WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5p governance strategy

  1. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research has emphasised a shift from city government to urban governance. Such a shift brings about its very own challenges, namely governance gaps, uncertain configurations in governance and a limited capacity to act. In this paper, we argue that the concurrent rise...... of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...

  2. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....... of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...

  3. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  4. Facilitation as a governance strategy: Unravelling governments' facilitation frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenbreg, S. (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  5. HUD Digital Government Strategy Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD Digital Strategic Plan clearly articulates the goals of openness and transparency, furthering the innovation economy and meeting more global government wide...

  6. Electronic government: rethinking channel management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, W.E.; Pieterson, W.J.; Noordman, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an alternative multichannel management strategy can improve the way governments and citizens interact. Improvement is necessary because, based on empirical data from various sources, the conclusion can be drawn that there is a gap between the communication channels governme

  7. Electronic government: Rethinking channel management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Pieterson, Willem Jan; Noordman, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an alternative multichannel management strategy can improve the way governments and citizens interact. Improvement is necessary because, based on empirical data from various sources, the conclusion can be drawn that there is a gap between the communication channels

  8. Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks Introduction, problem statement and aims of the study Collaborative regional networks has been long considered as a must in successful tourism development (Dredge & Jenkins 2003) owing to benefits such as scale and scope economics......, as well as joint planning and coordination of supply facilities. However, the setting up and governance of destination networks is paved with managerial challenges, including, among others: the balancing of conflicting stakeholder interest (Wilkinson & March 2008), and bridging over the gap between...... on a comparative analysis of Convention Bureaus (CVBs) and the network around them in the two cities, the study sheds light on governance strategies adopted by the convenors in order to mobilize meetings industry stakeholders across cultural, institutional and political borders. Conceptual approach The theoretical...

  9. Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks Introduction, problem statement and aims of the study Collaborative regional networks has been long considered as a must in successful tourism development (Dredge & Jenkins 2003) owing to benefits such as scale and scope economics...... on a comparative analysis of Convention Bureaus (CVBs) and the network around them in the two cities, the study sheds light on governance strategies adopted by the convenors in order to mobilize meetings industry stakeholders across cultural, institutional and political borders. Conceptual approach The theoretical......, Ritchie & Hudson 2007) is applied, which defines destination success in terms of how well members of the triad (the DMO and its two most powerful stakeholders (the city administration and the hotels) relate to one another and combine their complementary resources. As each member of the triad possesses...

  10. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....

  11. E-governance innovation: Barriers and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Various models have been developed to explain the adoption of e-government but systematic research on barriers to e-governance is lacking. On the basis of the literature, this paper develops a theoretical model of e-governance innovation that highlights (1) phases in the innovation process, (2) gove

  12. Information Strategies for Open Government: Challenges and Prospects for Deriving Public Value from Government Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon S. Dawes; Helbig, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Information-based strategies to promote open government offer many opportunities to generate social and economic value through public use of government information. Public and political expectations for the success of these strategies are high but they confront the challenges of making government data "fit for use" by a variety of users outside the government. Research findings from a study of public use of land records demonstrates the inherent complexity of public us...

  13. Facilitation as a Governance Strategy: Unravelling Governments’ Facilitation Frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grotenbreg (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractGovernments increasingly choose facilitation as a strategy to entice others to produce public goods and services, including in relation to the realisation of sustainable energy innovations. An important instrument to implement this governance strategy is discursive framing. To learn how

  14. Tax Limitations and Revenue Shifting Strategies in Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    subjected to tax limitations employ revenue-shifting strategies. In Denmark, however, these strategies are contingent on the specifics of the Danish intergovernmental system, which render central government grants an attractive object of revenue-shifting strategies. Our analysis thus helps identify...

  15. Defining decision making strategies in software ecosystem governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Wnuk, Krzysztof; Shollo, Arisa

    studies touch upon the decision making of software ecosystem governance. In this paper, we propose decomposing software ecosystem governance into three activities: input or data collection, decision making, and applying actions. We focus on the decision making activity of software ecosystem governance......Making the right decisions is an essential part of software ecosystem governance. Decisions related to the governance of a software ecosystem can influence the health of the ecosystem and can result in fostering the success or greatly contributing to the failure of the ecosystem. However, very few...... and review related literature consisted of software ecosystem governance, organizational decision making, and IT governance. Based on the identified studies, we propose a framework for defining the decision making strategies in the governance of software ecosystems. We identify five decision areas...

  16. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth strategies in Tanzania have not helped to reduce income poverty .... in poor health, nutrition, and education can lower economic productivity and thereby lead directly and ... poor people in growth process, (Hicks, 1979; Marshall, 1988).

  17. Performance Implications of Environment-Strategy-Governance Misfit

    OpenAIRE

    Lindawati Gani; Johnny Jermias

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of matching competitive environment, business strategy, and corporate governance structure on firm performance. We predict that in a dynamic environment, firms pursuing a product differentiation strategy will perform better than firms pursuing a strategy of cost leadership, but the performance differential is affected by the level of board independence and managerial share ownership. In a stable environment, we predict that firms pursuing a strategy of cost lea...

  18. How does corporate governance affect bank capitalization strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization. Boards of

  19. How does Corporate Governance Affect Bank Capitalization Strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.; Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization.

  20. 76 FR 29195 - National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... (NSTIC) Governance Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Commerce. ACTION... Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop to be held on Thursday, June 9, 2011, 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. and Friday, June 10, 2011, 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. This workshop will identify and discuss various governance models...

  1. Professionalization as a governance strategy for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Lorna; Selgelid, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    This article considers professionalization as a governance strategy for synthetic biology, reporting on social science interviews done with scientists, science journal editors, members of science advisory boards and authors of nongovernmental policy reports on synthetic biology. After summarizing their observations about the potential advantages and disadvantages of the professionalization of synthetic biology, we analyze professionalization as a strategy that overcomes dichotomies found in the current debates about synthetic biology governance, specifically "top down" versus "bottom up" governance and scientific fact versus public values. Professionalization combines community and state, fact and value. Like all governance options, professionalization has limitations, particularly regarding war and peace. It is best conceptualized as potentially part of a wider range of governance mechanisms working in concert: a "web of prevention".

  2. MiR675-5p Acts on HIF-1α to Sustain Hypoxic Responses: A New Therapeutic Strategy for Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Dico, Alessia; Costa, Viviana; Martelli, Cristina; Diceglie, Cecilia; Rajata, Francesca; Rizzo, Aroldo; Mancone, Carmine; Tripodi, Marco; Ottobrini, Luisa; Alessandro, Riccardo; Conigliaro, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature in solid tumours. In glioma, it is considered the major driving force for tumour angiogenesis and correlates with enhanced resistance to conventional therapies, increased invasiveness and a poor prognosis for patients. Here we describe, for the first time, that miR675-5p, embedded in hypoxia-induced long non-coding RNA H19, plays a mandatory role in establishing a hypoxic response and in promoting hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. We demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo, that miR675-5p over expression in normoxia is sufficient to induce a hypoxic moreover, miR675-5p depletion in low oxygen conditions, drastically abolishes hypoxic responses including angiogenesis. In addition, our data indicate an interaction of miR675-5p, HIF-1α mRNA and the RNA Binding Protein HuR in hypoxia-induced responses. We suggest the modulation of miR675-5p as a new therapeutic option to promote or abolish hypoxia induced angiogenesis. PMID:27279905

  3. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  4. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  5. Governing University Strategy: Perceptions and Practice of Governance and Management Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytmeister, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Intertwined trends of massification, internationalisation and marketisation constitute and drive change in higher education at all levels. Consequences at the institutional level include: increased competition, adoption of corporate management forms, accrual of power to executive management, and greater emphasis on strategy. As Government policy…

  6. Performance Implications of Environment-Strategy-Governance Misfit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindawati Gani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of matching competitive environment, business strategy, and corporate governance structure on firm performance. We predict that in a dynamic environment, firms pursuing a product differentiation strategy will perform better than firms pursuing a strategy of cost leadership, but the performance differential is affected by the level of board independence and managerial share ownership. In a stable environment, we predict that firms pursuing a strategy of cost leadership will perform better than firms pursuing a product differentiation strategy, and the performance differential is affected by the level of board independence and managerial share ownership. Overall, the results are consistent with the predictions of this study. Board independence and managerial ownership affect the performance differential between product differentiators and cost leaders in a dynamic environment. In a stable environment, however, the results are not statistically significant.

  7. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  8. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Maia dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table. The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of

  9. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adriano Maia dos; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee's permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that "facilitators" under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee

  10. 2002 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  11. 2004 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  12. 2000 Johnston Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 2, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  13. An Empirical Analysis of Government Administrative Strategy: From the Governance, Competence and Relationship Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiou Chi-Ho

    2013-01-01

      Employing the governance, competence and relationship perspectives, this article discusses what factors will enhance a government's administrative efficiency and effectiveness, and how to improve...

  14. Defining decision making strategies in software ecosystem governance

    OpenAIRE

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Wnuk, Krzysztof; Shollo, Arisa

    2015-01-01

    Making the right decisions is an essential part of software ecosystem governance. Decisions related to the governance of a software ecosystem can influence the health of the ecosystem and can result in fostering the success or greatly contributing to the failure of the ecosystem. However, very few studies touch upon the decision making of software ecosystem governance. In this paper, we propose decomposing software ecosystem governance into three activities: input or data collection, decision...

  15. Defining decision making strategies in software ecosystem governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Wnuk, Krzysztof; Shollo, Arisa

    studies touch upon the decision making of software ecosystem governance. In this paper, we propose decomposing software ecosystem governance into three activities: input or data collection, decision making, and applying actions. We focus on the decision making activity of software ecosystem governance...... for software ecosystem governance and four archetypes describing the way decisions are taken for each decision area. We explain this matrix-based framework by providing examples from existing software ecosystems.......Making the right decisions is an essential part of software ecosystem governance. Decisions related to the governance of a software ecosystem can influence the health of the ecosystem and can result in fostering the success or greatly contributing to the failure of the ecosystem. However, very few...

  16. A New Fuzzy MCDM Framework to Evaluate E-Government Security Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring security of e-government applications and infrastructures is crucial to maintain trust among stakeholders to store, process and exchange information over the e-government systems. Due to dynamic and continuous threats on e-government information security, policy makers need to perform evaluation on existing information security strategy as to deliver trusted e-government services. This paper presents an information security evaluation framework based on new fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) to help policy makers conduct comprehensive assessment of e-government security strategy.

  17. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah Asha'ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  18. Government Financial Management, Strategy for Preventing Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Umar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In popular view, the term accountability generally refers to a wide spectrum of public expectations dealing with organizational performance, responsiveness, good governance, and even morality of government and nonprofit organizations. These expectations often include implicit performance criteria – related to obligations and responsibilities – that are subjectively interpreted and sometimes even contradictory. And in this broader conception of accountability, the range of people and institutions to whom public and nonprofit organizations must account include not only higher authorities in the institutional chain of command but also the general public, the news media, peer agencies, donors, and many other stakeholders (Kearns, 1996. Government could build its accountability by implementing good and proper financial management. Financial management is a tool for government to show its performance and accountability to the public. Meanwhile, corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain. As such, it involves the improper and unlawful behavior of public-service officials, both politicians and civil servants, whose positions create opportunities for the diversion of money and assets from government to them and their accomplices (Langseth, 1999. The more corruption, the more far away from good governance, and the less public accountability. According to Klitgaard (1988, power minus accountability is corruption. This paper explains about the influences of implementing government financial management to corruption fighting and good governance in broadly view. Discussion will be derived to find out the understanding of financial management, corruption, and good governance terminology fits for Indonesia environment. The purpose of this paper is to achieve common knowledge that financial management should be implemented by public organization from strategic management for public organization approaches. Besides, reader will find out

  19. Public information strategies: Making government information available to citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; Thaens, M.

    2009-01-01

    New technological opportunities and increasing demands make it imperative for government agencies to make the information they gather available to citizens. How should they go about this? This paper presents a conceptual framework for analyzing the strategic options open to agencies which have infor

  20. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  1. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  2. Value Positions in E-government strategies: Something is (not) changing in the state of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Reinwald, Anja Kaldahl; Skorve, Espen

    2017-01-01

    Clarifying what value new information systems (IS) may help to create for government organizations and society is a central concern in the public sector. National e-government strategies present such efforts to clarify the value entailed by IS, however, what is considered valuable is influenced...

  3. Is Memory Search Governed by Universal Principles or Idiosyncratic Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, M. Karl; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory paradigms have provided an empirical foundation for much of psychological science. Some have argued, however, that such paradigms are highly susceptible to idiosyncratic strategies and that rather than reflecting fundamental cognitive principles, many findings are artifacts of averaging across participants who employ different strategies. We develop a set of techniques to rigorously test the extent to which average data are distorted by such strategy differences and apply these techniques to free recall data from the Penn Electrophysiology of Encoding and Retrieval Study (PEERS). Recall initiation showed evidence of subgroups: the majority of participants initiate recall from the last item in the list, but one subgroup show elevated initiation probabilities for items 2–4 back from the end of the list and another showed elevated probabilities for the beginning of the list. By contrast, serial position curves and temporal and semantic clustering functions were remarkably consistent, with almost every participant exhibiting a recognizable version of the average function, suggesting that these functions reflect fundamental principles of the memory system. The approach taken here can serve as a model for evaluating the extent to which other laboratory paradigms are influenced by individual differences in strategy use. PMID:23957279

  4. Assessment of governance strategies for climate adaptation in Flanders / Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...

  5. The strategies of governance from two perspectives: capitalist enterprises versus social economy enterprises: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Muñoz Medraño

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies increasingly develop strategies and implement governance models of efficient management. These systems of government are based on innovative measures, policies for social and environmental responsibility, and strategic alliances. All are being considered in recent years as efficient policies for the governance of institutions, creating value and better business results. This paper addresses good governance from a comparative analysis of capitalist enterprises and social economy to the region of Murcia. Transparency, democratic management, innovation, partnerships, among others, can make the difference between the modus operandi of these businesses and the effects thereof in the territories where they settle.

  6. Rehabilitating antisocial personalities: treatment through self-governance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are widely assumed to reject psychotherapeutic intervention. Some commentators, therefore, argue that those with the disorder are better managed in the criminal justice system, where, following the introduction of indeterminate sentences, engagement with psychological treatment is coercively linked to the achievement of parole. By comparison, National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines on the management and treatment of ASPD recommend that those who are treatment seeking should be considered for admission to specialist psychiatric hospitals. The rationale is that prison-based interventions are underresourced, and the treatment of ASPD is underprioritised. The justification is that offenders with ASPD can be rehabilitated, if they are motivated. One problem, however, is that little is known about why offenders with ASPD seek treatment or what effect subsequent treatment has on their self-understanding. The aim of this paper is to address these unresolved issues. It draws on the findings of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded qualitative study examining the experiences of sentenced male offenders admitted to a specialist personality disorder ward within the medium secure estate and the medical practitioners who treat them. The data are analysed with reference to Michel Foucault's work on governmentality and strategy in power relations. Two arguments are advanced: first, offenders with ASPD are motivated by legal coercive pressures to implement a variety of Foucauldian-type strategies to give the false impression of treatment progress. Second, and related, treatment does not result in changes in self-understanding in the resistive client with ASPD. This presupposes that, in respect of this group at least, Foucault was mistaken in his claim that resistive behaviours merely mask the effectiveness of treatment norms over time. Nevertheless, the paper concludes that specialist treatment in the

  7. Rehabilitating antisocial personalities: treatment through self-governance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Leon

    2013-02-01

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are widely assumed to reject psychotherapeutic intervention. Some commentators, therefore, argue that those with the disorder are better managed in the criminal justice system, where, following the introduction of indeterminate sentences, engagement with psychological treatment is coercively linked to the achievement of parole. By comparison, National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines on the management and treatment of ASPD recommend that those who are treatment seeking should be considered for admission to specialist psychiatric hospitals. The rationale is that prison-based interventions are underresourced, and the treatment of ASPD is underprioritised. The justification is that offenders with ASPD can be rehabilitated, if they are motivated. One problem, however, is that little is known about why offenders with ASPD seek treatment or what effect subsequent treatment has on their self-understanding. The aim of this paper is to address these unresolved issues. It draws on the findings of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded qualitative study examining the experiences of sentenced male offenders admitted to a specialist personality disorder ward within the medium secure estate and the medical practitioners who treat them. The data are analysed with reference to Michel Foucault's work on governmentality and strategy in power relations. Two arguments are advanced: first, offenders with ASPD are motivated by legal coercive pressures to implement a variety of Foucauldian-type strategies to give the false impression of treatment progress. Second, and related, treatment does not result in changes in self-understanding in the resistive client with ASPD. This presupposes that, in respect of this group at least, Foucault was mistaken in his claim that resistive behaviours merely mask the effectiveness of treatment norms over time. Nevertheless, the paper concludes that specialist treatment in the

  8. 76 FR 50719 - Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy... extending the deadline for submitting comments regarding the governance structure for the National Strategy... and structure of the Identity Ecosystem governance body. The due date for submission of comments...

  9. How Corporate Governance Affects Strategy of Corporations : - Lessons from Enron Corporation -

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hameed; Najam, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Corporate governance is a subject of academic and professional debate. It has and it will continue to be a topic under scrutiny for subsequent deliberations since there are many different research dimensions and contexts associated with it. However, it has been observed that the linkage between corporate governance and strategy of a corporation remains as an untapped area with considerable avenues of research. This paper tends to explore this linkage, using Enron scandal as backdrop. In the a...

  10. Management and financing of e-Government projects in India: Does financing strategy add value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How do managers structure e-government projects and address challenges of risks, lack of technical expertise, and mitigation of strategic error for preventing loss of investments? Our aim was to compare the traditional finance approach and the strategy-driven, innovative financing approaches under the PPP model, to examine their managerial value-addition. We found that e-government projects require a carefully crafted structuring strategy and that innovative financing is more suitable in facilitating flexible decision making, building core capabilities, managing and sharing project risks, providing funds needed for growth and innovation, and customising tailor-made project governance strategy. Based on our findings, we develop five theoretical propositions.

  11. The German government's global health strategy--a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Angela; Razum, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D) deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  12. LONG-TERM GOVERNMENT RESPONSES TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Csoban, Katalin, Vargane; Gathy, Andrea Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is one of the leading sectors in the world economy. Enhancing its well-known economic, social and environmental benefits while managing its negative impacts are highly important for the national governments in European Union. Strategic planning is essential to meet the long term requirements of sustainability. National sustainable development strategies and tourism strategies are fundamental means of strategic planning as they provide guidance for the decision-makers of the tourism se...

  13. The work plan for the newly created IUHPE Vice President for Strategy and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The position of Vice President for Strategy and Governance was created at the first full meeting of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education Board of Trustees in June 2007 in Vancouver, Canada. Specific duties were developed for the position and the newly elected Vice President developed a work plan for the period of 2007-10. This paper describes the responsibilities of the newly created Vice Presidency and the work plan developed to meet those responsibilities. The key action areas for the focus of the work of the Vice President for Strategy and Governance include: finalising the rewritten Strategic Directions for 2008-10; developing Strategic Directions for 2010-16; developing and implementing processes to improve the strategic coordination and reporting of work plans across the organisation; and broad responsibility for eliciting and working with the organisation to respond to governance issues.

  14. Transnational Metropolitan Development Strategies and Governance in a Post-Socialist Setting: The Case of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tölle Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cities and their regions into transnational networks has become a key municipal strategy, with the creation of a metropolitan governance structure being seen in this context as a fundamental element. The Szczecin Metropolitan Area constitutes an example of meagre results in intercommunal cooperation in post-socialist East-Central Europe. This has its repercussions on the task of creating cross-border metropolitan governance structures including adjacent German counties, a task which, in turn, may help to overcome development barriers. This becomes apparent particularly in the process of defining joint development objectives as well as an image for the cross-border metropolitan region

  15. Combining planning and the market : an analysis of the government strategy towards higher education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vught, van Frans A.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the government strategy towards higher education in the Netherlands as it has been designed and implemented since the publication of an influential policy document in 1985. This strategy intends to be a significant break with the traditional government attitude of

  16. 欧盟的全球治理战略%The EU Strategy for Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2012-01-01

    在有效推进区域治理和积极应对全球化的进程中,欧盟也在不断构建和完善自己的全球治理战略。欧盟支持并参与国际机制的非根本性改革,以整体身份谋求在国际事务中的代表权和话语权,提高集体军事行动能力,通过提供全球公共产品担当全球公益领域治理的主导。欧盟的全球治理战略表现出包容与排外相混合、有效多边主义、关注全球公益、推广欧盟式民主等特点,但在实施过程中,也面临着决策效率低、行动能力差、内部立场不统一等诸多制约。%In the process of effectively promoting regional governance and positively addressing globalization, EU gradually constrnets and improves its own strategy for global governance. EU supports and participates in non -fundamental reforms of international institutions, strives for representation and discourse power in international affairs as a whole, enhances the capability of collective military action, assumes the leader of global public governance through providing global public goods. EU strategy for global governance demonstrates some characteristics of hybrid of inclusiveness and exclusiveness, ef- fective multilateralism, concentration on global public areas and popularization of EU style democracy. However, during executing the strategy for global governance, EU faces several restrictions like low decision - making efficiency, poor action capacity and inside disunity positions.

  17. Foreign practice of introducing conventional communicative strategy in the implementation of the functions of government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zarytska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of conventional communicative strategy from the standpoint of foreign practice. Depending on scientific approaches to communications, business and management strategies based conventional communicative strategy implementation functions of government. It has certain methodological features and differences in different countries: UK, Germany, Australia, USA, Spain, Holland, Finland, New Zealand. Generalization showed that each state produces its conventional communicative strategy depending on the overall state objectives. However joint is considered important not only communication, but also the ability to communicate effectively, understand how to implement the vision of an opinion on relations between the state and society. Purpose conventional communicative strategy determined by the impact on the optimization of the authorities at the national and regional level, the processes of globalization, the experience of other states, its implementation in practical activities as well as their lack of predictive scenarios of the process of optimizing the functions of government. Demonstrated the appropriateness of existing methodologies to use in domestic practice of public administration.

  18. Analysis Community’s Coping Strategies and Local Risk Governance Framework in Relation to Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Setiawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of people perception and analysis of the coping strategy to landslides are the two elements that are es-sential to determine the level of preparedness of communities to landslides. To know the preparedness of government and other stakeholders in facing landslide, the analysis risk governance framework was required. A survey using questionnaires with random sampling was applied to assess the level of people perception and people coping strategy related to landslide. Analysis of risk governance frame work was done at the district and sub-district level. ἀe study found that people perception related with landslide dominated by high and moderate level. Age and education are two factors that inḀuence the people’s perception to landslide. Local people applied four types coping strategy, which are: economic, structural, social and cultural coping strategy. Totally, 51.6% respondents have high level, 33.3% have moderate level and only 15.1% respondents that have low level of coping strategy. ἀe factors that inḀuence the level of coping strategy are education, income and building type.  Analysis of risk governance framework is limited to the three components including stakeholder involvement, risk management and risk communication. Based on the data analysis, the level of stakeholder involvement at the district scope was categorized on the moderate till high and the level of stakeholder involvement at sub-district level was categorized on the high level. Generally, the risk management of Karanganyar was categorized on the moderate level and high level and the risk management in Tawangmangu was categorized on the moderate level. ἀere are some elements must be improved on the risk governance framework, those are data management, the pattern of relationships among stakeholders, increased participation of NGOs, constructed and updated landslide risk map, enhancement of microᴀnance role in helping the com-munity when disaster strikes

  19. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  20. Governance of globalized water resources: the application of the water footprint to inform corporate strategy and government policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the water footprint of humanity is something in which both governments and businesses have a key role. The actual reduction of humanity's water footprint depends on the combination of what governments, businesses and consumers do and how their different actions reinforce (or counteract) one

  1. Governance of globalized water resources: the application of the water footprint to inform corporate strategy and government policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug

    2012-01-01

    Managing the water footprint of humanity is something in which both governments and businesses have a key role. The actual reduction of humanity's water footprint depends on the combination of what governments, businesses and consumers do and how their different actions reinforce (or counteract) one

  2. THEORETIC INCURSION IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINANTS AND E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. EMPIRIC STUDY OVER THE GRADE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We are currently witnessing an unprecedented development of new technologies, that offers great opportunities for the modernization of the society, it changes radically the way governments, businesses and citizens have the opportunity to obtain goods and services, the way in which public services are provided that become increasingly important for citizens, the way of obtaining and transmitting information, the way in which business connections are done, the interaction between different communities, etc.. From this point of view we research the way in which public strategies of achievement and implementation of model of e-government are shaped, model which can exploit the opportunities offered by new technologies and can implement roles for the citizen and public policy makers and implicitly of local and regional development. How the public sector should support the implementation of strategies of e-government, to polarize at the highest level all communities of interest, to provide a framework for planning and action across the board, covering local administration, institutions, organizations and government agencies, to empower appropriate training for implementation of IT strategies, can lead to stimulation of generators factors of local and regional development. We also, intend to identify, from carrying out an empirical study in Bihor county, by analysis of 30 public institutions, the degree of implementation of new technologies in public administration, human resources readiness for appropriate use of IT facilities and what level of implementation of e-government in these institutions, in order to outline the main characteristics and determinants of e-government implementation. The present paper is of interest to policy-makers, researchers, local communities through analysis how the introduction of new technology development in developing and implementing public policies, particularly by networking government and e-government, can cause

  3. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  4. [Implementing strategies to improve the institutional governance of the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo, José Ramón; Freire, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The 2008 economic crisis made the issue of good governance more present and visible, but the debate risks stalling in an academic and political discourse that barely exceeds the declarative. We acknowledge the existence of noteworthy documents from scientific medical societies and some institutional proposals that point towards promising changes. Viewing good governance as accountability, participation, transparency, intelligence and integrity, our objective is to identify the determinants of inaction and remove the barriers that prevent the adoption of rational and widely agreed-upon proposals. This led us: 1) to allocate the proposals to their appropriate governance level (macro, meso, micro and system environment) so as to more directly engage the agents of change; and 2) to highlight some decision nodes that can act as levers to catalyse selective transformations and to initiate the change processes. Taking into account the diversity of actors and scenarios, a top-down rational, integrated and reformist strategy for the whole Spanish National Health System does not seem likely or viable. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to promote changes, setting a targeted and reasoned agenda to visualise key issues and to enable multilevel and multidimensional thinking and advocacy of health-sector and society stakeholders. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed.

  6. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James Gathungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.

  7. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James Gathungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.  

  8. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  9. Zhengdong New District Smart Government Application System Construction and Its Development Strategy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart government is the advanced stage of e-government development, whose essence is the fusion of Internet, Internet of things, cloud computing, big data and other high and new technology and e-government, to achieve the efficient management of all kinds of information resources and make the government services more transparent, scientific and wisdom. Based on the introduce, basic principle and construct meaning, application system construction, main problems and developing countermeasures and other aspects of smart government to make a comprehensive analysis in the construction of Zhengdong new district smart government, then advise the government departments to speed up the transformation of government management functions and social service mode to integrate the business processes, and promote the construction of service-oriented and smart-oriented government actively.

  10. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  11. Corporate governance and firm performance : An analysis of ownership structure, profit redistribution and diversification strategies of firms in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between corporate governance and performance of firms in India. Utilizing various theoretical bases in strategy and finance domains, the dissertation attempts to distill a better understanding of the pivotal role played by the twin dimensions of ownership

  12. The Government Subsidy Strategy Choice for Firm’s R&D: Input Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage enterprises to conduct technology innovation, the government needs to formulate appropriate subsidies policy. This paper compares two R&D subsidy policies in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain, in which the manufacturer conducts R&D activity for quality improvement. By means of game theory, we investigate the optimal decisions of the players under the two R&D subsidy policies, that is, input subsidy policy and product subsidy policy. Finally, we compare the profits and welfare to explore the better R&D subsidy policy and provide decision support for government to formulate subsidy policy. The results show that under input subsidy policy the optimal production output, quality improvement, profits, government subsidies, and social welfare are all lower than those of product subsidy policy. Therefore, the government should use product subsidy strategy to encourage enterprise R&D activities.

  13. A Multiple QTL-Seq Strategy Delineates Potential Genomic Loci Governing Flowering Time in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Rajendra; Daware, Anurag; Basu, Udita; Shimray, Philanim W.; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of functionally relevant potential genomic loci using an economical, simpler and user-friendly genomics-assisted breeding strategy is vital for rapid genetic dissection of complex flowering time quantitative trait in chickpea. A high-throughput multiple QTL-seq strategy was employed in two inter (Cicer arietinum desi accession ICC 4958 × C reticulatum wild accession ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 4958 × C. arietinum kabuli accession ICC 8261)-specific RIL mapping populations to identify the major QTL genomic regions governing flowering time in chickpea. The whole genome resequencing discovered 1635117 and 592486 SNPs exhibiting differentiation between early- and late-flowering mapping parents and bulks, constituted by pooling the homozygous individuals of extreme flowering time phenotypic trait from each of two aforesaid RIL populations. The multiple QTL-seq analysis using these mined SNPs in two RIL mapping populations narrowed-down two longer (907.1 kb and 1.99 Mb) major flowering time QTL genomic regions into the high-resolution shorter (757.7 kb and 1.39 Mb) QTL intervals on chickpea chromosome 4. This essentially identified regulatory as well as coding (non-synonymous/synonymous) novel SNP allelic variants from two efl1 (early flowering 1) and GI (GIGANTEA) genes regulating flowering time in chickpea. Interestingly, strong natural allelic diversity reduction (88–91%) of two known flowering genes especially mapped at major QTL intervals as compared to that of background genomic regions (where no flowering time QTLs were mapped; 61.8%) in cultivated vis-à-vis wild Cicer gene pools was evident inferring the significant impact of evolutionary bottlenecks on these loci during chickpea domestication. Higher association potential of coding non-synonymous and regulatory SNP alleles mined from efl1 (36–49%) and GI (33–42%) flowering genes for early and late flowering time differentiation among chickpea accessions was evident. The robustness and

  14. Cloud Computing Architecture: The Improved Strategy for Good E-Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. P. Singh Rajendra Singh Thapa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing provides a great opportunity for governments across the globe, to provide reliable E-Governance quickly, at lower costs. Cloud computing features like application virtualization, end-to-end service management, instant deployment and ease of maintenance are catalysts that jumpstart application deployment on the Cloud. With proper planning, execution, training and good management, the Cloud infrastructure can greatly reduce overall costs for government departments maintaining and managing E-Services for E-Governance, and help in efficiently utilization.

  15. Benchmarking government action for obesity prevention--an innovative advocacy strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Peeters, A; Honisett, S; Mavoa, H; Swinburn, B; de Silva-Sanigorski, A

    2014-01-01

    Successful obesity prevention will require a leading role for governments, but internationally they have been slow to act. League tables of benchmark indicators of action can be a valuable advocacy and evaluation tool. To develop a benchmarking tool for government action on obesity prevention, implement it across Australian jurisdictions and to publicly award the best and worst performers. A framework was developed which encompassed nine domains, reflecting best practice government action on obesity prevention: whole-of-government approaches; marketing restrictions; access to affordable, healthy food; school food and physical activity; food in public facilities; urban design and transport; leisure and local environments; health services, and; social marketing. A scoring system was used by non-government key informants to rate the performance of their government. National rankings were generated and the results were communicated to all Premiers/Chief Ministers, the media and the national obesity research and practice community. Evaluation of the initial tool in 2010 showed it to be feasible to implement and able to discriminate the better and worse performing governments. Evaluation of the rubric in 2011 confirmed this to be a robust and useful method. In relation to government action, the best performing governments were those with whole-of-government approaches, had extended common initiatives and demonstrated innovation and strong political will. This new benchmarking tool, the Obesity Action Award, has enabled identification of leading government action on obesity prevention and the key characteristics associated with their success. We recommend this tool for other multi-state/country comparisons. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating developed and developing world knowledge into global discussions and strategies for sustainability. 2. Economics and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Zimmerman, Julie B; Mihelcic, James R

    2007-05-15

    Knowledge transfer from the developing to the developed world is described in the domain of economics and governance for sustainable development. Three system areas are explored: the structure of commons governance institutions, the process of community-based participatory action research, and the role of microfinance and microenterprise for the development, adoption, and diffusion of sustainable technologies. Case studies from both the developed and developing world demonstrate the effectiveness of social networks and community cooperative strategies in a wide range of sectors. Developing world experiences are shown to be particularly rich in the application of local knowledge and social capital toward sustainable development.

  17. Social Smart City: Introducing Digital and Social Strategies for Participatory Governance in Smart Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; Groot, Bert P.; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Klievink, Bram; Lindgren, Ida; Parycek, Peter; Tambouris, Efthimios; Wimmer, Maria A.; Janowski, Tomasz; Soares, Sa Delfina

    2016-01-01

    Cities increasingly face challenges regarding participatory governance in order to become a “smart city”. The world’s best cities to live in are not the ones with the most advanced technological layers but cities that create an atmosphere where citizens, companies and government together build a vit

  18. Social Smart City: Introducing Digital and Social Strategies for Participatory Governance in Smart Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; Groot, Bert P.; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Klievink, Bram; Lindgren, Ida; Parycek, Peter; Tambouris, Efthimios; Wimmer, Maria A.; Janowski, Tomasz; Sa Soares, Delfina

    2016-01-01

    Cities increasingly face challenges regarding participatory governance in order to become a “smart city”. The world’s best cities to live in are not the ones with the most advanced technological layers but cities that create an atmosphere where citizens, companies and government together build a

  19. Teacher Professional Development Strategies in Australian Government and Professional Associations Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostina Ludmyla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve secondary school teacher professional expertise in Australia. These are initiatives approved by Australian specific organizations at government and non-government levels. The author describes the goals and directions of secondary school teacher government support and government strong requirements for teacher professional learning. The article also considers the role of Australian professional education organizations in teacher professional growth. The analysis of the goals is carried out by means of government and professional education organizations documents. The author reports that social context of secondary school teacher professional development in Australia is provided through government education institutions. In support of this fact there is a range of government projects, programmes and documents approved at international and national levels and aimed to encourage lifelong quality teacher development. Furthermore, teacher professional development support is also organized by various Australian professional associations that work collaboratively. Moreover, these associations are not only focused on teacher professional development national standards, requirements and forms but global trends in professional learning and performance.

