheological behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoguo Meng; Daxiong Wu; Liangang Wang; Haitao Zhu; Qingling Li

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of solar energy capture and storage are to a large extent functions of the heat transfer and storage capacity of the medium used.This paper investigates the potential of using carbon nanotube (CNT)-glycol nanosuspension as such a medium,prepared by freeze dryingultrasonic dispersing after oxidation treatment with HNO3.The influences of the mass fraction of CNTs glycol nanofluids and temperatures on photo-thermal properties,thermal conductivities and rheological behavior were investigated.The results show that CNTs with oxidation treatment exhibited good dispersing performance.Strong optical absorption of the CNTs glycol nanofluids was detected in the range of 200-2500 nm.At room temperature,18% enhancement was found in the photo-thermal conversion efficiency of the 0.5% mass fraction CNTs glycol nanofluids in comparison to the basic fluids,without significant increase in viscosity.At 55 ℃,CNTs glycol nanofluids with 4.0% mass fraction exhibited much lower viscosity and 25.4% higher thermal conductivity in comparison to that of pure glycol at room temperature.

  13. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Irani, Soussan; Monsef Esfahani, Alireza; Bidari Zerehpoush, Farahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 bio...

  14. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637

  15. Puncture of thoracic lesions under sonographic guidance.

    OpenAIRE

    Afschrift, M; Nachtegaele, P; Voet, D; Noens, L.; Van Hove, W; Van der Straeten, M; Verdonk, G

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-six punctures of thoracic lesions have been performed with a compound B-scanner or a real-time linear-array scanner for guidance. Twenty-three fluid collections were punctured and aspiration biopsies were performed on 13 echogenic lesions. All the punctures were successful at the first attempt. No complications occurred. The results confirm the usefulness of sonography for guiding punctures of thoracic fluid effusions and solid masses. Usually a static B-scanner is sufficient, but when...

  16. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  17. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin

    2016-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  18. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  19. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  20. Liver lesions in hepatitis B viral infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Desmet, V J

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the various histological lesions observed in hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases, including different forms of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The elementary lesions discussed include acidophil necrosis (apoptosis), confluent lytic necrosis in its different patterns, piecemeal necrosis, focal necrosis, and dysplastic hepatocytes. Their pathogenesis is explained in the framework of recent developments in the immunopathology of hepa...

  1. Supraorbital eyebrow approach to skull base lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Yvens Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with a supraorbital eyebrow minicraniotomy. This technique is suitable to lesions situated in the region of the anterior fossa, suprasellar cisterns, parasellar region and Sylvian fissure. A 50 mm incision in the eyebrow and a supraorbital minicraniotomy is performed. Sixteem patients harboring different lesions were operated on with good postoperative and cosmetic results. We conclude that this approach is safe and useful in selected cases.

  2. SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokito, Steven E; Myers, Kevin R; Ryu, Richard K N

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete remains a challenge for the sports medicine specialist due to variable anatomy, changes with aging, concomitant pathology, lack of dependable physical findings on examination, and lack of sensitivity and specificity with imaging studies. This article presents a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, relevant anatomy, proposed pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and outcomes of nonoperative and operative management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

  3. Texture feature based liver lesion classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Yeela; Mayer-Wolf, Nitzan; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit

    2014-03-01

    Liver lesion classification is a difficult clinical task. Computerized analysis can support clinical workflow by enabling more objective and reproducible evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of several types of texture features for a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which automatically classifies liver lesions from CT images. Based on the assumption that liver lesions of various classes differ in their texture characteristics, a variety of texture features were examined as lesion descriptors. Although texture features are often used for this task, there is currently a lack of detailed research focusing on the comparison across different texture features, or their combinations, on a given dataset. In this work we investigated the performance of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Gabor, gray level intensity values and Gabor-based LBP (GLBP), where the features are obtained from a given lesion`s region of interest (ROI). For the classification module, SVM and KNN classifiers were examined. Using a single type of texture feature, best result of 91% accuracy, was obtained with Gabor filtering and SVM classification. Combination of Gabor, LBP and Intensity features improved the results to a final accuracy of 97%.

  4. Lesion load in unprotected carotid artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Karp, K.; Krick, C.; Schieber, H.; Mueller, M.; Reith, W. [University of the Saarland, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Fassbender, K.; Haass, A. [University of the Saarland, Division of Neurology, Homburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in nonselected patients after unprotected carotid artery stent placement. We retrospectively reviewed a nonrandomized cohort of 197 patients presenting with carotid occlusive disease who underwent unprotected carotid artery stent placement between 2003 and 2006. Mean degree of stenosis was 86.94% {+-} 9.72. In all patients, DWI was obtained before and 24 h after stent placement. New lesions were evaluated according to size and location. In 59 of 197 patients (29.9%), new ischemic lesions were found on DWI in the vessel dependent area. In 23 of 197 patients (11.7%), new ischemic lesions were found in the vessel independent area. Combined stroke/death rate was 3.63%. In our series of unprotected carotid angioplasty with stent, we found new DWI lesions in 34% of the patients. Further studies should now show in how far protection devices can reduce these lesions. (orig.)

  5. Separation of polyethylene glycols and amino-terminated polyethylene glycols by high-performance liquid chromatography under near critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y-Z; Zhuo, R-X; Jiang, X-L

    2016-05-20

    The separation and characterization of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and amino-substituted derivatives on common silica-based reversed-phase packing columns using isocratic elution is described. This separation is achieved by liquid chromatography under the near critical conditions (LCCC), based on the number of amino functional end groups without obvious effect of molar mass for PEGs. The mobile phase is acetonitrile in water with an optimal ammonium acetate buffer. The separation mechanism of PEG and amino-substituted PEG under the near LCCC on silica-based packing columns is confirmed to be ion-exchange interaction. Under the LCCC of PEG backbone, with fine tune of buffer concentration, the retention factor ratios for benzylamine and phenol in buffered mobile phases, α(benzylamine/phenol)-values, were used to assess the ion-exchange capacity on silica-based reversed-phase packing columns. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on separation of amino-functional PEGs independent of the molar mass by isocratic elution using common C18 or phenyl reversed-phase packing columns.

  6. The "New Polyethylene Glycol Dilemma": Polyethylene Glycol Impurities and Their Paradox Role in mAb Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Christian; Joos, Lea; Saedler, Rainer; Winter, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEG) represent the most successful and frequently applied class of excipients used for protein crystallization. PEG auto-oxidation and formation of impurities such as peroxides and formaldehydes that foster protein drug degradation is known. However, their effect on mAb crystallization has not been studied in detail before. During the present study, a model IgG1 antibody (mAb1) was crystallized in PEG solutions. Aggregate formation was observed during crystallization and storage that was ascribed to PEG degradation products. Reduction of peroxide and formaldehyde levels prior to crystallization by vacuum and freeze-drying was investigated for its effect on protein degradation. Vacuum drying was superior in removal of peroxides but inferior in reducing formaldehyde residues. Consequently, double purification allowed extensive removal of both impurities. Applying of purified PEG led to 50% lower aggregate fractions. Surprisingly, PEG double purification or addition of methionine prior to crystallization prevented crystal formation. With increased PEG concentration or spiking with peroxides and formaldehydes, crystal formation could be recovered again. With these results, we demonstrate that minimum amounts of oxidizing impurities and thus in consequence chemically altered proteins are vital to initiate mAb1 crystallization. The present study calls PEG as good precipitant for therapeutic biopharmaceuticals into question.

  7. Detection of low-contrast lesions in computed body tomography: an experimental study of simulated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, T F; Raudkivi, U; McIntyre, W J; Gallagher, J H; Haaga, J R; Havrilla, T R; Reich, N E

    1980-01-01

    Observer accuracy in the identification of low-contrast objects in computed tomography (CT) was studied. Thresholds were established for detection of lesions of various sizes and attenuation differences in CT images produced at different radiation doses. Noise reduction was important in identifying certain types of lesions. Detection was not accurate when the standard deviation of the mean of an organ exceeded the difference in the means of the lesion and the surround region.

  8. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  9. 300000 tons/year glycol production process preliminary design

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    乙二醇是主要用作生产聚酯纤维及织物工业制造的原料的有机化合物。也被用于工业应用,如防冻剂配方和其它工业产品。它是一种无色无味的,糖浆,甜味液体。目前,国内生产乙二醇的方法主要有两种:煤制乙二醇;环氧乙烷直接水合制乙二醇。对于煤制乙二醇,催化剂很重要,很难找到高效成本低的催化剂,过程复杂;直接水合法虽然过程简单,但是装置落后,耗能耗水量大。因此本设计采用较先进的设备—反应精馏塔,采用较新的反应精馏工艺来克服乙二醇工艺的缺点,并且利用化工模拟软件ASPEN PLUS对过程进行模拟以及优化,最后得到达到满足产品生产标准又可满足设计任务的结果。同时还对主要设备进行了选型,绘制了PID工艺流程图。 Ethylene glycol is an organic compound primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry. A small percent is also used in industrial applications like ant...

  10. Myocardial matrix-polyethylene glycol hybrid hydrogels for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Gregory N.; Rao, Nikhil; Christman, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other protein-based hydrogels, extracellular matrix (ECM) based hydrogels, derived from decellularized tissues, have a narrow range of mechanical properties and are rapidly degraded. These hydrogels contain natural cellular adhesion sites, form nanofibrous networks similar to native ECM, and are biodegradable. In this study, we expand the properties of these types of materials by incorporating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into the ECM network. We use decellularized myocardial matrix as an example of a tissue specific ECM derived hydrogel. Myocardial matrix-PEG hybrids were synthesized by two different methods, cross-linking the proteins with an amine-reactive PEG-star and photo-induced radical polymerization of two different multi-armed PEG-acrylates. We show that both methods allow for conjugation of PEG to the myocardial matrix by gel electrophoresis and infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the hybrid materials still contain a nanofibrous network similar to unmodified myocardial matrix and that the fiber diameter is changed by the method of PEG incorporation and PEG molecular weight. PEG conjugation also decreased the rate of enzymatic degradation in vitro, and increased material stiffness. Hybrids synthesized with amine-reactive PEG had gelation rates of 30 min, similar to the unmodified myocardial matrix, and incorporation of PEG did not prevent cell adhesion and migration through the hydrogels, thus offering the possibility to have an injectable ECM hydrogel that degrades more slowly in vivo. The photo-polymerized radical systems gelled in 4 min upon irradiation, allowing 3D encapsulation and culture of cells, unlike the soft unmodified myocardial matrix. This work demonstrates that PEG incorporation into ECM-based hydrogels can expand material properties, thereby opening up new possibilities for in vitro and in vivo applications.

