WorldWideScience

Sample records for 5p governance strategy

  1. 76 FR 29195 - National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace... Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop to be held on Thursday, June 9, 2011, 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. and Friday.... DATES: The National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop will...

  2. HUD Digital Government Strategy Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD Digital Strategic Plan clearly articulates the goals of openness and transparency, furthering the innovation economy and meeting more global government wide...

  3. Defining decision making strategies in software ecosystem governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Wnuk, Krzysztof; Shollo, Arisa

    studies touch upon the decision making of software ecosystem governance. In this paper, we propose decomposing software ecosystem governance into three activities: input or data collection, decision making, and applying actions. We focus on the decision making activity of software ecosystem governance......Making the right decisions is an essential part of software ecosystem governance. Decisions related to the governance of a software ecosystem can influence the health of the ecosystem and can result in fostering the success or greatly contributing to the failure of the ecosystem. However, very few...... and review related literature consisted of software ecosystem governance, organizational decision making, and IT governance. Based on the identified studies, we propose a framework for defining the decision making strategies in the governance of software ecosystems. We identify five decision areas...

  4. MiR675-5p Acts on HIF-1α to Sustain Hypoxic Responses: A New Therapeutic Strategy for Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Dico, Alessia; Costa, Viviana; Martelli, Cristina; Diceglie, Cecilia; Rajata, Francesca; Rizzo, Aroldo; Mancone, Carmine; Tripodi, Marco; Ottobrini, Luisa; Alessandro, Riccardo; Conigliaro, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature in solid tumours. In glioma, it is considered the major driving force for tumour angiogenesis and correlates with enhanced resistance to conventional therapies, increased invasiveness and a poor prognosis for patients. Here we describe, for the first time, that miR675-5p, embedded in hypoxia-induced long non-coding RNA H19, plays a mandatory role in establishing a hypoxic response and in promoting hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. We demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo, that miR675-5p over expression in normoxia is sufficient to induce a hypoxic moreover, miR675-5p depletion in low oxygen conditions, drastically abolishes hypoxic responses including angiogenesis. In addition, our data indicate an interaction of miR675-5p, HIF-1α mRNA and the RNA Binding Protein HuR in hypoxia-induced responses. We suggest the modulation of miR675-5p as a new therapeutic option to promote or abolish hypoxia induced angiogenesis. PMID:27279905

  5. How does Corporate Governance Affect Bank Capitalization Strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.; Ma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization.

  6. How does corporate governance affect bank capitalization strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anginer, D.; Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affect bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks over the 2003-2011 period. ‘Good’ corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization. Boards of

  7. Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2013-01-01

    and Copenhagen are deeply trusted as legitimate network convenors, their organizational structures and cultures are very dissimilar; which indicates two idealtypical governance approaches to build and sustain a meetings destination network. In Copenhagen the density of the informal social network among network...... have also mapped mapping of cooperative activities, intentions and latent tensions between the actors and the network convenors. Results The results highlight the paradoxes of moving towards a seamless (institutionalized) network in competitive stakeholder ecologies. Although the CVBs of both Vienna......, leading to new and more formalized relational hierarchies. Discussion, conclusions, implications for practice Reviewing the organizational history of the two cases, results reveal the importance of network convenor skills in balancing the internal efficiency, achieved by institutionalisation...

  8. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  9. Governing University Strategy: Perceptions and Practice of Governance and Management Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytmeister, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Intertwined trends of massification, internationalisation and marketisation constitute and drive change in higher education at all levels. Consequences at the institutional level include: increased competition, adoption of corporate management forms, accrual of power to executive management, and greater emphasis on strategy. As Government policy…

  10. Sustainable Development Strategy: A Tool for Strategic Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Drhová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In a historical overview, the preparation process of the Sustainable Development Strategy in the Czech Republic is illustrated as continuous learning by all stakeholders, on the one hand, facing institutional and personal limits of public administration’s capacity for strategic governance, on the other hand. The main positive output of preparing the SDS in the Czech Republic has been the strengthening of the institutional and individual capacities for strategic governance among all involved stakeholders (including ministries. These capacities are then applied in agendas such as the cohesion policy and preparation of the National Strategic Framework 2014–2020.

  11. Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) transition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Mark R.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis analyzes the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) and the requirements of the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 146-1. It begins by examining the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) architecture and protocol suites and the distinctions between GOSIP version one and two. Additionally, it explores some of the GOSIP protocol details and discusses the process by which standards organizations have developed their recommendations. Implementation considerations from both government and vendor perspectives illustrate the barriers and requirements faced by information systems managers, as well as basic transition strategies. The result of this thesis is to show a transition strategy through an extended and coordinated period of coexistence due to extensive legacy systems and GOSIP product unavailability. Recommendations for GOSIP protocol standards to include capabilities outside the OSI model are also presented.