  20. Governing people's lives. Strategies for improving the health of the nations in England, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgårda, S

    2001-12-01

    Public health strategies reflect governments' wish to make people's lives longer and healthier. This can either be achieved by influencing the frames of people's lives and activities or the way they behave, i.e. to try to 'conduct their conduct'. In this paper the motivations for and methods of four national public health strategies are analysed. They are the English, the Norwegian, the Danish and the Swedish. Four questions are addressed: i) how is the governing activities aimed at improving the health of the population justified; ii) which issues are defined as problems; iii) which causes of the problems are identified; and iv) which governing techniques are suggested to solve the problems. The English and Danish programmes focus on mortality while the others give high priority to non-lethal diseases and conditions. The Danish programme mainly aims at making people conduct themselves in a more healthy way, i.e. change their behaviour, often guided by health professionals. The Norwegian paper has empowerment as its central strategy. The strategy is based on the assumption that if people get more power over their own lives they will become more healthy and behave in a more healthy way. The Swedish emphasis is on changing people's living conditions and much less is said about the role of the individual. The English programme launches a national contract where individuals and authorities should work both to change people's behaviour and their living conditions. All strategies deal with the increasing social inequality in health, the English and Swedish strategies more than the others. There does not seem to be a specific Nordic model in this field of welfare state politics.

  1. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  2. The 2008 financial crisis: government discourses and strategies and pension funds in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Chaves Jardim

    2013-01-01

    ... (as opposed to market self-regulation) and the central role of pension funds during the process, since they partially abandoned government bonds and migrated to productive investment, in alliance with the private equity sector, especially...

  3. 卫生部门治理:战略与机制%Health sector governance:Strategies and mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽杭

    2014-01-01

    在将健康作为一个要素融入所有政府部门与社会团体政策制定中的大健康整合战略下,政府各部门及社会团体在共识基础上形成广泛性治理目标,由政府主导卫生系统的运行,通过加强政府各部门间及与社会组织的协调与合作,统筹卫生系统的服务及管理功能,建立社会参与的绩效问责机制,实现提升卫生部门治理水平,改善社会健康结果的目标。%Under the health integration strategies of public policy to health in all policies of all sectors and so-cial areas, government departments and social organizations form a broad consensus on the basis of the goals of gov-ernance, led by government health system operations, through the strengthening of coordination and cooperation a-mong government departments and social organizations as well as overall planning of the service functions of the health system, and the establishment of community participation in the performance accountability mechanism, in order to enhance the level of health sector governance and improve community health outcomes.

  4. Cooperative and Noncooperative Strategies for Small-scale Fisheries' Self-governance in the Globalization Era: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Basurto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fishing cooperatives (co-ops and patron-client relationships are the most common cooperative and noncooperative strategies for self-governance for small-scale fisheries around the world. We studied what drives fishers to choose between these two self-governance arrangements in 12 communities in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The communities depend on similar fishing resources, are located in contiguous portions of the coast, fish roughly the same species, have similar socioeconomic characteristics, and sell to similar markets, yet half of the fisheries are organized around co-ops and the other half work through patron-client arrangements. Using participant observation, in-depth interviews of key informants between 1995-2008, and a survey of 55% of the fisheries in the study area, we found that the presence of high transaction costs of commercialization, the desire to acquire fishing licenses, and the existence of traditions of successful collective action among fishing groups within each community strongly influence fishers' choices regarding membership in fishing co-ops. We also examined the implications of our findings for conservation of fishing resources. Given that the emergence of co-ops was associated with high transaction costs of commercialization, we hypothesize that cooperative strategies are more likely than patron-client strategies to emerge in communities in isolated locations. In an era of globalization, in which the rate of development and urbanization will increase in coastal areas, patron-client strategies are likely to become more prevalent among fisheries, but such self-governance strategies are thought to be less conducive to conservation behaviors.

  5. Survival Strategies and Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifekwem Nkiruka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in the sustainable development of countries. They help in employment generation, industrial production increase, and export, social enrichment as well as political stability. This study investigates the survival strategies and sustainability of SMEs using selected small businesses in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos State. It examines the type of growth strategies that SMEs adopt, ascertains what influences their survival strategies as well as the challenges that hinder their growth. Fifty (50 SMEs were randomly sampled. Their owners and managers were interviewed using questionnaires. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson product–moment correlation coefficient statistics. Our findings reveal that there is a statistically significant relationship between survival strategies and SMEs’ sustainability. The major implication of the findings is that maintaining small but committed and motivated employees is critical in guaranteeing the survival of the SMEs in a volatile economy. The study recommends that there be a need for orientation and educational programmes to change the mindset of business owners to enable them to graduate from sole atomistic proprietor devoid of modern scientific business practice and effective succession to corporate status with an apparatus of modern business management practices and corporate vision. Finally, the study further suggests some imperatives for policy makers concerned with promoting small businesses’ growth and sustainability in the Oshodi-Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

  6. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  7. Governance structure and transaction cost: relationship between strategy and asset specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luiz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical discussion of the determining factors of governance structures, using the transaction cost approach. The coexistence of distinct structures in the same production chain, whose assets show no difference in terms of specificity, is a problematic challenge for transaction cost economics, since it predicts a convergence towards the most efficient structures. The research is pure and explanatory and seeks to identify the determining or contributing variables to the occurrence of the phenomena. Thus, the research source is documental, encompassing the literature discussing the relation between governance structure and transaction cost.

  8. Governance structure and transaction cost: relationship between strategy and asset specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luiz da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical discussion of the determining factors of governance structures, using the transaction cost approach. The coexistence of distinct structures in the same production chain, whose assets show no difference in terms of specificity, is a problematic challenge for transaction cost economics, since it predicts a convergence towards the most efficient structures. The research is pure and explanatory and seeks to identify the determining or contributing variables to the occurrence of the phenomena. Thus, the research source is documental, encompassing the literature discussing the relation between governance structure and transaction cost.

  9. Governance Strengths and Weaknesses to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in European Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Koss, Rebecca; Piotr, Margonski

    2014-01-01

    addresses the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the current European marine governance structures and its relationship to implement the MSFD. Results of the SWOT analysis were acquired through a combination of approaches with MSFD experts and stakeholders including: 30 face......-to-face interviews, an online survey with 264 stakeholder respondents and focus groups within each European marine region. The SWOT analysis concurrently identifies common strengths and weakness and key governance issues for implementing the MSFD for European marine regions. This paper forms one assessment within...

  10. Adaptation strategies to pasture degradation:Gap between government and local nomads in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianzhong; WU Yingying; ZHANG Yili

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade,there has been increasing interest in climate change,pasture degradation and its driving forces,and innovations in nomadic pastoralism on the Tibetan Plateau.However,little is known of indigenous strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation,which limits the effectiveness of adaptation strategies planned by local government.This paper analyzes nomads' strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation on the basis of a field survey of three townships of Dalag County in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.Pastures there have evidently degraded,with pastures in Wasai mainly in a state of slight or medium degradation and those in Manzhang and Jianshe in a state of medium or severe degradation.With the degradation of pasture,the grazing time is reduced,which affects the livelihoods of nomads.Although the Four-Package Project has commenced in this region,there is still severe fodder shortage in winter and spring.The traditional hay storage strategy does not work because of pasture degradation,and few nomads establish fenced and artificial pastures.Therefore,nomads have employed other strategies,such as renting pasture,providing supplementary feed,and diversifying their livelihoods.Local strategies taken by nomads can provide valuable insights into ecological restoration and livelihood improvement in the region and suggest changes to means promoted by local government.It is necessary to seek new means that combine the best aspects of nomadic pastoralism with modern stockbreeding technologies to help nomads adapt to pasture degeneration and improve their livelihoods.

  11. Co-evolution of industry strategies and government policies: The case of the brazilian automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, R.G. (Roberto Gonzalez); S.B. Rodrigues (Suzana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and

  12. Poverty in Mexico : An Assessment of Conditions, Trends and Government Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Michael; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, half of Mexico's population lived in poverty and one fifth in extreme poverty, slightly lower than before the 1994-1995 crisis. Mexico has made major progress in some poverty dimensions -health, nutrition and education outcomes, access to basic health and education services, electricity, water and (to a lesser extent) sanitation. Large increases in government spending enabled key ...

  13. From Governing through Data to Governmentality through Data: Artefacts, Strategies and the Digital Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Beneito-Montagut, Roser

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that current discussions about governance through data in education can be fruitfully extended through: (1) the establishment of connections with wider debates about the role of commensuration processes and governmentality in the recreation of education systems; (2) greater emphasis on the "artefacts" through which…

  14. From Governing through Data to Governmentality through Data: Artefacts, Strategies and the Digital Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Beneito-Montagut, Roser

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that current discussions about governance through data in education can be fruitfully extended through: (1) the establishment of connections with wider debates about the role of commensuration processes and governmentality in the recreation of education systems; (2) greater emphasis on the "artefacts" through which…

  15. How has government policy post-Global Strategy for Plant Conservation impacted on science? The Ethiopian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissew, Sebsebe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, existing relevant Ethiopian government biodiversity-related policies and strategies, and mandates of various institutions prior to GSPC targets, are reviewed. Response to whether or not institutions responded to GSPC targets as the result of new policies or rebranded their work to fit within the context of existing policies and adjust their outcomes to fit into the GSPC targets is provided. The Ethiopian national report of 2009 submitted to the Convention of Biological Diversity Secretariat is reviewed and gaps analysed. The policies of the Federal government (and implementing institutions) post-GSPC so far have had only a limited impact on science, but research institutions have aligned their outputs to fit with the GSPC targets. Suggestions, conclusions and recommendations are made in order to work effectively towards the realization of the GSPC targets beyond 2010 in Ethiopia.

  16. Sustainability · Strategy · Space – exploring influences on governing for urban sustainability in municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of urban sustainability is considered central to sustainable development and is a key objective of the global Sustainable Development Goals (2015) and the New Urban Agenda (2016). This thesis aims to contribute to debates on urban sustainability by providing insights as to the role of actors participating in processes of governing for urban sustainability, with particular focus on the municipal organisation. The thesis employs an interdisciplinary approach to illustrate divergent ...

  17. Energy efficiency: implemented strategies in the new building for regional Government Offices in Mérida (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbanks, Bruce S.; Montero, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The architecture office GOP was awarded the execution of the project for the regional government office building “Consejerías”) in the city of Mérida, designed by Bruce S. Fairbanks, through an International Competition of Ideas summoned by the Junta de Extremadura. The new Consejerías in Mérida set the standards for a wholly sustainable building. It modifies its natural outdoors environment by soothing the climate and giving shelter. A design strategy was, among others, to gain as much conf...

  18. TETRASOMY-5P MOSAICISM IN A BOY WITH DELAYED GROWTH, HYPOTONIA, MINOR ANOMALIES, AND AN ADDITIONAL ISOCHROMOSOME-5P [46,XY/47,XY,+I(5P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIJMONS, RH; LEEGTE, B; VANLINGEN, RA; DEPATER, JM; VANDERVEEN, AY; DELCANHO, H; TENKATE, LP; BREED, ASPM

    1993-01-01

    We describe a 1-year-old boy with a rare de novo 46,XY/47,XY,+ i(5p) mosaicism (ratios 28/3 in peripheral blood lymphocytes and 2/12 in skin fibroblasts). The boy, born after a pregnancy of 34 weeks, had lung hypoplasia, persistent hypotonia, and postnatal growth failure. Craniofacial anomalies were

  19. The moderating role of competitive strategy in relating frim performance to quality management and government support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns in companies is quality management and its relationship to firm performance. Recently a growing interest in research is the important role of the business environment in the competitive strategy choices of companies. By proposing a conceptual framework for a general model th

  20. Recurrent Governance Challenges in the Implementation and Alignment of Flood Risk Management Strategies: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, C.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Green, Colin; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe increasing flood risks challenge societies to diversify their Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs). Such a diversification implies that actors not only focus on flood defence, but also and simultaneously on flood risk prevention, mitigation, preparation and recovery. There is much lite

  1. The moderating role of competitive strategy in relating frim performance to quality management and government support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns in companies is quality management and its relationship to firm performance. Recently a growing interest in research is the important role of the business environment in the competitive strategy choices of companies. By proposing a conceptual framework for a general model

  2. Examining Why the Canadian Federal Government Placed an Orphan Drug Strategy on Their Decision Agenda Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gary Embrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health’s announcement of a National Orphan Drug Framework on 3 October 2012 was the first federal public acknowledgement of orphan drugs since the 1997 Drugs Directorate (DD policy statement. The reform primarily announced an Orphan Drug Policy for Canada. This paper explains why the government decided to make this announcement now. Media and Parliamentary documents were analyzed for their use of symbols, numbers, and language in causal stories told by political actors. The initial story was that Canada’s population was too small and the cost too high for an orphan drug policy. Over the next fifteen years, a powerful interest group, the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD, mobilized the rare disease community into a cooperative effort that generated collective action. They redefined the DD story from one of natural causes, to inadvertence, and finally to intentional causation. Their story invoked a federal response because it blamed the government directly for not acting on behalf of the 3 million Canadians with rare diseases, when patients in other countries were receiving better care.

  3. Implementing the United Kingdom Government's 10-Year Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England (1999-2010): Applicable Lessons for Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Alison; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Ingham, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an issue of inequality affecting the health, well-being, and life chances of young women, young men, and their children. Consequently, high levels of teenage pregnancy are of concern to an increasing number of developing and developed countries. The UK Labour Government's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England was one of the very few examples of a nationally led, locally implemented evidence-based strategy, resourced over a long duration, with an associated reduction of 51% in the under-18 conception rate. This article seeks to identify the lessons applicable to other countries. The article focuses on the prevention program. Drawing on the detailed documentation of the 10-year strategy, it analyzes the factors that helped and hindered implementation against the World Health Organization (WHO) ExpandNet Framework. The Framework strives to improve the planning and management of the process of scaling-up of successful pilot programs with a focus on sexual and reproductive health, making it particularly suited for an analysis of England's teenage pregnancy strategy. The development and implementation of the strategy matches the Framework's key attributes for successful planning and scaling up of sexual and reproductive health programs. It also matched the attributes identified by the Centre for Global Development for scaled up approaches to complex public health issues. Although the strategy was implemented in a high-income country, analysis against the WHO-ExpandNet Framework identifies many lessons which are transferable to low- and medium-income countries seeking to address high teenage pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal variations in water quality in a brackish tidal pond: Implications for governing processes and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenhui; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-05-15

    Brackish tidal ponds have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world for aquaculture, including some Ramsar Sites. Such ponds are considered a sustainable, wise use of wetlands if managed properly, but they can also pose serious environmental problems if mismanaged. To understand the governing processes and to promote sustainable management strategies, this study examines the different temporal variations in water quality parameters in a brackish tidal pond located within the wetland complex of the Mai Po Ramsar Site in Hong Kong, China. The variations are compared with those of the receiving bay, and the water channel that connects the pond and the bay. Equations are then developed to link the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the pond with the governing processes, and to analyze their relative contributions to DO levels. Field data show seasonal patterns in water temperature and salinity in response to the seasonal variations in solar radiation and rainfall. For the pond and the channel, DO, chlorophyll and pH exhibit fortnightly variations due to the bi-weekly water exchange between the pond and the bay. There were also diurnal variations in water temperature and DO in response to changes in solar radiation for both locations, and the tidal flushing for the water channel. Analysis of the findings indicates that water exchange influences the DO concentration more strongly than solar radiation. The DO equation links pond water quality with the time of day, and the time in a water exchange cycle, and thus provides some guidance for determining water exchange and water sampling schedules. The study sheds light on the governing processes and management strategies related to the sustainable management of a brackish tidal pond. The results are thus beneficial in elucidating and promoting the sustainable management and wise use of wetlands in other locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    Most of the research on low carbon society in Denmark has hitherto focused on developing scenarios and analyzing possible policy instruments, including market mechanisms, costs and impacts in relation to known options and impacts. The Danish Council of Strategic Research funds the four year...... in technology, changes of institutional frames and changes in social practices, but also increased utilisation of well known solutions is important. The research alliance focuses in a number of inter-linked projects on five overall transition arenas in society: standards and certifications, households......, companies, cities, and national and international policy. Theoretically the research alliance builds upon a combination of theories including social practice theory, innovation economy, institutional theory, actor-network theory and governance theory. Through a combination of historical analysis, case...

  6. STRATEGIES IN POLICY NETWORKS AND GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS: A VIEW FROM THE THEORY OF PRACTICE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Procopiuck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to explain the fundaments and utilization of the Theory of Practice, by Pierre Bourdieu, as a means to better understand the relational logic among agents, the capacity of agents and the contextual structure of strategic action spatially located. The concepts of habitus, capital and field, with ontological and epistemological fundaments of critical realism are articulated as means to explain several influential constituents of structured actions to defend sociopolitical interests, while considering the potential of agents as important positive sources of strategically organized actions. Conclusions reveal that the Practice of Theory can bring promising contributions to the study of public policies, especially to strengthen approaches such as social network analysis, multilevel governance and policy networks.

  7. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Zöllner, Hannah; Munding, Johanna; Klein-Scory, Susanne; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan A

    2012-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via a lentiviral vector system in two different colon cancer cell lines. This induced in both lines miR-30a-5p-mediated growth inhibition, attributable to a cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase and an induction of apoptosis. Combining global gene expression analyses of miR-30a-5p transgenic line HCT116 with in silico miRNA target prediction, we identified the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) as a potential miRNA-30a-5p target. Subsequent reporter gene assays confirmed the predicted miR-30a-5p binding site in the 3'untranslated region of DTL. Importantly, overexpression of DTL in HCT116 cells partially rescued these cells from miR-30a-5p-mediated growth suppression. In addition, TP53 and CDKN1A expression were increased in miR-30a-5p-overexpressing HCT116 cells, suggesting that miR-30a-5p is able to modulate the cell cycle via a DTL-TP53-CDKN1A regulatory circuit. Finally, 379 colorectal cancer tissues were screened for DTL expression and DTL was found to be overexpressed in 95.8% of human colorectal cancers compared with normal colon mucosa. In conclusion, our data identified miR-30a-5p as a tumor-suppressing miRNA in colon cancer cells exerting its function via modulation of DTL expression, which is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer. Thus, our data suggest that restoring miR-30a-5p function may prove useful as therapeutic strategy for tumors with reduced miR-30a-5p expression.

  8. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; UN Global Compact

    2017-01-01

    Corporate citizenship - a commitment to ethical behavior in business strategy, operations, and culture - has been on the periphery of corporate governance and board leadership, linked mainly to corporate reputation. However, in today’s globalized and interconnected world, investors, creditors, and other stakeholders have come to recognize that environmental, social, and governance responsi...

  9. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  10. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  11. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averette, Anna F.; Lee, Soo Chan; Kim, Taeyup; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Robbins, Nicole; Heitman, Joseph; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which metal chelation

  12. The PP1 binding code: a molecular-lego strategy that governs specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroes, Ewald; Lesage, Bart; Görnemann, Janina; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; Bollen, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a single-domain hub protein with nearly 200 validated interactors in vertebrates. PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) are ubiquitously expressed but show an exceptional diversity in brain, testis and white blood cells. The binding of PIPs is mainly mediated by short motifs that dock to surface grooves of PP1. Although PIPs often contain variants of the same PP1 binding motifs, they differ in the number and combination of docking sites. This molecular-lego strategy for binding to PP1 creates holoenzymes with unique properties. The PP1 binding code can be described as specific, universal, degenerate, nonexclusive and dynamic. PIPs control associated PP1 by interference with substrate recruitment or access to the active site. In addition, some PIPs have a subcellular targeting domain that promotes dephosphorylation by increasing the local concentration of PP1. The diversity of the PP1 interactome and the properties of the PP1 binding code account for the exquisite specificity of PP1 in vivo.

  13. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  14. 开放政府与政府数据公开战略%Open Government and Government Data Disclosure Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和

    2012-01-01

    提高政府公信力是全球关注的问题,创新政府管理,建设透明与开放政府,更多地在公共事务上实行公民参与,已成为全球的发展趋势。各国政府也在努力寻找各种途径,使政府更加透明、回应性更强、更加负责和有效。这也使得美国“开放政府”行动的影响越来越大。透明度、参与和协作这三项原则,构成开放政府的基石。而合理地开放政府信息、扩大信息公开与敏感信息的保护、提高政府信息的可及性则是有效实施政府数据公开战略,建设开放政府的必然选择。%This paper describes the origin of open government, and discusses the connotation, value and trends of open government, and points out that innovative government management, building transparent and open government has become the development trend of the world. At the same time, this paper analyzes discussion of the Chinese scholars on building open government in China, and conducts specific discussion from three aspects: reali- zing greater disclosure of government data, finding a balance between open government and sensitive information protection, as well as facilitating public access to government information.

  15. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.

  16. Interstitial deletion 5p accompanied by dicentric ring formation of the deleted segment resulting in trisomy 5p13-cen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuffenhauer, S.; Daumer-Haas, C.; Murken, J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    Karyotypes with an interstitial deletion and a marker chromosome formed from the deleted segment are rare. We identified such a rearrangement in a newborn infant, who presented with macrocephaly, asymmetric square skull, minor facial anomalies, omphalocele, inguinal hernias, hypospadias, and club feet. The karyotype 46,XY,del(5)(pter{r_arrow}p13::cen{r_arrow}qter)/47,XY,+dicr(5)(:p13{r_arrow}cen::p13{r_arrow}cen),del(5)(pter{r_arrow}p13::cen{r_arrow}qter) was identified by banding studies and FISH analysis in the peripheral lymphocytes. One breakpoint on the del(5) maps distal to GDNF, and FISH analysis using an {alpha}-satellite probe suggests that the proximal breakpoint maps within the centromere. The dicentric r(5) consists of two copies of the segment deleted in the del(5), resulting in trisomy of proximal 5p (5p13-cen). The phenotype of the propositus is compared with other trisomy 5p cases and possible mechanisms for the generation of this unique chromosomal rearrangement are discussed. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  17. miR-199a-5p regulates β1 integrin through Ets-1 to suppress invasion in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jinbao; Zhai, Limin; Chen, Weijuan; Zhao, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that miR-199a-5p is actively involved in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in the decline of breast cancer tissues. In this research, overexpression of miR-199a-5p weakened motility and invasion of breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Upregulation of Ets-1 increased breast cancer cell invasion, but the mechanism by which miR-199a-5p modulates activation of Ets-1 in breast cancer was not clarified. We investigated the relationship between miR-199a-5p and Ets-1 on the basis of 158 primary breast cancer case specimens, and the results showed that Ets-1 expression was inversely correlated with endogenous miR-199a-5p. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p reduced the mRNA and protein levels of Ets-1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas anti-miR-199a-5p elevated Ets-1. siRNA-mediated Ets-1 knockdown phenocopied the inhibition invasion of miR-199a-5p in vitro. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-199a-5p directly targeted 3'-UTR of Ets-1 mRNA. This research revealed that miR-199a-5p could descend the levels of β1 integrin by targeting 3'-UTR of Ets-1 to alleviate the invasion of breast cancer via FAK/Src/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Our results provide insight into the regulation of β1 integrin through miR-199a-5p-mediated Ets-1 silence and will help in designing new therapeutic strategies to inhibit signal pathways induced by miR-199a-5p in breast cancer invasion. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. D1-D5-P microstates at the cap

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    The geometries describing D1-D5-P bound states in string theory have three regions: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter throat, and a 'cap' region at the bottom of the throat. We identify the CFT description of a known class of supersymmetric D1-D5-P microstate geometries which describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The class includes both regular solutions and solutions with conical defects, and generalizes configurations with known CFT descriptions: a parameter related to spectral flow in the CFT is generalized from integer to fractional values. We provide strong evidence for this identification by comparing the massless scalar excitation spectrum between gravity and CFT and finding exact agreement.

  19. New D1-D5-P geometries from string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Turton, David

    2011-01-01

    We derive the long range supergravity fields sourced by a D1-D5-P bound state from disk amplitudes for massless closed string emission. We suggest that since the parameter controlling the string perturbation expansion for this calculation decreases with distance from the bound state, the resulting asymptotic fields are valid even in the regime of parameters in which there is a classical black hole solution with the same charges. The supergravity fields differ from the black hole solution by multipole moments and are more general than those contained within known classes of solutions in the literature, whilst still preserving four supersymmetries. Our results support the conjecture that the black hole solution should be interpreted as a coarse-grained description rather than an exact description of the gravitational field sourced by D1-D5-P bound states in this regime of parameters.

  20. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  1. Strengthening mental health system governance in six low- and middle-income countries in Africa and South Asia: challenges, needs and potential strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-06-01

    Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. © The

  2. Detection of rare reassortant G5P[6] rotavirus, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Papp, Hajnalka; Lengyel, György; Kisfali, Péter; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela F; Esona, Mathew D; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Bányai, Krisztián

    2012-12-01

    During the ongoing rotavirus strain surveillance program conducted in Bulgaria, an unusual human rotavirus A (RVA) strain, RVA/Human/BG/BG620/2008/G5P[6], was identified among 2200 genotyped Bulgarian RVAs. This strain showed the following genomic configuration: G5-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding the neutralization proteins and backbone genes identified a probable mixture of RVA genes of human and porcine origin. The VP1, VP6 and NSP2 genes were more closely related to typical human rotavirus strains. The remaining eight genes were either closely related to typical porcine and unusual human-porcine reassortant rotavirus strains or were equally distant from reference human and porcine strains. This study is the first to report an unusual rotavirus isolate with G5P[6] genotype in Europe which has most likely emerged from zoonotic transmission. The absence of porcine rotavirus sequence data from this area did not permit to assess if the suspected ancestral zoonotic porcine strain already had human rotavirus genes in its genome when transmitted from pig to human, or, the transmission was coupled or followed by gene reassortment event(s). Because our strain shared no neutralization antigens with rotavirus vaccines used for routine immunization in children, attention is needed to monitor if this G-P combination will be able to emerge in human populations. A better understanding of the ecology of rotavirus zoonoses requires simultaneous monitoring of rotavirus strains in humans and animals.

  3. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-10

    's 30 most populous countries, best in Uzbekistan (I$26.08/DALY) and Myanmar (I$33.30/DALY). Cost effectiveness was lowest in Australia/New Zealand (I$880/DALY, or 0.02×gross domestic product (GDP) per capita), although still substantially better than standard thresholds for cost effective (<3.0×GDP per capita) or highly cost effective (<1.0×GDP per capita) interventions. Most (96.0%) of the world's adult population lived in countries in which this intervention had a cost effectiveness ratio <0.1×GDP per capita, and 99.6% in countries with a cost effectiveness ratio <1.0×GDP per capita.  A government "soft regulation" strategy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce dietary sodium is projected to be highly cost effective worldwide, even without accounting for potential healthcare savings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John

    2017-01-01

    was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world’s 30 most populous countries, best in Uzbekistan (I$26.08/DALY) and Myanmar (I$33.30/DALY). Cost effectiveness was lowest in Australia/New Zealand (I$880/DALY, or 0.02×gross domestic product (GDP) per capita), although still substantially better than standard thresholds for cost effective (<3.0×GDP per capita) or highly cost effective (<1.0×GDP per capita) interventions. Most (96.0%) of the world’s adult population lived in countries in which this intervention had a cost effectiveness ratio <0.1×GDP per capita, and 99.6% in countries with a cost effectiveness ratio <1.0×GDP per capita. Conclusion A government “soft regulation” strategy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce dietary sodium is projected to be highly cost effective worldwide, even without accounting for potential healthcare savings. PMID:28073749

  5. Public reaction to the UK government strategy on childhood obesity in England: A qualitative and quantitative summary of online reaction to media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Rebecca; Patel, Ajay; Patel, Sumaiya; O'Connor, Laura

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to summarise public real-time reaction to the publication of the UK government childhood obesity strategy by applying a novel research design method. We used a netnographic technique to carry out thematic analysis of user-generated comments to online newspaper articles related to the strategy. We examined likes/dislikes associated with comments as a proxy of agreement of the wider community with identified themes. To examine media influence on the comments we carried out thematic analysis of online media headlines published about the strategy, and compared these themes with themes identified from comments. Three newspaper articles and 1704 associated comments were included. Three parent themes were identified: paternalism/libertarianism, lobbyist influence and, anecdotal solutions. The comments were largely negative (94%). Commenters were split as to individual responsibilities and the role of the government, some felt that lobbyist influence had won out over the nation's health and others offered non-evidence based solutions. The ten most liked and disliked comments reflected themes identified in our main analysis. There was parity between themes that emerged from comments and from headlines. This summary of public reaction to the obesity strategy publication may aid translation of public views and receptiveness into practice and inform subsequent government action and policy. Furthermore, the process applied herein may provide a means of informal public engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking the Changing Structures of Rural Local Government--State Power, Rural Politics and Local Political Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Simon; Goodwin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a notable absence in contemporary rural studies--of both a theoretical and empirical nature--concerning the changing nature of rural local government. Despite the scale and significance of successive rounds of local government reorganisation in the UK, very little has been written on this topic from a rural perspective. Instead research…

  7. MicroRNA-125a-5p modulates human cervical carcinoma proliferation and migration by targeting ABL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin X

    2015-12-01

    .Conclusion: The molecular pathway of miR-125a-5p/ABL2 plays an important role in human cervical carcinoma. Targeting miR-125a-5p/ABL2 pathway may provide a new treatment strategy for patients with cervical carcinoma. Keywords: cervical carcinoma, miR-125a-5p, ABL2, cancer proliferation, cancer migration

  8. GPC1 Regulated by miR-96-5p, Rather than miR-182-5p, in Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinoma Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationships between miR-96-5p/-182-5p and GPC1 in pancreatic cancer (PC, we conducted the population and in vitro studies. We followed 38 pancreatic cancer patients, measured and compared the expression of miR-96-5p/-182-5p, GPC1, characteristics and patients’ survival time of different miR-96-5p/-182-5p expression levels in PC tissues. In an in vitro study, we investigated the proliferation, cycle and apotosis in cells transfected with mimics/inhibitors of the two miRNAs, and determine their effects on GPC1 by dual-luciferase assay. In the follow-up study, we found that the expressions of miR-96-5p/-182-5p were lower/higher in PC tissues; patients with lower/higher levels of miR-96-5p/-182-5p suffered poorer characteristics and decreased survival time. In the in vitro study, the expressions of miR-96-5p/-182-5p were different in cells. Proliferation of cells transfected with miR-96-5p mimics/inhibitors was lower/higher in Panc-1/BxPC-3; when transfected with miR-182-5p mimics/inhibitors, proliferation of cells were higher/lower in AsPC-1/Panc-1. In a cell cycle study, panc-1 cells transfected with miR-96-5p mimics was arrested at G0/G1; BxPC-3 cells transfected with miR-96-5p inhibitors showed a significantly decrease at G0/G1; AsPC-1 cells transfected with miR-182-5p mimics was arrested at S; Panc-1 cells transfected with miR-182-5p inhibitors showed a decrease at S. MiR-96-5p mimics increased the apoptosis rate in Panc-1 cells, and its inhibitors decreased the apoptosis rate in BxPC-3. Dual luciferase assay revealed that GPC1 was regulated by miR-96-5p, not -182-5p. We found that miR-96-5p/-182-5p as good markers for PC; miR-96-5p, rather than -182-5p, inhibits GPC1 to suppress proliferation of PC cells.

  9. Let-7c-5p inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis by targeting ERCC6 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaonan; Mao, Xuan; Wang, Yuxiang; Ding, Xianfeng; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we found that let-7c-5p expression was clearly downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with that of corresponding adjacent tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of let-7c-5p in MCF-7 breast cancer cells could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The target genes of let-7c-5p were predicted by the way of bioinformatics, and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay and western blotting demonstrating that excision repair cross complementing 6 (ERCC6) gene was a direct target. Collectively, the present study suggested that let-7c-5p acted as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer possibly by negatively regulating ERCC6, which took an important part in nucleotide excision repair and it may provide a new potential strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  10. Stepping up the pace : SDC summary response to the UK Shared Framework for Sustainable Development and UK Government Sustainable Development Strategy 2005

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    English language version of 'Gwneud cynnydd yn gyflymach : ymateb cryno’r Comisiwn Datblygu Cynaliadwy i Fframwaith Cyffredin y DU ar gyfer Datblygu Cynaliadwy a Strategaeth Datblygu Cynaliadwy Llywodraeth y DU ar gyfer 2005'. In this summary we provide an overview of the UK’s 'Shared Framework for Sustainable Development' and a quick take on where we think the strengths of the UK Government strategy lie, where we see key challenges ahead, and the areas where we want to see the Governme...

  11. Inhibition of microRNA-31-5p protects human colonic epithelial cells against ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Zhang, Lu; Barron, Summer; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous non-coding small RNAs, are sensitive to environmental changes, and their differential expression is important for adaptation to the environment. However, application of miRNAs as a clinical prognostic or diagnostic tool remains unproven. In this study we demonstrate a chronic/persistent change of miRNAs from the plasma of a colorectal cancer susceptible mouse model (CPC;Apc) about 250 days after exposure to a simulated solar particle event (SPE). Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified compared to unirradiated control mice, including miR-31-5p, which we investigated further. To address the cellular function of miR-31-5p, we transfected a miR-31-5p mimic (sense) or inhibitor (antisense) into immortalized human colonic epithelial cells followed by gamma-irradiation. A miR-31-5p mimic sensitized but a miR-31-5p inhibitor protected colonic epithelial cells against radiation induced killing. We found that the miR-31-5p mimic inhibited the induction of hMLH1 expression after irradiation, whereas the miR-31-5p inhibitor increased the basal level of hMLH1 expression. The miR-31-5p inhibitor failed to modulate radiosensitivity in an hMLH1-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell line but protected HCT116 3-6 and DLD-1 (both hMLH1-positive) colon cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that miR-31-5p has an important role in radiation responses through regulation of hMLH1 expression. Targeting this pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy for future personalized anti-cancer radiotherapy.