  11. SANS study of highly resilient poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Erika M; Lackey, Melissa A; Griffin, David M; Kishore, Suhasini; Tew, Gregory N; Bhatia, Surita R

    2014-03-28

    Polymer networks are critically important for numerous applications including soft biomaterials, adhesives, coatings, elastomers, and gel-based materials for energy storage. One long-standing challenge these materials present lies in understanding the role of network defects, such as dangling ends and loops, developed during cross-linking. These defects can negatively impact the physical, mechanical, and transport properties of the gel. Here we report chemically cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gels formed through a unique cross-linking scheme designed to minimize defects in the network. The highly resilient mechanical properties of these systems (discussed in a previous publication) [J. Cui, M. A. Lackey, A. E. Madkour, E. M. Saffer, D. M. Griffin, S. R. Bhatia, A. J. Crosby and G. N. Tew, Biomacromolecules, 2012, 13, 584-588], suggests that this cross-linking technique yields more homogeneous network structures. Four series of gels were formed based on chains of 35,000 g mol(-1), (35k), 12,000 g mol(-1) (12k) g mol(-1), 8000 g mol(-1) (8k) and 4000 g mol(-1) (4k) PEG. Gels were synthesized at five initial polymer concentrations ranging from 0.077 g mL(-1) to 0.50 g mL(-1). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was utilized to investigate the network structures of gels in both D2O and d-DMF. SANS results show the resulting network structure is dependent on PEG length, transitioning from a more homogeneous network structure at high molecular weight PEG to a two phase structure at the lowest molecular weight PEG. Further investigation of the transport properties inherent to these systems, such as diffusion, will aid to further confirm the network structures.

  12. Combined Low-Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution Plus Stimulant Laxatives versus Standard-Volume Polyethylene Glycol Solution: A Prospective, Randomized Study of Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hookey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose.

  13. Relationship between laser fluorescence and bacterial invasion in arrested dentinal carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between caries assessment using a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent), and bacterial invasion in arrested carious dentin detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ten extracted human molars used in this study had black or dark brown, hard occlusal carious lesions, and were found to be only weakly stained or unstained with a caries detector dye of 1% acid red in propylene glycol. In those extracted human molars, dentin was removed in the direction of the pulp chamber at 150-μm intervals. During each removal (104 sections in total), the dentin surface was assessed with DIAGNOdent, and a dentinal tissue sample was taken with a round bur. Bacterial DNA of each tissue sample was examined using PCR and primers based on the nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of bacterial 16S rDNA. Rates of bacterial detection increased as the DIAGNOdent values increased. When the DIAGNOdent values were DIAGNOdent values was 0.87. These results indicate that the DIAGNOdent values of arrested dentinal carious lesion were closely related to the rates of bacterial detection.

  14. 发酵法转化乙二醇制备乙醇酸%Preparation of glycolic acid by the fermentation of ethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏胜华; 孟娜; 郑长龙; 李婉珍

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the fermentation process of glycolic acid from ethylene glycol by Gluconobacter oxydans is studied.The results showed that the optimal fermentation condition was as follows:the ethylene glycol concentration was 80 g/L,adding 40 g/L of sorbitol to the medium as supplement carbon source in order to promote cell growth,1.0mol/L of sodium hydroxide and ammonia mixture was the neutralizer used in the fermentation process to maintain pH of 5.5.After 40hrs fermentation,the production of glycolic acid was 97.4 g/L,the yield was 96.8%.The method established the foundation for the biological production of glycolic acid.%研究了以乙二醇为底物,利用氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌发酵法制备乙醇酸的工艺过程。研究结果表明,当乙二醇浓度为80 g/L,添加40 g/L山梨醇为外加碳源促进菌体生长,以1.0 mol/L的氢氧化钠与氨水混合液为中和剂,控制过程的pH值为5.5,是最佳的发酵条件。经过40 h发酵,乙醇酸产量为97.4 g/L,乙醇酸得率达到96.8%。该方法为生物法生产乙醇酸打下了基础。

  15. Alcoholism and the Armanni-Ebstein lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, Jacqueline L; Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Milroy, Christopher M; Pollanen, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    The Armanni-Ebstein lesion is a histological change in the kidney consisting of sub-nuclear vacuolation of the proximal tubules. It has been most associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. The vacuoles have been reported to contain glycogen. More recent studies show them to contain fat. Recent papers have associated the Armanni-Ebstein lesion with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. We present 11 cases of alcoholic ketoacidosis where the Armanni-Ebstein lesion was identified. None had a history of diabetes mellitus and none showed any changes of diabetic nephropathy. All 11 cases had raised acetone levels (3-67 mg/100 mL (mean 17.9 mg/100 mL and median value of 16 mg/100 mL). In addition a case of isopropanol poisoning was found to have the Armanni-Ebstein lesion. Isopropanol is converted to acetone but is not associated with acidosis. These results indicate that the Armanni-Ebstein lesion is not specific to diabetes mellitus.

  16. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  17. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  18. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  19. Design and synthesis of multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s using enzymatic catalysis for multivalent cancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwang Su

    The objective of this research was to design and synthesize multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s using enzyme-catalyzed reactions for multivalent targeted drug delivery. Based on computer simulation for optimum folate binding, a four-arm PEG star topology with Mn = 1000 g/mol was proposed. First, a four-functional core based on tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was designed and synthesized using transesterification and Michael addition reactions in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst. The four-functional core (HO)2-TEG-(OH)2 core was successfully prepared by the CALB-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl acrylate (VA) with TEG and then Michael addition of diethanolamine to the resulting TEG diacrylate with/without the use of solvent. The functional PEG arms with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and folic acid (FA) were prepared using both traditional organic chemistry and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. FITC was reacted with the amine group of H2N-PEG-OH in the presence of triethylamine via nucleophilic addition onto the isothiocyanate group. Then, divinyl adipate (DVA) was transesterified with the FITC-PEG-OH product in the presence of CALB to produce the FITC-PEG vinyl ester that will be attached to the four-functional core via CALC-catalyzed transesterification. For the synthesis of FA-PEG vinyl ester arm, DVA was first reacted with PEG-monobenzyl ether (BzPEG-OH) in bulk in the presence of CALB. The BzPEG vinyl ester was then transesterified with 12-bromo-1-dodecanol in the presence of CALB. Finally, BzPEG-Br was attached to FA exclusively in the gamma position using a new method. The thesis also discusses fundamental studies that were carried out in order to get better understanding of enzyme catalyzed transesterification and Michael addition reactions. First, in an effort to investigate the effects of reagent and enzyme concentrations in transesterification, vinyl methacrylate (VMA) was reacted with 2-(hydroxyethyl) acrylate (2

  20. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  1. Exovascular application of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-releasing electrospun poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) fiber sheets to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Jang, Eui Hwa; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2015-09-21

    Intimal hyperplasia is an excessive ingrowth of tissue resulting in chronic structural lesions commonly found at sites of atherosclerotic lesions, arterial angioplasty, vascular graft anastomoses, and other vascular abnormalities. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was shown to elicit antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-thrombogenic effects. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to synthesize EGCG-eluting biodegradable poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber sheets for local delivery of EGCG and investigated the effect of their exovascular application on intimal hyperplasia following balloon-induced abdominal aorta injury in a rabbit experimental model. The morphology of the composite sheets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. EGCG was loaded and dispersed into the PLGA-based electrospun fibers. The EGCG-loaded PLGA sheets exhibited sustained EGCG release following the initial 24 h of burst release in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia following the application of the EGCG-eluting electrospun PLGA fiber sheets, compared with vehicle PLGA controls. In conclusion, our results show that exovascular application of EGCG-eluting PLGA electrospun fiber sheets may provide a useful system for the effective local delivery of drugs for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia.

  2. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  3. Scintigraphic localization of bone lesions during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harcke, H.T.; MacEwen, G.D.; Conway, J.J.; Tachdjian, M.O.; Dias, L.S.; Noble, H.B.; Weiss, S.

    1985-03-01

    Nuclear medicine provides several methods for increasing the accuracy of surgical removal of bone lesions with focally increased uptake. In this paper, three intraoperative procedures are discussed: remote control by imaging, intraoperative control by imaging, and intraoperative control by scintillation probe. All techniques require preoperative injection of bone imaging tracer. Remote operative control calls for a gamma camera to mark the skin over the lesion prior to surgery, providing optimal preoperative localization and imaging of the excised lesion to ensure complete removal. Intraoperative control procedures require that a portable camera or a scintillation probe be used in the operating room; these permit direct monitoring of localization and resection. Our experience with 18 procedures performed on 15 patients suggests that these techniques are worthy of continued use.

  4. Histopathologic Approach to Oral Cavity Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuyan Demirkesen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the oral cavity may be either a reflection of system or cutaneous diseases or can be seen as a primary oral lesion. These lesions are inflammatory reactions due to miscellaneous mechanisms, ulceration or erosion, reactive proliferative nodules, precancerous or neoplastic diseases. In this study, microscopic features of the most common diseases, together with their differential diagnosis are discussed. Some of the diseases of the oral cavity have overlapping histopathological findings. In these conditions, ancillary methods such as immunoflourescence or immunohistochemistry can be performed. Deep biopsies from representative areas are essential for proper histopathological diagnosis. Moreover, informing the pathologist about the exact anatomic localization of the biopsy, as well as the clinical findings of the lesion is crucial for a better approach.

  5. Rare lesions of the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur; Sonmez, Erkin; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan

    2010-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas and epidermoids account for a vast majority of the lesions occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies other than these tumors constitute 1% of all lesions located in the CPA. The aim of this study was to reveal our experience in the treatment of the rare lesions of the CPA. We have retrospectively reviewed the medical files and radiological data of all patients who underwent surgery involving any kind of pathology in the CPA. We have excluded those patients with a histopathological diagnosis of meningioma, schwannoma and epidermoids. Our research revealed a case of craniopharyngioma, a case of chloroma, a case of solitary fibrous tumor, a case of pinealoblastoma, a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a case of an aneurysm, a case of hemorrhage and a case of abscess.

  6. Sellar lesion: Not always a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess. Sellar tuberculoma is a rare type of granulomatous hypophysitis. We document a case of a postmenopausal lady who presented with galactorrhea, headache and blurring of vision. Based on preliminary investigations, a clinical diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made and the pituitary gland was surgically excised. Histopathological examination showed caseating granulomas, along with normal areas of preserved pituitary gland and a final diagnosis of tuberculous hypophysitis was made. This case is being documented due to the extremely rare involvement of the pituitary gland by granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis and to emphasize the role of intraoperative consultation to obviate the need for radical surgery in such lesions.

  7. Oligoethylene glycol-substituted aza-BODIPY dyes as red emitting ER-probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkaew, Anyanee; Thavornpradit, Sopida; Puangsamlee, Thamon; Xin, Dongyue; Wanichacheva, Nantanit; Burgess, Kevin

    2015-08-14

    This study features aza-BODIPY (BF2-chelated azadipyrromethene) dyes with two aromatic substituents linked by oligoethylene glycol fragments to increase hydrophilicity of aza-BODIPY for applications in intracellular imaging. To prepare these, two chalcones were attached α,ω onto oligoethylene glycol fragments, then reacted with nitromethane anion. Conjugate addition products from this reaction were then subjected to typical conditions for synthesis of aza-BODIPY dyes (NH4OAc, (n)BuOH, 120 °C); formation of boracycles in this reaction was concomitant with creation of macrocycles containing the oligoethylene glycol fragments. Similar dyes with acyclic oligoelythene glycol substituents in the same position were used to compare the efficiencies of the intra- and inter-molecular aza-BODIPY forming reactions, and the characteristics of the products. All the fluors with oligoethylene glycol fragments, i.e. cyclic or acyclic, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of a fibroblast cell line (WEHI-13VAR), the human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1, rough ER predominates) and human liver cancer cell line (HepG2, smooth ER prevalent). These fluors are potentially useful for near IR (λmax emis at 730 nm) ER staining probes.