  12. National climate strategy. Finland. Government report to Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the session held in Kyoto in 1997, the Parties to the Climate Convention agreed on legally binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Under the so- called Kyoto Protocol, the Member States of the European Community and the European Union shall reduce their annual emissions by eight per cent annually during the years 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 level. Within the Community, the targets have been allotted among the Member States so that Finland's annual greenhouse gas emissions may amount on average to no more than the 1990 level during the commitment period 2008-2012. This National Climate Strategy, submitted to Parliament in the form of a Government report, contains the principles, targets and measures that the Government finds necessary in order to meet our national target. The background material for the strategy consists of sector-specific reports made by the various ministries. The ministerial working group has coordinated the preparation of the strategy. For the strategy, the ministries have carried out and commissioned numerous separate analyses and studies, the reports of which have been published in the course of preparing the strategy. Based on these end the sector-specific reports, a background report to the National Climate Programme entitled 'The Need for and Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Finland' was compiled for the ministerial working group. The report was co-ordinated by the Kyoto contact network composed of civil servants from the various ministries. The report describes in more detail the factors influencing economic growth, energy consumption and production, and other elements affecting the development of greenhouse gases, which were used as underlying assumptions when determining the recommendations for action under the strategy. The economic and other effects of alternative courses of action were also analysed and described in the above-mentioned background study. It has been published in the Internet on

  13. 2002 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  14. 2000 Johnston Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 2, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  15. 2004 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  16. Autoimmune diagnostics: the technology, the strategy and the clinical governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato; Villalta, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a profound change in autoimmune diagnostics. From long, tiring and inaccurate manual methods, the art of diagnostics has turned to modern, rapid and automated technology. New antibody tests have been developed, and almost all autoimmune diseases now have some specific diagnostic markers. The current need to make the most of available economic and human resources has led to the production of diagnostic algorithms and guidelines designated for optimal strategic use of the tests and to increase the diagnostic appropriateness. An important role in this scenario was assumed by the laboratory autoimmunologist, whose task is not only to govern the analytical phase, but also to help clinicians in correctly choosing the most suitable test for each clinical situation and provide consultancy support. In this review, we summarize recent advances in technology, describe the diagnostic strategies and highlight the current role of the laboratory autoimmunologist in the clinical governance of autoimmune diagnostics. PMID:25398640

  17. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Maia dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table. The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of

  18. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  19. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions....

  20. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah Asha'ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  1. The new government strategy for higher education in the Netherlands: an analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vught, van F.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new government strategy for higher education is emerging. This new strategy is presented by the Ministry of Education and Science as a development of more institutional self-regulation and a distancing of government from day to day higher education affairs. This article asks whe

  2. A New Fuzzy MCDM Framework to Evaluate E-Government Security Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring security of e-government applications and infrastructures is crucial to maintain trust among stakeholders to store, process and exchange information over the e-government systems. Due to dynamic and continuous threats on e-government information security, policy makers need to perform evaluation on existing information security strategy as to deliver trusted e-government services. This paper presents an information security evaluation framework based on new fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) to help policy makers conduct comprehensive assessment of e-government security strategy.

  3. The new government strategy for higher education in the Netherlands: an analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vught, van, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands a new government strategy for higher education is emerging. This new strategy is presented by the Ministry of Education and Science as a development of more institutional self-regulation and a distancing of government from day to day higher education affairs. This article asks whether the Dutch Government is really allowing higher education institutions to become more autonomous. To answer this question two recent policy papers on higher education from the Ministry of Educa...

  4. Government Financial Management, Strategy for Preventing Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Umar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In popular view, the term accountability generally refers to a wide spectrum of public expectations dealing with organizational performance, responsiveness, good governance, and even morality of government and nonprofit organizations. These expectations often include implicit performance criteria – related to obligations and responsibilities – that are subjectively interpreted and sometimes even contradictory. And in this broader conception of accountability, the range of people and institutions to whom public and nonprofit organizations must account include not only higher authorities in the institutional chain of command but also the general public, the news media, peer agencies, donors, and many other stakeholders (Kearns, 1996. Government could build its accountability by implementing good and proper financial management. Financial management is a tool for government to show its performance and accountability to the public. Meanwhile, corruption is the misuse of public office for private gain. As such, it involves the improper and unlawful behavior of public-service officials, both politicians and civil servants, whose positions create opportunities for the diversion of money and assets from government to them and their accomplices (Langseth, 1999. The more corruption, the more far away from good governance, and the less public accountability. According to Klitgaard (1988, power minus accountability is corruption. This paper explains about the influences of implementing government financial management to corruption fighting and good governance in broadly view. Discussion will be derived to find out the understanding of financial management, corruption, and good governance terminology fits for Indonesia environment. The purpose of this paper is to achieve common knowledge that financial management should be implemented by public organization from strategic management for public organization approaches. Besides, reader will find out

  5. The strategies of governance from two perspectives: capitalist enterprises versus social economy enterprises: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Muñoz Medraño; Francisco Laborda Peñalver; Antonio Juan Briones Peñalver

    2014-01-01

    Companies increasingly develop strategies and implement governance models of efficient management. These systems of government are based on innovative measures, policies for social and environmental responsibility, and strategic alliances. All are being considered in recent years as efficient policies for the governance of institutions, creating value and better business results. This paper addresses good governance from a comparative analysis of capitalist enterprises and social economy to t...