  12. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  13. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  14. Ca(2+) induces PI(4,5)P2 clusters on lipid bilayers at physiological PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Maria J; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    Calcium has been shown to induce clustering of PI(4,5)P2 at high and non-physiological concentrations of both the divalent ion and the phosphatidylinositol, or on supported lipid monolayers. In lipid bilayers at physiological conditions, clusters are not detected through microscopic techniques. Here, we aimed to determine through spectroscopic methodologies if calcium plays a role in PI(4,5)P2 lateral distribution on lipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Using several different approaches which included information on fluorescence quantum yield, polarization, spectra and diffusion properties of a fluorescent derivative of PI(4,5)P2 (TopFluor(TF)-PI(4,5)P2), we show that Ca(2+) promotes PI(4,5)P2 clustering in lipid bilayers at physiological concentrations of both Ca(2+) and PI(4,5)P2. Fluorescence depolarization data of TF-PI(4,5)P2 in the presence of calcium suggests that under physiological concentrations of PI(4,5)P2 and calcium, the average cluster size comprises ~15 PI(4,5)P2 molecules. The presence of Ca(2+)-induced PI(4,5)P2 clusters is supported by FCS data. Additionally, calcium mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering was more pronounced in liquid ordered (lo) membranes, and the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) clusters presented an increased affinity for lo domains. In this way, PI(4,5)P2 could function as a lipid calcium sensor and the increased efficiency of calcium-mediated PI(4,5)P2 clustering on lo domains might provide targeted nucleation sites for PI(4,5)P2 clusters upon calcium stimulus.

  15. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention.

  16. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  17. GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION IN LOCAL CLUSTERS TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCEhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5585/riae.v9i2.1672

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fischer Günther

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME are designed to operate in networks, cooperatively, in order to obtain benefits that would not occur through the alone action, and encourage the development of local productive arrangements (LPA. Emerge the need for synergy between the actors, operationalized by the mechanisms of integration, which must be managed for efficiency. These characteristics of cooperation and interaction impact the achievement of the objectives and strategies, and administrative functions and plans. Therein appear one of the challenges of present time: how to implement the strategies, plans, and how to make the strategy works? Governance emerges, then, as a medium to achieve the objectives and, so, talk about it in the LPA extends the focus on developing management methods to maintain the idiosyncrasies, to the same extent as they contribute to the effectiveness and improvement in performance.

  18. Integrating Sodium Reduction Strategies in the Procurement Process and Contracting of Food Venues in the County of Los Angeles Government, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N.; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010–2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County’s sodium reduction agenda. PMID:24322811

  19. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  20. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  1. 基于网络营销理念提升电子政务影响力的策略研究%The Promotion Strategy of E-government's Impact Based on Network Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曼; 包文夏

    2014-01-01

    In the development of e-government,situation government website"heavy construction,light service"affects public access to electronic government information and services.Based on network marketing,his article proposes 4 strategies to promote e-government's impact:SEO strategy,network marketing strategy,viral marketing strategy,customer relationship management strategy.%在电子政务的发展中,政府网站“重建设,轻服务”的现状影响了公众对电子政务信息和服务的获取。基于网络营销理念,提出SEO策略、网络推广策略、病毒营销策略、客户关系管理策略来提升电子政务的影响力。

  2. On Strategies in Translating Metaphor in News of Government Website%政务网新闻中比喻的英译策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农雪明

    2013-01-01

    Besides the basic features of news, such as timeliness, realness and universality, etc., news of government website should feature with basic characteristics of government website. The use of metaphor could make images vivid and bring much life to Language. But it is not easy to translate metaphors in news of government website. By analyzing some examples of translat-ing metaphors in news of government website, some useful translation strategy will be put forward for universal use.%政务新闻除了具备新闻的时效性、真实性、广泛性等基本特点之外,更重要的是它必须满足政务信息的基本要求与规范。比喻的运用可以使事物生动形象,使语言文采斐然,富有极强的感染力。但在政务新闻比喻的英译过程中要保持语义、修辞的对等却不是一件易事。文章通过分析政务网新闻中比喻英译的例子,研究并提出政务网新闻中比喻的英译策略。

  3. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  4. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Kayode S

    2014-05-01

    Undesirable impacts of climate change have been a common occurrence that has made fish farmers in developing countries adopt some climate-change adaptation strategies. However, little is known about determinants of climate-change adaptation strategies used by these fish farmers. This study, therefore, articulates novelties on adaptation to climate change, as well ascertains determinants of adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. Climate change adaptation strategies mostly used by fish farmers include frequent seeking for early warning information about climate change (76.7%) and avoidance of areas susceptible to flooding (60.0%). Climate-change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were significantly influenced by access to early warning information (β = 7.21), knowledge of farmers about climate change adaptation strategies (β = 8.86), access to capital (β = 28.25), and participation in workshop and conferences (β = 37.19) but were reduced by number of fish stocking (β = -2.06). The adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were autonomous and mostly determined by the access to credit facilities and information. Development policy should focus on carbon capture and storage technology in order to reduce adverse impacts of climate change, as well as making early warning information on climate change available to fish farmers. These will enhance adaptation to climate change. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. HR development in local government: how and why does HR strategy matter in organizational change and development?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruns, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    ...) and organizational change emerge. Considering a resource and capability-based approach, the analysis reveals strategic HRM practices as a useful concept to distinguish HR activities and the processes that are occurring when a HR strategy is performed...

  6. Energy strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy; Danish Government's energy policy; Energistrategi 2050 - fra kul, olie og gas til groen energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Danish Government's ''Energy strategy 2050'' describes how the country can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by the year 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy contains a raft of initiatives that will reduce the energy industry's use of fossil fuels by 33 % in 2020, compared with 2009. The reduction will put Denmark well on its way to complete independence of fossil fuels by 2050. The strategy calls for a significant increase in renewable energy obtained from wind, biomass and biogas which over the next decade will increase the share of renewable to 33 % of energy consumption, if the initiatives in the strategy are implemented. The strategy offers an economically responsible path to the conversion of the Danish energy supply, and includes specific initiatives, that are all fully financed and which will not damage the nation's competitiveness. Homeowners will experience moderate increases in the costs of heat and electricity, but will also be given opportunities to lower their energy expenses through greater efficiency. Companies can expect added expenses amounting to 0.1 % of the rise in their gross revenue growth by 2020. (ln)

  7. Management Strategies of Perceived Challenges and Problems of Old People in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ojukwu M.O.; S.I. Woko

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed that over the years, the number of the aged in the world has been on a steady increase. This rising number has great implications for government, researchers, families, youth and the society at large. There is therefore, the proper need for the understanding of the nature problems and challenges as well as the management strategies the aged adopt at this stage of life. The issue of old and preparation for it has been a case of global concern because of the problems associ...

  8. 地方政府过度举债、风险累积和治理对策%Excessive Issuance, Cumulative Risks and Governance Strategies of Local Government Debt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方先明; 张谊浩; 蒋或

    2012-01-01

    Recently, China' s local government has been emerging the phenomenon of excessive issuance of local bonds, showing the characteristics of increasingly complicated forms, largescale expansion, significant growth of balance and relatively unbal anced structure. Factors leading to excessive issuance of local bonds include non supporting after tax system reform, appointment and examination system of local officials, inadequate decision making mechanism, not enough law constraints, and so on. Excessive issuance of local bonds, especially the rapid expansion of financing platform of local government, will lead to a variety of risks, and then slow down the development of local economy. This paper discusses about the scientific and operational governance strategies against the excessive issuance of local bonds and its corresponding cumulative risks.%当前我国地方政府出现了过度举债现象,表现出债务形式日趋复杂,规模大幅扩张,余额增速明显,结构相对失衡的特征。地方政府过度举债的原因在于分税制改革后的不配套、地方干部任命与考核制度、决策机制不完善、法制约束力不够等。地方政府过度举债特别是各级地方政府融资平台的迅速扩张势必诱发各种风险,进而阻碍地方经济发展。为此,文章针对地方政府过度举债及其风险累积,提出兼具科学性及可操作性的治理对策。

  9. 政府促进合作社发展策略研究%Study on Strategy of Promoting Cooperative Development of Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔为

    2011-01-01

    The weak nature and public welfare of agricultural cooperatives were described,and the government's main strategies to promote cooperative development were analyzed from the legislative,administrative,finance,taxation and education.Finally,on the basis of analysis on the pros and cons of these strategies.it also conluded that the rational choice of government for cooperative development was to develop cooperative education.%阐述了农业合作社的弱质性和公益性,并从立法、行政管理、财政税收和教育方面,分析了政府促进合作社发展的主要策略,最后在分析了这些策略的利弊基础上,提出政府促进合作社发展的理性选择是发展合作社教育。

  10. 信任、治理策略与合资企业社会困境%Trust, Governance Strategies and Social Dilemma of Joint Ventures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晋洁; 史本山

    2016-01-01

    Although joint ventures have become a universally recognized organization form in business activities, it is reported that a considerable part of them dissolve far rapidly than assumed.For joint venture management, a primary challenge is how to settle the social dilemma.Social dilemma management capability directly affects joint ventures′effective operation.Social dilemma of joint ventures embodies the self-interest rational choice of joint venture partners lead to long-term failure of a joint venture. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to explore the influencing factors and governance strategies of social di-lemma in joint ventures and take advantages of these factors and governance strategies to improve mutual cooperation, decrease partner opportunism and settle social dilemma in Chinese society. Based on the social dilemma theory, transaction cost theory and relational exchange theory, the model of impact of trust on contract governance, relational governance and behavior of joint ventures is established.This paper employs data collected from 242 joint ventures and adopts structure equation model to examine effects of trust on two governance strategies, cooperation and partner opportunism.Meanwhile, trust is divided into two types-high and low level of trust-for investigating how trust as the moderator variable affects trust, two kinds of governance mechanism and joint venture partner′s behavior. The results of structural equation indicate that in a transactional environment of whether high or low level of trust, the influ-ence of trust on relational governance is higher than that of contract governance.Trust has a more positive effect on cooperation when trust is high than that of when trust is low.Similarly, relational governance increases cooperation more when trust is high than that of when trust is low.Unlike the previous results, the influence of contract governance on cooperation is significantly less when trust is high than

  11. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  12. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle L; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-06-06

    Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008-2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson's policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler's health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon's multiples streams model of the policymaking process. The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK's international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support from the Prime Minister and from the

  13. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs-PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K(+) channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  14. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  15. A Guide for College Presidents and Governing Boards: Strategies for Eliminating Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse on Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upcraft, M. Lee; Welty, John D.

    This guide outlines the extent of drug use and alcohol problems on college campuses and recommends five strategies for institutions of higher education: (1) develop clear policies concerning alcohol and other drugs; (2) enforce alcohol and other drug regulations; (3) provide alcohol and other drug education and prevention programs; (4) ensure…

  16. Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde-Smith, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

  17. Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde-Smith, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

  18. Identification and expression analysis of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can coordinate the main pathways involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating gene expression. To explore the resistance to mastitis in cows, miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p were identified in bovine mammary gland tissue and 14 potential target genes belonging to the chemokine signaling pathway, the arginine and proline metabolism pathway and the mRNA surveillance pathway were predicted. Subsequently, we estimated the relative expression of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in cow mammary tissues by using stem-loop quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the relative expression of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in the mastitis-infected mammary tissues (n = 5 was significantly downregulated 0.14-fold (p < 0. 01 and upregulated 3.34-fold (p < 0. 01, respectively, compared to healthy tissues (n = 5. Our findings reveal that miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p may have important roles in resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle.

  19. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  20. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  1. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  2. Brazilian policy responses to violence against women: government strategy and the help-seeking behaviors of women who experience violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-06-15

    Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision

  3. MicroRNAs 99b-5p/100-5p regulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress are involved in Abeta-induced pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang eYe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia. Amyloid beta (Abeta deposition and intracellular tangles are the pathological hallmarks of AD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which have been found to play very important roles and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers during neuronal pathogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the roles of miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p in Abeta-induced neuronal pathologies. We detected the expression levels of miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p in the brains of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice (APP/PS1 mice at different age stages and found both miRNAs were decreased at early stages while increased at late stages of APP/PS1 mice when compared with the age-matched wild type (WT mice. Similar phenomenon was also observed in Abeta-treated cultured cells. We also confirmed that mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin is one of the targets of miR-99b-5p/100-5p, which is consistent with previous studies in cancer. MiR-99b-5p/100-5p have been found to promote cell apoptosis with the Abeta treatment. This effect may be induced via the mTOR pathway. In our study, we find both miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p affect neuron survival by targeting mTOR. We also speculate that dynamic change of miR-99b-5p/100-5p levels during Abeta-associated pathologies might be attributed to Abeta-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress, suggesting the potential role of the ER stress –miRNAs – mTOR axis in Abeta-related AD pathogenesis.

  4. Mitochondria-related miR-151a-5p reduces cellular ATP production by targeting CYTB in asthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Rong; Qin, Yufeng; Ji, Juan; Xu, Miaofei; Wu, Wei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Miao, Dengshun; Hu, Zhibin; Xia, Yankai; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Xinru

    2015-12-02

    Mitochondria, acting as the energy metabolism factory, participate in many key biological processes, including the maintenance of sperm viability. Mitochondria-related microRNA (miRNA), encoded by nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome, may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential role of mitochondria-related miRNAs in asthenozoospermia, we adopted a strategy consisting of initial screening by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) and further validation with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of the profiling results was conducted in two independent phases. Eventually, two seminal plasma miRNAs (sp-miRs) (miR-101-3p, let-7b-5p) were found to be significantly decreased, while sp-miR-151a-5p was significantly increased in severe asthenozoospermia cases compared with healthy controls. To further study their potential roles in asthenozoospermia, we then evaluated mitochondrial function of GC-2 cells transfected with these potentially functional miRNAs. Our results demonstrated that transfection with miR-151a-5p mimics decreased the mitochondrial respiratory activity. Besides, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) level was decreased when transfected with miR-151a-5p mimics. In addition, Cytochrome b (Cytb) mRNA and protein levels were also decreased when miR-151a-5p was overexpressed. These results indicate that miR-151a-5p may participate in the regulation of cellular respiration and ATP production through targeting Cytb.

  5. Should I Make or Should I Buy? Innovation Strategies and Governance Structures in the Italian Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pascucci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the "make or buy" decision of food firms applied to innovation strategy using 389 Italian food firms data from the Unicredit 2007 database. We develop a set of hypothesis from three theoretical perspectives such as transaction cost economics, strategic management and resource-based view. Our paper aims at highlight whether or not different firm’s features can be linked to the decision to make or buy. We found out that these two decisions are positively interlinked. Moreover we also found out that it is difficult to indicate a clear-cut behaviour for the Italian food firms if we refer to making or buying decisions. We discuss these results and use them to bring some interesting outcomes to discuss managerial implications and/or policy interventions in this highly strategic domain.

  6. Strategy of Government-Oriented Tourism Development%我国政府主导型旅游业发展策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏

    2015-01-01

    At present, the rapid growth of China′s tourism industry continues to rise in the status of social development and national economy. But problems arise in the financial support, infrastructure, eco-tourism, intelligent tourism, resources sharing, environmental protection, coordination among travel security and other departments, industrial upgrading and industrial management. Thus, it is particularly important to give full play to the leading role of the government. The government should take the leading role and the dominant strategy in the tourism industry, which can sort and handle coordinating relations between the government and the tourism market, avoid blind investment and major mistakes, feasibly protect national tourism resources from destruction, and effectively guarantee the healthy and sustainable development of the tourism industry.%目前,我国旅游产业规模快速壮大,在社会发展和国民经济中的地位持续提升.但在发展的同时,也带来金融支持、基础建设、生态旅游、智能旅游、资源共享、环境保护、旅行安全等部门协调、产业升级及行业管理问题. 由此,充分发挥政府的主导作用尤为重要. 政府在旅游产业中的主导行为和采取的主导策略,能够梳理与处理协调好政府与旅游市场的关系,避免投资的盲目性与重大失误,切实保护国家旅游资源不被破坏,有效保证旅游产业健康有序的持续发展.

  7. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  8. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against

  9. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    Full Text Available In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the World Health Organization (WHO has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs to try to undermine the proposed convention.The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists, and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation.TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help

  10. Global Health Governance and the Commercial Sector: A Documentary Analysis of Tobacco Company Strategies to Influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. Methods and Findings The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, “good governance,” and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. Conclusions TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance

  11. 政府投资项目跟踪审计策略探讨%Discussion on Follow-up Auditing Strategies for Government Invested Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季陆

    2014-01-01

    To carry out follow-up auditing in government invested projects is helpful for legal and reasonable use of funds, and timely controlling of construction cost. It can also improve the investment benefit, promote the project management, and reduce the loss and waste. This paper first analyzes the necessity of strengthening the follow-up auditing of government invested project, and then carries on thorough discussion on the strategies for the follow-up auditing, which is of certain referential value.%院在政府投资项目中实施跟踪审计,有利于合法、合理使用资金,对建设成本进行及时控制,也能够提高投资效益,促进项目管理,减少损失浪费。本文首先分析了加强政府投资项目跟踪审计的必要性,其次,就政府投资项目跟踪审计策略进行了较为深入的探讨,具有一定的参考价值。

  12. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents through TRPC channels controlled via the PI(4,5)P2-PLC signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki X; Itsuki, Kyohei; Hase, Hideharu; Sawamura, Seishiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Mori, Yasuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents (ROCs) triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5)P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5)P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5)P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5)P2 on different ROCs.

  13. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  14. Validation of Copernicus Height-resolved Ozone data Products from Sentinel-5P TROPOMI using global sonde and lidar networks (CHEOPS-5P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Hubert, Daan; Verhoelst, Tijl; Granville, José; Ancellet, Gérard; Balis, Dimitris; Delcloo, Andy; Duflot, Valentin; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Koukouli, Marilisa; Leblanc, Thierry; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stübi, Réné; Thompson, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring of and research on air quality, stratospheric ozone and climate change require global and long-term observation of the vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone, at ever-improving resolution and accuracy. Global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profile measurement capabilities from space have therefore improved substantially over the last decades. Being a part of the space segment of the Copernicus Atmosphere and Climate Services that is currently under implementation, the upcoming Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) mission with its imaging spectrometer TROPOMI (Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument) is dedicated to the measurement of nadir atmospheric radiance and solar irradiance in the UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR spectral range. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone column data will be retrieved from these measurements by use of several complementary retrieval methods. The geophysical validation of the enhanced height-resolved ozone data products, as well as support to the continuous evolution of the associated retrieval algorithms, is a key objective of the CHEOPS-5P project, a contributor to the ESA-led S5P Validation Team (S5PVT). This work describes the principles and implementation of the CHEOPS-5P quality assessment (QA) and validation system. The QA/validation methodology relies on the analysis of S5P retrieval diagnostics and on comparisons of S5P data with reference ozone profile measurements. The latter are collected from ozonesonde, stratospheric lidar and tropospheric lidar stations performing network operation in the context of WMO's Global Atmosphere Watch, including the NDACC global and SHADOZ tropical networks. After adaptation of the Multi-TASTE versatile satellite validation environment currently operational in the context of ESA's CCI, EUMETSAT O3M-SAF, and CEOS and SPARC initiatives, a list of S5P data Quality Indicators (QI) will be derived from complementary investigations: (1) data content and information content studies of the S5P data retrievals

  15. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    , what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage. This volume brings together prominent voices on competence, governance...

  16. Diversification and Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); A.A.C.J. van Oijen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the impact of governance structure on diversification behavior. Hypotheses are developed regarding the differences in diversification strategy of cooperatives and stock listed companies. The analysis shows that stock listed companies are more diversified than coope

  17. A 360-degree Data Governance Strategy for Medical Institutions%面向医疗机构的360°数据管控策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 李忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide a 360-degree data governance strategy for medical institutions in order to further improve the medical information quality and access efficiency. Methods With the enterprise medical data warehouse as the basis platform, the accountability recognition mechanism of medical institutions internal data was perfected, and the active data governance was exerted with a 360-degree all-round view under data stewardship in the following areas: data quality, data integration, data security and privacy, metadata management, and master data management. Results Through this kind of full -spectrum data governance, medical institutions could greatly improve their information access efficiency and data quality, and finally step into a new elaborately-managed operational mode. Conclnsion In virtue of clear data monitoring, standardized workflow, and definitive data stewardship, this 360-degree data governance can help effectively and efficiently solve the data integration and data quality problems massively confronting medical institutions. [Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(6) :45-48]%目的:为了进一步提高医疗数据质量和信息获取效率,提出一种面向医疗机构的360°全方位数据管控机制.方法:以企业级数据仓库为基础平台,完善医疗机构内部数据认责机制,并通过对数据质量、数据集成、数据安全与隐私、元数据管理、数据标准等细分层面的主动管控,以360°全方位视角完成整个医疗机构的数据管控.结果:通过这种全方位数据管控,医疗机构可以有效提升数据准确率和利用率,通过有效反馈,不断完善,最终步入精细化运营阶段.结论:360°全方位医疗数据管控平台通过监控数据流向、规范工作流程、明确数据职责,可以有效地解决异构系统集成问题,大幅度提升数据质量和数据访问效率.

  18. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... represents various challenges to more `closed' social science disciplines, notably economics....

  19. Strategies and Implementations of Government Information Charging%政府信息收费策略及其实施效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏义堃

    2012-01-01

    Based on theoretical analysis of government information charging, this paper points out the necessity of charging, and cards charging strategies of different countries from the points of information open and value added information access. It also has a comparative study of charging effeetiveness between marginal cost and recovery cost on information sharing, administrative cost reducing and information market competitive level, and summarizes possible problems under different eharging strategies.%通过对政府信息收费依据的分析,指出收费的必要性,并从信息公开收费与增值信息收费等角度对各国政府信息收费制度进行梳理;同时,对边际成本收费、成本性收费在促进政府信息共享、降低行政成本以及推进信息市场竞争水平等方面的实际效果进行比较,指出不同收费策略可能存在的问题。

  20. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  1. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  2. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  3. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Gu

    Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450 is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs, diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5(p13.3p15.33 spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5 (q23;p14.1p15.31,ins(21;5(q21;p13.3p14.1,ins(21;5(q21;p15.31p15.33,inv(7(p22q32dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5 identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5. Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  4. Regional governance and regional strategy development. Means of control for the energy policy turnaround using the British system of regional planning in the sub region Greater Manchester, UK; Regionale Governance und regionale Strategieentwicklung. Steuerungsmoeglichkeiten fuer die Energiewende am Beispiel des englischen Regionalplanungssystems in der Sub-Region Greater Manchester, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Fabian

    2011-07-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on control structures in the energy sector at regional level using the region of Greater Manchester in Northwest England as an example. The change to renewable energies is the main focus of this contribution. The strategy development process is a subject of the analytic part of this contribution. The main questions of this contribution are: (1) What are the characteristics of the Regional Governance in Greater Manchester in terms of energy supply?; (2) How does the regional governance in Greater Manchester work?; (3) How can the regional governance in the Greater Manchester be assessed with regard to the energy supply?.

  5. Cystein-specific ubiquitination protects the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p against proteasomal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopff, Benjamin; Platta, Harald W; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-05-14

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is mediated by dynamic import receptors, which cycle between the peroxisomal membrane and the cytosol. Proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) are bound by the import receptor Pex5p in the cytosol and guided to the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo translocation into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptor is released from the membrane back to the cytosol in an ATP-dependent manner by the AAA-type ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p. These mechanoenzymes recognize ubiquitinated Pex5p-species as substrates for membrane extraction. The PTS1-receptor is either polyubiquitinated via peptide-bonds at two certain lysines and results in proteasomal degradation, or monoubiquitinated via a thioester-bond at a conserved cysteine, which enables the recycling of Pex5p and further rounds of matrix protein import. To investigate the physiological relevance of the conserved N-terminal cysteine of Pex5p, the known target amino acids for ubiquitination were substituted by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast to Pex5pC6A, Pex5pC6K turned out to be functional in PTS1 import and utilization of oleic acid, independent of the lysines at position 18 and 24. In contrast to wild-type Pex5p, Pex5pC6K displays an ubiquitination pattern, similar to the polyubiquitination pattern of Pex4p or Pex22p mutant strains. Moreover, Pex5pC6K displays a significantly reduced steady-state level when the deubiquitination enzyme Ubp15p is missing. Thus, our results indicate that not the cysteine residue but the position of ubiquitination is important for Pex5p function. The presence of the cysteine prevents polyubiquitination and rapid degradation of Pex5p.

  6. Theorizing governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Verrest, H.; Jaffe, R.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of governance theories and discusses the emergence of governance as an analytical and a normative tool. It reviews theories that conceptualize the relations between different governance actors, including debates on interactive and hybrid governance, and presents

  7. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  8. MULTIPLET FINE-STRUCTURE IN THE PHOTOEMISSION OF THE GADOLINIUM AND TERBIUM 5P LEVELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; WANG, XD; HARMON, BN; LI, DQ; DOWBEN, PA

    1993-01-01

    Fine structure is observed in the photoemission of the gadolinium and terbium 5p levels. The 5p levels are split into multiplets due to spin-orbit splitting and to Coulomb and exchange interactions with the f shell. The calculated theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental resul

  9. Inhibitory effects of gallic acid ester derivatives on Saccharomyces cerevisiae multidrug resistance protein Pdr5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Rangel, Luciana; Fritzen, Márcio; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Leal, Paulo César; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz; Ferreira-Pereira, Antônio

    2010-05-01

    Overexpression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ABC transporter Pdr5p confers resistance to a range of structurally unrelated xenobiotics. This property allows Pdr5p to be used as a target for novel multidrug resistance reversal reagents or chemosensitizers. Herein, we report the effects of gallic acid derivatives with substitutions either on the ester moiety or in the benzene ring on the activity of Pdr5p. Compounds with a longer side chain (8-16 carbons) resulted in greater inhibition of Pdr5p ATPase. Derivatives with side chains of 8-12 carbons that retained hydroxyl groups on the benzene ring extensively inhibited Pdr5p ATPase activity. These compounds almost completely inhibited the efflux of the Pdr5p fluorescent substrate Rhodamine 6G and at 25 muM chemosensitized the Pdr5p-overexpressing strain AD124567 to fluconazole (0.4 mg mL(-1)). Gallic acid derivatives may be a new class of Pdr5p inhibitors.

  10. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed v...

  11. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  12. Methylation of miR-145a-5p promoter mediates adipocytes differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiao; Shen, Linyuan; Tan, Zhendong; Luo, Jia; Wu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Chendong [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Yang, Qiong [Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Chengdu Agricultural College, Chengdu 611100, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Yanzhi [College of Life and Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Tang, Guoqing; Li, Xuewei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Zhang, Shunhua, E-mail: zhangsh1919@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Zhu, Li, E-mail: zhuli7508@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China)

    2016-06-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play important roles in adipocyte development. Recent studies showed that the expression of several miRNAs is closely related with promoter methylation. However, it is not known whether miRNA mediates adipocytes differentiation by means of DNA methylation. Here, we showed that miR-145a-5p was poorly expressed in adipose tissue from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p was unfavorable or beneficial, respectively, for adipogenesis, and these effects were achieved by regulating adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid transportation. Particularly, we first suggested that miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors promoted or repressed adipocytes proliferation by regulating p53 and p21, which act as cell cycle regulating factors. Surprisingly, the miR-145a-5p-repressed adipocyte differentiation was enhanced or rescued when cells treated with 5-Aza-dC were transfected with miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors, respectively. These data indicated that, as a new mean to positively regulate adipocyte proliferation, the process of miR-145a-5p-inhibited adipogenesis may be regulated by DNA methylation. -- Highlights: •MiR-145a-5p promotes adipocytes proliferation. •MiR-145a-5p is negatively correlated with obesity. •MiR-145a-5p mediates adipocytes differentiation via regulating pathway related adipocytes differentiation. MiR-145a-5p mediating adipocytes differentiation was regulated by DNA methylation.

  13. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  14. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...... on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  15. The Role of Government and Markets in the Strategy “Europe 2020” of the European Union: A Robust Political Economy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandel Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s current ten year strategy “Europe 2020” aims to set out a vision of a European social market economy for the 21st century that will promote economic growth with social and ecological attributes. This article analyzes the roles ascribed to the government and the market and the extent this role allocation is suitable to enhance growth of the European Union’s member states. Based on a robust political economy framework it is argued that this new economic policy concept is in essence a technocratic approach and a form of selective interventionism. As such it suffers from three major shortcomings: (1 it underestimates the difficulties of gathering and analyzing the relevant information necessary for steering the economy in the desired direction, (2 it encourages rent-seeking rather than productive entrepreneurship, and (3 it may cause a subtle transformation of the societal order through the diminution of individual liberties. It is contended that while an interventionist policy approach meets the preferences of large parts of the population, not the least in Germany, it is unlikely to boost economic growth and employment in the EU.

  16. Government Statistics Strategy Research Based on Big Data Usability%基于大数据可用性的政府统计策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立; 杨军; 潘坤友

    2014-01-01

    随着大数据的指数型增长,不确定数据大幅度增加,大数据应用深度和广度有限,对传统的政府统计平台建设和统计思路带来严峻的挑战。在分析大数据可用性理论的基础上,提出大数据统计平台建设要求,并给出实施路径与建设策略。%With the exponential growth of big data,uncertain data significantly increase,but the depth and the breadth of big data applications is limited,which brings serious challenges to building traditional government statistics platform and statistics methods. On the basis of analyzing big data usability,the paper puts forward big data statistics platform construc-tion requirements,and further proposes the implementation path and the building strategy.

  17. 政府行为对物流企业战略影响的实证分析%An Analysis of the Influence of Government Action on Logistic Business Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青兰; 赵梦楚

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about the influence of Government action on the logistic business strategy. Combining the government behavior theory and enterprise strategic theory, This paper put forward three hypotheses through logical deduction of the influence on business strategy by government action. It goes on with a structural analysis of 30 logistic enterprises using a content analysis, and the quantitative data acquired show the effect of 10 government action index on corporate strategy. The paper brings forward that logistic is inevitably influenced by government action, and that government action has greater positive than impact, and more direct than indirect impact on logistic business strategy. In making strategic decision, business should find out impacts of government action on corporate strategy and adjust their business accordingly in order to maximize the benefit of resources from the Government. business negative logistics strategy%通过逻辑演绎,给出企业战略受政府行为彰响的3个假设,在此基础上,应用内容分析法对30家物流企业的资料进行结构化分析,得到定量数据,从而验证了10种政府行为指标对企业战略的影响效应。研究认为:政府行为对物流企业的影响具有必然性;政府行为对物流企业战略的积极影响多于消极影响,直接影响多于间接影响。指出物流企业在战略管理过程中应该分析政府行为对企业战略的不同影响。适时调整企业战略,最大限度地利用政府提供的资源。

  18. Consultancy support to GCC ICT Authorities to assist in creating common guidelines and strategies to enhance the development of eGovernment within the eGULF Initiative: final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millard, J.; Shahin, J.

    2010-01-01

    This consultancy support analyses global experience in eGovernment cooperation between responsible authorities, examines the needs and existing strategies of each of the six GCC Countries, identifies common elements and areas where mutual cooperation will be beneficial, and proposes common guideline

  19. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...

  20. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  1. Iterative Precision Measurement of Branching Ratios Applied to 5P states in 88Sr+

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Helena; Low, Guang Hao; Rines, Richard; Stuart, Jules; Wu, Tailin; Chuang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method for measuring the branching ratios of dipole transitions of trapped atomic ions by performing nested sequences of population inversions. This scheme is broadly applicable and does not use ultrafast pulsed or narrow linewidth lasers. It is simple to perform and insensitive to experimental variables such as laser and magnetic field noise as well as ion heating. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we make the most accurate measurements thus far of the branching ratios of both 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 states in 88Sr+ with sub-1% uncertainties. We measure 17.175(27) for the branching ratio of 5P1/2-5S1/2, 15.845(71) for 5P3/2-5S1/2, and 0.05609(21) for 5P3/2-4D5/2, ten- fold and thirty-fold improvements in precision for 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 branching ratios respectively over the best previous experimental values.

  2. Enterprise IT governance key decision-making based on strategy alignment and analytic hierarchy process%基于战略匹配和层次分析的企业IT治理关键问题决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计春阳; 唐志豪

    2012-01-01

    The alignment between business strategy and IT strategy is the bases for good IT governance performance. And enterprises have to do five key decisions for their IT governance. To convert the alignment ideal into quantitative model so as to support enterprise IT governance decision, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) algorithm was introduced , and collaboration between business and IT strategy was simulated. Business strategy management of Porter, and strategy alignment management of Henderson were borrowed to represent business strategy and IT strategy. An IT governance key decision-making model based on the quantitative results of strategic alignment was put forward and validated through computation and analysis of real cases.%企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配是确保IT治理取得良好绩效的重要前提.企业的IT治理必须完成五个关键问题的决策.为有效地将战略对应的思想转化为量化模型,支持企业决策,本文引入网络层次分析法模拟企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配关系,分别借用Porter的战略管理理论和Henderson的战略匹配模型代表企业战略和IT战略,提出了基于战略匹配的企业IT治理五个关键问题决策模型,并通过实例分析与运算验证了该模型的有效性.

  3. Evaluation of 5P12-RANTES analogue expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mawela, KG

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available for more than 20 years as an expression host ? susceptible to various pathogens, e.g. viruses, bacteria and fungi ? Safe & cheap Aim Can functional 5P12-RANTES be expressed in tobacco via transient approaches? Objectives a) To clone 5P12-RANTES... analogue into a transient expression vector (viral and bacterial) b) Agroinfiltration of 5P12-RANTES constructs into tobacco leaves c) Evaluate protein expression by ELISA and western blot d) Optimise protein expression level by subcellular targeting...

  4. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  5. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    -sures for restructuring produce strong impulses for ownership changes. There is limited possibility for external finance because of the embryonic development of the banking system and the capital markets during early transition. The governance cycle is also influenced by specific features of the institutional, cultural...... is faster in Estonia and this can be explained by the relatively fast pace of institutional change and evolution of important gov-ernance institutions, including tough bankruptcy legislation and advances in the financial system. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 Keywords: corporate governance, life...