  8. First report of suspected ethylene glycol poisoning in 2 dogs in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene glycol (E/G is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. It is odourless, colourless and has a sweet taste. As little as 5 mℓ or 20 mℓ is sufficient to kill a cat or a dog, respectively. Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the liver to oxalate, which is deposited as calcium oxalate in the kidneys causing irreversible damage. This report describes 2 dogs that were suspected to have ingested ethylene glycol. The report contains a description of the 3 stages of ethylene glycol toxicity as well as a short discussion of the treatment. Public awareness about the dangers of anti-freeze will help in limiting exposure of pets and humans to this potentially fatal toxin. Veterinarians need to be aware of anti-freeze toxicity as delayed recognition and treatment will lead to the death of the patient.

  9. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy in ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)], E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com; Fatayerji, M.Z. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based alloy AZ91D was investigated in ethylene glycol-water solutions using electrochemical techniques i.e. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) and surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. This can provide a basis for developing new coolants for magnesium alloy engine blocks. Corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy by coolant is important in the automotive industry. It was found that the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy decreased with increasing concentration of ethylene glycol. For AZ91D alloy in chloride >0.05 M or fluoride <0.05 M containing 30% ethylene glycol solution, they are more corrosive than the blank (30% ethylene glycol-70% water). However, at concentrations <0.05 for chloride or >0.05 M for fluoride containing ethylene glycol solution, some inhibition effect has been observed. The corrosion of AZ91D alloy in the blank can be effectively inhibited by addition of 0.05 mM paracetamol that reacts with AZ91D alloy and forms a protective film on the surface at this concentration as confirmed by surface examination.

  10. [Determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ghengyun; Zhang, Weiya; Li, Lixia; Shen, Yalei; Lin, Junfeng; Xie, Tangtang; Chu, Naiqing

    2014-08-01

    An effective method was established for the simultaneous determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Glycol ethers in leather and leather products were ultrasonically extracted at 45 °C, using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The content of each analyte was calibrated by external standard method. The limit of detection of ethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE) was 0. 10 mg/kg under the condition of signal to noise (S/N) of 3 and the limits of the other 11 glycol ethers were all less than 0.05 mg/kg. The spiked recoveries varied from 81. 2% to 95. 5% at three different spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.4% to 6. 6%. The proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate, with the limits of detection much less than the requirements of the Regulation Concerning Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) of European Union. It is applicable to the determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products, and provides a reference for the relevant testing standards.

  11. Advantages of using glycolic acid as a retardant in a brushite forming cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Faleh Tamimi; Torres, Jesús; Hamdan, Mohammad; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2007-11-01

    In this study we have compared the effect of using acetic, glycolic, and citric acids on the brushite cement setting reaction and the properties of the resultant cement. The cement solid phase was made by mixing beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), monocalcium dihydrogen phosphate anhydrate (MCPA), and sodium pyrophosphate, whereas the cement liquid phase consisted of aqueous solutions of carboxy acids at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.5M. Cements were prepared by mixing the solid phase with the liquid phase to form a workable paste. The cement setting time was longer for glycolic and citric acids. The best mechanical properties in dry environments were obtained using glycolic and citric acid liquid phases. In a wet environment at 37 degrees C, the cement set with glycolic acid was the strongest one. Brushite cement diametral tensile strength seems to be affected by the calcium-carboxyl phase produced in the setting reaction. The acceptable setting time and mechanical properties of cements set in glycolic acid solutions are attributed to the additional hydrophilic groups in the carboxylic acid and the low solubility in water of the calcium salt produced in the reaction. Moreover, at high concentrations, carboxylic acids add chemically to the cement matrix becoming reactants themselves.

  12. Crystallization Kinetics of Indomethacin/Polyethylene Glycol Dispersions Containing High Drug Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tu Van; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2015-07-06

    The reproducibility and consistency of physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical performance are major concerns during preparation of solid dispersions. The crystallization kinetics of drug/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions, an important factor that is governed by the properties of both drug and polymer has not been adequately explored, especially in systems containing high drug loadings. In this paper, by using standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, we describe the influence of drug loading on crystallization behavior of dispersions made up of indomethacin and polyethylene glycol 6000. Higher drug loading increases the amorphicity of the polymer and inhibits the crystallization of PEG. At 52% drug loading, polyethylene glycol was completely transformed to the amorphous state. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of the solubilization effect of a low molecular weight drug on a semicrystalline polymer in their dispersions. In mixtures containing up to 55% indomethacin, the dispersions exhibited distinct glass transition events resulting from amorphous-amorphous phase separation which generates polymer-rich and drug-rich domains upon the solidification of supercooled polyethylene glycol, whereas samples containing at least 60% drug showed a single amorphous phase during the period in which crystallization normally occurs. The current study demonstrates a wide range in physicochemical properties of drug/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions as a result of the complex nature in crystallization of this system, which should be taken into account during preparation and storage.

  13. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengdong Piao; Peng Li; Guangyao Liu; Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  14. Viscoelasticity of repaired sciatic nerve by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chengdong; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Kun

    2013-11-25

    Medical-grade synthetic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer can be used as a biomaterial for nerve repair because of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability and adjustable degradation rate. The stress relaxation and creep properties of peripheral nerve can be greatly improved by repair with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Ten sciatic nerve specimens were harvested from fresh corpses within 24 hours of death, and were prepared into sciatic nerve injury models by creating a 10 mm defect in each specimen. Defects were repaired by anastomosis with nerve autografts and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes. Stress relaxation and creep testing showed that at 7 200 seconds, the sciatic nerve anastomosed by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) tubes exhibited a greater decrease in stress and increase in strain than those anastomosed by nerve autografts. These findings suggest that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) exhibits good viscoelasticity to meet the biomechanical require-ments for a biomaterial used to repair sciatic nerve injury.

  15. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFrac module for distillation columns, to investigate the effect on the separation of the ethylene glycol-glycerol mixture composition, the separating agent feed stages, the separating agent split stream feed, and the azeotropic feed temperature. The NRTL model was used to calculate the phase equilibrium of these strongly polar mixtures. A rigorous simulation of the extractive distillation column finally established was also performed, including a secondary recovery column for the mixture of solvents and a recycle loop, to simulate an industrially relevant situation. This simulation allowed establishing the complete parameters to dehydrate ethanol: the optimal stage for separating agent feed is stage 4; the most adequate composition for the glycols mixture is 60 mol% ethylene glycol and 40 mol% glycerol. Finally, energetically efficient operating conditions for each one of the columns were established through a preliminary pinch analysis.

  16. CAMERON LESIONS: LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vasilenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameron syndrome is the ulcerative or erosive lesions of mucosal layer at the sac of hiatal hernia which can cause chronic occult or overt bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia. Hiatal hernia is a relatively frequent finding, which is in most cases asymptomatic or manifested by dyspeptic symptoms of varying severity. Despite of being a very important association of hiatal hernia Cameron syndrome is not widely represented in medical literature. That`s the reason of a lack of awareness among physicians, surgeons and endoscopists about that pathology. Cameron lesions are significant pathology because they can become a source of chronic occult as well as an acute life-threatening bleeding. Those lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract are often misinterpreted or overlooked during standard diagnostic procedures. It can lead to the misdiagnosis and false ways of treatment. The review focuses on the pathogenesis, main diagnostic problems and treatment options of that pathology. The diagnostics of the Cameron syndrome is difficult because sometimes the lesions can`t be seen on upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. The review describes the criteria by which the physician may suspect Cameron syndrome when endoscopy results are not certain. Clinical case represents an important problem which is often faced by the doctors — the severe iron-deficiency anemia refractory to the medication and blood transfusions in the patients with Cameron lesions. It`s very important for doctor to be aware of that complication to include Cameron syndrome into the diagnostic search for the sources of persistent blood loss. Cameron lesions can be asymptomatic as well as be manifested in the form of severe chronic anemia. And that`s the reason why there are an important issue about the proper treatment which have to be provided in each case. The review describes the effectiveness of different treatment options and makes the conclusion about the principles on which doctor can

  17. Decoding diffusivity in multiple sclerosis: analysis of optic radiation lesional and non-lesional white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klistorner

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage.Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR.Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD, which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI.This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our results suggest that, at

  18. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  19. Computed tomography of the retrofascial space lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Hiroko; Kohno, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fumiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-11-01

    CT offers a unique method to evaluate anatomy of the retrofascial space. Retrofascial space which mainly consist of psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles locates behind the transversalis fascia. CT findings of 10 lesions, five with abscess and five with hematoma were reviewed. CT provided clinically useful information regarding the presence, size, extent and composition of the lesions and also their effects on adjacent structures. Abscesses revealed a well-defined low density with enhanced rim in the enlarged muscle. Hematoma showed an ill-defined low density area within the enlarged muscle. Abscesses can not be differentiated from hematomas and other retrofascial tumors by CT alone.

  20. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for furt......An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising...

  1. Annular, erythematous skin lesions in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-day-old premature female infant presented with rapidly progressive, erythematous, annular skin lesions from the 5 th day of life. She was diagnosed provisionally as a case of neonatal lupus erythematosus and was investigated accordingly. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy specimen revealed presence of hyphae of dermatophytes in the stratum corneum, and the diagnosis was changed to tinea corporis. Differential diagnosis of the annular erythema of infancy has been discussed and the importance of scraping a scaly lesion for KOH preparation in the diagnostic work-up of such a patient has been highlighted.

  2. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first......, respectively. The best reliability was seen for erosions (κ 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.81) and lowest for aggregates (κ 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-0.37). CONCLUSION: This is the first step to test consensus-based US definitions on elementary lesions in patients with gout. High intraobserver reliability was found when applying...

  3. Detection of pathological lesions in slaughtered rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse is considered an important control point for the monitoring of rabbit diseases. In our study, 59,440 rabbit carcasses were examined, but only 1% of pathological lesions were recorded at postmortem inspection. Mainly affected were tegumentary, digestive and urinary systems. The most consistent lesion was the subcutaneous abscess; nephritis, probably caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi, was also frequent. Pathological alterations of the liver, classified as “necrotizing hepatitis” and localized at the caudate lobe, were observed for the first time.

  4. Computed tomography of sellar and parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Mitsunori; Aoki, Hideo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    Neuroradiological modalities, particularly CT, for sellar and parasellar lesions were reviewed. Although accurate preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult, CT diagnosed 83% as far as pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma and meningioma were concerned and demonstrated abnormal findings in 95% of parasellar tumors. At the authors' department, CT visualized abnormalities in all cases, with the exception of suprasellar arachnoid cyst, but a histological diagnosis was possible only in 84%. Since lesions including tumors cannot be completely denied even if CT shows normal images, findings by modalities such as plain craniography, cerebral tomography, cerebral angiography and cisternography should be judged comprehensively.

  5. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  6. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  7. The wide spectrum of hyperechoic lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, A., E-mail: annalinda33@gmail.co [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, C.; Lorenzon, M.; Furlan, A.; Londero, V. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Machin, P. [Institute of Pathology, Ospedale De Gironcoli, Conegliano (Italy); Bazzocchi, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Although breast lesions are commonly detected because of their hypoechogenicity, some lesions may present with hyperechogenicity due to their histological components. Hyperechogenicity has been shown to be highly predictive of benignity; however, hyperechoic lesions can occasionally be malignant. This article reviews hyperechoic lesions of the breast, describes the underlying histological causes associated with hyperechogenicity, and the sonographic features useful for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant hyperechoic lesions.