  6. LPS-induced clustering of CD14 triggers generation of PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płóciennikowska, Agnieszka; Zdioruk, Mykola I; Traczyk, Gabriela; Świątkowska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-15

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions after sequential binding to CD14 protein and TLR4 receptor. Here, we show that CD14 controls generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in response to LPS binding. In J774 cells and HEK293 cells expressing CD14 exposed to 10-100 ng/ml LPS, the level of PI(4,5)P2 rose in a biphasic manner with peaks at 5-10 min and 60 min. After 5-10 min of LPS stimulation, CD14 underwent prominent clustering in the plasma membrane, accompanied by accumulation of PI(4,5)P2 and type-I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) isoforms Iα and Iγ (encoded by Pip5k1a and Pip5k1c, respectively) in the CD14 region. Clustering of CD14 with antibodies, without LPS and TLR4 participation, was sufficient to trigger PI(4,5)P2 elevation. The newly generated PI(4,5)P2 accumulated in rafts, which also accommodated CD14 and a large portion of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ. Silencing of PIP5K Iα and PIP5K Iγ, or application of drugs interfering with PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and availability, abolished the LPS-induced PI(4,5)P2 elevation and inhibited downstream pro-inflammatory reactions. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS induces clustering of CD14, which triggers PI(4,5)P2 generation in rafts that is required for maximal pro-inflammatory signaling of TLR4.

  7. 浅析突发事件处理中政府与媒体的沟通策略%on Government and Media's Communication Strategies During the Process of Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗

    2012-01-01

    在突发事件的处理过程中,政府部门能否成功与媒体沟通、把握舆论导向已经成为决定突发事件处理效果的关键因素。因此在突发事件的处理中,政府应该要掌握与媒体沟通的各种策略。主要体现为政府与媒体沟通中的信息掌控策略——主动提供;政府与媒体沟通中的信息处理策略——真实有效;政府与媒体沟通中的信息发布策略——及时渐进;政府与媒体沟通中的信息提供策略——口径一致;政府与媒体沟通中的信息表达策略——有人情味;政府与媒体沟通中的信息选择策略——勇于担当。%During the process of emergencies, it has become a key factor to decide the effect of handling the emergencies, whether the government can communicate with media successfully and steer the public opinions. So, in the course of handling the emergencies, government should master all kinds of communication strategies with media. Mainly , they are strategies of controlling the information in government and media communication, to provide actively; They are they are strategies of han- dling the information in government and media communication,to he real effective;They are they are strategies of puhlishng the information in government and media communication, to be timely and gradual;They are they are strategies of providng the in- formation in government and media communication, to be one voice; They are they are strategies of expressling the information in government and media communication,to be human;

  8. CRAC channel is inhibited by neomycin in a Ptdlns(4,5)P2-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Yanjun; Zhao, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores evokes store-operated Ca(2+) entry through the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. In this study, we found that the store-operated Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by neomycin, an aminoglycoside that strongly binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Patch clamp recordings revealed that neomycin blocked the CRAC currents reconstituted by co-expression of Orai1 and Stim1 in HEK293 cells. Using a rapamycin-inducible PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific phosphatase (Inp54p) system to manipulate the PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane, we found that the CRAC current was not altered by PtdIns(4,5)P2 depletion. This result suggests that PtdIns(4,5)P2 is not required for CRAC channel activity, and thereby, neomycin inhibits CRAC channels in a manner that is independent of neomycin-PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding.

  9. Emerging roles of PtdIns(4,5)P2--beyond the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaojun; Thapa, Narendra; Choi, Suyong; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-11-15

    Phosphoinositides are a collection of lipid messengers that regulate most subcellular processes. Amongst the seven phosphoinositide species, the roles for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] at the plasma membrane, such as in endocytosis, exocytosis, actin polymerization and focal adhesion assembly, have been extensively studied. Recent studies have argued for the existence of PtdIns(4,5)P2 at multiple intracellular compartments, including the nucleus, endosomes, lysosomes, autolysosomes, autophagic precursor membranes, ER, mitochondria and the Golgi complex. Although the generation, regulation and functions of PtdIns(4,5)P2 are less well-defined in most other intracellular compartments, accumulating evidence demonstrates crucial roles for PtdIns(4,5)P2 in endolysosomal trafficking, endosomal recycling, as well as autophagosomal pathways, which are the focus of this Commentary. We summarize and discuss how phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2-effectors regulate these intracellular protein and membrane trafficking events.

  10. Smooth muscle length-dependent PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, D; Baron, C B; Broome, R; Coburn, R F

    2001-07-01

    We studied effects of increasing the length of porcine trachealis muscle on 5.5 microM carbachol (CCh)-evoked phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] synthesis and other parameters of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis rates in muscle held at 1.0 optimal length (L(o)), measured over the first 6 min of CCh stimulation, were 140 +/- 12 and 227 +/- 14% of values found in muscle held at 0.5 L(o) and in free-floating muscle, respectively. Time-dependent changes in cellular masses of PI(4,5)P2, PI, and phosphatidic acid, and PI resynthesis rates, were also altered by the muscle length at which contraction occurred. In free-floating muscle, CCh did not evoke increases in tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin (PTyr-paxillin), an index of beta1-integrin signaling; however, there were progressive increases in PTyr-paxillin in muscle held at 0.5 and 1.0 L(o) during contraction, which correlated with increases in PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates. These data indicate that PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates and other parameters of CCh-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover are muscle length-dependent and provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that length-dependent beta1-integrin signals may exert control on CCh-activated PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  11. Crystal Structure of Prp5p Reveals Interdomain Interactions that Impact Spliceosome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase Prp5p facilitates U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP binding to the intron branch site region during spliceosome assembly. We present crystal structures of S. cerevisiae Prp5p alone and in complex with ADP at 2.12 Å and 1.95 Å resolution. The three-dimensional packing of Prp5p subdomains differs strikingly from that so far observed in other DEAD-box proteins: two RecA-like subdomains adopt an “open state” conformation stabilized by extensive interactions involving sequences that flank the two subdomains. This conformation is distinct from that required for ATP hydrolysis. Consistent with this, Prp5p mutations that destabilize interdomain interactions exhibited increased ATPase activity in vitro and inhibited splicing of suboptimal branch site substrates in vivo, whereas restoration of interdomain interactions reversed these effects. We conclude that the Prp5p open state conformation is biologically relevant and that disruption of the interdomain interaction facilitates a large-scale conformational change of Prp5p during U2 snRNP-branch site recognition.

  12. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  13. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  14. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  15. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca2+ Currents Through TRPC Channels Controlled via the PI(4,5P2-PLC Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki X Mori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca2+ currents (ROCs triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5P2 on different ROCs.

  16. Identification of Blood Let-7e-5p as a Biomarker for Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Li, Lu; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhou, Li; Yang, Binyao; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Changhui; Li, Shanshan; Cheng, Jinquan

    2016-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as novel disease biomarkers. Using a miRNA microarray, we previously showed that the whole blood level of let-7e-5p was significantly higher in ischemic stroke patients than in control subjects. However, the association between let-7e-5p expression and the occurrence of ischemic stroke remains unknown. In this study, we validated the expression levels of let-7e-5p in two case-control populations using miRNA TaqMan assays and further investigated the potential targets of let-7e-5p. The results suggest that the blood level of let-7e-5p was significantly higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in controls (p<0.05). Higher levels of let-7e-5p were associated with increased occurrence of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.61~2.21, p<0.001) in the combined population. The addition of let-7e-5p to traditional risk factors led to an improvement in the area under the curve, which increased from 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70~0.78) to 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78~0.85), with a net reclassification improvement of 16.76% (p<0.0001) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.10 (p<0.0001) for patients with ischemic stroke. Bioinformatics prediction and cell experiments suggested that the expression levels of four genes enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway were down-regulated by let-7e-5p transfection. Specifically, the expression levels of the genes CASP3 and NLK were significantly lower in ischemic stroke patients than in controls and were negatively correlated with let-7e-5p expression. In summary, our study suggests the potential use of blood let-7e-5p as a biomarker for ischemic stroke and indicates its involvement in the related pathomechanism. PMID:27776139

  17. The Copernicus S5P Mission Performance Centre / Validation Data Analysis Facility for TROPOMI operational atmospheric data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Steven; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Langerock, Bavo; Granville, José; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Rasson, Olivier; De Mazière, Martine; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), to be launched in 2017 as the first atmospheric composition satellite of the Copernicus programme, carries as payload the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) developed by The Netherlands in close cooperation with ESA. Designed to measure Earth radiance and solar irradiance in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, TROPOMI will provide Copernicus with observational data on atmospheric composition at unprecedented geographical resolution. The S5P Mission Performance Center (MPC) provides an operational service-based solution for various QA/QC tasks, including the validation of S5P Level-2 data products and the support to algorithm evolution. Those two tasks are to be accomplished by the MPC Validation Data Analysis Facility (VDAF), one MPC component developed and operated at BIRA-IASB with support from S[&]T and NILU. The routine validation to be ensured by VDAF is complemented by a list of validation AO projects carried out by ESA's S5P Validation Team (S5PVT), with whom interaction is essential. Here we will introduce the general architecture of VDAF, its relation to the other MPC components, the generic and specific validation strategies applied for each of the official TROPOMI data products, and the expected output of the system. The S5P data products to be validated by VDAF are diverse: O3 (vertical profile, total column, tropospheric column), NO2 (total and tropospheric column), HCHO (tropospheric column), SO2 (column), CO (column), CH4 (column), aerosol layer height and clouds (fractional cover, cloud-top pressure and optical thickness). Starting from a generic validation protocol meeting community-agreed standards, a set of specific validation settings is associated with each data product, as well as the appropriate set of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) to which it will be compared. VDAF collects FRMs from ESA's Validation Data Centre (EVDC) and from other sources (e.g., WMO's GAW, NDACC and TCCON). Data

  18. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...

  19. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    -nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly......Ownership is determined by firm specific factors and the environment. Firms change over their life-cycle. The governance cycle - here defined as changes in identity of the dominant owner and own-ership concentration - is marked by key phases including start-up, growth, and possibly a restructur...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  20. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-03-23

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1(+) and Rab7(+) vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1(+)perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis.

  1. MicroRNA-125b-5p mimic inhibits acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dakai; Yuan, Qinggong; Balakrishnan, Asha; Bantel, Heike; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Manns, Michael P.; Ott, Michael; Cantz, Tobias; Sharma, Amar Deep

    2016-01-01

    The lack of broad-spectrum anti-acute liver failure (ALF) therapeutic agents contributes to ALF-related mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be potent serum biomarkers for ALF, but their functional and therapeutic relevance in ALF are unclear. Here we show an unbiased approach, using two complementary miRNA screens, to identify miRNAs that can attenuate ALF. We identify miR-125b-5p as a regulator of cell death that attenuates paracetamol-induced and FAS-induced toxicity in mouse and human hepatocytes. Importantly, administration of miR-125b-5p mimic in mouse liver prevents injury and improves survival in models of ALF. Functional studies show that miR-125b-5p ameliorates ALF by directly regulating kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, in turn elevating expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, a known regulator in ALF. Collectively, our findings establish miR-125b-5p as an important regulator of paracetamol-induced and FAS-induced cell death. Thus, miR-125b-5p mimic may serve as a broad-spectrum therapeutic attenuator of cell death during ALF. PMID:27336362

  2. 大股东干预对上市公司多元化投资影响的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis on the Impact of the Listed Companies' Diversification Strategies from Government Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瀛

    2012-01-01

    This article is mainly about the impact from government interference. The local government is the ultimate owner of state-owned enterprises (SOE), and is also the important participant in market-based economy. This article takes analysis on the Impact of the Listed Companies' Diversification Strategies for the big shareholder' character, from the viewpoint that the local government is a participant in the market.%本文主要从大股东干预的角度出发,通过分析政府作为国有上市公司大股东终极所有权人以及地方政府作为市场管制主体的角度来分析大股东性质对上市公司多元化投资决策的影响。

  3. PtdIns(4,5)P2 signaling regulates ATG14 and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaojun; Thapa, Narendra; Liao, Yihan; Choi, Suyong; Anderson, Richard A

    2016-09-27

    Autophagy is a regulated self-digestion pathway with fundamental roles in cell homeostasis and diseases. Autophagy is regulated by coordinated actions of a series of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. The Barkor/ATG14(L)-VPS34 (a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) complex and its product phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] play key roles in autophagy initiation. ATG14 contains a C-terminal Barkor/ATG14(L) autophagosome-targeting sequence (BATS) domain that senses the curvature of PtdIns(3)P-containing membrane. The BATS domain also strongly binds PtdIns(4,5)P2, but the functional significance has been unclear. Here we show that ATG14 specifically interacts with type Iγ PIP kinase isoform 5 (PIPKIγi5), an enzyme that generates PtdIns(4,5)P2 in mammalian cells. Autophagosomes have associated PIPKIγi5 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 that are colocalized with late endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. PtdIns(4,5)P2 generation at these sites requires PIPKIγi5. Loss of PIPKIγi5 results in a loss of ATG14, UV irradiation resistance-associated gene, and Beclin 1 and a block of autophagy. PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding to the ATG14-BATS domain regulates ATG14 interaction with VPS34 and Beclin 1, and thus plays a key role in ATG14 complex assembly and autophagy initiation. This study identifies an unexpected role for PtdIns(4,5)P2 signaling in the regulation of ATG14 complex and autophagy.

  4. Serum microRNA-135a-5p as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinjun; Zhang, Hongchun; Shen, Xianjuan; Ju, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore serum miR-135a-5p expression in colorectal cancer and examine the potential usefulness of this molecule as a biomarker for diagnosis in colorectal cancer. Methods Serum samples were collected from 60 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 40 patients with colorectal polyps and 50 healthy controls. Serum miR-135a-5p expression levels were detected by reverse transcription quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 199 concentrations were detected by MODULAR ANALYTICS E170. Results The relative expression level of serum miR-135a-5p in colorectal cancer patients, colorectal polyps patients and healthy controls was 2.451 (1.107, 4.413), 0.946 (0.401, 1.942) and 0.949 (0.194, 1.415), respectively, indicating that it was significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than that in the other two groups ( U = 351.0, 313.0, both P colorectal cancer patients. Compared with colorectal polyps group, AUC(ROC) of serum miR-135a-5p in colorectal cancer group was 0.832 with 95% CI 0.73-0.93; compared with healthy control group, AUC(ROC) was 0.875 with 95% CI 0.80-0.95. Conclusion Serum miR-135a-5p expression in colorectal cancer patients was higher than that in patients with colorectal polyps and healthy controls, suggesting that serum miR-135a-5p may prove to be an important biomarker for auxiliary diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  5. Role of mast cell-miR-490-5p in irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Fa-Can; Luo, He-Sheng; Zhang, Guo; Liang, Lie-Xin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the functional role of miR-490-5p in mast cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the mast cell tryptase/PAR-2 signal pathway. METHODS The 3rd generation of lentivirus vector systems containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (Ruisai Inc., Shanghai, China), which acts as a reporter gene was used to construct the mmu-miR-490-5p lentivirus expression vector pEGFP-antagomiR-490-5p, and the lentivirus vector pEGFP-negative was used as a negative control. The stably transfected mast cell line p815 was then constructed. GFP positive cells were successfully transfected cells. We determined the expression of miR-490-5p in p815 mast cells before and after transfection using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, after transduction with the lentivirus vectors, the role of miR-490-5p in mast cell proliferation and apoptosis was investigated using the CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The mRNA levels of tryptase and PAR-2 were detected by qRT-PCR and the protein levels were detected by Western blot. RESULTS The inhibition of miR-490-5p expression promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of p815 mast cells. The mRNA levels of tryptase and PAR-2 were significantly increased after transfection compared with the control group, tryptase (P = 0.721, normal vs null; P = 0.001, siRNA vs normal; P = 0.002, siRNA vs null) and PAR-2 (P = 0.027, siRNA vs null; P = 0.353, normal vs null; P = 0.105, siRNA vs normal). The protein levels of tryptase and PAR2 were slightly higher in the siRNA group than those in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION miR-490-5p plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome by affecting mast cell proliferation and apoptosis; with down-regulation of miR-490-5p, the mRNA level of mast cell tryptase and PAR-2 increased, and the protein level increased, but the difference was not statistically significant.

  6. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  7. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  8. DOD’s HIGH-RISK ARES: Efforts to Improve Supply Chain Can Be Enhanced by Linkage to Outcomes, Progress in Transforming Business Operations, and Reexamination of Logistics Governance and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-10

    Command plans to award a contract to a third-party logistics provider, or 3PL , to coordinate the movement of freight shipments within the...Efforts to Improve Supply Chain Can Be Enhanced by Linkage to Outcomes, Progress in Transforming Business Operations, and Reexamination of Logistics ...Reexamination of Logistics Governance and Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  9. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  10. Diversification and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrikse, George; van Oijen, A.A.C.J.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the impact of governance structure on diversification behavior. Hypotheses are developed regarding the differences in diversification strategy of cooperatives and stock listed companies. The analysis shows that stock listed companies are more diversified than cooperatives, related as well as unrelated.

  11. Rfc5p regulates alternate RFC complex functions in sister chromatid pairing reactions in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradeo, Marie E; Garg, Anisha; Skibbens, Robert V

    2010-11-01

    Sister chromatid pairing reactions, termed cohesion establishment, occur during S-phase and appear to be regulated by Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes. For instance, RFCs that contain Ctf18p exhibit pro-establishment activities while those that contain Elg1p exhibit anti-establishment activities. It remains unknown whether Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC functions are simply opposing or instead reveal complicated and non-parallel regulatory mechanisms. To better understand the nature of these novel pathways, we analyzed the small RFC subunit Rfc5p that is common to both Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC. Despite this commonality, the data show that diminished Rfc5p function rescues ctf7/eco1 mutant cell phenotypes, revealing that Rfc5p promotes anti-establishment activities. This rescue is specific to establishment pathways in that rfc5-1 greatly accentuates growth defects when expressed in scc2 (deposition), mcd1/scc1 or smc3 (cohesion maintenance) mutated cells. Our results reveal for the first time a role for small RFC subunits in directing RFC complex functions-in this case towards anti-establishment pathways. We further report that Pds5p exhibits both establishment and anti-establishment functions in cohesion. This duality suggests that categorizations of establishment and anti-establishment activities require further examination.

  12. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Johnston Atoll Site 5P 7/2/2000 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 5P (16 46.392N, 169 29.893W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Closure of the telephone switchboard at 5 p.m. on 20 December

    CERN Multimedia

    Communications Support Section

    2013-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 5 p.m. on Friday 20 December, instead of 6 p.m. (usual time), to allow time for all systems to be properly closed before the annual closure.   Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will cease. All other phone services will run as usual.

  18. Kingman Reef Site 5P 3/17/2002 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/20/2002 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280S, 168 09.878W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Auditory pathology in cri-du-chat (5p-) syndrome: phenotypic evidence for auditory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, D

    2007-10-01

    5p-(cri-du-chat syndrome) is a well-defined clinical entity presenting with phenotypic and cytogenetic variability. Despite recognition that abnormalities in audition are common, limited reports on auditory functioning in affected individuals are available. The current study presents a case illustrating the auditory functioning in a 22-month-old patient diagnosed with 5p- syndrome, karyotype 46,XX,del(5)(p13). Auditory neuropathy was diagnosed based on abnormal auditory evoked potentials with neural components suggesting severe to profound hearing loss in the presence of cochlear microphonic responses and behavioral reactions to sound at mild to moderate hearing levels. The current case and a review of available reports indicate that auditory neuropathy or neural dys-synchrony may be another phenotype of the condition possibly related to abnormal expression of the protein beta-catenin mapped to 5p. Implications are for routine and diagnostic specific assessments of auditory functioning and for employment of non-verbal communication methods in early intervention.

  7. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 87-88M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 87 and 88 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/1/2000 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (06 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/20/2002 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280S, 168 09.878W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Baker Island Site 5P 2/9/2001 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (0 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Howland Island Site 5P 1/31/2002 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 14-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 46-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Kingman Reef Site 5P 3/17/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Johnston Atoll Site 5P 7/2/2000 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 5P (16 46.392N, 169 29.893W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 85-86M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 85 and 86 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 29-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Baker Island Site 5P 1/29/2002 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Kingman Reef Site 5P 3/17/2002 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Howland Island Site 5P 3/17/2000 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Drugs, ionophoric peptides, and steroids as substrates of the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5p

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolaczkowski, M; vanderRest, M; CybularzKolaczkowska, A; Soumillion, JP; Konings, WN; Goffeau, A

    1996-01-01

    Pdr5p is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-binding cassette transporter conferring resistance to several unrelated drugs. Its high overproduction in Pdr1p transcription factor mutants allows us to study the molecular mechanism of multidrug transport and substrate specificity. We have developed

  11. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 31-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Johnston Atoll Site 5P 7/2/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 5P (16 46.392N, 169 29.893W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/1/2000 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (06 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Howland Island Site 5P 1/31/2002 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Kingman Reef Site 5P 3/17/2002 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 85-86M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 85 and 86 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Baker Island Site 5P 1/29/2002 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/1/2000 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (06 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. MicroRNA-199a-5p Affects Porcine Preadipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-E Shi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, have emerged as novel and potent regulators of adipogenesis. However, few miRNAs have been fully investigated in porcine adipogenesis, given the fact that pig is not only an apropos model of human obesity research, but also a staple meat source of human diet. In this study, we showed that miRNA-199a-5p is highly expressed in porcine subcutaneous fat deposits compared to several other tissue types and organs measured alongside. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p in porcine preadipocytes significantly promoted cell proliferation while attenuating the lipid deposition in porcine adipocytes. By target gene prediction and experimental validation, we demonstrated that caveolin-1 (Cav-1 may be a bona fide target of miR-199a-5p in porcine adipocytes, accounting for some of miR-199a-5p’s functions. Taken together, our data established a role of miR-199a-5p in porcine preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, which is at least partially played by downregulating Cav-1.

  5. Kingman Reef Site 5P 2/23/2001 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 22-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Baker Island Site 5P 2/9/2001 74-75M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (0 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 74 and 75 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 87-88M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 87 and 88 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Identification of miR-194-5p as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Zhang, Dapeng; Pan, Nanan; Sun, Ning; Wang, Qiujun; Fan, Jingxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Wenliang; Jiang, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is high in postmenopausal women due to altered estrogen levels and continuous calcium loss that occurs with aging. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the development of osteoporosis. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers to identify women at a high risk for developing the disease. In this study, whole blood samples were collected from 48 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis and pooled into six groups according to individual T-scores. A miRNA microarray analysis was performed on pooled blood samples to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Five miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, -151a-3p, -151b, -194-5p, and -590-5p) were identified in the microarray analysis. These dysregulated miRNAs were subjected to a pathway analysis investigating whether they were involved in regulating osteoporosis-related pathways. Among them, only miR-194-5p was enriched in multiple osteoporosis-related pathways. Enhanced miR-194-5p expression in women with osteoporosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. For external validation, a significant correlation between the expression of miR-194-5p and T-scores was found in an independent patient collection comprised of 24 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density, 30 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and 32 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (p osteoporosis.

  14. The Governance Structure, Mechanism and Strategy of Library Consortia%图书馆联盟治理的结构、机制及策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽萍

    2015-01-01

    文章在探究图书馆联盟治理的涵义和主要特征的基础上,对图书馆联盟治理结构模型和管理机制进行了重点分析,从政府、行业协会、图书馆、社会以及科研角度出发,提出了改进和提升图书馆联盟治理水平的对策和建议,为促进图书馆联盟治理和提高协同水平,实现可持续发展目标提供理论依据.%On the basis of the meaning and key feature of library consortia governance this paper analyzes the governance structure model and management mechanism and proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to enhance level of library consortia governance in order to promote the library consortia governance and improve the cooperative level, achieve the goal of sustainable development providing theoretical foundation from the government, industry associations, library, social and scientiifc research.

  15. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  16. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    is faster in Estonia and this can be explained by the relatively fast pace of institutional change and evolution of important gov-ernance institutions, including tough bankruptcy legislation and advances in the financial system. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 Keywords: corporate governance, life......We begin by identifying a typical governance life-cycle, defined as changes in ownership structure, and including both the identity of the major owner and ownership concentration. The cycle is marked by key events and phases including start-up, initial growth, mature growth, and possibly a crisis...... and restructuring stage or exit stage. The governance cycle for transitional countries reflects some specific characteristics -e.g. often privatization produces specific initial ownership structures, with an unusually high proportion of insider, especially, employee ownership. Subsequently pres...

  17. Experimentalist governance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J; D Levi-Faur

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately provisional frameworks for action and elaborates and revises these in light of recursive review of efforts to implement them in various contexts. Robust examples can be found in the United States and the E...

  18. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  19. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  20. Flat color TV 'FACE{sub TM}' 32Z5P; Flat color TV 'FACE{sub TM}' 32Z5P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A flat wide color TV, 'FACE{sub TM}' 32Z5P, was commercialized that was mounted with the 'digital million progressive circuit' in which points constituting a signal were increased to about one million. This circuit made the horizontal density to be twice in addition to the conventional vertical density, enabling more precise image expression. Further, the TV was mounted with a three-dimensional DNR (Digital Noise Reduction) circuit that reduces noise without sacrificing the picture quality, allowing the reproduction of a clean image even with the source having a lot of noise. For the purpose of coping with the diversification of an image source, the TV is equipped with two systems of D terminals which are convenient in connecting an adapter for receiving digital broadcasting for example. Furthermore, a miniaturizing design for the audio/mechanism system realized the horizontal width equivalent to that of the conventional 28 type TV. (translated by NEDO)

  1. Assessing newly introduced climate change adaptation strategy packages among rural households: Evidence from Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Tabbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses new strategies developed and introduced by national and international partners to help farmers in building adaptative capacity against the negative externalities of climate change. The purpose of this study is to determine and to assess the most important adaptation strategies introduced by development partners. Based on the recognition interview with farmers and synthesis of previous research, 13 strategies were compiled and included in the study. Thus, an advance in the balanced incomplete block design was used to design the questionnaire served as data collection tools. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and their worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory was used for the modelling. Results show that herd rebuilding, human capacity building, introduction of fishing, water and soil conservation activities, introduction of leafy vegetable such as Moringa oleifera, financial credit, forage seed marketing and introduction of agriculture inputs were the most important strategies, while the support to vegetable production, income-generating activities, the use of agricultural improved seed varieties, anti-fire band making and cereal bank introduction were the least important adaptation strategies for farmers. These results are therefore essential for the dissemination of adaptation strategies, thereby stimulating and maintaining sustainability development actions in the study area.

  2. Microstates of D1–D5(-P black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1], we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal. We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves. It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P black holes in superstring theory.

  3. Microstates of D1-D5(-P) black holes as interacting D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study [1] (1311.6540), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black $p$-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary $p$-branes (the $p$-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1-D5 and D1-D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black $p$-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the $p$-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1-D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  4. Microstates of D1-D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Shiba, Shotaro

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1-D5 and D1-D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1-D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  5. Microstates of D1–D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takeshi, E-mail: morita.takeshi@shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Shiba, Shotaro, E-mail: sshiba@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-Motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2015-07-30

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  6. MicroRNA-542-5p as a novel tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Isabella; Tivnan, Amanda; Bryan, Kenneth; Foley, Niamh H; Watters, Karen M; Tracey, Lorraine; Davidoff, Andrew M; Stallings, Raymond L

    2011-04-01

    Several studies have implicated the dysregulation of microRNAs in neuroblastoma pathogenesis, an often fatal paediatric cancer arising from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Our group and others have demonstrated that lower expression of miR-542-5p is highly associated with poor patient survival, indicating a potential tumor suppressive function. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic over-expression of this miRNA decreases the invasive potential of neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro, along with primary tumor growth and metastases in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model, providing the first functional evidence for the involvement of miR-542-5p as a tumor suppressor in any type of cancer.

  7. Hot money speculation scale towards commodities and government's optimal regulation strategies%商品热钱投机规模与政府最优监管策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 赵进文

    2012-01-01

    Hot money speculations have a large impact on our country' s macro - market' s operation mechanism and the stability of people' s living. In order to stabilize the price level and to regulate the market mechanism, local governments at all levels are active on establishing and implementing the regulation measures towards the hot money speculations. This paper put forward a dynamic game mechanism between the governments and the speculators, analyzed the governments' optimal regulation strategies on the equilibrium path. And discussed the inhibition effects of the government' s regulations to the speculation scale on the disequilibrium path, combined the featured of the governments regulation regime in our country nowadays. Applied the numerical stimulation methods to verify the features of the government's equilibrium regulation mechanism.%热钱的投机炒作对我国宏观市场运行机制和居民生活稳定产生了严重冲击.为稳定物价水平和规范市场机制,全国各级地方政府正在积极制定和实施对热钱投机的监管措施.构建了一个政府与投机者之间的动态博弈结构,分析了均衡路径上的政府最优监管策略,并结合我国当前的政府监管制度特点,讨论了非均衡路径上的政府监管对投机规模的抑制效应.最后采用数值模拟方法对均衡的政府监管机制的特征进行了验证.

  8. Energy-dependent relative charge transfer cross sections of Cs+ + Rb(5s, 5p)

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, H; Fléchard, X; DePaola, B D

    2013-01-01

    Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy is used to measure energy-dependent charge exchange cross sections in the Cs+ + Rb(5s, 5p) system over a range of projectile energies from 3.2 to 6.4 keV. The measurements are kinematically complete and yield cross sections that are differential in collision energy, scattering angle, and initial and final states.

  9. Cri du chat syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia: a common genetic cause on chromosome 5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Weck, Karen E; Chao, Kay C; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Nygren, Anders O H; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2014-10-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are rare diseases that present with frequent respiratory symptoms. PCD can be caused by hemizygous DNAH5 mutation in combination with a 5p segmental deletion attributable to CdCS on the opposite chromosome. Chronic oto-sino-pulmonary symptoms or organ laterality defects in CdCS should prompt an evaluation for PCD.

  10. Management Strategies of Perceived Challenges and Problems of Old People in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.; Woko, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed that over the years, the number of the aged in the world has been on a steady increase. This rising number has great implications for government, researchers, families, youth and the society at large. There is therefore, the proper need for the understanding of the nature problems and challenges as well as the management…

  11. Further evidence for a relationship between the 5p15 chromosome region and the oculoauriculovertebral anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Mello, Sirpa; Siggberg, Linda; Knuutila, Sakari; von Koskull, Harriet; Taskinen, Mervi; Peippo, Maarit

    2008-10-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral anomaly (OAV) or Goldenhar syndrome is a malformation complex that has been described in several chromosomal rearrangements. Among them a deletion of the terminal 5p has recurred in seven previous patients. We wish to report on an additional such patient in order to reinforce the significance of this genomic region in the cause of at least a subgroup of OAV cases. Future studies, particularly in the OAV patients with a lateral facial cleft, might define one genetic background of the disorder. Our patient had a complex translocation chromosome 45,XX, inv(2) (q32q37)mat, dic(5;21) (p15.3;q22.3)dn, resulting in a terminal 5p deletion, a terminal deletion of 21q demonstrated by FISH studies, and a duplication of 21q22.11-q22.12 documented by molecular karyotyping. In addition to OAV she developed myelodysplasia treated with bone marrow transplantation. We discuss her clinical findings with reference to her karyotype findings and review the patients with OAV and a terminal deletion of 5p. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. 我国供应商与外国零售商交易冲突的博弈分析%An Analysis of the Influence of Government Action on Logistic Business Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五七; 陈金龙

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about the influence of Government action on the logistic business strategy. Combining the government behavior theory and enterprise strategic theory, This paper put forward three hypotheses through logical deduction of the influence on business strategy by government action. It goes on with tructural analysis of 30 logistic enterprises using a content analysis, and the quantitative data acquired show%在厘清外国零售商与我国供应商交易冲突的内容和特点的基础上,运用完全信息博弈法,通过构建外国零售商和国内供应商的两级供应链存在性博弈模型,分析我国供应商在与外国零售商交易冲突中所处的被动地位。从数理和应用两个角度研究对策后指出:我国供应商可利用主导价格的主动合作型策略,变零供独立决策为集中决策的集中决策型策略以及建立长期的合作关系的市场交易策略,以摆脱劣势。

  13. Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S de la Harpe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (PELJ is entirely dedicated to the concept of good governance. It is the outcome of the first Summer/Winter school on Good Governance which was held at North-West University, Potchefstroom (SA in January 2006 and at Tilburg University, Tilburg (NL in January 2007. This Summer/Winter school has now become a yearly event with a bi-annual theme. Academic staff from both universities collaborate in teaching this course. Students from the two universities who participate in the Summer/Winter school have the unique possibility to deepen their knowledge on a particular subject while enjoying a cross-cultural learning environment. The subject of good governance was not selected by chance but was chosen because of its impact in many fields and the many ways in which the concept is used. It was time for a deeper insight into this multiple role of the concept of good governance. The contributions to this journal are the analytical outcome of the research done in preparation for the lectures given during the Summer/Winter school. As the contributions directly apply the good governance concept to various specific fields of expertise, this introduction will be used to give a short reflection on the concept as such.

  14. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hille, Bertil

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ir)) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P(2). Wide expression of K(V) channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of K(V) channels by PI(4,5)P(2), we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (M(1)R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P(2) with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited K(V)7.1, K(V)7.2/7.3, and K(ir)2.1 channel current by 90-95%. Activation of M(1)R inhibited K(V)7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P(2) regulation of activity of K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1, K(V)1.3, K(V)1.4, and K(V)1.5/K(V)β1.3, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.4, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1 and K(V)3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M(1)R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested K(V) channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the K(V)7 and K(ir) families.

  15. miR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun, E-mail: mjgugonglihos@yeah.net

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC. - Highlights: • miR-204-5p expression is downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. • miR-204-5p suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in PTC cells. • miR-204-5p suppresses IGFBP5 expression by direct binding to the 3′-UTR. • IGFBP5 overexpression reverses the effects of miR-204-5p.