  8. Poly(Ethylene Glycol-Based Backbones with High Peptide Loading Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife O'Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-peptide conjugates are a promising class of compounds, where polymers can be used to overcome some of the limitations associated with peptides intended for therapeutic and/or diagnostic applications. Linear polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol can be conjugated through terminal moieties and have therefore limited loading capacities. In this research, functionalised linear poly(ethylene glycols are utilised for peptide conjugation, to increase their potential loading capacities. These poly(ethylene glycol derivatives are conjugated to peptide sequences containing representative side-chain functionalised amino acids, using different conjugation chemistries, including copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, amide coupling and thiol-ene reactions. Conjugation of a sequence containing the RGD motif to poly(allyl glycidyl ether by the thiol-ene reaction, provided a conjugate which could be used in platelet adhesion studies.

  9. Synthesis of Silver Particle onto Bamboo Charcoal by Tripropylene Glycol and the Composites Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hsuan Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tripropylene glycol was used as a reducting agent in the polyol process to reduce silver nitrate to the form of silver particles deposited onto the surface of bamboo charcoal (BC. The reduction temperature and time were critical parameters as they control the size of the silver particles formed as well as their distribution onto the surface of the BC. The reduction of silver nitrate by the tripropylene glycol occurred at a temperature of 120 °C for 3 h, and the silver particles, which had a face-centered cubic lattice structure, were distributed onto the surface of the BC. These synthesis conditions should work well with tripropylene glycol as reducing agent that can be helpful in the convenient preparation of Ag/BC particles. When Ag/BC powders were manufactured using 3 g of silver nitrate content, the prepared composites had the largest thermal conductivity at 0.2490 W/(m·K.

  10. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  11. Analyzing solubility of acid gas and light alkanes in triethylene glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Bahadori; Had B.Vuthaluru; Saeid Mokhatab

    2008-01-01

    Physical solvents such as ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are commonly used in wet gas dehydration processes with TEG being the most popular due to ease of regeneration and low solvent losses. Unfortunately, TEG absorbs significantly more hydrocarbons and acid gases than EG or DEG. Quantifying this amount of absorption is therefore critical in order to minimize hydrocarbon losses or to optimize hydrocarbon recovery depending on the objective of the process. In this article, a new correlation that fully covers the operating ranges of TEG dehydration units is developed in order to determine the solubility of light alkanes and acid gases in TEG solvent. The influence of several parameters on hydrocarbon and acid gas solubility including temperature, pressure, and solvent content is also examined.

  12. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Preparation and Thermo-Physical Properties of Fe2O3-Propylene Glycol Nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylaja, A; Manikandan, S; Suganthi, K S; Rajan, K S

    2015-02-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared from ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate by precipitation reaction. Fe2O3-propylene glycol nanofluid was prepared by dispersing Fe2O3 nanoparticles in propylene glycol through stirred bead milling, shear homogenization and probe ultrasonication. The nanofluid was characterized through measurement of viscosity, particle size distribution and thermal conductivity. The interactions between Fe2O3 nanoparticles and propylene glycol on the nanoparticle surfaces lead to reduction in viscosity, the magnitude of which increases with nanoparticle concentration (0-2 vol%) at room temperature. The thermal conductivity enhancement for 2 vol% nanofluid was about 21% at room temperature, with liquid layering being the major contributor for thermal conductivity enhancement.

  14. Assessment of Palmitoyl and Sulphate Conjugated Glycol Chitosan for Development of Polymeric Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ullah Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amphiphilic copolymers are capable of forming core shell-like structures at the critical micellar concentration (CMC; hence, they can serve as drug carriers. Thus, in the present work, polymeric micelles based on novel chitosan derivative were synthesized. Methods: Block copolymer of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS was prepared by grafting palmitoyl and sulfate groups serving as hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively. Then, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture were carried out. Results: FTIR studies confirmed the formation of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture indicated CMC which lies in the range of 0.003-0.2 mg/ml. Conclusion: Therefore, our study indicated that polymeric micelles based on palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulphate could be used as a prospective carrier for water insoluble drugs.

  15. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma. PMID:23130283

  16. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner′s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  17. Aphids preserved in propylene glycol can be used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detection of Potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xianzhou; Pelletier, Yvan; Mason, Nicola; Dilworth, Andrea; Giguère, Marie-Andrée

    2011-08-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol on the retention of RNA target of Potato virus Y (PVY), an aphid stylet-borne virus, in Myzus persicae was investigated in comparison to ethanol and liquid nitrogen/-80°C. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the PVY targets from the propylene glycol/ethanol/liquid nitrogen preserved single aphids after a 5min acquisition period from infected potato plants. In the liquid nitrogen/-80°C and 70% ethanol treatments, 55.6% and 38.8% aphids tested PVY-positive, respectively. In the 0-75% propylene glycol treatments, 12.2-44.7% aphids tested PVY-positive. The lowest detection rate was in the 0% (positive rate, 15.2%) and the 10% propylene glycol (positive rate, 12.2%). As the propylene glycol concentration increased to 25%, 29.8% aphids tested positive. A high PVY-positive rate was also found in 35-75% propylene glycol treatments at 44.7% (35% propylene glycol), 36.7% (50% propylene glycol) and 34.8% (75% propylene glycol), which is comparable to the rate shown in 70% ethanol. No significant difference in the positive detection rate was observed in aphids preserved in 50% propylene glycol at room temperature for 2, 4 and 10 days. These results demonstrate that propylene glycol at 25-75% can retain PVY targets effectively in aphids for an extended time period, and thus can be used in aphid traps to preserve viruliferous aphids for later RT-PCR detection of PVY.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) complex microspheres as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Xiuxiu; Yuan, Jian; Yang, Siqian; Li, Yueqin; Gao, Qinwei

    2016-10-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is synthesized via melt polycondensation directly from lactic acid and glycolic acid with a feed molar ratio of 75/25. Bovine serum albumin, which is used as model protein, is entrapped into the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres with particle size of 260.9 ± 20.0 nm by the double emulsification method. Then it is the first report of producing more carboxyl groups by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) surface hydrolysis. The purpose is developing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres surface, which is modified with chitosan by chemical reaction between carboxyl groups and amine groups. The particle size and the positive zeta potential of the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres are 388.2 ± 35.6 nm and 10.4 ± 2.9 mV, respectively. The drug loading ratio and encapsulation efficacy of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres are 36.3% and 57.5%, which are higher than PLGA microspheres. Furthermore, the drug burst release of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres at 10 h is decreased to 21.72% while the corresponding value of the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere is 64.56%. These results reveal that surface hydrolysis modification of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) is an efficient method to improve the negative potential and chemical reaction properties of the polymer. And furthermore, this study shows that chitosan-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres is a promising system for the controlled release of pharmaceutical proteins.

  19. Precancerous Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürbüz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review of oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia/erythroplakia and the least common variant proliferative verrucous leukoplakia will be focused with their clinical characteristics and their potential to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma and related factors will be discussed.

  20. Differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph Frank; Sahai, Anand Vasante; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage. Little is known about the incidental finding of early-stage PDAC. The aim of the current study was to determine the etiology of small solid pancreatic lesions (≤15 mm) to optimize clinical managem...

  1. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  2. Gamma knife radiosurgery for midline lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legat, J.; Mokry, M.; Leber, K.; Schroettner, O.; Pendl, G. [Karl-Franzens Univ., Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Surgery of midline lesions is difficult in many cases and often only partial removal is possible. Between May 1992 and April 1997, 81 patients with midline lesions were treated radiosurgically. The lesions were located in the hypothalamic region (25), thalamus (20), third ventricle (2), quadrigeminal plate (9), pons (13), fourth ventricle (4), pineal region (4) and other locations (4). Forty-eight patients were male and 33 were female. Histologically, there were 56 benign cases (13 arteriovenous malformations, 11 low grade gliomas, 20 craniopharyngiomas, 5 meningiomas, 3 hamartomas, 4 miscellaneous) and 25 malignant cases (10 metastases, 10 high grade gliomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 3 miscellaneous). Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in 71 patients (88%). In all patients the treatment was well tolerated. Radiographic response could be achieved in 39 of 68 tumor patients (57%). A complete obliteration was seen in 6 arteriovenous malformations (60%) 2 years after radiosurgery. A second radiosurgical procedure was necessary in 2 patients because of incomplete obliteration after 3 years. According to our experience, we can conclude that radiosurgery appears to be effective as adjuvant treatment or midline lesions. (author)

  3. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  4. Otoendoscopic treatment of hidden lesions in otomastoiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; SUN Jian-jun; LIN Yong-sheng; ZHAO Dan-heng; ZHAO Jing; LEI Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical treatments for chronic suppurative and cholesteatoma otitis media have been discussed for several decades, but recurrences still occur because of the complex dissection required and hidden lesions associated with otomastoiditis. This study investigated the technology and strategy behind the use of otoendoscopic-assisted otosurgery.Methods We reported on hidden lesions in 32 ears of patients with otomastoiditis between November 2006 and January 2009. All the patients were treated with the aid of an otoendoscope. The advantages of otoendoscopy, including multi-angle light scattering, aperture illumination, and magnification of the local operative field, were utilized in otologic microsurgery, and otoendoscopic operative techniques were introduced for operative sites such as the epitympanum, aditus of the antrum, facial recess, sinus tympani and the mastoid tip.Results All patients were followed up from 3 months to 2 years after surgery. All patients recovered well within 3 months following surgery, except for one case of epithelialization of the mastoid cavity occurring 6 months after surgery for cholesteatoma on the cerebellar surface and another case with Bezold's abscess, hyperplastic granulation tissue developed at the antrum.Conclusions Otoendoscopy can overcome the technical deficiency of rectilinearity of the visual axis associated with otomicroscopic illumination, which presents a problem when dealing with otomastoiditis lesions in hidden areas. This technique allows such lesions within the complex three-dimensional structure to be visualized and cleaned. Otoendoscopy thus has significant potential for improving the quality of surgery and reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence.

  5. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  6. Missed Massive Morel-Lavallee Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Takahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL involves posttraumatic fluid collection around the greater trochanter. Many cases of MLL are missed at the initial evaluation, and the treatment of MLL is not well established. We present two cases in which MLL was missed at the initial evaluation. Case 1. A 65-year-old man was run over by a parade float. There was subcutaneous hematoma around the left greater trochanter, and no fracture was found. We diagnosed this injury as MLL on the 7th day after the trauma. Although we performed percutaneous drainage, the injured area was infected. Case 2. A 57-year-old man was hit by a train in a factory. There was an iliac wing fracture, but an MLL was not initially recognized. On the 6th day after the trauma, when performing open reduction and internal fixation for the iliac fracture, we recognized the lesion and performed percutaneous drainage simultaneously. This lesion also became infected. In these two cases, the wounds finally healed after a long duration of treatment. We suggest that it is important to keep this injury in mind and debride the lesion early and completely in the treatment course.

  7. Oral lichenoid lesions - A review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included "oral lichen planus", "oral lichenoid lesions", "oral drug reactions", "lichenoid dysplasia", and "adverse effects of dental materials". Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP.

  8. [Longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mami, Z; Monsegu, J

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal stent deformation is defined as a compression of stent length after its implantation. It's a rare complication but dangerous seen with several stents. We reported a case of longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment with a Promus Element(®) and we perform a short review of this complication.

  9. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  10. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    elementary lesions. A group of 20 images was displayed twice to evaluate intra-reader reliability. RESULTS: A total of 32 participants responded to the questionnaires. Good agreement (>80%) was obtained for US definitions on DC, tophus, aggregates and erosion in the Delphi exercise after three rounds...

  11. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M

    2001-05-01

    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  12. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  13. Pleural Mass Lesion Containing Calcium Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kurkcuoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   A 30 year-old man was admitted with of chest pain. Had a x-ray and computed tomography showed calcified pleural mass . Lesions in the white-colored, dense mud was the consistency of the material.

  14. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  15. CYTOHISTOLOGICAL CORRELATIVE STUDY OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast lump is fairly common complaint in females for which patient seeks medical advice and becomes anxious about the diagnosis. Quick diagnosis by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC relieves patient’s anxiety and assists in their pre - operative management a nd overall treatment . AIMS : To study the cytological spectrum of breast lesions in correlation with histological appearances to evaluate the utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Total of 180 cases were studied by FNAC of which 42 cases specimen was received for histopathology examination (HPE. Diagnostic accuracy was studied by statistical analysis. RESULTS : In this study of 42 cases of correlation , maximum cases were obtained for fibroadenoma followed by malignancy. FNAC diagnosis was consistent with HPE in 41 cases and inconsistent in one case. CONCLUSION : FNAC can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant conditions , neoplastic and non - neoplastic conditions. The result compared with other studies substantiate the findings of the series that FNAC of breast is a sensitive and specific modality that assist in diagnosis and management of breast lesions. KEYWORDS: FNAC ; breast lesions; HPE.

  16. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorsky Meir

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83% compared to the non chewing individuals (16% (P Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  17. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  18. Degradation and miscibility of poly(DL-lactic acid)/poly(glycolic acid) composite films: Effect of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhigang Ma; Na Zhao; Chengdong Xiong

    2012-08-01

    The in vitro degradation behaviour of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and its composite films containing poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PDLGA) were investigated via mass loss, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All the films were prepared by solution casting, using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. Since the degradation rate of PDLLA is lower than that of PGA, those of the PDLLA/PGA composite films decreased. As a compatibilizer, PDLGA improved the compatibility and hydrolytic stability of PDLLA/PGA composite films. Changes in the composite films indicate that this kind of PGA-based composite biomaterial may be applicable to device design for clinical application in the future.

  19. Rapid treatment of mild acne with a novel skin care system containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid, and botanical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ashish C; Jimenez, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    The biggest hurdle in the treatment of acne vulgaris is patient non-compliance that is due in large part to poor tolerability to common acne medications. As such, new acne treatments must be developed that balance good anti-acne efficacy with excellent tolerability in order to ensure patient adherence and by extension ensure good clinical outcomes. The goal of the present study was to determine the tolerability and efficacy of a novel skin care system, composed of a cleanser, containing 1% salicylic acid and botanical ingredients, and a treatment gel, containing 1% salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid and botanical ingredients for the treatment of mild acne. In this single-center, open-label clinical study, 25 male and female volunteers used the test cleanser and test gel twice daily over six weeks. Tolerability assessments showed that the skin care regimen was very well tolerated by all study volunteers. Acne severity was significantly reduced by two acne grades at six weeks. Inflammatory lesion counts were significantly reduced, on average, by 59.06% (P ≤ 0.0001), 91.62% (P ≤ 0.0001), 90.85% (P ≤ 0.0001) and by 98.55% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Non-inflammatory lesion counts were reduced, on average, by 13.54% (ns), 38.95% (P ≤ 0.0001), 44.48% (P ≤ 0.0001), and by 56.10% (P ≤ 0.0001) at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively. Standardized photography also demonstrated a progressive reduction in acne lesions over time. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that the tested skin care regimen offers rapid acne clearance and excellent tolerability that together may help to improve patient adherence as well as treatment outcome.

  20. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions--part I: an approach to compound naevoidal pattern lesions with spindle cell morphology and Spitzoid pattern lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-04-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes reveal a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional naevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may be either a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either because of its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion because of a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified. However, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions can reliably be resolved with this standard approach, problem areas do exist and cause no end of grief to the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. In this review, the authors present their algorithmic approach to spindle cell melanocytic lesions and discuss each entity in turn, in order to (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions, and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions that either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  1. Water-soluble constituents of anise: new glucosides of anethole glycol and its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, twelve new and five known glucosides of phenylpropanoids, including four stereoisomers of anethole glycol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and four stereoisomers of 1'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1',2'-diol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated together with anethole glycols and guaiacyl glycerol. The structures of the new compounds were clarified by spectral investigation.

  2. Preparation of Iminodiacetic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol for Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis route was investigated and optimized for the preparation of iminodiacetic acid polyethylene glycol (IDA-PEG) for immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phaze systems. IDA PEG was synthesized from PEG in two steps by the reaction of iminodiacetic acid with a monosubetituted derivative of epichlorohydrin-activated PEG. The Cu2+ content combined with IDA-PEG was determined by atomic absorp tion spectrometry as 0.5 mol.mol-1 (PEG). Furthermore, the affinity partitioning behavior of lactate dehydrogenase in polyethylene glycol/hydroxypropyl starch aqueous two-phaze systems was studied to clarify the affinity effect of the Cu(Ⅱ)-IDA-PEG.

  3. Camomile autofermentation in polyethylene glycol/dextran two-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Sanja D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the extractive bioconversion of apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside in camomile ligulate flowers into apigenin by autofermentation in polyethylene glycol 6000/dextran 200000 two-phase system. In 22.5% polyethylene glycol/14% dextran aqueous two-phase system the obtained yield of apigenin in the top phase was 96.5%. In the presence of plant material that partiotioned to the interphase, the yield of apigenin in the top phase was 3.5 times higher in comparison to the model system.

  4. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  5. Thermodynamic study of the solubility of triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres R. Holguín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the van't Hoff and Gibbs equations the apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution for triclocarban in ethanol + propylene glycol mixtures were evaluated from solubility data determined at temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15 K. The drug solubility was greatest in the mixture with 0.60 in mass fraction of ethanol and lowest in neat propylene glycol at almost all the temperatures studied. Non-linear enthalpy-entropy compensation is found indicating apparently different mechanisms of the solution process according to the mixtures composition.

  6. Propylene glycol and contact-lens solutions containing this diol induce pseudocyst formation in acanthamoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliescikova, Jarmila; Kulda, Jaroslav; Nohynkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Propylene glycol used as an ophthalmic demulcent in certain contact-lens care systems has been included recently among factors responsible for increasing Acanthamoeba keratitis. In this study, we provide evidence that propylene glycol as well as examined contact-lens solutions containing it induce rapid differentiation of acanthamoebae into pseudocysts. The partial resistance of the pseudocysts and their reversibility to viable trophozoites even after 24-h exposure to the contact-lens solutions indicate a potential risk of infection to contact-lens users.

  7. Self-assembled nanoparticles of glycol chitosan – Ergocalciferol succinate conjugate, for controlled release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinones, Javier Perez; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Glycol chitosan was linked to vitamin D2 hemisuccinate (ergocalciferol hemisuccinate) for controlled release through water-soluble carbodiimide activation. The resulting conjugate formed self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous solution with particle size of 279 nm and ergocalciferol hemisuccinate...... content of 8.4% (w/w). Almost spherical 50–90 nm nanoparticles were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy upon drying. Drug linking to glycol chitosan was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and proton NMR. Particles were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide...

  8. Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide in Binary Mixture of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether and Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新学; 刘迎新; 魏雄辉

    2005-01-01

    The solubility and hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in binary mixture of diethylene glycol diethyl ether and water are studied as a function of composition. The use of an aqueous solution of diethylene glycol diethyl ether enhances the solubility and hydrolysis rate of carbonyl sulfide compared with that in pure water. The composition of the mixture with maximum hydrolysis rate varies with temperature. The thermophysical properties including density, viscosity, and surface tension as a function of composition at 20℃ under atmospheric pressure as well as liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data over the temperature range from 28℃ to 90℃ are also measured for the binary mixture.

  9. Evaluating lesion segmentation on breast sonography as related to lesion type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Gerard; Martí, Joan; Martí, Robert; Ganau, Sergi; Vilanova, Joan Carles; Noble, J Alison

    2013-09-01

    Breast sonography currently provides a complementary diagnosis when other modalities are not conclusive. However, lesion segmentation on sonography is still a challenging problem due to the presence of artifacts. To solve these problems, Markov random fields and maximum a posteriori-based methods are used to estimate a distortion field while identifying regions of similar intensity inhomogeneity. In this study, different initialization approaches were exhaustively evaluated using a database of 212 B-mode breast sonograms and considering the lesion types. Finally, conclusions about the relationship between the segmentation results and lesions types are described.

  10. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  11. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  12. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography.

  13. Poly(ethylene glycol)s as grinding additives in the mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ruben; Taydakov, Ilya; Tonucci, Lucia; d’Alessandro, Nicola; Lamaty, Frederic; Martinez, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Summary The mechanochemical preparation of highly functionalized 3,5-disubstituted hydantoins was investigated in the presence of various poly(ethylene) glycols (PEGs), as safe grinding assisting agents (liquid-assisted grinding, LAG). A comparative study under dry-grinding conditions was also performed. The results showed that the cyclization reaction was influenced by the amount of the PEG grinding agents. In general, cleaner reaction profiles were observed in the presence of PEGs, compared to dry-grinding procedures.

  14. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nRadiology (imaging plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Furthermore, they are frequently difficult to definitively characterize by imaging methods, due to their small size, and difficult to biopsy percutaneously. Often clinical follow-up is the only recourse for these lesions. "nTo formulate a practical approach to these patients, several factors must be incorporated into a clinical decision-making algorithm (figure below, including: the particular clinical setting (e.g., known co-morbidities, underlying cirrhosis or a known primary neoplasm, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, and the critical information provided by imaging studies. "nDue to a combination of high spatial resolution and inherent soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, and wide availability, ultrasonography (US is frequently the first-line imaging modality for the study of the liver. "nMulti-detector row CT (MDCT has become the most commonly used modality in the preoperative diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with known or suspected hepatic tumors. "nTo maximize the detection and characterization of liver tumors, the CT protocol must be designed according to the diagnostic task. To increase the attenuation difference (i.e., conspicuity between the hepatic parenchyma and liver tumors,3 several injection factors need to be optimized, including the volume and iodine concentration of contrast media, the injection rate (4-5mL/s, and the scanning delay from the start of contrast

  15. The Determination of Polyethylene Glycol in Untreated Urine Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Intestinal Permeability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Philipsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol in urine samples has been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weights ranged from 634 to 1338. The urine samples were applied to the chromatographic system without any pre-treatment. For samples with a concentration of 0.2% polyethylene glycol...