  16. Green governance - one solution for two problems? : climate change and economic shocks ; risk perceptions and coping strategies in China, India and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This collection of papers is based on an international workshop held in the summer of 2009 at the University of Duisburg-Essen. It brings together different perceptions regarding China, India and Bangladesh as they face the risks and crises of climate change and economic shocks like the recent global financial crisis. The papers reflect assumptions concerning the concept of Risk Society and discuss the extent to which Sustainable Development and the rather new concepts of Green Governance, Gr...

  17. Discussion on the Government Network Information Security and Prevention Strategies%浅议政府机关网络信息安全及防范策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊峰鑫; 黄宇明

    2014-01-01

    伴随着全球信息一体化进程的不断加快,信息安全也开始受到多方面的威胁,同样,对于各级政府来说,网络信息化在提高政府工作效率和服务质量的同时,网络与信息安全问题也日益凸显。该文结合自身实际工作经验,针对政府信息安全问题,进行了细致的分析并提出整体安全防护策略。%With the rapid development of modern society, computer network, global information integration process accelerat-ing, information security has received many threats. For all levels of government, the network of information technology in im-proving the government efficiency and the quality of service, network and information security issues are also increasingly promi-nent. Combined with the author's own practical experience, in view of the government information security issues, a detailed analysis and put forward the overall safety recommendations.

  18. Regulation of UGT2B Expression and Activity by miR-216b-5p in Liver Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Sutliff, Aimee K; Chen, Gang; Watson, Christy J W; Ishmael, Faoud T; Lazarus, Philip

    2016-10-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B enzymes are important in the detoxification of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including many hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Identifying novel mechanisms governing their expression is important in understanding patient-specific response to drugs and cancer risk factors. In silico prediction algorithm programs were used to screen for microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential regulators of UGT2B enzymes, with miR-216b-5p identified as a potential candidate. Luciferase data suggested the presence of a functional miR-216b-5p binding motif within the 3' untranslated regions of UGTs 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10. Overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimics significantly repressed UGT2B7 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.0018) mRNA levels in HuH-7 cells and UGT2B4 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.018) mRNA in Hep3B cells. UGT2B7 protein levels were repressed in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells in the presence of increasing miR-216b-5p concentrations, corresponding with significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively) decreases in glucuronidation activity against the UGT2B7-specific substrate epirubicin. Inhibition of endogenous miR-216b-5p levels significantly increased UGT2B7 mRNA levels in HuH-7 (P = 0.021) and Hep3B (P = 0.0068) cells, and increased epirubicin glucuronidation by 85% (P = 0.057) and 50% (P = 0.012) for HuH-7 and Hep3B cells, respectively. UGT2B4 activity against codeine and UGT2B10 activity against nicotine were significantly decreased in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0048, and P = 0.017 and P = 0.043, respectively) after overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimic. This is the first evidence that miRNAs regulate UGT 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10 expression, and that miR-216b-5p regulation of UGT2B proteins may be important in regulating the metabolism of UGT2B substrates.

  19. Analysis of host microRNA function uncovers a role for miR-29b-2-5p in Shigella capture by filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkavalli, Ushasree; Aguilar, Carmen; Silva, Ricardo Jorge; Sharan, Malvika; Cruz, Ana Rita; Tawk, Caroline; Maudet, Claire; Mano, Miguel; Eulalio, Ana

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.

  20. Research on Pricing Strategy of the Reverse Supply Chain Considering the Government's Rewards and Punishment%考虑政府奖惩的逆向供应链定价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦飞; 刘坪; 贡文伟

    2013-01-01

    探讨一个制造商和多个零售商组成的逆向供应链定价策略问题,以再制品市场需求信息不完全为前提,运用博弈论和委托代理理论研究分析政府不参与逆向供应链运作、政府对制造商实施奖惩措施和政府对零售商实施奖惩措施三种情形下逆向供应链各主体的定价策略.并通过数值仿真验证了定价策略分别与市场需求和奖惩力度的关系.研究表明:成本较高的零售商期望收益较小;在两种奖惩力度相同的情况下,政府对制造商实施奖惩措施后逆向供应链的整体收益更大,而政府对零售商实施奖惩措施后制造商会更倾向于不传递真实市场信息的信号.%The article discusses pricing strategy problem of the reverse supply chain consisted of a manufacturer and multiple retailers.With the remade-products' market demand information incomplete as premise,using the game theory and the principal-agent theory to analyze the pricing strategy of the reverse supply chain in three situations such as when government does not participate in reverse supply chain operation,when government implements reward and punishment policy to the manufacturer and when government implements reward and punishment policy to retailers.Also,the relationship between pricing strategies and market requirements or punishment strengths is been proved through numerical simulation.The study shows that:retailers with higher cost expect less profit.Under the condition that two kinds of rewards and punishment strength is equal,when government implements rewards and punishment policy to manufacturer,the reverse supply chain obtains more overall revenue,but when government implements rewards and punishment policy to retailers,the manufacturer will have more tendency to conceal real market information signal.

  1. T-government for benefit realisation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for t-Government and highlights the research agenda needed to increase understanding of transformational government and the processes involved in furthering the agenda of the t-Government. In particular, both an operational and a conceptual model for the effective involvement of citizens and businesses in government functioning have been proposed. This will help to define an agenda for t-Government research that emerges from national UK strategy and ...

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of knowledge, belief and opinions in which engineering is immersed. Thus the overall objective is explorative. By investigating the language, practices and techniques by which engineering is governed the chapter sets out to point to the presumptions, stipulations and ‘limits’ of the dominant discourses...

  3. Military Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-07-01

    Public finance -------------------~·---------------------22 Civilian protection -------------------------------------23 Public health and sanitation...22. PUBLIC. ~INANCE.~q. Basic "planning data for public finance in- clude-- (1) ·rrax·ation systems: - .(2)- ~ethods of_tpaking appropriations.- ( 3...Probable ·adequacy- of public funds. (.4) Administrative .. _ organization for_ public finance sections. b. Military government -staff sections

  4. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  5. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  6. Aviation Weapon Equipment Innovation Knowledge Governance Model and Governance Strategy%航空武器装备创新的知识治理模式及治理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永辉

    2015-01-01

    在系统分析航空武器装备创新知识特性的基础上,研究了集成创新下知识治理的内涵及模式。基于知识视角,分析了航空武器装备创新中的知识治理困境,提出了中心式、串联式、互通式和集成式4种知识治理模式,通过系统分析和比较,指出集成式知识治理能够较好解决航空武器装备集成创新困境。最后,针对我国航空武器装备创新困境给出了知识治理对策。%Based on the analysis of characteristics of aviation weapon equipment innovation knowledge ,studies the integrat‐ed innovation under the knowledge management connotation and management model .Aviation weapon equipment innova‐tion are analyzed based on the perspective of knowledge ,the knowledge management ,puts forward the center tandem ,in‐teroperable and integrated type ,four kinds of knowledge governance model ,through the system analysis and comparison , points out that the integrated knowledge management can better solve the aviation weapon equipment integrated innova‐tion .Finally ,in view of Chinese aviation weapon equipment innovation knowledge management countermeasures are giv‐en .

  7. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5p by a natural compound extracted from Brazilian Red Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Lotti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms leading to the treatment failure of some forms of cancer or life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections is often caused by the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily. The multidrug resistance of fungal cells often involves the overexpression of efflux pumps belonging to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR family of ABC transporters. Possibly the best-studied fungal PDR transporter is the multidrug resistance transporter Pdr5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some research groups have been searching for new inhibitors of these efflux pumps in order to alleviate resistance. Natural products are a great source for the discovery of new compounds with biological activity. Propolis is a complex resinous material collected by honeybees from exudates and buds of certain plant sources and this material is thought to serve as a defense substance for bee hives. Propolis is widely used in traditional medicine and is reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Literature reported some biological functionalities of propolis, such as antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. The chemical composition of propolis is qualitatively and quantitatively variable. Components isolated from methanolic extract of red Brazilian propolis (Alagoas, Northeast of Brazil are isoflavonoids (including pterocarpans, isoflavans, isoflavones, flavanones and polyprenylated benzophenones. In this work we demonstrated the effects of five different isolated compounds on the ATPase activity of Pdr5p. Out of all five substances tested, only BRP-1 was able to completely abolish the enzymatic activity while others worked as positive modulators of the enzyme activity. BRP-1also inhibited the efflux of Rhodamine 6G from yeast cells overexpressing Pdr5p. Taken together, these results

  8. 基层政府应对社会网络舆情策略研究%Research on the Strategy of Basic-level Government to Deal with the Social Network Public Opinion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹俊

    2016-01-01

    阐释社会网络舆情的内涵及基层政府应对社会网络舆情的重要性。分析目前基层政府在应对社会网络舆情上存在的主要问题。提出基层政府应对社会网络舆情的策略:更新危机管理观念,增强现代网络舆情危机意识;提高基层政府网络执政能力;提高基层政府官员网络媒介素养;构建立体化网络舆情监控长效机制;建立应对处置机制,有效控制网络舆情;完善舆情应对管理机制和保障机制。%The paper expounds the connotation of the social network public opinion,and the important role of basic-level government in dealing with social network public opinion.It analy-zes the main problems for the current basic-level government departments to deal with social network public opinion.The strategy to deal with the social network public opinion is proposed:updating the concept of crisis management to enhance the crisis consciousness of the modern network public opinion;strengthening the network governance capacity of basic-level government;improving the network media literacy of basic-level government officials;con-structing a long-term three-dimensional network public opinion monitoring mechanism;estab-lishing response mechanism to effectively control the network public opinion;perfecting the management and safeguard mechanism of public opinion response work.

  9. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  10. Serum microRNA-125a-5p, a useful biomarker in liver diseases, correlates with disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianjian; Zhou, Zhenxu; Xu, Ziqiang; Li, Guojun; Dong, Peihong; Chen, Zhanguo; Lin, Dezhao; Chen, Bicheng; Yu, Fujun

    2015-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that liver microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) is correlated with disease progression in different liver diseases, including liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated whether serum miR-125a-5p correlated with the progression of different liver diseases. Serum samples were obtained from healthy individuals, patients with chronic hepatitis B who had undergone a liver biopsy, and patients with HCC and were analyzed for the levels of miR-125a-5p. Compared with the healthy controls, the serum levels of miR-125a-5p were significantly higher in the liver fibrosis serum, and were reduced in HCC. With the development of liver fibrosis, there was a significant increase in the expression of miR-125a-5p (Pserum miR-125a-5p and viral replication (Pserum levels of miR-125a-5p were correlated with a poor prognosis, determined by Kaplan-Meier curve analysis (P=0.009). In the liver fibrosis and HCC groups, different expression levels of serum miR-125a-5p were observed, and were correlated with disease progression. The results of the present study suggested that serum miR-125a-5p may be used as a non-invasive biomarker for monitoring disease progression in liver diseases.

  11. MiR-15a-5p regulates viability and matrix degradation of human osteoarthritis chondrocytes via targeting VEGFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Tian, Yun

    2017-01-16

    Previous studies demonstrated that miR-15a-5p was probably associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma, while the function of miR-15a-5p in OA (Osteoarthritis) still remains unknown. Here, we uncovered the potential role of miR-15a-5p on OA pathogenesis and confirmed its predicted target VEGFA (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A). Measured by RT-PCR, miR-15a-5p expression increased remarkably while VEGFA expression was significantly decreased in OA chondrocytes compared with normal conditions. According to Luciferase activity assay, miR-15a-5p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of VEGFA to inhibit its expression. Functional analysis including CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry revealed that overexpression of VEGFA or inhibition of miR-15a-5p promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis and reduced matrix degradation in OA chondrocytes. Moreover, rescue assays carried out with both expression of VEGFA and miR-15a-5p demonstrated that miR-15a-5p contributes to cell apoptosis and matrix degradation via inhibiting VEGFA. We further provided evidence that multiple proteins related to matrix synthesis were regulated by miR-15a-5p and VEGFA using Western blot and ELISA assays. Taken together, our findings elucidated an underlying mechanism by which miR-15a-5p regulates viability and matrix degradation of OA and indicated a new target for OA diagnosis and therapy.

  12. miR-411-5p inhibits proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cell via targeting GRB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunda [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Xu, Guoxing [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Liu, Gang; Ye, Yongzhi [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Chuankai [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fan, Chuannan [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Wang, Haibin; Cai, Huali; Xiao, Rui [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Huang, Zhengjie, E-mail: huangzhengjie@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Luo, Qi, E-mail: luoqixmzsh@126.com [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2016-08-05

    miR-411-5p (previously called miR-411) is severely involved in human diseases, however, the relationship between miR-411-5p and breast cancer has not been investigated thoroughly. Here, we found that the expression of miR-411-5p was downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with their matched adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In addition, the expression of miR-411-5p was also lower in breast cancer cell lines in contrast with MCF-10A. Moreover, we investigated the target and mechanism of miR-411-5p in breast cancer using mimic and inhibitor, and demonstrated the involvement of GRB2 and Ras activation. Ectopic expression of miR-411-5p suppressed the breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion while low expression of miR-411-5p exhibited the opposite effect. Furthermore, GRB2 was demonstrated to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, and low expression of GRB2 had a longer overall survival compared with high expression of GRB2 in breast cancer. In general, our study shed light on the miR-411-5p related mechanism in the progression of breast cancer and, miR-411-5p/GRB2/Ras axis is potential to be molecular target for breast cancer therapy. - Highlights: • miR-411-5p is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-411-5p inhibits breast cancer cells growth, migration and invasion in vitro. • GRB2 is a direct target of miR-411-5p in breast cancer. • GRB2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and associates with disease outcome. • miR-411-5p suppresses breast cancer progression though GRB2-SOS-Ras pathway.

  13. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  14. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    Full Text Available FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686: one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  15. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...... in the four dimensions of time, task, team, and transition. Specifically, we report on new collaboration procedures that are characterized by an ad-hoc and non-linear management of time; a sense of shared commitment to the accomplishment of tasks; a serendipitous recruitment of team members based on expertise...

  16. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory......, and the incomplete-contracts or property-rights approach. We distill the main unifying characteristics of these streams, survey each stream, and offer some critical commentary and suggestions for moving forward....

  17. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  18. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  20. Bogotá experience in government: device and educational strategies to expressions, scenarios and breaks on a proposal for citizen culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Clemencia VALENCIA GONZÁLEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bogotá currently known, rebuilt from the ashes of 9 April got used for decades to live labors, fear and mistrust, but particularly in exclusion. With the arrival of Antanas Mockus to Mayor broke various paradigms: he and his cabinet not came from the traditional political caste, came from the Academy and claimed other relationships with citizenship. In addition, became the city learning space because their Government project drew on the political but evidenced in the pedagogical and found its deployment in the communicative. Six priorities proposed for government experience are articulated around one: civic culture. Culture that should be disseminated, learned and implementation from train in town, then so is generate sense of belonging, would facilitate urban coexistence and would lead to the respect of the common heritage and recognition of the rights and duties of citizens. In the Mayor Mockus’s «great classroom» citizenship would of apathy to the habitancia. Far pedagogy and communication, as not nominated devices, managed to go beyond the labelling and the indication and approached the civic culture to political socialization? This reflection article links to research «higher education and training citizen, case Bogotá» and consists of five sections.

  1. PVT1-derived miR-1207-5p promotes breast cancer cell growth by targeting STAT6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chen; Chen, Yaqing; Kong, Weiwei; Fu, Liya; Liu, Yunde; Yao, Qingjuan; Yuan, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ectopic expression of non-coding RNAs are responsible for breast cancer progression. Increased non-coding RNA PVT1, the host gene of microRNA-1207-5p (miR-1207-5p), has been associated with breast cancer proliferation. However, how PVT1 functions in breast cancer is still not clear. In this study, we show a PVT1-derived microRNA, miR-1207-5p, that promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells by directly regulating STAT6. We first confirm the positive correlated expression pattern between PVT1 and miR-1207-5p by observing consistent induced expression by estrogen, and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer patient specimens. Moreover, silence of PVT1 also decreased miR-1207-5p expression. Furthermore, increased miR-1207-5p expression promoted, while decreased miR-1207-5p expression suppressed, cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell cycle progression in breast cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, a novel target of miR-1207-5p, STAT6, was identified by a luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-1207-5p decreased the levels of STAT6, which activated CDKN1A and CDKN1B to regulate the cell cycle. We also confirmed the reverse correlation of miR-1207-5p and STAT6 expression levels in breast cancer samples. Therefore, our findings reveal that PVT1-derived miR-1207-5p promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells by targeting STAT6, which in turn controls CDKN1A and CDKN1B expression. These findings suggest miR-1207-5p might be a potential target for breast cancer therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. miR-487b-5p Regulates Temozolomide Resistance of Lung Cancer Cells Through LAMP2-Medicated Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang; Lv, Lei; Feng, Jinping; Chen, Yuyu; Wang, Xinhua; Han, Shuguang; Zhao, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a standard agent used in the treatment of various types of cancers, including lung carcinoma, but TMZ resistance is common and accounts for many treatment failures. We investigated miRNA-487b-5p (miR-487b-5p) was highly expressed in A549 and H1299 cells which acquired TMZ resistance. Suppression of miR-487b-5p had overt effects on cellular proliferation and migration in the presence of TMZ. On the other hand, knockdown of miR-487b-5p resulted in increased survival and moderate tumor growth in vivo. In addition, the decreased cellular proliferation following miR-487b-5p suppression was linked to enhanced autophagy, evident by drastically increased levels of LC3-II, BECLIN1, and LAMP2 when miR-487b-5p was knocked down. Further analysis revealed that LAMP2 might be the target gene of miR-487b-5p. In conclusion, our study suggested that miR-487b-5p may be a potential biomarker of acquired TMZ resistance in lung cancer cells, and miR-487b-5p inhibition can be further explored as a chemotherapy target in the treatment of TMZ-resistant lung carcinoma.

  3. miR-150-5p inhibits hepatoma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMP14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of HCC, its prognosis remains poor because the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis are not well understood. In the study, we focused on identifying the role of miRNAs in HCC progression. miRNA microarray was used to analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs, and the results were validated by qPCR. We found that the miR-150-5p expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues compared with pair non-tumor tissues. miR-150-5p expression is also decreased in metastatic cancer tissues compared with pair primary tissues, indicating that miR-150-5p may be involved in HCC metastasis. Functionally, miR-150-5p inhibition significantly promotes hepatoma cell migration and invasion, whereas miR-150-5p overexpression suppresses cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. The matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 is identified as a new target gene of miR-150-5p. miR-150-5p markedly inhibits MMP14 expression in hepatoma cells, and miR-150-5p expression is negative correlation with MMP14 expression in vivo. More important, re-expression of MMP14 in hepatoma cells partially reverses the effect of miR-150-5p in inhibiting cell invasion.

  4. 论政府责任与残疾人就业促进保障策略%Government Responsibility an Strategy in Promoting the Disable’s Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜竹

    2012-01-01

      残疾人失业问题是我国转型期以及后危机时期面临的最严峻挑战之一。在应对这个挑战的过程中,政府的战略选择经历了一个重要的转变。从最初实行再就业工程,逐渐过渡到采取“再就业”、“失业保障”等多管齐下的策略,来应对严峻而复杂的残疾人就业形势。可见,升级公共就业服务能力的同时健全残疾人就业保障体系将是我国经济社会和谐发展的重要任务之一。结合残疾人所面临的就业压力及制约就业的因素,应当彰显政府责任,激发社会资源共同创建“灵活性”与“安全性”并行的就业格局是实现残疾人就业促进目标的必然选择,为此,完善政府相关就业保障策略是十分必要的。%  The unemployment problem is one of the most serious challenges in China in transition and post-crisis period. Therefore, the government's strategic choice has undergone a major transformation:from the initial implementation of re-employment project, a gradual transition to adopt a“re-employment”and “social protection against unemployment”, two-pronged approach to deal with severe and complex employment situation. It’s thus clear that upgrading public employment capacity and services and employment security system will be an important task of China's economic and social development. By summing up the international experience and analysis of the employment pressure facing with China, the authors believed that it’s the inevitable choice to reaffirm government's responsibility to create a employment pattern with “flexibility” and “security”. It’s necessary to reform government-related employment security policy.

  5. The blue light indicator in rubidium 5S-5P-5D cascade excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem; Ali, Md. Sabir; Chakrabarti, Alok; Ray, Ayan

    2017-07-01

    The cascade system has played an important role in contemporary research areas related to fields like Rydberg excitation, four wave mixing and non-classical light generation, etc. Depending on the specific objective, co or counter propagating pump-probe laser experimental geometry is followed. However, the stepwise excitation of atoms to states higher than the first excited state deals with increasingly much fewer number of atoms even compared to the population at first excited level. Hence, one needs a practical indicator to study the complex photon-atom interaction of the cascade system. Here, we experimentally analyze the case of rubidium 5S → 5P → 5D as a specimen of two-step excitation and highlight the efficacy of monitoring one branch, which emits 420 nm, of associated cascade decay route 5D → 6P → 5S, as an effective monitor of the coherence in the system.

  6. Electric-dipole 5s - 5p Transitions in Promethiumlike Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2008-02-29

    The 5s-5p electric-dipole resonance transitions in highly ionized promethiumlike ions have been studied applying relativistic multi-reference Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory. The transition wavelengths are determined to within 0.2 {angstrom} in the more highly charged ions, where the level degeneracies are small. For somewhat lighter ions a very large reference space was used in order to account for the many degeneracies. In order to calculate transition probabilities and lifetimes, correlation corrections have been added to the transition operator in the next order. The contributions from the higher orders of the theory, that is, frequency-dependent Breit correction, Lamb shift, and mass shifts, have been estimated. The results are used to re-assess spectroscopic data from beam-foil, electron beam ion trap, and tokamak observations.

  7. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supe...

  8. Smooth non-extremal D1-D5-P solutions as charged gravitational instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative and more direct construction of the non-supersymmetric D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. We show that these solutions --- with all three charges and both rotations turned on --- can be viewed as a charged version of the Myers-Perry instanton. We present an inverse scattering construction of the Myers-Perry instanton metric in Euclidean five-dimensional gravity. The angular momentum bounds in this construction turn out to be precisely the ones necessary for the smooth microstate geometries. We add charges on the Myers-Perry instanton using appropriate SO(4,4) hidden symmetry transformations. The full construction can be viewed as an extension and simplification of a previous work by Katsimpouri, Kleinschmidt and Virmani.

  9. Sua5p is required for telomere recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Meng; Xiao-Fen Chen; Yan Hu; Hong-Bo Tang; Wei Dang; Jin-Qiu Zhou

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Telomeres are highly organized DNA-protein struc-tures at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes [1]. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each chro-mosome end has TG_(1-3)/C_(1-3)A double-stranded telomeric DNA and a G-rich single-stranded tail [2]. The replica-tion of telomere involves both telomerase and recombi-nation pathways [3, 4]. When telomerase is absent, te-lomeric DNA will progressively shorten, and the colony will eventually undergo senescence [4]. Some survivors will escape senescence by maintaining telomeres through a Rad52-dependent homologous recombination mecha-nism [3]. Our previous work had identified a conserved non-OB-fold single-stranded telomeric (ssTG) DNA binding protein Sua5p, which facilitates telomerase ac-tivity [5].

  10. Activity-dependent PI(3,5)P2 synthesis controls AMPA receptor trafficking during synaptic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Amber J; Zolov, Sergey N; Kauffman, Emily J; Zhang, Yanling; Strunk, Bethany S; Weisman, Lois S; Sutton, Michael A

    2014-11-11

    Dynamic regulation of phosphoinositide lipids (PIPs) is crucial for diverse cellular functions, and, in neurons, PIPs regulate membrane trafficking events that control synapse function. Neurons are particularly sensitive to the levels of the low abundant PIP, phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], because mutations in PI(3,5)P2-related genes are implicated in multiple neurological disorders, including epilepsy, severe neuropathy, and neurodegeneration. Despite the importance of PI(3,5)P2 for neural function, surprisingly little is known about this signaling lipid in neurons, or any cell type. Notably, the mammalian homolog of yeast vacuole segregation mutant (Vac14), a scaffold for the PI(3,5)P2 synthesis complex, is concentrated at excitatory synapses, suggesting a potential role for PI(3,5)P2 in controlling synapse function and/or plasticity. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) by the lipid kinase PI3P 5-kinase (PIKfyve). Here, we present methods to measure and control PI(3,5)P2 synthesis in hippocampal neurons and show that changes in neural activity dynamically regulate the levels of multiple PIPs, with PI(3,5)P2 being among the most dynamic. The levels of PI(3,5)P2 in neurons increased during two distinct forms of synaptic depression, and inhibition of PIKfyve activity prevented or reversed induction of synaptic weakening. Moreover, altering neuronal PI(3,5)P2 levels was sufficient to regulate synaptic strength bidirectionally, with enhanced synaptic function accompanying loss of PI(3,5)P2 and reduced synaptic strength following increased PI(3,5)P2 levels. Finally, inhibiting PI(3,5)P2 synthesis alters endocytosis and recycling of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), implicating PI(3,5)P2 dynamics in AMPAR trafficking. Together, these data identify PI(3,5)P2-dependent signaling as a regulatory pathway that is critical for activity-dependent changes in synapse strength.

  11. MicroRNA-195-5p suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing naked cuticle homolog 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qiang; Chu, Xiangdong; Wang, Peng

    2017-03-01

    MiR-195-5p has been shown to play an essential role in human cancer progression. Nevertheless, the biological role of miR-195-5p in osteosarcoma development remains unclear. In this study, real-time PCR was performed to examine the miR-195-5p expression in human osteosarcoma cell lines. CCK-8 assay and Transwell assay were carried out to measure the effect of miR-195-5p on cell proliferation and invasion. Luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the targets of miR-195-5p. The results showed that miR-195-5p was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma cells. Forced expression of miR-195-5p significantly inhibited cell proliferation, suppressed cell migration and invasion, compared with wild-type and control-transfected osteosarcoma cells. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-195-5p binds to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Naked cuticle homolog 1 (NKD1), indicating that NKD1 was a novel target of miR-195-5p. NKD1 mRNA and protein levels were reduced after overexpression of miR-195-5p. Moreover, silencing of NKD1 significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Accordingly, our results support a tumor suppressor role of miR-195-5p in osteosarcoma through inhibiting NKD1, and it may be a promising therapeutic target for osteosarcoma. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. MiR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by activating β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyang; He, Lihong; Yue, Qing; Lu, Junhou; Kang, Naixin; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in hepatocyte growth factor -treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability. Overexpression of miR-9-5p promoted MSC migration, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-9-5p decreased MSC migration. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we screened the target genes of miR-9-5p and report for the first time that CK1α and GSK3β, two inhibitors of β-catenin signaling pathway, were direct targets of miR-9-5p in MSCs and that overexpression of miR-9-5p upregulated β-catenin signaling pathway. In line with these data, inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathway by FH535 decreased the miR-9-5p-promoted migration of MSCs, while activation of β-catenin signaling pathway by LiCl rescued the impaired migration of MSCs triggered by miR-9-5p inhibitor. Furthermore, the formation and distribution of focal adhesions as well as the reorganization of F-actin were affected by the expression of miR-9-5p. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by upregulating β-catenin signaling pathway, shedding light on the optimization of MSCs for cell replacement therapy through manipulating the expression level of miR-9-5p. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that...

  14. Using glycosaminoglycan/chemokine interactions for the long-term delivery of 5P12-RANTES in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nick X; Sieg, Scott F; Lederman, Michael M; Offord, Robin E; Hartley, Oliver; von Recum, Horst A

    2013-10-07

    5P12-RANTES is a recently developed chemokine analogue that has shown high level protection from SHIV infection in macaques. However, the feasibility of using 5P12-RANTES as a long-term HIV prevention agent has not been explored partially due to the lack of available delivery devices that can easily be modified for long-term release profiles. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been known for their affinity for various cytokines and chemokines, including native RANTES, or CCL5. In this work, we investigated used of GAGs in generating a chemokine drug delivery device. Initial studies used surface plasmon resonance analysis to characterize and compare the affinities of different GAGs to 5P12-RANTES. These different GAGs were then incorporated into drug delivery polymeric hydrogels to engineer sustained release of the chemokines. In vitro release studies of 5P12-RANTES from the resulting polymers were performed, and we found that 5P12-RANTES release from these polymers can be controlled by the amount and type of GAG incorporated. Polymer disks containing GAGs with stronger affinity to 5P12-RANTES resulted in more sustained and longer term release than did polymer disks containing GAGs with weaker 5P12-RANTES affinity. Similar trends were observed by varying the amount of GAGs incorporated into the delivery system. 5P12-RANTES released from these polymers demonstrated good levels of CCR5 blocking, retaining activity even after 30 days of incubation.

  15. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 Is Required for Syntaxin1A Clustering and Neurotransmitter Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.M.; Habets, R.L.; Kuenen, S.; Witkowska, A.; Kasprowicz, J.; Swerts, J.; Jahn, R.; Bogaart, G. van den; Verstreken, P.

    2013-01-01

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find

  16. New EMBO members' review: actin cytoskeleton regulation through modulation of PI(4,5)P(2) rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, P

    2001-08-15

    The phosphoinositide lipid PI(4,5)P(2) is now established as a key cofactor in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton and in vesicle trafficking. PI(4,5)P(2) accumulates at membrane rafts and promotes local co-recruitment and activation of specific signaling components at the cell membrane. PI(4,5)P(2) rafts may thus be platforms for local regulation of morphogenetic activity at the cell membrane. Raft PI(4,5)P(2) is regulated by lipid kinases (PI5-kinases) and lipid phosphatases (e.g. synaptojanin). In addition, GAP43-like proteins have recently emerged as a group of PI(4,5)P(2) raft-modulating proteins. These locally abundant proteins accumulate at inner leaflet plasmalemmal rafts where they bind to and co-distribute with PI(4,5)P(2), and promote actin cytoskeleton accumulation and dynamics. In keeping with their proposed role as positive modulators of PI(4,5)P(2) raft function, GAP43-like proteins confer competence for regulated morphogenetic activity on cells that express them. Their function has been investigated extensively in the nervous system, where their expression promotes neurite outgrowth, anatomical plasticity and nerve regeneration. Extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors may thus converge to modulate PI(4,5)P(2) rafts, upstream of regulated activity at the cell surface.

  17. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...

  18. miR-3940-5p enhances homologous recombination after DSB in Cr(VI) exposed 16HBE cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Hu, Guiping; Li, Ping; Tang, Shichuan; Zhang, Ji; Jia, Guang

    2016-02-17

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-recognized human carcinogen, yet the molecular mechanisms by which cause human cancer are still not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs, are involved in carcinogenesis and DNA damage repair. Previous occupational population study showed that hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) downregulated plasma miR-3940-5p level, and a low miR-3940-5p level was associated with high XRCC2 expression in lymphocytes, indicating that miR-3940-5p maybe play a protective effect in Cr(VI) induced DNA damage. Here we investigated miR-3940-5p expression and its roles in DNA repair in Cr(VI)-treated 16HBE cells. miR-3940-5p change was detected by qRT-PCR. Rad51 foci formation and double strand break (DSB) were investigated to assess homologous recombination repair (HR) capacity by Immunofluorescent assay and Neutral Comet assay. XRCC2 expression was also evaluated after miRNA oligonucleotides transfection using Western blot. Cr(VI) treatment suppressed miR-3940-5p level in 16HBE cells. miR-3904-5p mimic downregulated XRCC2 expression. As a result, the formation of Rad51-foci was inhibited and DSB repair was prolonged. The results indicate that miR-3940-5p plays a protective effect in Cr(VI) induced DNA damage.

  19. Insights into the molecular recognition of the granuphilin C2A domain with PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chanjuan; Wu, Bo; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jiahai; Chu, Huiying; Wang, Aoli; Liu, Qingsong; Shi, Yunyu; Li, Guohui; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a key player in regulating the process of excytosis, including insulin secretion. Granuphilin, a tandem C2 domain containing protein, mediates the docking of insulin granules onto plasma membrane. The C2A domain plays key roles in this process through interaction with PI(4,5)P2. In this study, we have investigated the molecular recognition mechanism of granuphilin-C2A domain to PI(4,5)P2 head group, and further to PI(4,5)P2-nanodisc by NMR, ITC, MST and SEC methods. Our results demonstrate that PI(4,5)P2 binds to the concave surface of granuphilin-C2A domain. The key residues involved in the binding were validated by mutation analysis.

  20. Strategi Pemberdayaan Perusahaan Waralaba Lokal Menuju Waralaba Global: Studi Kasus Good Corporate Governance oleh Eksekutif Puncak di J.Co, Es Teller 77, dan Pecel Lele Lela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelo Yosep Laurentius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly intended for reviewing and strengthening leadership, corporate governance good practices and management philosophy in the concepts, systems, and human resources (HR of the company. A new progressive corporate leader should be able to quickly identify the strengths and weaknesses of his/her business, to increase the first and to reduce the pressures or to liquidate the later. Finally, he/she must be able to encourage his/her subordinates to achieve easily identified and highly attractive goals. The target is to build the 21st-century company where all employees realize that they can make it different and that they will warmly welcome the managerial motivation. Thus, the chief executive officer assumes the responsibility for constructive managerial skills. Research used qualitative approach to disclose GCG in local franchise companies. Case study was done purposively with chief executive officer of the company. Data were gathered by observation and literature study. Analysis was conducted by data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion.

  1. Government Construction Safety Supervision and Strategies Game%政府建筑安全监管博弈分析及策略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝春

    2011-01-01

    建筑安全事故的频繁发生已严重制约着和谐社会的构建和建筑业的健康发展.基于博弈论原理,从政府监管机构、承包商、监理三个安全责任主体利益考虑,构建了监管机构与承包商、监管机构与监理的博弈模型,分析了建筑安全事故产生的本质原因,并提出了安全监管的应对措施,以降低建筑安全事故的发生.%The frequent occurrence of accidents in censtruction has seriously restricted the construction of harmonious society and the healthy development of the construction industry.Based on the game theory, from the government regulatory agencies, contractors, supervision of the security responsibility of the three main interests, the paper builds regulatory agencies and contractors, regulatory agencies and supervision of the game model to analyze the construction safety accidents of nature, and puts forward security control measures in order to lower construction safety accidents.

  2. Translocation between PI(4,5)P2-poor and PI(4,5)P2-rich microdomains during store depletion determines STIM1 conformation and Orai1 gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maléth, Jozsef; Choi, Seok; Muallem, Shmuel; Ahuja, Malini

    2014-12-17

    The Orai1-STIM1 current undergoes slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (SCDI) mediated by the binding of SARAF to STIM1. Here we report the use of SCDI by SARAF as a probe of the conformation and microdomain localization of the Orai1-STIM1 complex. We find that the interaction of STIM1 with Orai1 carboxyl terminus (C terminus) and the STIM1 K-domain are required for the interaction of SARAF with STIM1 and SCDI. STIM1-Orai1 must be in a PM/ER microdomain tethered by E-Syt1, stabilized by septin4 and enriched in PI(4,5)P2 for STIM1-SARAF interaction. Targeting STIM1 to PI(4,5)P2-rich and -poor microdomains reveals that SARAF-dependent SCDI is observed only when STIM1-Orai1 are within the PI(4,5)P2-rich microdomain. Notably, store depletion results in transient localization of STIM1-Orai1 in the PI(4,5)P2-poor microdomain, which then translocates to the PI(4,5)P2-rich domain. These findings reveal the role of PM/ER tethers in the regulation of Orai1 function and a mode of regulation by PI(4,5)P2 involving translocation between PI(4,5)P2 microdomains.

  3. Visualization of Ins(1,4,5)P3 dynamics in living cells: two distinct pathways for Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation following mechanical stimulation of HSY-EA1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Akihiro; Tanimura, Akihiko; Morita, Takao; Tojyo, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the contribution of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] generation on the mechanical-stimulation-induced Ca(2+) response was investigated in HSY-EA1 cells. Mechanical stimulation induced a local increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) ([IP(3)](i)), as indicated by the Ins(1,4,5)P(3) biosensor LIBRAvIII. The area of this increase expanded like an intracellular Ins(1,4,5)P(3) wave as [IP(3)](i) increased in the stimulated region. A small transient [IP(3)](i) increase was subsequently seen in neighboring cells. The phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 abolished these Ins(1,4,5)P(3) responses and resultant Ca(2+) releases. The purinergic receptor blocker suramin completely blocked increases in [IP(3)](1) and the Ca(2+) release in neighboring cells, but failed to attenuate the responses in mechanically stimulated cells. These results indicate that generation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) in response to mechanical stimulation is primarily independent of extracellular ATP. The speed of the mechanical-stimulation-induced [IP(3)](i) increase was much more rapid than that induced by a supramaximal concentration of ATP (1 mM). The contribution of the Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-induced Ca(2+) release was larger than that of Ca(2+) entry in the Ca(2+) response to mechanical stimulation in HSY-EA1 cells.

  4. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Gang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liu, Dingyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wang, Zeyou [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Minghua [The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yuan, Xianrui, E-mail: xry69@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells.

  5. hsa-miR-125a-5p Enhances Invasion Ability in Non-Small Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhua WANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by partially binding complementary to target sites in mRNAs. Although some impaired miRNA regulations have been observed in many human cancers, the functions of miR-125a are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p in NSCLC cell lines and the relationship between hsa-miR-125a-5p and the invasion of lung cancer cells. Methods The expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p and the effectiveness for a given period time after being transfected sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide, which were 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h and 72 h, were examined by realtime PCR. Meanwhile, we investigated the modification of invasive ability in A549 and NCI-H460 cells by transwell. Results Real-time PCR showed that hsa-miR-125a-5p was poorly-expressed in 6 lung cancer cell lines, especially in LH7, NCI-H460, SPC-A-1 and A549. The highest expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p occurred in the cells transfected with sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide 36 h. Furthermore, the invasive abilities of A549 and NCI-H46O were enhanced by up-regulating hsa-miR-125a-5p. Conclusion hsa-miR-125a-5p was poorly-expressed in lung cancer cells and it could enhance lung cancer cell invasion by up-regulating hsa-miR-125a-5p.

  6. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  7. Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now become quite obvious that the Internet has brought significant changes to our society and a break on how we lived before its emergence. It is still too early to assess the impact on society of the new services at our disposal, such as the capacity to communicate faster and cheaper on a global scale, access information and, perhaps more importantly, to produce and disseminate information in a way that is accessible to all.It is clear that the advent of the Information Society implies changes in our society that constitute a point of no return. However, contrary to what happened when we entered the Industrial Age about three centuries ago, when the changing process was slow and led by older individuals, these days the entrance into the Information Society is taking place rapidly and the decisive players are younger people. The global nature of the Internet, the possibility of producing and distributing any type of content in digital form at almost zero cost, as well as the vast number of people who use the web, have highlighted the need for new forms of intervention in a sector where there are many types of players. It is in this context that the problem of Internet Governance becomes a very current issue, inasmuch as one feels the need to guarantee a diversity of rights and duties, which may appear difficult to reconcile.This paper presents a brief overview of the main players and initiatives which, in the field of Internet Governance, have tried to contribute to turning this network into a factor for social development and democraticity on a global scale.

  8. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  9. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneshwar, 751005 (India); Turton, David [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, CNRS URA 2306,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Virmani, Amitabh [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg,Bhubaneshwar, 751005 (India); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute),Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2015-11-09

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supersymmetric black hole microstate geometries with identified CFT duals presently known.

  10. Homozygosity mapping to chromosome 5p15 of a gene responsible for Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, J; Dakeishi, M; Ohura, T; Inoue, K; Manabe, M; Wada, Y; Koizumi, A

    2001-06-08

    Hartnup disorder is an autosomal recessive phenotype involving a transporter for monoamino-monocarboxylic acids. Genetic analysis of the mouse model mapped its locus to human chromosome 11q13 (8). We report here the results of linkage analysis in two Japanese first cousin-marriage families. In the first family, the proband had Hartnup disorder and his deceased older brother was reported to have had typical Hartnup symptoms. The younger brother of the proband was shown to have decreased tryptophan absorption by oral loading test. In the second family, a 6-year-old girl, the proband, had specific hyperaminoaciduria. DNA was isolated from either blood samples or umbilical cord stumps. Genome-wide screening by homozygosity mapping was conducted. Taking into account that the older brother was affected and the younger brother was a carrier in the first family, homozygosity mapping (LOD score = 3.55) and GENEHUNTER (LOD score = 3.28) locates the locus of the Hartnup disorder on 5p15. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Regulation of p53 expression and apoptosis by vault RNA2-1-5p in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lu; Hao, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ping; Zou, Binbin; Zhang, Yu-xiang

    2015-09-29

    nc886 or VRNA2-1 has recently been identified as a noncoding RNA instead of a vault RNA or a pre-microRNA. Several studies have reported that pre-miR-886 plays a tumor-suppressive role in a wide range of cancer cells through its activity as a cellular protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) ligand and repressor. However, by sequencing stem-PCR products, we found that a microRNA originating from this precursor, vault RNA2-1-5p (VTRNA2-1-5p), occurs in cervical cancer cells. The expression levels of the predicted targets of VTRNA2-1-5p are negatively correlated with VTRNA2-1-5p levels by quantitative reversion transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Previous results have shown that VTRNA2-1-5p is overexpressed in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCCs) compared with adjacent healthy tissues. Inhibition of VTRNA2-1-5p increases Bax protein expression and apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells. Our findings suggest that VTRNA2-1-5p has oncogenic activity related to the progression of cervical cancer. Here, we report that VTRNA2-1-5p directly targeted p53 expression and functioned as an oncomir in cervical cancer. VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition decreased cervical cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and tumorigenicity while increasing apoptosis and p53 expression. Interestingly, VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition also increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells. In human clinical cervical cancer specimens, low p53 expression and high VTRNA2-1-5p expression were positively associated.In addition, VTRNA2-1-5p was found to directly target the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of p53. We propose that VTRNA2-1-5p is a direct regulator of p53 and suggest that it plays an essential role in the apoptosis and proliferation of cervical cancer cells.

  12. Urban Governance of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.

  13. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... offers new perspectives on data, concepts and production of political numbers. Based on an analysis of various approaches to estimation of the number of irregular migration and an outline of biometric visions in the European Union on data production, the paper concludes that the changes caused...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  14. Dawn of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Damsgaard, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Danish initiative implemented to stimulate e-government adoption. The e-Day initiative simply yet powerfully states that 'one governmental authority has the right to demand that its communication with another authority must be in electronic format' which is expected to create ripple effects both...... internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental......Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest...

  15. Molecular Recognition of PTS-1 Cargo Proteins by Pex5p: Implications for Protein Mistargeting in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mesa-Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3–4 orders of magnitude reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.

  16. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 is required for Syntaxin1A clustering and neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Thang Manh; Habets, Ron L P; Kuenen, Sabine; Witkowska, Agata; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Swerts, Jef; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert; Verstreken, Patrik

    2013-03-20

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find the lipid in membrane domains at neurotransmitter release sites, where it concentrates with Syntaxin1A, a protein essential for vesicle fusion. Reducing PI(3,4,5)P3 availability disperses Syntaxin1A clusters and increasing PI(3,4,5)P3 levels rescues this defect. In artificial giant unilamellar vesicles, PI(3,4,5)P3 also induces Syntaxin1A domain formation and this clustering, in vitro and in vivo, is dependent on positively charged residues in the Syntaxin1A-juxtamembrane domain. Functionally, reduced PI(3,4,5)P3 causes temperature-sensitive paralysis and reduced neurotransmitter release, a phenotype also seen in animals expressing a Syntaxin1A with a mutated juxtamembrane domain. Thus, our data indicate that PI(3,4,5)P3, based on electrostatic interactions, clusters Syntaxin1A at release sites to regulate neurotransmitter release.

  17. PI(4,5)P2 regulates myoblast fusion through Arp2/3 regulator localization at the fusion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Ingo; Deng, Su; Baylies, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Cell-cell fusion is a regulated process that requires merging of the opposing membranes and underlying cytoskeletons. However, the integration between membrane and cytoskeleton signaling during fusion is not known. Using Drosophila, we demonstrate that the membrane phosphoinositide PI(4,5)P2 is a crucial regulator of F-actin dynamics during myoblast fusion. PI(4,5)P2 is locally enriched and colocalizes spatially and temporally with the F-actin focus that defines the fusion site. PI(4,5)P2 enrichment depends on receptor engagement but is upstream or parallel to actin remodeling. Regulators of actin branching via Arp2/3 colocalize with PI(4,5)P2 in vivo and bind PI(4,5)P2 in vitro. Manipulation of PI(4,5)P2 availability leads to impaired fusion, with a reduction in the F-actin focus size and altered focus morphology. Mechanistically, the changes in the actin focus are due to a failure in the enrichment of actin regulators at the fusion site. Moreover, improper localization of these regulators hinders expansion of the fusion interface. Thus, PI(4,5)P2 enrichment at the fusion site encodes spatial and temporal information that regulates fusion progression through the localization of activators of actin polymerization.

  18. PI(3,5)P2 controls endosomal branched actin dynamics by regulating cortactin-actin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nan Hyung; Qi, Aidong; Weaver, Alissa M

    2015-08-31

    Branched actin critically contributes to membrane trafficking by regulating membrane curvature, dynamics, fission, and transport. However, how actin dynamics are controlled at membranes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the branched actin regulator cortactin as a direct binding partner of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and demonstrate that their interaction promotes turnover of late endosomal actin. In vitro biochemical studies indicated that cortactin binds PI(3,5)P2 via its actin filament-binding region. Furthermore, PI(3,5)P2 competed with actin filaments for binding to cortactin, thereby antagonizing cortactin activity. These findings suggest that PI(3,5)P2 formation on endosomes may remove cortactin from endosome-associated branched actin. Indeed, inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 production led to cortactin accumulation and actin stabilization on Rab7(+) endosomes. Conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity greatly reduced cortactin localization to late endosomes. Knockdown of cortactin reversed PI(3,5)P2-inhibitor-induced actin accumulation and stabilization on endosomes. These data suggest a model in which PI(3,5)P2 binding removes cortactin from late endosomal branched actin networks and thereby promotes net actin turnover.

  19. miR-330-5p inhibits proliferation and migration of keratinocytes by targeting Pdia3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Kyu; Yoo, Hye-In; Choi, Keonwoo; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim

    2015-12-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play important roles in cellular processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In skin biology, several miRNAs have been shown to be associated with differentiation, migration and apoptosis of keratinocytes, and regulation of the hair cycle. Although the biological role of miR-330-5p has been reported in several cancers and cells, the function and molecular mechanism of miR-330-5p in skin keratinocytes have not been identified. In this study, we found that miR-330-5p inhibited the proliferation and migration of mouse keratinocytes. Among the candidate target genes of miR-330-5p searched using microarray analysis, we found that the expression of Pdia3 was directly regulated by miR-330-5p in the mouse keratinocyte. Moreover, inhibition of Pdia3 expression caused decreased proliferation and migration ability of mouse keratinocytes. Additionally, expressions of miR-330-5p and Pdia3 displayed an inverse correlation with respect to the hair cycle stage. These results indicated that regulation of Pdia3 expression by miR-330-5p is important in maintaining the hair cycle through regulation of the proliferation and migration capability of keratinocytes. © 2015 FEBS.

  20. PI(4,5)P2-dependent microdomain assemblies capture microtubules to promote and control leading edge motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Tamara; Caroni, Pico

    2005-04-11

    The lipid second messenger PI(4,5)P(2) modulates actin dynamics, and its local accumulation at plasmalemmal microdomains (rafts) might mediate regulation of protrusive motility. However, how PI(4,5)P(2)-rich rafts regulate surface motility is not well understood. Here, we show that upon signals promoting cell surface motility, PI(4,5)P(2) directs the assembly of dynamic raft-rich plasmalemmal patches, which promote and sustain protrusive motility. The accumulation of PI(4,5)P(2) at rafts, together with Cdc42, promotes patch assembly through N-WASP. The patches exhibit locally regulated PI(4,5)P(2) turnover and reduced diffusion-mediated exchange with their environment. Patches capture microtubules (MTs) through patch IQGAP1, to stabilize MTs at the leading edge. Captured MTs in turn deliver PKA to patches to promote patch clustering through further PI(4,5)P(2) accumulation in response to cAMP. Patch clustering restricts, spatially confines, and polarizes protrusive motility. Thus, PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent raft-rich patches enhance local signaling for motility, and their assembly into clusters is regulated through captured MTs and PKA, coupling local regulation of motility to cell polarity, and organization.

  1. MiR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus miR-BART20-5p regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoji; Choi, Hoyun; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2015-01-28

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI A rightward transcript (BART) microRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed in EBV-associated tumors, the role of most BART miRNAs is unclear. In this study, we showed that Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) expression was significantly lower in EBV-infected AGS-EBV cells than in EBV-negative AGS cells and investigated whether BART miRNAs target BAD. Using bioinformatics analysis, five BART miRNAs showing seed match with the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of BAD were selected. Of these, only miR-BART20-5p reduced BAD expression when individually transfected into AGS cells. A luciferase assay revealed that miR-BART20-5p directly targets BAD. The expression of BAD mRNA and protein was decreased by miR-BART20-5p and increased by an inhibitor of miR-BART20-5p. PE-Annexin V staining and cell proliferation assays showed that miR-BART20-5p reduced apoptosis and enhanced cell growth. Furthermore, miR-BART20-5p increased chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel. Our data suggest that miR-BART20-5p contributes to tumorigenesis of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of BAD.

  3. miR-17-5p inhibitor enhances chemosensitivity to gemcitabine via upregulating Bim expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Jiao; Liu, Wen-Song; Sun, Wen-Hui; Wu, Jun; Ji, Mei; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Xiao; Jiang, Jing-Ting; Wu, Chang-Ping

    2012-12-01

    miR-17-5p is reported to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, and it plays an important role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Gemcitabine is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, however the chemoresistance limits the curative effect. In the present study, we investigated whether inhibition of miR-17-5p could enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. miR-17-5p inhibitor was transfected to pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 and BxPC3, and then cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, and chemosensitivity to gemcitabine were measured in vitro. Our data showed that Panc-1 and BxPC3 cells transfected with miR-17-5p inhibitor showed growth inhibition, spontaneous apoptosis, higher caspase-3 activation, and increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine. In addition, miR-17-5p inhibitor upregulated Bim protein expression in a dose-dependent manner without changing the Bim mRNA level, and it increased the activity of a luciferase reporter construct containing the Bim-3' untranslated region. These results prove that miR-17-5p negatively regulates Bim at the posttranscriptional level. We suggest that miR-17-5p inhibitor gene therapy would be a novel approach to chemosensitization for human pancreatic cancer.

  4. Research on Strategies for the Government to Deal With Online Public Opinion in We-Media Era%自媒体时代政府应对网络舆情策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭三强; 陈静; 王燕华; 胡晖

    2015-01-01

    The production of We-Media makes the network public opinions evolve rapidly,making the gov-ernment face new challenges.Based on summarizing the characteristics of network public opinion in the age of We-Media,the paper analyzes the problems and reasons when dealing with network public opinion,and proposes the corresponding strategies.%自媒体的产生使网络舆情发展迅猛,政府应对出现了新挑战.本文在概括自媒体时代网络舆情特点的基础上,分析了政府应对网络舆情存在的问题及原因,并提出了政府应对策略.

  5. Evaluating the ability of artificial neural network and PCA-M5P models in predicting leachate COD load in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Amiri, Hamid; Rakhshandehroo, G Reza

    2016-09-01

    Waste burial in uncontrolled landfills can cause serious environmental damages and unpleasant consequences. Leachates produced in landfills have the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater resources. Leachate management is one of the major issues with respect to landfills environmental impacts. Improper design of landfills can lead to leachate spread in the environment, and hence, engineered landfills are required to have leachate monitoring programs. The high cost of such programs may be greatly reduced and cost efficiency of the program may be optimized if one can predict leachate contamination level and foresee management and treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to develop two expert systems consisting of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis-M5P (PCA-M5P) models to predict Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load in leachates produced in lab-scale landfills. Measured data from three landfill lysimeters, including rainfall depth, number of days after waste deposition, thickness of top and bottom Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs), and thickness of top cover over the lysimeter, were utilized to develop, train, validate, and test the expert systems and predict the leachate COD load. Statistical analysis of the prediction results showed that both models possess good prediction ability with a slight superiority for ANN over PCA-M5P. Based on test datasets, the mean absolute percentage error for ANN and PCA-M5P models were 4% and 12%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient for both models was greater than 0.98. Developed models may be used as a rough estimate for leachate COD load prediction in primary landfill designs, where the effect of a top and/or bottom liner is disputed.

  6. PU.1 Is Identified as a Novel Metastasis Suppressor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Regulating the miR-615-5p/IGF2 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-Jie; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Chang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Yan-Feng; Zong, Hong; Fan, Qing-Xia; Wang, Liu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis is the major cause of tumor recurrence, difficulty for cure and low survival rate. Excavating key transcription factors, which can regulate tumor invasion and metastasis, are crucial to the development of therapeutic strategies for cancers. PU.1 is a master hematopoietic transcription factor and a vital regulator in life. Here, we report that, compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues, expression of PU.1 mRNA in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but not primary HCC, was significantly down-regulated. In addition, levels of PU.1 mRNA in metastatic hepatoma cell lines MHCC97L and MHCC97H were much lower than in non-metastatic Hep3B cells. Transwell invasion assays after PU.1 siRNA transfection showed that the invasion of hepatoma cell lines was increased markedly by PU.1 knockdown. Oppositely, overexpression of PU.1 suppressed the invasion of these cells. However, knockdown and overexpression of PU.1 did not influence proliferation. Finally, we tried to explore the potential mechanism of PU.1 suppressing hepatoma cell invasion. ChIP-qPCR analysis showed that PU.1 exhibited a high binding capacity with miR-615-5p promoter sequence. Overexpression of PU.1 caused a dramatic increase of pri-, pre- and mature miR-615-5p, as well as a marked decrease of miR-615-5p target gene IGF2. These data indicate that PU.1 inhibits invasion of human HCC through promoting miR-615-5p and suppressing IGF2. These findings improve our understanding of PU.1 regulatory roles and provided a potential target for metastatic HCC diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system at ER-PM junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Lun; Liou, Jen

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-Ca(2+) signaling system is important for cell activation in response to various extracellular stimuli. This signaling system is initiated by receptor-induced hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane (PM) to generate the soluble second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 subsequently triggers the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store to the cytosol to activate Ca(2+)-mediated responses, such as secretion and proliferation. The consumed PM PI(4,5)P2 and ER Ca(2+) must be quickly restored to sustain signaling responses, and to maintain the homeostasis of PI(4,5)P2 and Ca(2+). Since phosphatidylinositol (PI), the precursor lipid for PM PI(4,5)P2, is synthesized in the ER membrane, and a Ca(2+) influx across the PM is required to refill the ER Ca(2+) store, efficient communications between the ER and the PM are critical for the homeostatic regulation of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. This review describes the major findings that established the framework of the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system, and recent discoveries on feedback control mechanisms at ER-PM junctions that sustain the PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling system. Particular emphasis is placed on the characterization of ER-PM junctions where efficient communications between the ER and the PM occur, and the activation mechanisms of proteins that dynamically localize to ER-PM junctions to provide the feedback control during PI(4,5)P2-Ca(2+) signaling, including the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1, the extended synaptotagmin E-Syt1, and the PI transfer protein Nir2. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  8. The Problem of Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Its Governance Strategy%中国企业社会环保责任困境与治理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶陈毅; 罗书章; 陈爱英

    2016-01-01

    随着全球经济的飞速发展与人类物质水平的日益提高,环境污染危机已严重影响到人们的生活质量,公众对外部环境提出了更高的要求。以企业社会责任为出发点,强调环境保护责任,针对企业在生产发展过程中出现的高污染的难题,透析企业环保责任的滞后成因,通过实施环境战略管理和技术革新来提高生产力,减少对环境的污染,增强民众的环保意识,提高消费观念,提出关于企业自身、政府和消费者等方面的应对措施,以创立和改进企业环保责任治理体系,从而构建和谐社会,实现企业的可持续发展。%With the rapid development of economy, people's material living standards continue to improve, but the environmental pollution and damage has seriously affected people's lives, people's demands for the surrounding envi-ronment is getting higher and higher. The corporate social responsibility as the starting point, this article leads to corporate environmental protection responsibility, from the industry of high pollution of for textile companies in the process of production and development of high pollution present situation and confusion, analysis of lag reasons for corporate environmental responsibility, through the implementation of the environment of strategic management and technological innovation to improve productivity, reduce pollution to the environment, enhance the public's aware-ness of environmental protection, increase consumption ideas, also put forward the relevant countermeasures to deal with the enterprises themselves, the government and consumers, to build and improve the evaluation system of cor-porate environmental responsibility, so as to realize the enterprise sustainable development, building a harmonious society.

  9. Problems and strategies of cateringfood safety governance%餐饮业食品安全治理存在的问题及策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to improve food safety in catering food system to ensure people's physical and mental health, and strengthen the management of cateringfood safety. Methods The current status and problems existing in the cateringfoodsystemwereunderstood by means of investigation and interviews. Results Five problems exist in catering foodindustry security governance, including:characteristics of restaurant industry, complex causes of restaurant industry food safety, imperfection of food safety testing, and inspection system, more subject of restaurant industry food safety supervision and weak management of restaurant industry food safety. Four countermeasures wereput forward to, which including strengtheningself-disciplinein food safety industry itself, forming the supervision model of cooperation, improving the food safety inspection system and intensifying catering foodindustry illegal molecular composition.Conclusion The five questions andfour countermeasures are helpfulto the catering industry for the management of food safety problems.%目的:提高餐饮业食品安全,保障人们的身心健康,加强餐饮业食品安全的治理。方法通过调研、走访了解目前餐饮业食品安全现状及存在的问题。结果餐饮业食品安全治理存在的五个方面的问题,餐饮业自身特点、餐饮业食品安全成因复杂、食品安全检测检验体系不完善、餐饮业食品安全监管多主体、餐饮业食品安全自身管理薄弱。并提出了四个对策建议,增强餐饮业自身食品安全的自律,形成通力合作的监管模式,完善食品安全的检测检验体系,加大餐饮业违法分子的惩罚力度。结论总结出的五大问题和四大对策有利于餐饮业食品安全问题的治理。

  10. Governance processes and change within organizational participants of multi-sectoral community health care alliances: the mediating role of vision, mission, strategy agreement and perceived alliance value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Multi-sectoral community health care alliances are organizations that bring together individuals and organizations from different industry sectors to work collaboratively on improving the health and health care in local communities. Long-term success and sustainability of alliances are dependent on their ability to galvanize participants to take action within their 'home' organizations and institutionalize the vision, goals, and programs within participating organizations and the broader community. The purpose of this study was to investigate two mechanisms by which alliance leadership and management processes may promote such changes within organizations participating in alliances. The findings of the study suggest that, despite modest levels of change undertaken by participating organizations, more positive perceptions of alliance leadership, decision making, and conflict management were associated with a greater likelihood of participating organizations making changes as a result of their participation in the alliance, in part by promoting greater vision, mission, and strategy agreement and higher levels of perceived value. Leadership processes had a stronger relationship with change within participating organizations than decision-making style and conflict management processes. Open-ended responses by participants indicated that participating organizations most often incorporated new measures or goals into their existing portfolio of strategic plans and activities in response to alliance participation.

  11. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of total

  12. Binding of PLCδ1PH-GFP to Ptdlns(4,5)P2 prevents inhibition of phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of Ptdlns(4,5)P2 by neomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan WANG; Xiao-na DU; Qing-zhong JIA; Hai-lin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of phospholipase Cδ1 (PLCδ1PH) on inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] by neomycin.Methods: A fusion construct of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PLCδ1PH (PLCδ1PH-GFP), which is known to bind Ptdlns(4,5)P2 specifically, together with laser-scanning confocal microscopy, was used to trace PtdIns(4,5)P2 translocation.Results: Stimulation of the type 1 muscarinic receptor and the bradykinin 2 receptor induced a reversible PLCδ1PH-GFP translocation from the membrane to the cytosol in COS-7 cells. PLC inhibitor U73122 blocked the translocation.Wortmannin, a known PtdIns kinase inhibitor, did not affect the translocation induced by ACh, but blocked recovery after translocation, indicating that PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis occurs through receptor-mediated PLC activation.Neomycin, a commonly used phospholipase C blocker, failed to block the receptor-induced PLCδ1PH-GFP translocation, indicating that neomycin is unable to block PLC-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. However, in the absence of PLCδ1PH-GFP expression, neomycin abolished the receptor-induced hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by PLC. Conclusion: Although PLCδ1PH and neomycin bind to PtdIns(4,5)P2 in a similar way, they have distinct effects on receptor-mediated activation of PLC and PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis.

  13. REGULATION OF HISTAMINE-INDUCED AND UTP-INDUCED INCREASES IN INS(1,4,5)P-3, INS(1,3,4,5)P-4 AND CA2+ BY CYCLIC-AMP IN DDT1 MF-2 CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIPMA, H; DUIN, M; HOITING, B; DENHERTOG, A; NELEMANS, A

    1995-01-01

    1 Stimulation of P-2U-purinoceptors with UTP or histamine H-1-receptors with histamine gave rise to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P-3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P-4) in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. 2 Stimulation of P-2U-purinoceptors or histamin

  14. Between Democracy and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    collective capacities for representation, participation and deliberation crucial to keeping democratic government responsive, effective and accountable to the common will. On this view, all new forms of connective action are ipso facto rejected as the spawn of neoliberalism: They appear as individualistic...... and social movements indicate a need for reconnecting political authorities and laypeople on the output side as a form of alternative political problematization strategy. Hay and Stoker want to mobilize citizens for repoliticizing latent or hidden interest and identity conflicts on the input side...

  15. On the causes of juvenile delinquency and governance strategy%浅谈农村青少年犯罪成因及治理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2013-01-01

    The reform and opening up, with the rural economic policies, the introduction of new, rural productivity has been greatly liberated, resulting in a large number of surplus labor, they poured into the city and region, seek the new way of life, because the comparison of difference of the rich and the poor living conditions, low, stimulate some adolescents in rural areas have a strong material desire, but because the legitimate means, the desire of the ability, lack of conditions, resulting in a part of people rush into danger, cause of crime, juvenile crime in rural areas in recent years, the upward trend, therefore causes of rural juvenile crime and the control strategy has the important practical significance.%  改革开放后,随着新的农村经济政策的出台,农村的生产力得到了极大的解放,造成大量的剩余劳动力,他们涌入城市和发达地区,寻求新的生活方式,由于贫富差别的对比,生活条件的低下,刺激了一些农村青少年产生了强烈的物质欲望,但是由于欲望的正当手段、能力、条件的欠缺,致使一部份人铤而走险,导致犯罪,近些年来农村青少年犯罪呈上升的趋势,为此探讨农村青少年犯罪成因及治理策略具有重要的现实意义。

  16. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Howland Island permanent transect site 5P on January 21, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 5P at Howland Island on 1/21/2004.

  17. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 5P on July 2, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 5P at Johnston Atoll on 7/2/2000.

  18. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Kingman Reef permanent transect site 5P on March 17, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 5P at Kingman Reef on 3/17/2002.

  19. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats 1-35 acquired at Baker Island permanent transect site 5P on March 19, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 5P at Baker Island on 3/19/2000.

  20. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  1. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Guangkuan [Department of Neurology, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Di, Zhiyong [Department of Laboratory, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Zhao, Qingjie, E-mail: zhaoqingjie2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-26

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity.

  2. GSE1 negative regulation by miR-489-5p promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Peng, E-mail: chaiyisheng0508@sina.com [Department of General Surgery, The People' s Hospital of Bozhou, Bozhou 236800 (China); Tian, Jingzhong [Department of General Surgery, The People' s Hospital of Bozhou, Bozhou 236800 (China); Zhao, Deyin [Dept of General Surgery, The Hospital of Suzhou, Suzhou 234000 (China); Zhang, Hongyan; Cui, Jian [Department of General Surgery, The People' s Hospital of Bozhou, Bozhou 236800 (China); Ding, Keshuo [Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: 13399519008@163.com [Dept of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China)

    2016-02-26

    Gse1 coiled-coil protein (GSE1), also known as KIAA0182, is a proline rich protein. However, the function of GSE1 is largely unknown. In this study, we reported that GSE1 is overexpression in breast cancer and silencing of GSE1 significantly suppressed breast cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, GSE1 was identified as a direct target of miR-489-5p, which is significantly reduced in breast cancer tissues. In addition, forced expression of miR-489-5p suppressed breast cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, depletion of GSE1 by siRNAs significantly abrogated the enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells consequent to miR-489-5p depletion. Taken together, these findings suggest that GSE1 may function as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and it can be regulated by miR-489-5p. - Highlights: • GSE1 is overexpressed in breast cancer and increased GSE1 expression predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. • Knockdown of GSE1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • GSE1 is a direct target of miR-489-5p. • Forced expression of miR-489-5p inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  3. Kar5p is required for multiple functions in both inner and outer nuclear envelope fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason V; Rose, Mark D

    2014-12-02

    During mating in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse via two sequential membrane fusion steps. SNAREs (i.e., soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and Prm3p mediate outer nuclear membrane fusion, but the inner membrane fusogen remains unknown. Kar5p is a highly conserved transmembrane protein that localizes adjacent to the spindle pole body (SPB), mediates nuclear envelope fusion, and recruits Prm3p adjacent to the SPB. To separate Kar5p's functions, we tested localization, Prm3p recruitment, and nuclear fusion efficiency in various kar5 mutants. All domains and the conserved cysteine residues were essential for nuclear fusion. Several kar5 mutant proteins localized properly but did not mediate Prm3p recruitment; other kar5 mutant proteins localized and recruited Prm3p but were nevertheless defective for nuclear fusion, demonstrating additional functions beyond Prm3p recruitment. We identified one Kar5p domain required for SPB localization, which is dependent on the half-bridge protein Mps3p. Electron microscopy revealed a kar5 mutant that arrests with expanded nuclear envelope bridges, suggesting that Kar5p is required after outer nuclear envelope fusion. Finally, a split-GFP assay demonstrated that Kar5p localizes to both the inner and outer nuclear envelope. These insights suggest a mechanism by which Kar5p mediates inner nuclear membrane fusion.

  4. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  5. miR-483-5p and miR-486-5p are down-regulated in cumulus cells of metaphase II oocytes from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Shan; Zhao, Wanqiu; Shi, Juanzi

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cumulus cells from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS women. In the present study, miRNA expression profiles of the cumulus cell samples were determined by miRNA microarrays. Quantification of selected miRNAs and predicted target genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that miR-483-5p and miR-486-5p are significantly decreased in cumulus cells of PCOS patients PCOS (fold change >2, false discovery rate <0.001). qRT-PCR found that four predicted genes, SOCS3, SRF, PTEN and FOXO1, were significantly increased in PCOS cumulus cells (all P < 0.001), and IGF2 (host gene of miR-483-5p) was significantly decreased in PCOS cumulus cells (P < 0.001). These results indicated that miR-483-5p might play an important role in reducing insulin resistance, and that miR-486-5p might promote cumulus cell proliferation through activation of PI3K/Akt. The findings from this study provided new insights into the complex molecular mechanisms involved in PCOS by revealing pathways possibly regulated by miRNAs. The differences in miRNAs (miR-483-5p, miR-486-5p) and their target gene expression in cumulus cells may provide clues for future research and help to explain aberrant follicular development and subfertility in women with PCOS.

  6. A Structural Equation Model (SEM of Governing Factors Influencing the Implementation of T-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Alshetewi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments around the world have invested significant sums of money on Information and Communication Technology (ICT to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of services been provided to their citizens. However, they have not achieved the desired results because of the lack of interoperability between different government entities. Therefore, many governments have started shifting away from the original concept of e-Government towards a much more transformational approach that encompasses the entire relationship between different government departments and users of public services, which can be termed as transformational government (t- Government. In this paper, a model is proposed for governing factors that impact the implementation of t-Government such as strategy, leadership, stakeholders, citizen centricity and funding in the context of Saudi Arabia. Five constructs are hypothesised to be related to the implementation of t-Government. To clarify the relationships among these constructs, a structural equation model (SEM is utilised to examine the model fit with the five hypotheses. The results show that there are positive and significant relationships among the constructs such as the relationships between strategy and t-Government; the relationships between stakeholders and t-Government; the relationships between leadership and t-Government. This study also showed an insignificant relationship between citizens’ centricity and t-Government and also an insignificant relationship between funding and t-Government. document is a “live” template and already defines the components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] in its style sheet.