  16. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; van de Sandt, J.J.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  17. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  18. Decrease of intercellular pH as possible mechanism of action of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Yanquin Bai,; Verwei, M.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  19. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners in N2-fixation and evolved into photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to h

  20. Cyanobacterial lactate oxidases serve as essential partners of N2-fixation and evolved to photorespiratory glycolate oxidases in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackenberg, C.; Kern, R.; Hüge, J.; Stal, L.J.; Tsuji, Y.; Kopka, J.; Shiraiwa, Y.; Bauwe, H.; Hagemann, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GOX) is an essential enzyme involved in photorespiratory metabolism in plants. In cyanobacteria and green algae, the corresponding reaction is catalyzed by glycolate dehydrogenases (GlcD). The genomes of N2-fixing cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc PCC 7120 and green algae, appear to h

  1. Randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effectiveness of topical administration of propylene glycol in arsenical palmer keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafun Naher Dina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Keratosis, one of the earliest skin manifestations of arsenicosis, can be treated by either oral or topical formulation of drug. In this study we examined the effectiveness and tolerance of propylene glycol for the treatment of arsenical palmer keratosis. Sixty patients of arsenicosis with palmer keratoses were randomly divided into three groups and different concentrations (15, 30 and 45% of propylene glycol were applied topically into their palms once at bedtime for eight weeks. The perception of the patient about the progress of treatment was scored with “Likert scale”. The mean (±SD score of patient’s perception following completion of treatment were 1.27 ± 1.26 (using 15% propylene glycol, 2.88 ± 1.26 (30% propylene glycol, and 3.75 ± 1.06 (45% propylene glycol respectively. The scores increased with higher concentra-tions. Thirty percent or more concentration of propylene glycol was effective for mild to severe form of keratosis. Propylene glycol was well tolerable. In conclusion, both roughness and thickness of arsenical palmer keratosis can be reduced using propylene glycol and as the concentration of the drug increases it increases its effectiveness without any significant adverse effect.

  2. Thymol nanoemulsified by whey protein-maltodextrin conjugates: the enhanced emulsifying capacity and antilisterial properties in milk by propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-12-26

    The objective of this research was to enhance the capability of whey protein isolate-maltodextrin conjugates in nanoemulsifying thymol using propylene glycol to improve antilisterial properties in milk. Thymol was predissolved in PG and emulsified in 7% conjugate solution. Transparent dispersions with mean diameters of propylene glycol.

  3. In vitro degradation of porous poly(propylene fumarate)/poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedberg, E.L.; Shih, C.K.; Lemoine, J.J.; Timmer, M.D.; Liebschner, M.A.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro degradation of porous poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF-based) composites incorporating microparticles of blends of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) during a 26-week period in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C. Us

  4. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  5. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan

    2007-08-01

    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  6. A Crystallographic Study of the Role of Sequence Context in Thymine Glycol Bypass by a Replicative DNA Polymerase Serendipitously Sheds Light on the Exonuclease Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, Pierre; Duclos, Stéphanie; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie (Vermont)

    2012-06-27

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. and Doublie S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors - including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg - influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.

  7. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  8. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  9. The radio-pathological correlation of spleen lesions; Correlacion radioanatomopatologica de la lesion esplenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Cespedes, M.; Camacho, F. I. [Hosptial Virgen de la Salud. Toledo (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To review the spectrum of spleen lesions, by correlating the radiologic images with the anatomopathological findings. A retrospective study was carried out on 180 patients with splenic lesions, whose diagnosis had been confirmed by the anatomopathological unit. The iconography was studied, distinguishing between the following categories: inflammatory/infectious pathology, cystic and vascular lesions, benign diffuse infiltration illnesses, tumours and development abnormalities. We showed the distribution of the lesions observed in our series and the correlation of the radiologic images with those of the pathologic study of the most significant ones. The current imaging methods allow for a reliable diagnostic approach to the splenic processes, however, the anatomopathological correlation, when possible, has been proven o be very useful. Currently computed tomography is still the technique chosen to evaluate the spleen, especially due to its availability. The arrival of the helical computed tomography has significantly improved the characterisation and the detection of lesions. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be especially useful for small lesions and for some diffuse infiltrations, such as hemochromatosis. (Author) 36 refs.

  10. Glycolic acid chemical peeling improves inflammatory acne eruptions through its inhibitory and bactericidal effects on Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yuko; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Takeda, Mikiko; Ashikaga, Sayaka; Kawashima, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Glycolic acid chemical peeling is effective for treating comedones, and some clinical data show that it also improves inflammatory eruptions. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of glycolic acid chemical peeling to improve inflammatory acne. To assess growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects of glycolic acid on Propionibacterium acnes in vitro, we used an agar diffusion method and a time-kill method. To reveal bactericidal effects in vivo, we established an agar-attached method which correlated well with the ordinary swab-wash method, and we used the agar-attached method to compare the numbers of propionibacteria on the cheek treated with glycolic acid chemical peeling. Our results show that 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5, 3.5 and 5.5) formed growth inhibitory circles in the agar diffusion method, but the diameters of those circles were smaller than with 1% nadifloxacin lotion or 1% clindamycin gel. In the time-kill method, 30% glycolic acid (at pH 1.5 and 3.5) or 1% nadifloxacin lotion reduced the number of P. acnes to less than 100 CFU/mL within 5 min. In contrast, in 30% glycolic acid (at pH 5.5) or in 1% clindamycin gel, P. acnes survived for more than 4 h. Chemical peeling with 35% glycolic acid (at pH 1.2) decreased the number of propionibacteria on the cheeks of patients compared with untreated controls (P glycolic acid has moderate growth inhibitory and bactericidal effects on P. acnes, and that chemical peeling with glycolic acid works on inflammatory acne via those effects.

  11. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  12. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... relied on the modified Rotterdam Progression Scale. The Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale global score and a composite score of specific executive function tests assessed longitudinal change in cognition. Sample size calculations were based on the assumption that treatment reduces WML progression by 1....... CONCLUSIONS: WML progression is an interesting outcome for proof-of-concept studies in cerebral small vessel disease. If cognitive outcome measures are added to protocols, then sample size estimates increase substantially. Our data support the use of an executive test battery rather than the Vascular Dementia...

  13. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  14. Problems in outpatients with laryngeal hyperplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N C

    1997-01-01

    The care of outpatients with epithelial hyperplastic lesions of the larynx presents problems of classification, treatment, continued surveillance and prognosis. One hundred patients who underwent microlaryngoscopy and vocal cord stripping from 1990 through 1995 were studied retrospectively with a follow-up period of 8-156 months. Twenty-eight patients with biopsy proven epithelial hyperplastic lesions were given 21 different pathological diagnoses exclusive of invasive carcinoma following 52 operative microlaryngoscopies. Prognosis was inferred and treatment commenced primarily on the basis of the pathology report. Microlaryngoscopy and stripping with and without the carbon dioxide laser, "watchful waiting," radiation therapy, and partial laryngectomy were all used as treatment modalities. Controversy remains as of choice of treatment. Encouraging the patient to discontinue smoking is an integral part of treatment; however, most patients continue to smoke. Recent changes in the United States health care delivery system present additional problems in surveillance of the patient.

  15. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, G; Kövari, E

    2011-11-09

    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  16. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  17. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  18. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  19. Deficits of Motor Intention following Parietal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Gore

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with lesions to the right parietal lobe were tested on their ability to reach to targets, or to respond verbally to targets. The targets occurred at the same two spatial locations -- to the left and right of the patient—with the task being cued by the color of the target. Patients were able to perform both tasks separately rapidly and without error. However, when the two tasks were interleaved, they had difficulty making a response in the left (contralesional field when this was different to a response that they had just made. These results suggest that lesions to the parietal cortex may cause a deficit in the coding for motor intention, as well as attention in the contralesional field.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of plantar aponeurosis lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, B. and others

    1987-12-01

    Exploration of sporting injuries to plantar aponeurosis (PA) has up to now been based mainly on clinical examination, from which the diagnosis was established. Imaging technics such as standard radiography and ultrasound scanning have limitations allowing diagnosis to be made usually only by elimination, the lesion being very rarely visualized directly. Ten patients with hyperalgic lesion of plantar arch and functional impotence were explored by MR imaging, and in all cases this examination provided superior data confirmed at operation. The examination is painless and little invasive and can be carried out during the acute phase. The plantar aponeurosis is visualized directly between the muscle mass of the plantar arch and the fatty cushion. All three spatial planes can be investigated, most interesting data being obtained from the sagittal (in the PA axis) and frontal (comparative) planes.

  1. Transient renal dysfunction with reversible splenial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Matsuda, Tomoka; Kitagata, Ryoichi; Tajima, Iwao; Ono, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Keiko; Shirai, Masami; Endoh, Akira; Hongo, Teruaki

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with transient renal dysfunction who had an intensified signal in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. He presented to hospital with fever and sudden disturbance of consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not show pleocytosis. The mild consciousness disturbance disappeared after 30 min, but the splenial signal persisted even after 8 days. Further, renal glucosuria, increased excretion of select amino acids, and abnormal fractional excretion of electrolytes were observed, indicating renal tubular dysfunction. The abnormal urinary findings spontaneously resolved by day 9 of hospitalization. The splenial lesion took 21 days to normalize. There were no signs of neurological complications 2 months later. This case suggests the possibility of renal involvement in splenial lesions.

  2. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  3. Preparation of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate Using a Tubular Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振云; 卢祖国; 李小波

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEA), an excellent solvent, is prepared with ethylene oxide (EO) and ethyl acetate (EA) in a tubular reactor under suitable reaction condition. The single circulation yield can reach 81%. This technology is not only safe but also makes it possible to continuously produce EGEA in industry,with low content of high boiling point by-products.

  4. Towards benchmarking of multivariable controllers in chemical/biochemical industries: Plantwide control for ethylene glycol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Bialas, Dawid Jan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a simple yet realistic benchmark plant for evaluation and comparison of advanced multivariable control for chemical and biochemical processes. The benchmark plant is based on recycle-separator-recycle systems for ethylene glycol production and implemented in Matlab...

  5. Glycol methacrylate embedding for light microscopy : Basic principles and trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, PO; Horobin, RW

    1996-01-01

    Acrylic resin mixtures are now widely used as embedding media for the preparation of tissue sections. Most of these mixtures are based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (glycol methacrylate, GMA). Resin embedding preserves tissue components far better than paraffin, celloidin or frozen sections. The pr

  6. A Coarse-Grained Model for Polyethylene Oxide and Polyethylene Glycol : Conformation and Hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hwankyu; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Pastor, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    A coarse-grained (CG) model for polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) developed within the framework of the MARTINI CG force field (FF) using the distributions of bonds, angles, and dihedrals from the CHARMM all-atom FF is presented. Densities of neat low molecular weight PEO agree

  7. Diethylamine functionalized polyethylene glycol as a novel and efficient catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wen Ye; Hong Jiang; Xian-Cao Yang

    2011-05-01

    The Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with active methylene is an efficient reaction for carbon-carbon double bond formation. A rapid, efficient, and ecofriendly protocol for the Knoevenagel condensation of active methylene compounds with aldehydes has been developed with diethylamine functionalized polyethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as catalyst with good to excellent yields at room temperature without solvent.