  7. Active vacuolar H+ ATPase and functional cycle of Rab5 are required for the vacuolation defect triggered by PtdIns(3,5)P2 loss under PIKfyve or Vps34 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Lauren M; Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Garg, Puneet; Shisheva, Assia

    2016-09-01

    The two evolutionarily conserved mammalian lipid kinases Vps34 and PIKfyve are involved in an important physiological relationship, whereby the former produces phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3P that is used as a substrate for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis by the latter. Reduced production of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in proliferating mammalian cells is phenotypically manifested by the formation of multiple translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles, readily rescued upon exogenous delivery of PtdIns(3,5)P2 or overproduction of PIKfyve. Although the aberrant vacuolation phenomenon has been frequently used as a sensitive functional measure of localized PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, cellular factors governing the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles under PtdIns3P-PtdIns(3,5)P2 loss remain elusive. To gain further mechanistic insight about the vacuolation process following PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, in this study we sought for cellular mechanisms required for manifestation of the aberrant endomembrane vacuoles triggered by PIKfyve or Vps34 dysfunction. The latter was achieved by various means such as pharmacological inhibition, gene disruption, or dominant-interference in several proliferating mammalian cell types. We report here that inhibition of V-ATPase with bafilomycin A1 as well as inactivation of the GTP-GDP cycle of Rab5a GTPase phenotypically rescued or completely precluded the cytoplasmic vacuolization despite the continued presence of inactivated PIKfyve or Vps34. Bafilomycin A1 also restored the aberrant EEA1-positive endosomes, enlarged upon short PIKfyve inhibition with YM201636. Together, our work identifies for the first time that factors such as active V-ATPase or functional Rab5a cycle are acting coincidentally with the PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction in triggering formation of aberrant cytoplasmic vacuoles under PIKfyve or Vps34 dysfunction.

  8. Building Blocks of an E-Government: A Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Jatinder N. Gupta

    2003-01-01

    The movement toward electronic government (e-government) is rapidly advancing as nations exploit new electronic means of communication such as the Internet. The e-government transformation process can be and often is seriously hindered when initiatives are disjointed and uncoordinated by an overall strategy. Although many countries are creating e-government services, there is no documentation of an e-government framework to guide the process. Guidelines for implementation of e-government are ...

  9. IT governance a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This new downloadable pocket guide in the Practical IT Governance series, is designed to provide the reader with a basic understanding of how an organization's Information Technology supports and enables the achievement of its strategies and objectives.

  10. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  11. miR-382-5p Controls Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Through the Downregulation of MXD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Roberta; Rossi, Chiara; Norfo, Ruggiero; Pennucci, Valentina; Barbieri, Greta; Ruberti, Samantha; Rontauroli, Sebastiano; Salati, Simona; Bianchi, Elisa; Manfredini, Rossella

    2016-10-01

    microRNAs are key regulators of gene expression that control stem cell fate by posttranscriptional downregulation of hundreds of target genes through seed pairing in their 3' untranslated region. In fact, miRNAs tightly regulate fundamental stem cell processes, like self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation; therefore, miRNA deregulation may contribute to the development of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. miR-382-5p has been found to be upregulated in patients with myeloid neoplasms, but its role in normal hematopoiesis is still unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-382-5p overexpression in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) leads to a significant decrease of megakaryocyte precursors coupled to increase of granulocyte ones. Furthermore, by means of a computational analysis using different prediction algorithms, we identified several putative mRNA targets of miR-382-5p that are downregulated upon miRNA overexpression (ie, FLI1, GATA2, MAF, MXD1, RUNX1, and SGK1). Among these, we validated MXD1 as real target of miR-382-5p by luciferase reporter assay. Finally, we showed that MXD1 knockdown mimics the effects of miR-382-5p overexpression on granulocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation of CD34(+) cells. Overall, our results demonstrated that miR-382-5p expression favors the expansion of granulocyte lineage and impairs megakaryocyte commitment through MXD1 downregulation. Therefore, our data showed for the first time that the miR-382-5p/MXD1 axis plays a critical role in myelopoiesis by affecting the lineage choice of CD34(+) HSPCs.

  12. Role of miR-181a-5p and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the regulation of myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; Tao, Xuelian; Xu, Huaming; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Li; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Mingzhou; Jiang, Anan; Shuai, Surong; Ma, Jideng; Jin, Long; Wen, Anxiang; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Guangxiang; Xie, Meng; Wu, Jiayun; He, Tao; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuewei

    2016-10-30

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play critical roles in myoblast differentiation. However, the regulation roles of miRNAs and ER stress in myogenic differentiation have not been fully revealed and need to be further studied. Here, we discovered that the expression levels of miR-181a-5p were strongly upregulated during C2C12 cell differentiation. miR-181a-5p overexpression promoted ER stress and differentiation of C2C12 cells, which was accompanied by increasing expression levels of marker genes related to ER stress-mediated apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. Opposite results were observed after inhibition of the miR-181a-5p expression. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments on C2C12 cells showed that miR-181a-5p affected the development of muscle fiber type, but had no significant influence on C2C12 cell proliferation. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells induced by thapsigargin (Tg), the expression levels of both miR-181a-5p and marker genes related to ER stress and myogenesis were upregulated. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells and porcine muscle fibroblast (PMF) cells pretreated with Tg, we found that miR-181a-5p targeted glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP), and influenced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, these results indicate that miR-181a-5p and ER stress have positive synergistic effects on myogenic differentiation by increasing the expression levels of myogenic differentiation key genes and activating the ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway.

  13. 我国服务外包产业集群的治理策略研究%Study on the Governance Strategy of Service Outsourcing Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建斌; 付丽丽; 牛敏杰

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of outsourcing clusters, we need more effective and accurate industrial policy. Industrial cluster is a kind of organization with rich social capital and the demand of clusters surplus is one of the motivations of industry centralization. This paper firstly teased out the current situation of effect evaluation of service outsourcing policies and proposed the core thinking that policies should be made and evaluated in view of cluster governance. Secondly, the social capital characteristic of cluster surplus of cluster governance and the dominant position of our government had been studied, then it constructed a structure entropy model of industrial cluster network in order to exhibit the evolution of social capital or cluster surplus in it and discussed the governance strategy of industrial clusters. In the end, it is proposed that the industrial policies should be revised from decreasing operation cost to advancing social capital or cluster surplus. With such strategies as providing more public service or products, developing informal relationship and building transaction platform, the cluster network should be stickier and more good factors of production should be collected so as to improve the vitality and competiveness of industrial cluster.%服务外包产业集群快速发展,需要更有效、更准确的产业政策继续扶持。产业集群是社会资本丰富的组织,集群剩余索取权是产业集聚的动力之一。文章对服务外包产业政策效果评价现状进行了梳理,提出了从产业集群治理层面进行政策制定及效果评估的核心思想,并进一步分析了产业集群治理的基本机制-集群剩余索取权的社会资本特性以及政府在产业集群治理中主导作用的形成,建构了产业集群网络的结构熵模型以反映社会资本或集群剩余的演化。有关基于熵变的产业集群治理策略方面,文章提出产业政策应从降低企业经营成

  14. 韩国政府反腐倡廉策略及其对我国的启示%The Implementation of Anti-corruption Strategies by Korea's Government and the Significance to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许吉

    2012-01-01

    韩国曾经是一个腐败问题比较严重的国家之一。为打击腐败和发展经济,韩国走过了一条曲折的反腐败道路,并经过多年的努力正在逐步走向清廉的国家。综观其反腐历程,韩国政府所采取的行政伦理法制化策略、政府运作"阳光机制"策略、加大腐败成本策略、鼓励社会力量参与反腐败策略等,对有效遏制与消除公职人员和公共部门的腐败起到了十分重要的作用,确实有不少经验值得中国借鉴。%Korea has made great efforts to fight against corruption and develop its economy, and now a clean and honest government is being built. The successful implementation of anti-corruption strategies in- cluding the legalization of administrative ethics, the "sunshine mechanism" of government operation, the increase of corruption cost and the participation of nongovernmental sectors in anti-corruption plays impor- tant role in restraining and eliminating corruption by civil servants and public sectors. All this is beneficial to China to refer to in fighting against its corruption.

  15. Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ signaling and autophagy induction are interrelated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Welkenhuyzen, Kirsten; Luyten, Tomas; Ponsaerts, Raf; Dewaele, Michael; Molgó, Jordi; Agostinis, Patrizia; Missiaen, Ludwig; De Smedt, Humbert; Parys, Jan B; Bultynck, Geert

    2011-12-01

    The role of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in starvation-induced autophagy remains unclear. Here, we examined Ca2+ dynamics during starvation-induced autophagy and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Tightly correlating with autophagy stimulation, we observed a remodeling of the Ca2+ signalosome. First, short periods of starvation (1 to 3 h) caused a prominent increase of the ER Ca2+-store content and enhanced agonist-induced Ca2+ release. The mechanism involved the upregulation of intralumenal ER Ca2+-binding proteins, calreticulin and Grp78/BiP, which increased the ER Ca2+-buffering capacity and reduced the ER Ca2+ leak. Second, starvation led to Ins(1,4,5)P3R sensitization. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that during starvation Beclin 1, released from Bcl-2, first bound with increasing efficiency to Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs; after reaching a maximal binding after 3 h, binding, however, decreased again. The interaction site of Beclin 1 was determined to be present in the N-terminal Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3R. The starvation-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3R sensitization was abolished in cells treated with BECN1 siRNA, but not with ATG5 siRNA, pointing toward an essential role of Beclin 1 in this process. Moreover, recombinant Beclin 1 sensitized Ins(1,4,5)P3Rs in 45Ca2+-flux assays, indicating a direct regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3R activity by Beclin 1. Finally, we found that Ins(1,4,5)P3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling was critical for starvation-induced autophagy stimulation, since the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM as well as the Ins(1,4,5)P3R inhibitor xestospongin B abolished the increase in LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3-puncta formation. Hence, our results indicate a tight and essential interrelation between intracellular Ca2+ signaling and autophagy stimulation as a proximal event in response to starvation.

  16. Endomembrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 activates the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Nirmal; Chung, Gary H C; Lete, Marta G; Alonso, Alicia; Byrne, Richard D; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé

    2015-09-15

    PKB/Akt activation is a common step in tumour growth, proliferation and survival. Akt activation is understood to occur at the plasma membrane of cells in response to growth factor stimulation and local production of the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] following phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. The metabolism and turnover of phosphoinositides is complex--they act as signalling molecules as well as structural components of biological membranes. The localisation and significance of internal pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has long been speculated upon. By using transfected and recombinant protein probes for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, we show that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is enriched in the nuclear envelope and early endosomes. By exploiting an inducible dimerisation device to recruit Akt to these compartments, we demonstrate that Akt can be locally activated in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and has the potential to phosphorylate compartmentally localised downstream substrates. This could be an important mechanism to regulate Akt isoform substrate specificity or influence the timing and duration of PI3K pathway signalling. Defects in phosphoinositide metabolism and localisation are known to contribute to cancer, suggesting that interactions at subcellular compartments might be worthwhile targets for therapeutic intervention.

  17. miR-486-5p suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by targeting Snail and regulating epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoguang Zhang,1 Tong Zhang,2 Kuo Yang,3 Minghao Zhang,1 Keming Wang1 1Department of Urology, Tianjin Third Central Hospital, Tianjin, 2Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 3Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The most common cause of death from prostate cancer (PCa is metastases. There is an increasing body of evidence that microRNAs play an important role in the development of PCa by regulating target genes involved in tumor metastasis. Here, we identified that expression of miR-486-5p was decreased in metastatic C4-2 cells compared to non-metastatic LNCaP cells. Further validation in clinical samples showed that miR-486-5p expression was significantly decreased in metastatic PCa tissues compared to localized PCa tissues. Functional studies demonstrated that increased miR-486-5p expression can suppress cell migration and the invasive ability of C4-2 cells. Moreover, Snail, a key regulator of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, was verified as a target gene of miR-486-5p. In conclusion, these findings suggest that miR-486-5p plays a suppressive role in mediating the migration and invasion of PCa by directly suppressing the protein expression of Snail and may provide a potential therapeutic target for the disease. Keywords: microRNA, prostate cancer, metastasis, EMT

  18. Synergistic activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-07-01

    G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels play a major role in the control of the heart rate, and require the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for activation. Recently, we have shown that the activity of the heterotetrameric Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel that underlies atrial KACh currents was enhanced by cholesterol. Similarly, the activities of both the Kir3.4 homomer and its active pore mutant Kir3.4* (Kir3.4_S143T) were also enhanced by cholesterol. Here we employ planar lipid bilayers to investigate the crosstalk between PI(4,5)P2 and cholesterol, and demonstrate that these two lipids act synergistically to activate Kir3.4* currents. Further studies using the Xenopus oocytes heterologous expression system suggest that PI(4,5)P2 and cholesterol act via distinct binding sites. Whereas PI(4,5)P2 binds to the cytosolic domain of the channel, the putative binding region of cholesterol is located at the center of the transmembrane domain overlapping the central glycine hinge region of the channel. Together, our data suggest that changes in the levels of two key membrane lipids - cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2 - could act in concert to provide fine-tuning of Kir3 channel function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Atorvastatin Protects Myocardium Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting miR-199a-5p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaBei Zuo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of atorvastatin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in cardiomyocytes and its possible underlying mechanism. Method: Direct cytotoxic effect of OGD/R on cardiomyocytes with and without atorvastatin pretreatment was evaluated. Effects of atorvastatin on expression of GSK-3β and miR-199a-5p were determined using RT-PCR and Western blot. In addition, GSK-3β expression with miR-199a-5p upregulation and downregulation was detected using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results: Pretreatment with atorvastatin significantly improved the recovery of cells viability from OGD/R (pConclusion: These results suggested that atorvastatin provides the cardioprotective effects against I/R injury via increasing GSK-3β through inhibition of miR-199a-5p.

  20. Regulation of autophagy in cardiomyocytes by Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and IP(3)-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Albert; Grubb, David R; Cooley, Nicola; Luo, Jieting; Woodcock, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a process that removes damaged proteins and organelles and is of particular importance in terminally differentiated cells such as cardiomyocytes, where it has primarily a protective role. We investigated the involvement of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)) and its receptors in autophagic responses in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). Treatment with the IP(3)-receptor (IP(3)-R) antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) at 5 or 20 μmol/L resulted in an increase in autophagosome content, defined as puncta labeled by antibody to microtubule associated light chain 3 (LC3). 2-APB also increased autophagic flux, indicated by heightened LC3II accumulation, which was further enhanced by bafilomycin (10nmol/L). Expression of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase (IP(3)-5-Pase) to deplete Ins(1,4,5)P(3) also increased LC3-labeled puncta and LC3II content, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) inhibits autophagy. The IP(3)-R can act as an inhibitory scaffold sequestering the autophagic effector, beclin-1 to its ligand binding domain (LBD). Expression of GFP-IP(3)-R-LBD inhibited autophagic signaling and furthermore, beclin-1 co-immunoprecipitated with the IP(3)-R-LBD. A mutant GFP-IP(3)-R-LBD with reduced ability to bind Ins(1,4,5)P(3) bound beclin-1 and inhibited autophagy similarly to the wild type sequence. These data provide evidence that Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and IP(3)-R act as inhibitors of autophagic responses in cardiomyocytes. By suppressing autophagy, IP(3)-R may contribute to cardiac pathology.

  1. Lipoxin A4 stimulates endothelial miR-126-5p expression and its transfer via microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codagnone, Marilina; Recchiuti, Antonio; Lanuti, Paola; Pierdomenico, Anna Maria; Cianci, Eleonora; Patruno, Sara; Mari, Veronica Cecilia; Simiele, Felice; Di Tomo, Pamela; Pandolfi, Assunta; Romano, Mario

    2017-05-01

    The proresolution lipid mediator lipoxin (LX)A4 bestows protective bioactions on endothelial cells. We examined the impact of LXA4 on transcellular endothelial signaling via microRNA (miR)-containing microvesicles. We report LXA4 inhibition of MV release by TNF-α-treated HUVECs, associated with the down-regulation of 18 miR in endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) and the up-regulation of miR-126-5p, both in HUVECs and in EMVs. LXA4 up-regulated miR-126-5p by ∼5-fold in HUVECs and promoted a release of microvesicles (LXA4-EMVs) that enhanced miR-126-5p by ∼7-fold in recipient HUVECs. In these cells, LXA4-EMVs abrogated the up-regulation of VCAM-1, induced in recipient HUVECs by EMVs released by untreated or TNF-α-treated HUVECs. LXA4-EMVs also reduced by ∼40% the expression of SPRED1, which we validated as an miR-126-5p target, whereas they stimulated monolayer repair in an in vitro wound assay. This effect was lost when the EMVs were depleted of miR-126-5p. These results provide evidence that changes in miR expression and microvesicle packaging and transfer represent a mechanism of action of LXA4, which may be relevant in vascular biology and inflammation.-Codagnone, M., Recchiuti, A., Lanuti, P., Pierdomenico, A. M., Cianci, E., Patruno, S., Mari, V. C., Simiele, F., Di Tomo, P., Pandolfi, A., Romano, M. Lipoxin A4 stimulates endothelial miR-126-5p expression and its transfer via microvesicles. © FASEB.

  2. Involvement of microRNA-135a-5p in the Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Development of effective therapeutic drugs for Parkinson's disease is in great need. During the progression of Parkinson's disease, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2 is activated to promote neurodegeneration. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has a neuroprotective effect during the neural injury of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of ROCK2 and H2S remain ill-defined. In the current study, we addressed these questions. Methods: We used a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced mouse subacute model of Parkinson's disease to study the effects of H2S on astrocytic activation in the mouse striatum, on the levels of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH-positive neuron loss, on the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the mice, and on the changes in ROCK2 and miR-135a-5p expression. Plasmid transfection was applied to modify miR-135a-5p levels in a neuronal cell line HCN-1A. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the relationship between ROCK2 and miR-135a-5p in neuronal cells, and then was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Results: H2S alleviated MPTP-induced astrocytic activation in the mouse striatum, alleviated the increases in TH-positive neuron loss, and improved the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the mice. H2S significantly attenuated the increases in ROCK2 and the decreases in miR-135a-5p by MPTP. MiR-135a-5p targeted the 3'-UTR of ROCK2 mRNA to inhibit its translation in neuronal cells. Conclusion: MiR-135a-5p-regulated ROCK2 may play a role in the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against Parkinson's disease.

  3. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mangolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs, which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma.

  4. miR-181b-5p, miR-195-5p and miR-301a-3p are related with treatment resistance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Huseyin; Akgun, Sakir; Akca, Hakan; Ozturk, Onder; Kabukcu, Burge Basay; Herken, Hasan

    2016-11-30

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences between expression levels of certain miRNAs, as their association with schizophrenia has been well presented in the literature, and to investigate their relation to treatment resistance in schizophrenic patients. Three groups were formed: 1) treatment-resistant group, 2) treatment responsive group and 3) healthy control group. Expression levels of miRNAs from peripheric blood samples were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We investigated the roles of 29 schizophrenia-related miRNAs in schizophrenia treatment and their potentials to be considered as indicators. Among these miRNAs, only miR-181b-5p, miR-195-5p and miR-301a-3p expressions were found to be significantly different between the treatment-resistant group and the group responding well to the treatment. miRNAs may cause resistance by silencing the receptor genes of the drugs used for schizophrenia treatment. miR-181b-5p, miR-195-5p and miR-301a-3p may be candidate indicators that can be used to reveal resistance against schizophrenia treatment.

  5. SOX9 regulates microRNA miR-202-5p/3p expression during mouse testis differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N; Jorgensen, Joan S; Kim, Youngha;

    2013-01-01

    . Expression of the primary transcript of miR-202-5p/3p remained low in XY gonads in a conditional Sox9-null mouse model, suggesting that pri-miR-202 transcription is downstream of SOX9, a transcription factor that is both necessary and sufficient for male sex determination. We identified the pri-miR-202...... findings indicate that expression of the conserved gonad microRNA, miR-202-5p/3p, is downstream of the testis-determining factor SOX9, suggesting an early role in testis development....

  6. MiR-129-5p-mediated Beclin-1 suppression inhibits endothelial cell autophagy in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaohua; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Yiguan

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell injury and subsequent death play an essential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Autophagy of endothelial cells antagonizes the development of atherosclerosis, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. MicroRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) is a well-defined tumor suppressorin some types of cancer, while it is unknown whether miR-129-5p may also play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we addressed this question in the current study. We examined the levels of endothelial cell autophagy in ApoE (-/-) mice suppled with high-fat diet (HFD), a mouse model for atherosclerosis (simplified as HFD mice). We analyzed the levels of Beclin-1 and the levels of miR-129-5p in the purified CD31+ endothelial cells from mouse aorta. Prediction of the binding between miR-129-5p and 3'-UTR of Beclin-1 mRNA was performed by bioinformatics analyses and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of miR-129-5p were further analyzed in an in vitro model using oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that HFD mice developed atherosclerosisin 12 weeks, while the control ApoE (-/-) mice that had received normal diet (simplified as CTL mice) did not. Compared to CTL mice, HFD mice had significantly lower levels of endothelial cell autophagy, resulting from decreases in Beclin-1 protein, but not mRNA. The decreases in Beclin-1 in endothelial cells were due to HFD-induced increases inmiR-129-5p, which suppressed the translation of Beclin-1 mRNA via 3'-UTR binding. These in vivo findings were reproduced in vitro on ox-LDL-treated HAECs. Together, these data suggest that upregulation of miR-129-5p by HFD may impair the protective effects of endothelial cell autophagy against development of atherosclerosis through suppressing protein translation of Beclin-1.

  7. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this fram

  8. Sistemi documentari ed e-government

    OpenAIRE

    Giuva, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The text analyses the role of record management strategies in the e-government process. In this context information technology, policy, standard and procedures are essential to reach the integration between record management and content management.

  9. Governance Structure, Product Diversification, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.C.J. van Oijen; G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProduct diversification and its financial outcomes have been studied exhaustively. However, previous literature has focused on corporations, ignoring other important legal organizations or governance structures. In this paper, we study the diversification strategies of cooperatives and

  10. Governance Structure, Product Diversification, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.C.J. van Oijen; G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProduct diversification and its financial outcomes have been studied exhaustively. However, previous literature has focused on corporations, ignoring other important legal organizations or governance structures. In this paper, we study the diversification strategies of cooperatives and c

  11. Governance Structure, Product Diversification, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.C.J. van Oijen; G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProduct diversification and its financial outcomes have been studied exhaustively. However, previous literature has focused on corporations, ignoring other important legal organizations or governance structures. In this paper, we study the diversification strategies of cooperatives and c

  12. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  13. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RELATIONSHIP WITH STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Issam MF SALTAJI

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights on corporate governance relation through collecting and analyzing different secondary resources such as websites, lectures, published articles and books and primary resources about performance of leading companies implement new strategic models and adopt governance principles. The financial crisis has asked responsible institutions to review all the topics under discussion in this paper through adding more responsibilities on corporate governance and adopting new strategi...

  14. 基于空间格局的西安大都市主体功能区划管治策略%Zoning Governance Strategy of the Metropolitan Main Function of Xi’an Based on Spatial Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 王欣

    2014-01-01

    本文基于对西安大都市区的空间格局窘况,进一步审视主体功能区划作为协调各类空间规划和专项规划、提高资源利用效率的要义,立足于规划体制、资源环境承载力和城乡发展,提出西安大都市区主体功能区划的管治策略。%This paper based on the predicament of the spatial pat ern of Xi’an metropolitan area, further examines the es-sence of the main function division as the coordination of va-rious spatial planning and special planning, improvement the efficiency of resource use, based on the planning system, the bearing capacity of resources, environment and urban and rural development, puts forward the governance strategy of main function zoning of Xi'an metropolitan.

  15. 论G20机制化及中国在全球经济治理中的策略%Institutionalization of G20 and China's Strategy in Global Economic Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹亚宝; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    2008年金融危机以来,G20成为最重要的国际经济协商机制。本文对(320机制化的动因和制约因素加以分析,认为G20机制化的主要动因是金融危机后世界力量格局和经济结构的变迁。而由于G20受到内部和外部的双重制约,其机制化前景并不明朗,很难突破原有的G8模式。本文在此基础上提出中国在全球经济治理中的策略。%G20 has become the most important international economic consultation mechanism after the financial crisis in 2008. This article analyzes the motivations and constraints of the G20 institutionalization, and points out that the pivotal reason of its institutionalization is the change of the power pattern and the economic structure of the world after the financial crisis. Moreover, as the G20 is restricted by both the internal and external factors, its institutionalizing prospect is still uncertain. It may not be able to dismantle the basis of G8. With this consideration, the article offers some useful strategies for China in global economic governance.

  16. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  17. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  18. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  19. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  20. Governance in regional development planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to lay part of the groundwork for a new project aimed at exploring governance aspects concerned with regional development planning (RDP) in Denmark. The fundamental objective is to help establish and clarify a number of research questions to delve into the conditions...... and opportunities for anchoring and implementing such RDP. The paper mainly adopts a descriptive approach to portray tentative pathways to explore and discuss regional governance structures, procedures and practices that are being developed in establishing new RDP processes, strategies and plans....

  1. Website Quality in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate how webmasters within government bodies explain quality of websites. Despite the central position for advancing the communication, bridging usability tests and design, there are surprisingly few studies on how webmasters perceive, experience...... and explain website quality or design issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors' unit of analysis is webmasters from Norwegian web-award-winning organizations. Eight webmasters from four types of websites were interviewed. The websites were purposefully sampled, using the strategy of maximal variation...... sampling to maximize difference between the four types of websites. Findings – The findings reveal that issues concerning usability are found to be an important dimension of website quality. The authors' analysis of how webmasters explain website quality reveals substantial variance in explanation...

  2. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  3. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  4. Quantitative Analyses of Force-Induced Amyloid Formation in Candida albicans Als5p: Activation by Standard Laboratory Procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho X J Chan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans adhesins have amyloid-forming sequences. In Als5p, these amyloid sequences cluster cell surface adhesins to create high avidity surface adhesion nanodomains. Such nanodomains form after force is applied to the cell surface by atomic force microscopy or laminar flow. Here we report centrifuging and resuspending S. cerevisiae cells expressing Als5p led to 1.7-fold increase in initial rate of adhesion to ligand coated beads. Furthermore, mechanical stress from vortex-mixing of Als5p cells or C. albicans cells also induced additional formation of amyloid nanodomains and consequent activation of adhesion. Vortex-mixing for 60 seconds increased the initial rate of adhesion 1.6-fold. The effects of vortex-mixing were replicated in heat-killed cells as well. Activation was accompanied by increases in thioflavin T cell surface fluorescence measured by flow cytometry or by confocal microscopy. There was no adhesion activation in cells expressing amyloid-impaired Als5pV326N or in cells incubated with inhibitory concentrations of anti-amyloid dyes. Together these results demonstrated the activation of cell surface amyloid nanodomains in yeast expressing Als adhesins, and further delineate the forces that can activate adhesion in vivo. Consequently there is quantitative support for the hypothesis that amyloid forming adhesins act as both force sensors and effectors.

  5. Impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide observations from the S-5P platform on tropospheric composition analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Attié, Jean-Luc; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Ricaud, Philippe; Lahoz, William; Eskes, Henk; Segers, Arjo; Curier, Lyana; de Haan, Johan; Kujanpää, Jukka; Oude Nijhuis, Albert; Tamminen, Johanna; Timmermans, Renske; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    We use the technique of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to quantify the impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide (CO) total column observations from the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) platform on tropospheric analyses and forecasts. We focus on Europe for the period of northern summer 2003, when there was a severe heat wave episode associated with extremely hot and dry weather conditions. We describe different elements of the OSSE: (i) the nature run (NR), i.e., the truth; (ii) the CO synthetic observations; (iii) the assimilation run (AR), where we assimilate the observations of interest; (iv) the control run (CR), in this study a free model run without assimilation; and (v) efforts to establish the fidelity of the OSSE results. Comparison of the results from AR and the CR, against the NR, shows that CO total column observations from S-5P provide a significant benefit (at the 99 % confidence level) at the surface, with the largest benefit occurring over land in regions far away from emission sources. Furthermore, the S-5P CO total column observations are able to capture phenomena such as the forest fires that occurred in Portugal during northern summer 2003. These results provide evidence of the benefit of S-5P observations for monitoring processes contributing to atmospheric pollution.

  6. HTR1A a novel type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene on chromosome 5p13-q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asad, Samina; Nikamo, Pernilla; Gyllenberg, Alexandra;

    2012-01-01

    We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage study in Scandinavian Type 1 diabetes (T1D) families. In the Swedish families, we detected suggestive linkage (LOD≤2.2) to the chromosome 5p13-q13 region. The aim of our study was to investigate the linked region in search for possible T1D...... susceptibility genes....

  7. miR-339-5p regulates the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway by targeting MDM2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, M D; Djodji Damas, Nkerorema; Lees, M

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many key cancer-relevant pathways and may themselves possess oncogenic or tumor-suppressor functions. Consequently, miRNA dysregulation has been shown to be a prominent feature in many human cancers. The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a negative regulator of cell...... proliferation in response to stress and represents the most commonly lost and mutated gene in human cancers. The function of p53 is inhibited by the MDM2 oncoprotein. Using a high-throughput screening approach, we identified miR-339-5p as a regulator of the p53 pathway. We demonstrate that this regulation...... inhibition of miR-339-5p function perturbs the p53 response in cancer cells, allowing an increased proliferation rate. In addition, miR-339-5p expression is downregulated in tumors harboring wild-type TP53, suggesting that reduction of miR-339-5p level helps to suppress the p53 response in p53-competent...

  8. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  9. Confirmation of 5p12 As a Susceptibility Locus for Progesterone-Receptor-Positive, Lower Grade Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Goode, Ellen L; García-Closas, Montserrat;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Associatio...

  10. Significance of the class II hydrophobin FgHyd5p for the life cycle of Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minenko, Ekaterina; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

    2014-04-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted proteins ubiquitously found in filamentous fungi. Some hydrophobins were shown to have functions in fungal development, while others lack known function. Class II hydrophobins from Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum are characterized by formation of low stability aggregates and their solubility in organic solvents. They are economically relevant to the brewing industry because they can induce beer gushing. Since cellular functions of Hyd5p's are still unknown, we analyzed the influence of FgHyd5p on growth and morphology of F. graminearum using FgΔhyd5 knock-out mutants expressing sGFP under the control of the hyd5 promoter and compared them with the performance of the parent wild type strain. Results demonstrate that FgHyd5p does not affect the colony and hyphal morphology. FgHyd5p affects the hydrophobicity of aerial mycelia but had no obvious function in penetration of hyphae through the water air interface. The hydrophobin affects the morphology of conidia, but not their fitness. Different sources of carbon and nitrogen as well as different pH have no effect on the expression of the hyd5 gene, which was demonstrated to be expressed upon growth of F. graminearum on hydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Confirmation of 5p12 As a Susceptibility Locus for Progesterone-Receptor-Positive, Lower Grade Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Goode, Ellen L; García-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Associatio...