  8. BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANORODS IN POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave-assisted (MW), surfactantless, greener approach to bulk synthesis of silver nanorods employing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) is described. An aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO-3,- 0.1 M, 4 mL) and 4 mL of PEG (molecular weight 300) were mixed at room temperature t...

  9. Electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thermoelectric films from a nonaqueous electrolyte using ethylene glycol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Wu, M.; Su, J.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol was studied as an electrolyte for the electrodeposition of thermoelectric bismuth telluride films by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring disk electrode and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). The reduction of both Bi3+ and Te4+ ions proceeds in one step without the form

  10. ANTI-CORROSION PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYLIC ACID IN WATER-GLYCOL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASHKIRCEVA N.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium salts of carboxylic acids were investigated to evaluate the corrosion properties of the water-glycol solutions. Corrosion tests were performed by methods of gravimetry and galvanostatic dissolution with metals used in cooling systems. The compositions of anticorrosion systems and their concentration that provide the most effective inhibition of metals were determined.

  11. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  12. Detection of ethylene glycol - toward W51/e2 and G34.3+0.02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Julie M.; Favre, Cécile

    2014-07-01

    Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), also commenly known as antifreeze, is the reduced alcohol version of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO). Glycoladehyde - the simplest possible aldehyde sugar (Marstokk and Møllendal 1973) - is the first intermediate step in the path toward forming more complex and biologically relevant molecules through the the formose reaction, which begins with formaldehyde (H2CO) and ends with the formation of sugars and ultimately ribose, the backbone of RNA (e.g., Larralde et al. 1995). The presence of glycolaldehyde is therefore an important indication that processes leading to biologically relevant molecules are taking place. It is however, still unclear as to how glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol are formed in the ISM. It has been proposed that they share a common formation pathway through UV-irradiation of methanol (CH3OH) ices mixed with CO (Öberg et al. 2009). So far, ethylene glycol, in its lower energy con-former (g’Ga(CH2OH)2), has been detected toward SgrB2 (N) by Hollis et al. (2002), tentatively toward IRAS 16293-2422 (Jørgensen et al. 2012) and marginally by Kalenskii and Johansson (2010) toward W51 e1/e2. Here we present a firm detection of ethylene glycol toward W51/e2 as well as a first detection toward G34.3+0.02 at 1mm and 3mm using the IRAM 30m telescope.

  13. MICROWAVE-ACCELERATED SUZUKI CROSS-COUPLING REACTION IN POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is found to be an inexpensive and nontoxic reaction medium for the microwave-assisted Suzuki cross-coupling of arylboronic acids with aryl halides. This environmentally friendly microwave protocol offers the ease of operation and enables the recyclabilit...

  14. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with variably sized polyethylene glycol in murine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    polyethylene glycol (PEG). Despite its frequent use, the influence of PEG coatings on the physicochemical and biological properties of iron nanoparticles has hitherto not been studied in detail. To address this, we studied the effect of 333–20 000 Da PEG coatings that resulted in larger hydrodynamic size...

  15. The permeability of polyethylene glycol oligomers in the isolated perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengelers, M.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Processes occuring in the liver are very important for the description of the kinetic behaviour of drugs and compounds present in food. Therefore this research was focussed on dispersion and distribution processes occuring in the rat liver. Polyethylene glycols were used as test compounds because th

  16. Molar Mass and Second Virial Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol by Vapor Pressure Osmometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Checkal, Caleb; Saksa, Brian; Baka, Nadia; Modi, Kalpit; Rivera, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students determine the number-average molar masses and second virial coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers ranging in molar mass from 200 to 1500 g mol[superscript -1] using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). Students assess VPO in relation to accurate molar mass calculations of PEG polymers. Additionally,…

  17. Ethylene glycol or methanol intoxication : Which antidote should be used, fomepizole or ethanol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S. J.; de Lange, D. W.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and methanol poisoning can cause life-threatening complications. Toxicity of EG and methanol is related to the production of toxic metabolites by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which can lead to metabolic acidosis, renal failure (in EG poisoning), blindness (in methanol

  18. Ethylene Glycol Adsorption and Reaction over CeOX(111) Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Chen; D Mullins

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of ethylene glycol with well-ordered CeO{sub x}(111) thin film surfaces. Ethylene glycol initially adsorbs on fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) and reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) through the formation of one C-O-Ce bond and then forms a second alkoxy bond after annealing. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) both recombination of ethylene glycol and water desorption occur at low temperature leaving stable -OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O- (ethylenedioxy) intermediates and oxygen vacancies on the surface. This ethylenedioxy intermediate goes through C-C bond scission to produce formate species which then react to produce CO and CO{sub 2}. The formation of water results in the reduction of the ceria. On a reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111) surface the reaction selectivity shifts toward a dehydration process. The ethylenedioxy intermediate decomposes by breaking a C-O bond and converts into an enolate species. Similar to the reaction of acetaldehyde on reduced CeO{sub 2-x}(111), the enolate reacts to produce acetaldehyde, acetylene, and ethylene. The loss of O from ethylene glycol leads to a small amount of oxidation of the reduced ceria.

  19. Modelling of phase equilibria of glycol ethers mixtures using an association model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Nuno M.; Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of glycol ethers (surfactant) mixtures with hydrocarbons, polar compounds and water are calculated using an association model, the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Parameters are estimated for several non-ionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene ...

  20. Effect of Rotula aquatica Lour. on ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A.J.M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica (Boraginaceae against ethylene glycolinduced urolithiasis in albino rats is summarized in this study. Lithiasis was induced in rats by administrating 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days and was manifested by high urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine and low urinary magnesium content. The alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica was administered in 200 mg/kg body weight orally for 28 days along with 1% ethylene glycol. Urinary calcium, phosphate, oxalate, protein, uric acid, creatinine was reduced and urinary magnesium level was elevated. It also increased the urine volume, thereby reducing the tendency for crystallization. The histopathological studies confirmed the induction of lithiasis as microcrystal deposition was observed in section of kidney from animals treated with ethylene glycol. This was reduced, however, after treatment with the extract. These observations enable us to conclude that alcoholic extract of Rotula aquatica is effective against ethylene-glycol induced urolithiasis in albino rats.

  1. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  2. 21 CFR 172.765 - Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). 172.765 Section 172.765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  3. Low viscous ZnO-propylene glycol nanofluid: a potential coolant candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, Kuppusamy Swaminathan; Anusha, Natarajan; Rajan, Kalpoondi Sekar

    2013-10-01

    The rheological characteristics of ZnO-propylene glycol nanofluid have been studied over a temperature range of 10-140 °C and nanoparticle concentration range of 0-2 vol%. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles (35-40 nm) to propylene glycol (PG) weakens the inter-molecular hydrogen bonding in propylene glycol. This is reflected in the reduced values of viscosity for nanoparticle dispersions (nanofluids) compared to that of base fluid. The viscosity decrease is more pronounced at lower temperatures and at higher nanoparticle concentration. The percentage reduction in viscosity is 53 and 32 % at 10 and 28 °C, respectively, for 2 vol% ZnO-propylene glycol nanofluid compared to pure PG. This dispersion has immense potential for cooling application owing to lower viscosity. At high temperatures where the hydrogen bonds in the base fluid are substantially weaker, viscosity of ZnO-PG dispersions is higher than that of PG. An estimated 80 and 37 % enhancement in heat transfer coefficient can be achieved using 2 vol% ZnO-PG nanofluid at temperatures of 10 and 28 °C, respectively.

  4. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der S.G.A.; Houweling, M.; Bouman, Marina; Koets, A.P.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Nielen, M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene

  5. Severe propylene glycol toxicity secondary to use of anti-epileptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Hothi, Jatinder C; Bhat, Zeenat Y

    2014-01-01

    Propylene glycol toxicity presenting as high anion gap metabolic acidosis and osmolar gap has been extensively reported in literature, and most of them are secondary to intravenous lorazepam infusion. However, propylene glycol is used as a solvent in a number of medications that are frequently utilized in critical care setting, and hence one should be aware that the toxicity is possible from a variety of medication. Phenobarbital and phenytoin are one of those, and we hereby report a novel case of propylene glycol toxicity secondary to phenobarbital and phenytoin infusion in a patient with refractory status epilepticus. Furthermore, our patient had end-stage renal disease, which we think could have been an important precipitating factor for the toxicity. Because most of the symptoms from propylene glycol toxicity can mimic sepsis-which is very common in critical care unit patients-this life threatening scenario could be easily missed. Regular monitoring of osmolar gap is an easily available intervention in the at risk patients.

  6. Propylene glycol liposomes as a topical delivery system for miconazole nitrate: comparison with conventional liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, Riham M; Abdallah, Ossama Y; El-Khordagui, Labiba K; Khalafallah, Nawal M

    2012-06-01

    Propylene glycol (PG)-phospholipid vesicles have been advocated as flexible lipid vesicles for enhanced skin delivery of drugs. To further characterize the performance of these vesicles and to address some relevant pharmaceutical issues, miconazole nitrate(MN)-loaded PG nanoliposomes were prepared and characterized for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and vesicle stability. An issue of pharmaceutical importance is the time-dependent, dilution-driven diffusion of propylene glycol out of the vesicles. This was addressed by assessing propylene glycol using gas chromatography in the separated vesicles and monitoring its buildup in the medium after repeated dispersion of separated vesicles in fresh medium. Further, the antifungal activity of liposomal formulations under study was assessed using Candida albicans, and their in vitro skin permeation and retention were studied using human skin. At all instances, blank and drug-loaded conventional liposomes were included for comparison. The results provided evidence of controlled MN delivery, constant percent PG uptake in the vesicles (≈45.5%) in the PG concentration range 2.5 to 10%, improved vesicle stability, and enhanced skin deposition of MN with minimum skin permeation. These are key issues for different formulation and performance aspects of propylene glycol-phospholipid vesicles.

  7. Effect of Butanol and Propylene Glycol in Amorphous MnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson HENRY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous MnO2 are synthesized using KMnO4, butanol, and propylene glycol in an aqueous solution by using the precipitation method, under ambient conditions. The structure, molecular vibrations, surface morphological and optical properties of MnO2 powders are studied using XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. From the XRD patterns, it is clear that both butanol and propylene glycol assisted MnO2 particles are amorphous in nature. While the strong peak is noticed at 1384 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra, which is due to the characteristic peak of MnO2. SEM photographs show spherical shapes of MnO2 particles, and the average size of a particle is about 200 nm for butanol assisted samples and is around 500 nm for propylene glycol assisted samples. Butanol assisted MnO2 particles exhibit higher optical absorption in the visible region than propylene glycol. However, the estimated optical band gap of both the samples is found around 2.33 eV.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.22

  8. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... additive is a mixture of esters produced by the lactylation of a product obtained by reacting edible...

  9. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cosmetic Act (the act), in the absence of a regulation providing for its safe use as a food additive under... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001 Section 589.1001 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  11. Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

  12. Physicochemical properties and applications of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) for use in bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanao, R.P.; Jonker, A.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Hest, J.C. van; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most often used synthetic polymer within the field of bone regeneration owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. As a consequence, a large number of medical devices comprising PLGA have been approved for clinical use in humans by the American Fo

  13. Near-infrared laser-induced generation of three rare conformers of glycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Anna; Lapinski, Leszek; Reva, Igor; Rostkowska, Hanna; Fausto, Rui; Nowak, Maciej J

    2014-07-31

    Structural transformations were induced in conformers of glycolic acid by selective excitation with monochromatic tunable near-infrared laser light. For the compound isolated in Ar matrixes, near-IR excitation led to generation of two higher-energy conformers (GAC; AAT) differing from the most stable SSC form by 180° rotation around the C-C bond. A detailed investigation of this transformation revealed that one conformer (GAC) is produced directly from the near-IR-excited most stable conformer. The other higher-energy conformer (AAT) was effectively generated only upon excitation of the primary photoproduct (GAC) with another near-IR photon. Once these higher-energy conformers of glycolic acid were generated in an Ar matrix, they could be subsequently transformed into one another upon selective near-IR excitations. Interestingly, no repopulation of the initial most stable SSC conformer occurred upon near-IR excitation of the higher-energy forms of the compound isolated in solid Ar. A dramatically different picture of near-IR-induced conformational transformations was observed for glycolic acid isolated in N2 matrixes. In this case, upon near-IR excitation, the most stable SSC form converted solely into a new conformer (SST), where the acid OH group is rotated by 180°. This conformational transformation was found to be photoreversible. Moreover, SST conformer, photoproduced in the N2 matrix, spontaneously converted to the most stable SSC form of glycolic acid, when the matrix was kept at cryogenic temperature and in the dark.

  14. Biocompatibility and degradation of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/calcium phosphate cement composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhe, P.Q.; Hedberg, E.L.; Padron, N.T.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Injectable calcium phosphate (Ca-P) cement materials exhibit favorable osteocompatible behavior but are resorbed slowly because of a lack of a bone ingrowth-enabling macroporosity. In this study, poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (average size 66 +/- 25 microm) were incorporated

  15. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekblad, T.; Bergström, G.; Ederth, T.; Conlan, S.L.; Mutton, R.; Clare, A.S.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Liedberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on polystyrene-co

  16. Transport and degradation of propylene glycol in the vadose zone: model development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, D.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Lissner, H.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Wehrer, M.; Totsche, K.U.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transport and degradation of de-icing chemical (containing propylene glycol, PG) in the vadose zone were studied with a lysimeter experiment and a model, in which transient water flow, kinetic degradation of PG and soil chemistry were combined. The lysimeter experiment indicated that aerobic as well

  17. Laxative Treatment With Polyethylene Glycol Does Not Affect Lipid Absorption in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Cuperus, Frans J. C.; Stellaard, Frans; van Dijk, Theo H.; Dekker, Jan; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Groen, Albert K.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a frequently used laxative agent. It is unknown, however, whether PEG affects the absorptive capacity of the intestine. Reduced lipid (dietary fat and cholesterol) absorption induced by long-term PEG treatment could negatively affect growth in children. We te

  18. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Soujanya Pinisetti; Ravikanth Manyam; Babburi Suresh; Aparna, V

    2014-01-01

    Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly review...

  20. Mediastinal Cystic Lesions; Experience of 77 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydogdu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cystic lesions of the mediastinum are rare. Most of them are congenital lesions and account for 20% to 30 % of all primary masses of the mediastinum. A retrospective study of primary mediastinal cystic lesions (PMCL was conducted to review their clinical, radiological, and pathological features, as well as the early and long-term results of surgical management.Material and Method: From January 1998 through July 2008, 77 patients—47 females and 30 males, aged 4–81 years—with PMCL were treated in our department. All of the patients were analysed acording to the age, gender, symptoms, types of cysts and type of surgery. Results: There were thirty male patients (40 %, aged 4–81 years with a mean age of 39.2, and forty-seven female (60 % patients, aged 16–65 with a mean age of 35.8. Some of the patients’ pathology slides who were diagnosed as benign cysts before are re-examined then reclassified with the new diagnosis. There were thirty-one bronchogenic cysts (44 %; 19 female, 12 males, eighteen  pericardial coelomic cysts (24 %; 7 female, 11 male, five mediastinal hydatid cysts (6 %; 4 female, 1 male, five enterogenous cysts (6 %; 3 female, 2 male,  eight thymic cysts (10 %; 7 female, 1 male, two cystic lymphangiomatosis (4 %; 1 female, 1 male, five teratogenous cysts (6 %;  4 female, 1 male, and three pleural cysts (2 female, 1 male. The main symptoms were pain, fever, dyspnea, and coughing. Twenty-three patients (30 % were asymptomatic. All of the patients underwent surgery. Mean stay in the hospital was 8 days. We did not have any deaths. Discussion: Most of the patients with PMCL were female. Most of the PMCL were foregut lesions. Despite varied location and histology, the clinical presentation of mediastinal cysts was similar. Surgery provides the best chance for cure in all cases of PMCL.

  1. Postinfectious encephalitis with multifocal white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulloche, J; Parain, D; Mallet, E; Tron, P

    1989-08-01

    Two cases of multifocal white matter lesions occurring after viral illness are reported. Evoked potentials study and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted image) showed early abnormalities while CT scan was initially normal. Patients improved dramatically with steroid therapy. It would seem that because of a considerable responsiveness to steroids this affection should be differentiated from other types of encephalitis. Relations with multiple sclerosis are discussed.

  2. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  3. Multiple myeloma presenting as hepatic nodular lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, M; Druez, P; Nicaise, M; Ngendahayo, P; Sinapi, I; Mineur, P

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse infiltration by plasma cells in the liver is not uncommon in multiple myeloma (MM). However, a MM with hepatic mass is very unusual. We report a case of a 75-year-old male with hepatomegaly and a lesion occupying a voluminous space in the liver. A lambda light chain multiple myeloma was found in the check-up of this hepatic mass. We also provide a literature review.

  4. Implant periapical lesion: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  5. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Meleková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  6. Cytopathologic diagnosis of liver mass lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Castelino-Prabhu, Shobha; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2013-03-01

    The liver is a common site for metastatic malignancies, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. It also may be involved by primary neoplasms, both benign and malignant. Cytopathologic examination of mass lesions of the liver with pertinent use of ancillary studies is a useful method of establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. The authors reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to cytologic characteristics of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical markers and pertinent molecular studies, differential diagnoses and pitfalls.

  7. Cytopathologic diagnosis of liver mass lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Rachel; Castelino-Prabhu, Shobha; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar

    2013-01-01

    The liver is a common site for metastatic malignancies, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. It also may be involved by primary neoplasms, both benign and malignant. Cytopathologic examination of mass lesions of the liver with pertinent use of ancillary studies is a useful method of establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. The authors reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to cytologic characteristics of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical ma...

  8. Oral vesiculobullous lesions: Consider the platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Steel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral vesiculobullous lesions or "blood blisters" can be found on a routine dental examination and may have many causes. Trauma is often the first diagnosis followed by a variety of bullous conditions, such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Using a case report, we highlight the other, more serious, possibility of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP to raise awareness to the General Dental Practitioners and the need for prompt treatment.

  9. [Corneal lesions in ichthyosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, W; Meiers, H G; Haensch, R

    1975-06-01

    The authors report about observations they made in two sisters. One sister showed a fibroid degeneration of the cornea, the other a band-shaped keratopathy respectively, together with an ichthyosis and an alopecia as a result of capillary fractures due to pili torti. An autosomal recessive hereditary transmission could be determined. The cutaneous lesion is either an ichthyosis vulgaris, the hereditary transmission of which could not yet be confirmed, or it is a transition form of ichthyosis vulgaris and congenita.

  10. Pemphigus vulgaris presenting with multiple lesion morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Philip In; Divito, Sherrie J; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2014-12-14

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an uncommon intraepidermal blistering disorder that typically presents with flaccid bullae or erosions. We report a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who presented with several unusual clinical features: tense bullae with dependently layered pus, true target lesions coalescing into annular configurations, and diffuse desquamation that initially raised concern for toxic epidermal necrolysis. We discuss the differential diagnosis and implications of these morphological findings.

  11. COLLISIONS IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF SLAP LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Yevsyeyenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no agreement among experts on the classification of injury of o the long head tendon of biceps brachii in the area of its attachment to the shoulder blade. Some authors take the Snyder’s classification as basis; others describe it as a separate injury. The authors presented the review of existing classifications of the labrum shoulder injury (so-called SLAP lesions and traumas of the tendon of the long head biceps.

  12. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  13. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebellopontine angle (CPA tumors are usually benign, and they are divided into extra-axial, intra-axial, extradural, and petrous axis tumors. CPA pathologies can be asymptomatic or it may present with vertigo, tinnitus, or unilateral hearing loss depending upon the site of tumor origin and displacement of the neurovascular structure. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI aided with contrast-enhanced MRI as an imaging modality for diagnosis of CPA lesions. Materials and Methods: Analysis of 36 patients of CPA lesions over a period of 2 years was done. MRI was performed on Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto Machine. Conclusion: There are spectrums of pathologies, which can present with these symptoms, which includes tumors, vascular malformations, and vascular loop compressing vestibulocochlear nerve or mastoid pathology so it is important to investigate the patient by MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the most sensitive investigation in the evaluation of the CPA lesions, its characteristic, and its extent.

  15. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2004-11-01

    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  16. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.

  17. Management of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Carlos E; Welton, Mark L

    2009-05-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is unknown, there is significant evidence that untreated HSIL progresses to squamous cell carcinoma in 11% of patients and in up to 50% of patients with extensive disease and immunosuppression. Anal cytology and reflex HPV DNA testing are used to screen for disease, particularly among patients with the aforementioned risk factors. Evaluation of the patient should include physical examination and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) to evaluate for disease above and below the dentate line. Intervention is warranted and this can be achieved in many ways. The treatment option associated with the best outcomes is ablation directed with HRA, which can be performed in the office or in the operating room with minimal morbidity. This strategy is effective in patients with both low-volume and high-volume disease and is associated with a malignant progression rate of 0.4% in patients with treated HSIL.

  18. Tumefactive Fibroinflammatory Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Sharma, Nisha; Bhargava, Shilpi; Singh, Virender

    2017-01-01

    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions (TFLs) are rare idiopathic benign fibrosclerosing lesions that clinically simulate a malignancy. TFLs are seen more frequently in males between 10 and 74 years of age. The usual site of involvement is the head and neck region, but rarely the extremities may be involved. Coexisting fibrosclerotic processes have been reported including retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing mediastinal fibrosis, and orbital pseudotumors. The etiology of this poorly understood entity remains unknown. Possible suggestions include exaggerated responses or autoimmune reactions to any chronic infection. The clinical and radiological appearance of TFLs is that of malignancy, but histopathology reveals them to be a benign process broadly classified under non-neoplastic, fibroinflammatory proliferations. The treatment strategies for these lesions are not well defined and variable and include steroids, surgery, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination. TFLs, albeit not fatal, have a high recurrence rate; patients should, therefore, be kept on long-term follow-up. We describe a young female patient presenting with a rapidly developing cheek swelling, which was diagnosed histopathologically as a TFLs.

  19. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreer, Ingrid [Breast Center, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: ischreer@email.uni-kiel.de; Luettges, Jutta [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  20. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreer, Ingrid; Lüttges, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.