  12. Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor- positive, lower grade breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Milne (Roger); E.L. Goode (Ellen); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); F.J. Couch (Fergus); G. Severi (Gianluca); R. Hein (Rebecca); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); N. Malats (Núria); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); J. Benítez (Javier); T. Dörk (Thilo); P. Schürmann (Peter); J.H. Karstens (Johann); P. Hillemanns (Peter); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); K.S. Elliot (Katherine); S.S. Cross (Simon); S. Seal (Sheila); C. Turnbull (Clare); A. Renwick (Anthony); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); C.-S. Huang (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); C. Lanng (Charlotte); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Børrensen-Dale (Anne-Lise); J.L. Hopper (John); G.S. Dite (Gillian); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Lambrechts (Diether); B.T. Yesilyurt (Betül); O.A.M. Floris; K. Leunen; S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); V. Gaborieau (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); M. Barile (Monica); G.G. Giles (Graham); L. Baglietto (Laura); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); I.V. Zalutsky (Iosif); Y.I. Rogov (Yuri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); T. Bayer (T.); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Müller (Heike); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); G. Thomas (Gilles); R.N. Hoover (Robert); O. Fletcher (Olivia); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); S. Nickels (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); K.A. Pooley (Karen); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); D. Kang (Daehee); K-Y. Yoo (Keun-Young); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.-H. Ahn (Sei-Hyun); D. Hunter (David); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); P. Kraft (Peter); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); J. Beesley (Jonathan); U. Hamann (Ute); V. Harth (Volker); C. Justenhoven (Christina); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofieva (Darya); A. Farahtdinova (Albina); J.E. Olson (Janet); X. Wang (Xing); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer A

  13. Confirmation of 5p12 As a Susceptibility Locus for Progesterone-Receptor-Positive, Lower Grade Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Roger L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Garca-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J.; Severi, Gianluca; Hein, Rebecca; Fredericksen, Zachary; Malats, Nuria; Pilar Zamora, M.; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Benitez, Javier; Doerk, Thilo; Schuermann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Elliot, Graeme; Cross, Simon S.; Seal, Sheila; Turnbull, Clare; Renwick, Anthony; Rahman, Nazneen; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Alnaes, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Borrensen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Zalutsky, Iosif V.; Rogov, Yuri I.; Fasching, Peter A.; Bayer, Christian M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Mueller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Meindl, Alfons; Heil, Joerg; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Thomas, Gilles D.; Hoover, Robert N.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna J.; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pooley, Karen A.; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Hamann, Ute; Harth, Volker; Justenhoven, Christina; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Hooning, Maartje; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Farahtdinova, Albina; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Association C

  14. Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor- positive, lower grade breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Milne (Roger); E.L. Goode (Ellen); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); F.J. Couch (Fergus); G. Severi (Gianluca); R. Hein (Rebecca); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); N. Malats (Núria); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); J. Benítez (Javier); T. Dörk (Thilo); P. Schürmann (Peter); J.H. Karstens (Johann); P. Hillemanns (Peter); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); K.S. Elliot (Katherine); S.S. Cross (Simon); S. Seal (Sheila); C. Turnbull (Clare); A. Renwick (Anthony); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); C.-S. Huang (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); C. Lanng (Charlotte); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Børrensen-Dale (Anne-Lise); J.L. Hopper (John); G.S. Dite (Gillian); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Lambrechts (Diether); B.T. Yesilyurt (Betül); O.A.M. Floris; K. Leunen; S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); V. Gaborieau (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); M. Barile (Monica); G.G. Giles (Graham); L. Baglietto (Laura); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); I.V. Zalutsky (Iosif); Y.I. Rogov (Yuri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); T. Bayer (T.); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Müller (Heike); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); G. Thomas (Gilles); R.N. Hoover (Robert); O. Fletcher (Olivia); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); S. Nickels (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); K.A. Pooley (Karen); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); D. Kang (Daehee); K-Y. Yoo (Keun-Young); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.-H. Ahn (Sei-Hyun); D. Hunter (David); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); P. Kraft (Peter); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); J. Beesley (Jonathan); U. Hamann (Ute); V. Harth (Volker); C. Justenhoven (Christina); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofieva (Darya); A. Farahtdinova (Albina); J.E. Olson (Janet); X. Wang (Xing); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer

  15. Dual Embeddedness of Governance and Strategy-Analysis Based on Interlocking Directorate Network%治理与战略的双重嵌入性——基于连锁董事网络的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方

    2011-01-01

    迄今为止,连锁董事网络效应方面的研究还存在着很大的分歧。本文打开连锁董事网络运作的“黑箱”,以可以消除分歧的嵌入性视角进行分析.认为连锁董事网络嵌入实质上体现了治理与战略的双重嵌入性,是以连锁董事网络为载体.通过连锁董事社会资本到企业社会资本的内化,以治理与战略的整合作用而产生效应的.并因嵌入惰性和嵌入寻租而存在过度嵌入陷阱。为了不囿于连锁董事研究,本文进行了扩展性分析.探讨企业社会关系的“差序格局”和嵌入层次,以及三层次嵌入下的关系治理与网络战略.在此基础上,认为可以将嵌入的本质收益和成本理解为社会资本和社会责任.而社会责任可分为保健型和激励型两类,分别起到维持和提升社会资本的作用.并针对连锁董事网络制度设计等问题提出了相关建议.%So far, there are differences on interlocking directorate network eiffel. This paper opened the black box of interlocking directorate network, taking the perspective of embeddedness, which can eliminate differences. Interlocking directorate network embeddedness embodies double embeddedness of corporate governanee and strategy in essence, and it takes network as carrier, having effect though social capital from individual to enterprise and integrated action of corporate governance and strategy. And it is constrained within the moderate embeddedness. In order not to be limited to interlocking directorate study, extended analysis was taken in this paper, discussing the enterprise's Chaxu pattern of social relationship, embeddedness levels and corporate relational governance and network strategy under three-level embeddedness. On this basis, this paper considered social capital and social responsibility as benefit and cost of embeddedness, social responsibility can be divided into motivation and hygiene, which taking

  16. Editorial: Governance for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derk Loorbach

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of transition and transition management are an inspiring basis for debate and action between scholars and different scientific disciplines. They also offer a fruitful context for cooperation and debate among scientists, policy makers, and business managers. As an analytical concept, it stimulates interdisciplinary analysis and offers a framework within which to discuss similarities, contradictions, and the relative value of various disciplines in contributing to different problems. In the Netherlands a broad transition research network exists, including economists, historians, political scientists, technology and innovation experts and consumption researchers that each focus on particular aspects of transitions at different levels. The possibilities for this area of activity to contribute to substantial methodological advances appear to be parallel to its opportunities to enrich social and policy practices. As a governance approach, the concepts of transition and transition management are being used to facilitate cooperation and coproduction between science and policy, as well as for the development and use of new scientific methods. New coalitions, strategies, and experiments involving pioneering scientists, “courageous political leaders, enlightened business executives and civil society at large” have been launched in its wake. This, in essence, is the definition of transition management as governance for sustainability: a collective process of learning-by-doing and doing-by learning based on an integrative way of thinking. Not to achieve fixed goals, but to gradually work towards shared ambitions through innovation, integration and transition. And the beauty is, that everyone can contribute in his or her own way.

  17. Qiliqiangxin Attenuates Phenylephrine-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy through Downregulation of MiR-199a-5p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Qiliqiangxin (QL, a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used to treat chronic heart failure. Previous studies demonstrated that QL could prevent cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy in response to hypertensive or ischemic stress. However, little is known about whether QL could modulate cardiac hypertrophy in vitro, and (if so whether it is through modulation of specific hypertrophy-related microRNA. Methods: The primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated, cultured, and treated with phenylephrine (PE, 50 µmol/L, 48 h to induce hypertrophy in vitro, in the presence or absence of pretreatment with QL (0.5 µg/ml, 48 h. The cell surface area was determined by immunofluorescent staining for α-actinin. The mRNA levels of hypertrophic markers including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, and β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7 were assayed by qRT-PCRs. The protein synthesis of cardiomyocytes was determined by the protein/DNA ratio. The miR-199a-5p expression level was quantified in PE-treated cardiomyocytes and heart samples from acute myocardial infarction (AMI mouse model. MiR-199a-5p overexpression was used to determine its role in the anti-hypertrophic effect of QL on cardiomyocytes. Results: PE induced obvious enlargement of cell surface in cardiomyocytes, paralleling with increased ANP, BNP, and MYH7 mRNA levels and elevated protein/DNA ratio. All these changes were reversed by the treatment with QL. Meanwhile, miR-199a-5p was increased in AMI mouse heart tissues. Of note, the increase of miR-199a-5p in PE-treated cardiomyocytes was reversed by the treatment with QL. Moreover, overexpression of miR-199a-5p abolished the anti-hypertrophic effect of QL on cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: QL prevents PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy. MiR-199a-5p is increased in cardiac hypertrophy, while reduced by treatment with QL. miR-199a-5p suppression is essential for the anti-hypertrophic effect of QL

  18. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  19. VT Certified Local Governments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont established its Certified Local Government (CLG) program in 1985 to better help local governments integrate historic preservation concerns with planning and...

  20. MicroRNA-181b-5p, ETS1, and the c-Met pathway exacerbate the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomihara, Hideo; Yamada, Daisaku; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Iwagami, Yoshifumi; Noda, Takehiro; Asaoka, Tadafumi; Wada, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Koichi; Gotoh, Kunihito; Takeda, Yutaka; Tanemura, Masahiro; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-03-01

    Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has emerged as a reasonable strategy that shows good prognostic impact. However, after preoperative CRT, resected specimens show remnant tumor cells, which indicate that some tumor cells had acquired or were selected for resistance to CRT. Recently, two oncological mechanisms, the EMT and the presence of CSCs, were reported to be associated with resistance in various cancers. Previous reports showed that HGF could induce EMT in PDAC cells; moreover, the HGF receptor, c-Met, was identified as a dominant pancreatic CSC marker. However, the clinical significance of c-Met expression remains unclear. So, we hypothesized that remnant PDAC tissue after CRT might harbor cells with high c-Met expression, and these cells may exacerbate patients' prognosis. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we showed that preoperative CRT was significantly associated with high c-Met expression; moreover, high c-Met expression was a significant marker of a dismal prognosis. Next, we investigated mechanisms of c-Met upregulation in PDAC cells. We established GEM-resistant and radioresistant PDAC cells to analyze the transcriptome involved in c-Met expression. The microarray data for the established radiation-resistant PDAC cells indicated miR-181b-5p downregulation, which targets ETS1, one of the transcription factors for c-Met, and it was shown that radiation exposure induced c-Met expression through ETS1 increase by the suppression of miR-181b-5p. These results suggested that targeting these mechanisms may promote the development of a novel multidisciplinary treatment strategy for improving preoperative CRT efficiency.

  1. Differentially expressed miR-3680-5p is associated with parathyroid hormone regulation in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohyun; Oh, Jung Mi

    2017-01-01

    Mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is observed universally in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Detrimental MBD-related skeletal changes include increased prevalence of fracture, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as useful biomarkers in various diseases, and the aim of this study was to identify miRNAs associated with parathyroid hormone level in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Fifty-two PD patients were enrolled and grouped by their intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level; 11 patients had low iPTH (2-fold change) miRNAs previously associated with human disease were selected for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Interaction analyses between miRNAs and genes were performed by using TargetScan and the KEGG pathway database. Microarray results revealed 165 miRNAs were differentially expressed between patients with high iPTH levels and low iPTH levels. Of those miRNAs, 81 were upregulated and 84 were downregulated in patients with high iPTH levels. Expression levels of miR-1299, miR-3680-5p, and miR-548b-5p (previously associated with human disease) in 52 patients were analyzed by using qPCR. MiR-3680-5p was differentially expressed in low and high iPTH patients (P < 0.05). The predicted target genes of miR-3680-5p were USP6, USP32, USP46, and DLT, which are involved in the ubiquitin proteolysis pathway. This pathway has roles in PTH and parathyroid hormone related protein degradation and proteolysis. The mechanisms involved in the associations among low PTH, adynamic bone disease, miR-3680-5p, and the target genes should be explored further in order to elucidate their roles in CKD-MBD development. PMID:28152049

  2. Lipotoxic disruption of NHE1 interaction with PI(4,5)P2 expedites proximal tubule apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shenaz; Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Goel, Monu; Schilling, William P; Parker, Mark D; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Yadav, Satya P; Harris, Raymond C; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; Hoshi, Malcolm; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Deschênes, Isabelle; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease progression can be predicted based on the degree of tubular atrophy, which is the result of proximal tubule apoptosis. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulates proximal tubule cell survival through interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], but pathophysiologic triggers for NHE1 inactivation are unknown. Because glomerular injury permits proximal tubule luminal exposure and reabsorption of fatty acid/albumin complexes, we hypothesized that accumulation of amphipathic, long-chain acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) metabolites stimulates lipoapoptosis by competing with the structurally similar PI(4,5)P2 for NHE1 binding. Kidneys from mouse models of progressive, albuminuric kidney disease exhibited increased fatty acids, LC-CoAs, and caspase-2-dependent proximal tubule lipoapoptosis. LC-CoAs and the cytosolic domain of NHE1 directly interacted, with an affinity comparable to that of the PI(4,5)P2-NHE1 interaction, and competing LC-CoAs disrupted binding of the NHE1 cytosolic tail to PI(4,5)P2. Inhibition of LC-CoA catabolism reduced NHE1 activity and enhanced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of proximal tubule LC-CoA generation preserved NHE1 activity and protected against apoptosis. Our data indicate that albuminuria/lipiduria enhances lipotoxin delivery to the proximal tubule and accumulation of LC-CoAs contributes to tubular atrophy by severing the NHE1-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, thereby lowering the apoptotic threshold. Furthermore, these data suggest that NHE1 functions as a metabolic sensor for lipotoxicity.

  3. miR-142-5p Disrupts Neuronal Morphogenesis Underlying Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus Infection by Targeting Ulk1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV invades the central nervous system (CNS and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE. This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1, which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation. Modulating miR-142-5p activity by microRNA mimics or inhibitors induced neurodegeneration, including stunted axon elongation, unstable dendritic spine formation, and irregular swelling and disconnection in neurites. Relieving Ulk1 mRNA repression in primary cortical neurons by miR-142-5p antagomirs or replication-deficient adenoviruses encoding Ulk1 (Ad5-Ulk1, which improved rescue of nerve injury, restricted viral replication, and increased survival rate in mice underlying PHEV infection. In contrast, disrupting Ulk1 in RNAi-expressing neurons mostly led to significantly shortened axon elongation and/or an abnormally large number of branched dendrites. Taken together, we demonstrated that the abnormal neuronal morphogenesis underlying PHEV infection was mainly caused by functional mRNA repression of the miR-142-5p target Ulk1. Our data revealed that PHEV adapted to use spatiotemporal control of host microRNAs to invade CNS, and provided new insights into the virus-associated neurological dysfunction microenvironment.

  4. miR-151-5p, targeting chromatin remodeler SMARCA5, as a marker for the BRCAness phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Stefania; Pinto, Rosamaria; Danza, Katia; Pilato, Brunella; Palumbo, Orazio; Micale, Lucia; De Summa, Simona

    2016-12-06

    In recent years, the assessment of biomarkers useful for "precision medicine" has been a hot topic in research. The involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of breast cancer has been highly investigated with the aim of being able to molecularly stratify this highly heterogeneous disease. Our aim was to identify microRNAs targeting DNA repair machinery, through Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays, in a cohort of BRCA-related and sporadic breast cancers. Moreover, we analyzed microRNA expression taking into account our previous results on the expression of PARP1, because of its importance in targeted therapy. miR-361-5p and miR-151-5p were found to be overexpressed in PARP1-upregulating BRCA-germline mutated and sporadic breast tumors. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed to identify potential target genes to be analyzed in the validation step in an independent cohort. Our results confirmed the overexpression of miR-151-5p and, interestingly, its role in the targeting of SMARCA5, a chromatin remodeler. This result was also confirmed in vitro, both through luciferase assay and by analyzing endogenous levels of SMARCA5 in MCF-7 cell lines using miR-151-5p mimic and inhibitor. In conclusion, our data showed the possibility of considering the overexpression of PARP1 and miR-151-5p as biomarkers useful to correctly treat sporadic breast cancers, which eventually could be considered as BRCAness tumors, with PARP-inhibitors.

  5. 基于5P4F的电子商务模式创新方法研究%5P4F-based Innovation Method of E-Commerce Business Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方孜; 王刊良

    2002-01-01

    互联网的发展为商务模式创新开辟了广阔空间和自由度,持续创新是电子商务模式与生俱来的本质.亚马逊等商务模式在美国专利与商标局获得专利极大地刺激了商务模式创新活动.本文提出了基于5P4F(5P指Product、Price、Place、Promotion和Potion;4F指business flow、information flow、capital flow和logistics flow)的电子商务模式的分析方法,提出了基于5P4F的企业电子商务模式创新方法.

  6. Multivalent benzene polyphosphate derivatives are non-Ca(2+)-mobilizing Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen J; Luyten, Tomas; Erneux, Christophe; Parys, Jan B; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-12-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P31] mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) through the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor [InsP3R]. Although some progress has been made in the design of synthetic InsP3R partial agonists and antagonists, there are still few examples of useful small molecule competitive antagonists. A "multivalent" approach is explored and new dimeric polyphosphorylated aromatic derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The established weak InsP3R ligand benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4)P32] is dimerized through its 5-position in two different ways, first directly as the biphenyl derivative biphenyl 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate, [BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P68] and with its regioisomeric biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P611]. Secondly, a linker motif is introduced in a flexible ethylene-bridged dimer (9) with its corresponding 1,2-bisphosphate dimer (10), both loosely analogous to the very weak antagonist 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA 7). In permeabilized L15 fibroblasts overexpressing type 1 InsP3R, BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8) inhibits Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca(2+) release in a apparently competitive fashion [IC50 187 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 dimer (9) is only slightly weaker [IC50 380 nM]. Compounds were also evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. All compounds are resistant to dephosphorylation, with BiPh(2,2',4,4',5,5')P6 (8), being the most effective inhibitor of any biphenyl derivative synthesized to date [IC50 480 nM] and the Bz(1,2,4)P3 ethylene dimer (9) weaker [IC50 3.55 μM]. BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 (11) also inhibits 5-phosphatase [IC50 730 nM] and exhibits unexpected Ca(2+) releasing activity [EC50 800 nM]. Thus, relocation of only a single mirrored phenyl phosphate group in (11) from that of antagonist (8) does not markedly change enzyme inhibitory activity, but elicits a dramatic switch in Ca(2+)-releasing activity. Such new agents demonstrate the

  7. MiR-142-5p and miR-486-5p as biomarkers for early detection of chronic antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Inanaga, Yukiko; Hiramitsu, Takahisa; Miwa, Yuko; Murotani, Kenta; Narumi, Shuji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Katayama, Akio; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    De novo donor-specific HLA antibody (DSA) would not necessarily contribute to chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) in kidney transplantation. Here, we investigated whether PBMC miRNAs could be predictable biomarkers for CAMR. Microarray profiling of 435 mature miRNAs in pooled samples was conducted. Individual analysis revealed that miR-142-5p was significantly (p biomarkers to evaluate immune response and kidney allograft status.

  8. New directions in hospital governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes.

  9. The Politics of Governance Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Radaelli, Claudio M.

    2011-01-01

    Governance architectures are strategic and long-term institutional arrangements of international organizations exhibiting three features; namely, they address strategic and long-term problems in a holistic manner, they set substantive output-oriented goals, and they are implemented through...... not being identified as an object of study on its own right. We define the Lisbon Strategy as a case of governance architecture, raising questions about its creation, evolution and impact at the national level. We tackle these questions by drawing on institutional theories about emergence and change...... of institutional arrangements and on the multiple streams model. We formulate a set of propositions and hypotheses to make sense of the creation, evolution and national impact of the Lisbon Strategy. We argue that institutional ambiguity is used strategically by coalitions at the EU and national level in (re...

  10. 基于政府补贴分析的新能源战略博弈模型研究%Research on New Energy Strategy Game Model based on Government Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡伟琨; 贾磊丽; 张聪

    2012-01-01

    In the new energy strategy,if we don't choose the development of new energy strategy,the cost savings ε1 the higher,the lower the marginal cost of C1,and the differences in price of new energy products and traditional products are bigger.With the increase of consumer satisfaction for the environment-care are willing to pay the value of "K",with the result,both the two products,prices will increase.In other words,with increasing consumer awareness of environmental protection,environmental satisfaction,willingness to pay will increase.Such a result is not only good for manufacturers who use the new energy,but good for manufacturers who not use the new energy.Government to increase the market the lowest green degree of access standards,the low green degree of traditional products and new energy product prices will increase.And it affect the market share of market.%企业在新能源战略中如果不发展新能源战略带来的成本节约率ε1越高,其边际成本C1越低,新能源产品和传统产品的价格差异越大。随着消费者对每个环境满意度愿意支付的K值的增加,两个厂商的产品价格都会增加,也就是说,随着消费者环保意识的增加,环境满意度支付意愿也会增加,这样的结果不仅仅是生产新能源的厂商2受益,厂商1也会受益;政府提高市场最低绿色程度准入标准,低绿色程度的传统产品和新能源产品的价格都会增加。政府设定的市场最低绿色准入标准会对两个厂商的市场份额有影响。

  11. Audit Methodology for IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the new IT technologies was followed up by a rapid integration of them at the organization level. The management of the organizations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organization. These changes have had a great impact on the governance of the IT component. The paper proposes an audit methodology of the IT Governance at the organization level. From this point of view the developed audit strategy is a strategy based on risks to enable IT auditor to study from the best angle efficiency and effectiveness of the IT Governance structure. The evaluation of the risks associated with IT Governance is a key process in planning the audit mission which will allow the identification of the segments with increased risks. With now ambition for completeness, the proposed methodology provides the auditor a useful tool in the accomplishment of his mission.

  12. Metropolitan Governance Reforms: The Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Snyder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seoul is transforming into a global city that is competitive with many of the most notable cities in the world such as Tokyo, New York, and London. Seoul's metropolitan governance structure is uniquely suited to the Korean peninsula and has been able to be dynamic in order to adapt to political changes the country has experienced. This article examines the initiatives behind metropolitan governance reforms in Seoul and the factors that play an important role in influencing the current governance structure. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG is set on improving the lives of citizens and ensuring they are happy with their city through transparency, accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of government among other things. This region has become a strong contributor to the economic growth of the county and helped to create opportunities to attract and retain businesses, implement innovative investment projects and develop a talented workforce. Amongst other reasons, Seoul's solid fiscal system has allowed the city to build the necessary organizational capacity for SMG as well. Additionally, Seoul citizens enjoy a good quality of life because of the educational options, employment opportunities, housing spaces, leisure activities, and cultural experiences found in the city. There are still some challenges ahead but Seoul realizes the importance of civic participation for capacity building and sustainability. One of Seoul's strategies to promoting sustainable living within the city is its ability to engage the public. By promoting citizen participation and feedback, Seoul feels that it will gain new perceptivities during the policy decision-making process. The city's current governance methods continue to succeed because the leaders at SMG understand what is essential to executing successful governance reform: citizens.

  13. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2015-11-03

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  14. Metropolitan Governance Reforms: The Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Snyder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seoul is transforming into a global city that is competitive with many of the most notable cities in the world such as Tokyo, New York, and London. Seoul’s metropolitan governance structure is uniquely suited to the Korean peninsula and has been able to be dynamic in order to adapt to political changes the country has experienced. This article examines the initiatives behind metropolitan governance reforms in Seoul and the factors that play an important role in influencing the current governance structure. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG is set on improving the lives of citizens and ensuring they are happy with their city through transparency, accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of government among other things. This region has become a strong contributor to the economic growth of the county and helped to create opportunities to attract and retain businesses, implement innovative investment projects and develop a talented workforce. Amongst other reasons, Seoul’s solid fiscal system has allowed the city to build the necessary organizational capacity for SMG as well. Additionally, Seoul citizens enjoy a good quality of life because of the educational options, employment opportunities, housing spaces, leisure activities, and cultural experiences found in the city. There are still some challenges ahead but Seoul realizes the importance of civic participation for capacity building and sustainability. One of Seoul’s strategies to promoting sustainable living within the city is its ability to engage the public. By promoting citizen participation and feedback, Seoul feels that it will gain new perceptivities during the policy decision-making process. The city’s current governance methods continue to succeed because the leaders at SMG understand what is essential to executing successful governance reform: citizens.

  15. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Saltman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  16. A Quantitative Trait Locus on Chromosome 5p Influences D-Dimer Levels in the San Antonio Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Diego

    2010-01-01

    D-dimer levels were normalized in our study. We found that D-dimer levels were heritable, at about 23% heritability (P≈.00001. In a linkage analysis employing 432 microsatellite markers, we found strong evidence of a QTL on chromosome 5p with a lod score of 3.32 at 21 centiMorgans (cM. We also found suggestive evidence of a QTL on chromosome 2q with a lod score of 2.33 at 207 cM. Conclusions. To our knowledge, the putative QTL on chromosome 5p is novel. The possible QTL on chromosome 2q is discussed in relation to a recent report of linkage of a related hemostatic factor to the same location. These results warrant further investigation.

  17. miR-31 and miR-17-5p levels change during transformation of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary Ann; Edmonds, Mick D; Liang, Shan; McClintock-Treep, Sara; Wang, Xuan; Li, Shaoying; Eischen, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    The 30% of patients whose indolent follicular lymphoma transforms to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have poor survival. Reliable predictors of follicular B-cell lymphoma transformation to DLBCL are lacking, and diagnosis of those that will progress is challenging. MicroRNA, which regulates gene expression, has critical functions in the growth and progression of many cancers and contributes to the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Using 5 paired samples from patients who presented with follicular lymphoma and progressed to DLBCL, we identified specific microRNA differentially expressed between the two. Specifically, miR-17-5p levels were low in follicular lymphoma and increased as the disease transformed. In contrast, miR-31 expression was high in follicular lymphoma and decreased as the lymphoma progressed. These results were confirmed in additional unpaired cases of low-grade follicular lymphoma (n = 13) and high-grade follicular lymphoma grade 3 or DLBCL (n = 17). Loss of miR-31 expression in DLBCL was not due to deletion of the locus. Changes in miR-17-5p and miR-31 were not correlated with immunophenotype, genetics, or status of the MYC oncogene. However, increased miR-17-5p expression did significantly correlate with increased expression of p53 protein, which is indicative of mutant TP53. Two pro-proliferative genes, E2F2 and PI3KC2A, were identified as direct messenger RNA targets of miR-31, suggesting that these may contribute to follicular lymphoma transformation. Our results indicate that changes in miR-31 and miR-17-5p reflect the transformation of follicular lymphoma to an aggressive large B-cell lymphoma and may, along with their targets, be viable markers for this process.

  18. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Kruse, Martin; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis; Hille, Bertil

    2016-06-07

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na(+)/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several "physiological" manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells.

  19. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  20. Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana AtNAP57--a homologue of yeast pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceluch, J; Kmieciak, M; Szweykowska-Kulińska, Z; Jarmołowski, A

    2001-01-01

    Rat Nap57 and its yeast homologue Cbf5p are pseudouridine synthases involved in rRNA biogenesis, localized in the nucleolus. These proteins, together with H/ACA class of snoRNAs compose snoRNP particles, in which snoRNA guides the synthase to direct site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNA. In this paper we present an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that is highly homologous to Cbf5p (72% identity and 85% homology) and NAP57 (67% identity and 81% homology). Moreover, the plant protein has conserved structural motifs that are characteristic features of pseudouridine synthases of the TruB class. We have named the cloned and characterized protein AtNAP57 (Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of NAP57). AtNAP57 is a 565 amino-acid protein and its calculated molecular mass is 63 kDa. The protein is encoded by a single copy gene located on chromosome 3 of the A. thaliana genome. Interestingly, the AtNAP57 gene does not contain any introns. Mutations in the human DKC1 gene encoding dyskerin (human homologue of yeast Cbf5p and rat NAP57) cause dyskeratosis congenita a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and mucosal leukoplakia.

  1. Host PI(3,5)P2 activity is required for Plasmodium berghei growth during liver stage infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieleke-Matos, Carolina; da Silva, Mafalda Lopes; Cabrita-Santos, Laura; Pires, Cristiana F; Ramalho, José S; Ikonomov, Ognian; Seixas, Elsa; Shisheva, Assia; Seabra, Miguel C; Barral, Duarte C

    2014-10-01

    Malaria parasites go through an obligatory liver stage before they infect erythrocytes and cause disease symptoms. In the host hepatocytes, the parasite is enclosed by a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). Here, we dissected the interaction between the Plasmodium parasite and the host cell late endocytic pathway and show that parasite growth is dependent on the phosphoinositide 5-kinase (PIKfyve) that converts phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] into phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2 ] in the endosomal system. We found that inhibition of PIKfyve by either pharmacological or non-pharmacological means causes a delay in parasite growth. Moreover, we show that the PI(3,5)P2 effector protein TRPML1 that is involved in late endocytic membrane fusion, is present in vesicles closely contacting the PVM and is necessary for parasite growth. Thus, our studies suggest that the parasite PVM is able to fuse with host late endocytic vesicles in a PI(3,5)P2 -dependent manner, allowing the exchange of material between the host and the parasite, which is essential for successful infection.

  2. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  3. Sustainable Food Governance by Governments and Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental consequences of the increasing global seafood production and consumption are substantial and drive a search for providing more adequate governance responses. In recent years, market-based approaches to sustainable seafood governance have gained considerable traction. Born in part

  4. 知识型中小企业创新生态系统治理策略研究%Research on Governance Strategy of Innovation Ecosystem in Small and Medium-sized Knowledge Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建斌; 高书丽; 郭彦丽

    2016-01-01

    activities to guarantee "mass innovation" . This is the core industry governance strategy for SMEK system.

  5. Decolorization mechanism of molasses wastewater by Aspergillus flavus A5p1%黄曲霉A5p1脱色糖蜜酒精废水机理初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺锴; 何小慧; 李必金; 邹成; 覃益民; 李青云; 刘幽燕

    2014-01-01

    研究自行筛选的一株黄曲霉( Aspergillus flavus) A5p1(保藏号CGMCC.4292)对糖蜜酒精废水( MSW)的脱色机理.在外加蔗糖情况下菌株A5p1对MSW具有较好的脱色效果,脱色率由14%增高至58%;脱色进程与细胞生长基本同步.从培养液中检测出3种木质素过氧化物酶---漆酶( Lac)及两种胞外过氧化物酶即锰过氧化物酶( MnP )和不依赖锰的过氧化物酶( MiP )的酶活,但是水平不高,认为此3种酶不是主要的脱色机制.发现由各种代谢过程产生的总H2 O2生成速率与脱色率基本同步,同时在第4天达到最大值,随后下降;还原糖总消耗也在初期阶段较快.外加蔗糖后总H2 O2生成速率增加10倍,达到0.0027 mmol·min-1·mL-1.认为体系中脱色机制可能与产H2 O2的酶相关.紫外可见光谱分析和凝胶色谱分析表明脱色过程中有大分子物质降解.综上所述初步认为,黄曲霉A5p1脱色糖蜜酒精废水是一个受产H2 O2酶影响、复杂的生物降解过程.%The decolorization mechanism of molasses wastewater ( MSW) by Aspergillus flavus A5P1 ( CGMCC.4292) was studied in this article. With the addition of sucrose, strain A5P1 displayed a better decolorization activity, and the decolorization rate increased from 14% to 58%. The cell dry weight was synchronized with the change of decolorization rate. Three lignin peroxidases relevant to the biodecolorization were detected in the culture fluid, including laccase and two extracellular peroxidases, a manganese-independent peroxidase ( MiP ) and manganese peroxidase ( MnP ) , but, with low activity. It is deducted that these three enzymes did not play a leading role in the the MSW-decolorization by the strain. The total generation rate of H2 O2 from a variety of metabolic processes was found to be synchronous to the decolorization rate, both reaching maximum after 4 d and decreasing subsequently. The total

  6. Drosophila TRPML forms PI(3,5)P2-activated cation channels in both endolysosomes and plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinghua; Huang, Yu; Lu, Yungang; Xiong, Jian; Wong, Ching-On; Yang, Pu; Xia, Jintang; Chen, De; Du, Guangwei; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Xia, Xuefeng; Zhu, Michael X

    2014-02-14

    Transient Receptor Potential mucolipin (TRPML) channels are implicated in endolysosomal trafficking, lysosomal Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) release, lysosomal biogenesis, and autophagy. Mutations in human TRPML1 cause the lysosome storage disease, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). Unlike vertebrates, which express three TRPML genes, TRPML1-3, the Drosophila genome encodes a single trpml gene. Although the trpml-deficient flies exhibit cellular defects similar to those in mammalian TRPML1 mutants, the biophysical properties of Drosophila TRPML channel remained uncharacterized. Here, we show that transgenic expression of human TRPML1 in the neurons of Drosophila trpml mutants partially suppressed the pupal lethality phenotype. When expressed in HEK293 cells, Drosophila TRPML was localized in both endolysosomes and plasma membrane and was activated by phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) applied to the cytoplasmic side in whole lysosomes and inside-out patches excised from plasma membrane. The PI(3,5)P2-evoked currents were blocked by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but not other phosphoinositides. Using TRPML A487P, which mimics the varitint-waddler (Va) mutant of mouse TRPML3 with constitutive whole-cell currents, we show that TRPML is biphasically regulated by extracytosolic pH, with an optimal pH about 0.6 pH unit higher than that of human TRPML1. In addition to monovalent cations, TRPML exhibits high permeability to Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(2+), but not Fe(3+). The TRPML currents were inhibited by trivalent cations Fe(3+), La(3+), and Gd(3+). These features resemble more closely to mammalian TRPML1 than TRPML2 and TRPML3, but with some obvious differences. Together, our data support the use of Drosophila for assessing functional significance of TRPML1 in cell physiology.

  7. local government headquarters and spatial interaction within rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, ... The local government structure as operated in Nigeria is, no doubt, an explicit strategy of ... This should be within the framework of urban-rural regions defined in the context of ... of its local government system in the way it deemed fit since local governments became a.

  8. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  9. Radiation hardness of Ga0.5In0.5 P/GaAs tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Sarah R.; Olson, J. M.; Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kibbler, A.; Cavicchi, B. T.; Krut, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardness of a two-junction monolithic Ga sub 0.5 In sub 0.5 P/GaAs cell with tunnel junction interconnect was investigated. Related single junction cells were also studied to identify the origins of the radiation losses. The optimal design of the cell is discussed. The air mass efficiency of an optimized tandem cell after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm (-2) 1 MeV electrons is estimated to be 20 percent using currently available technology.

  10. Tsg101 regulates PI(4,5)P2/Ca2+ signaling for HIV-1 Gag assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Lorna S.; Sara ePhotiadis; Medina, Gisselle N.; Whittredge, Paul B.; Taraska, Justin W; Susan eWatanabe; Carol A Carter

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies identified the 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), a channel mediating release of Ca2+ from ER stores, as a cellular factor differentially associated with HIV-1 Gag that might facilitate ESCRT function in virus budding. Channel opening requires activation that is initiated by binding of 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), a product of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. The store emptying that follows stimulates store refilling which requires intact PI(4,...

  11. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  12. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  13. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  14. Transforming Government Service: The Importance of Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    both aiming at realizing this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance......The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...

  15. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  16. MicroRNA-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle in glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shouping [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Wang, Xianjun [Department of Neurology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Li, Xiao [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Cao, Yuandong, E-mail: yuandongcao@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-11-13

    MicroRNA-139-5p was identified to be significantly down-regulated in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) by miRNA array. In this report we aimed to clarify its biological function, molecular mechanisms and direct target gene in GBM. Twelve patients with GBM were analyzed for the expression of miR-139-5p by quantitative RT-PCR. miR-139-5p overexpression was established by transfecting miR-139-5p-mimic into U87MG and T98G cells, and its effects on cell proliferation were studied using MTT assay and colony formation assays. We concluded that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in GBM cell lines significantly suppressed cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Bioinformatics coupled with luciferase and western blot assays also revealed that miR-139-5p suppresses glioma cell proliferation by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle. - Highlights: • miR-139-5p is downregulated in GBM. • miR-139-5p regulates cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis. • miR-139-5p regulates glioblastoma tumorigenesis by targeting 3′UTR of ELTD1. • miR-139-5p is involved in cell cycle regulation.

  17. Big Bad Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James T.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' statement on governance calls for more centralized authority, rejecting both the principles and the practice of shared governance and diminishing the role of faculty. Suggests that the association revise its statement to include a better understanding of how academe…

  18. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  19. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  20. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and inco