  6. Tax Limitations and Revenue Shifting Strategies in Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The literature on tax and expenditure limitations (TELs) shows how limiting the freedom of local governments to levy taxes may have considerable unexpected effects. Entities subjected to such limitations may, as their proponents hope, react by cutting expenditures and revenue, but they may also...... strategically change their revenue structure and increase reliance on income sources not subjected to limitations. However, these findings are overwhelmingly based on studies of state and local governments in the USA. Their relevance outside this empirical setting remains unclear. A study of Denmark, where...... the central government imposed tax limitations on municipalities in 2009, makes two contributions. First, it probes the empirical domain of the US findings. Second, it constitutes an empirical testing ground where endogeneity is not a pressing concern. In the USA, TELs are often self-imposed either by local...

  7. Let-7i-5p represses brite adipocyte function in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Maude; Karbiener, Michael; Pisani, Didier F; Ghandour, Rayane A; Beranger, Guillaume E; Niemi, Tarja; Taittonen, Markku; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Langin, Dominique; Scheideler, Marcel; Amri, Ez-Zoubir

    2016-01-01

    In response to cold or β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes non-shivering thermogenesis, leading to energy dissipation. BAT has long been thought to be absent or scarce in adult humans. The recent discovery of thermogenic brite/beige adipocytes has opened the way to development of novel innovative strategies to combat overweight/obesity and associated diseases. Thus it is of great interest to identify regulatory factors that govern the brite adipogenic program. Here, we carried out global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling on human adipocytes to identify miRNAs that are regulated upon the conversion from white to brite adipocytes. Among the miRNAs that were differentially expressed, we found that Let-7i-5p was down regulated in brite adipocytes. A detailed analysis of the Let-7i-5p levels showed an inverse expression of UCP1 in murine and human brite adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Functional studies with Let-7i-5p mimic in human brite adipocytes in vitro revealed a decrease in the expression of UCP1 and in the oxygen consumption rate. Moreover, the Let-7i-5p mimic when injected into murine sub-cutaneous white adipose tissue inhibited partially β3-adrenergic activation of the browning process. These results suggest that the miRNAs Let-7i-5p participates in the recruitment and the function of brite adipocytes. PMID:27345691

  8. A Brief Survey of Corporate Strategy, Environmental Issues and Corporate Governance at Vietnamese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Phung, Dinh Trong; Toma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    So as to make a cursory investigation into corporate strategies, care about environmental issues and managerial forms (corporate governance) in business of current Vietnamese companies, a brief survey has conducted at 4 enterprises in Vietnam.

  9. Governing board structure, business strategy, and performance of acute care hospitals: a contingency perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, G; Beekun, R I; Ginn, G O

    1992-01-01

    Contingency theory suggests that for a hospital governing board to be effective in taking on a more active role in strategic management, the board needs to be structured to complement the overall strategy of the organization. A survey study was conducted to examine the strategies of acute care hospitals as related to the structural characteristics of their governing boards. After controlling for organizational size and system membership, results indicated a significant relationship between th...

  10. The strategies of governance from two perspectives: capitalist enterprises versus social economy enterprises: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Muñoz Medraño

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies increasingly develop strategies and implement governance models of efficient management. These systems of government are based on innovative measures, policies for social and environmental responsibility, and strategic alliances. All are being considered in recent years as efficient policies for the governance of institutions, creating value and better business results. This paper addresses good governance from a comparative analysis of capitalist enterprises and social economy to the region of Murcia. Transparency, democratic management, innovation, partnerships, among others, can make the difference between the modus operandi of these businesses and the effects thereof in the territories where they settle.

  11. Success Factors for an E-Government Strategy: Austrian Experiences, Indonesian Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Behrens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper are success factors for the implementation of an E-Government strategy. While concepts for a sophisticated strategy process in Public Sector are delivered on a regular basis, the gap between ambitious planning and its implementation seems to get wider. Authors seek to define what makes a “good strategy” in order to enhance management capacity. Meanwhile some scholars from Political Science see limitation of Governments on announcements which are not followed up by sufficient action rather as systematic problems, challenging concept and rules of liberal western democracy, or owed to growing complexity of Governance under the conditions of globalization. In context of the introduction of New Public Management and its perception of citizens as customers and on the basis of new available technical options in Information Society, a key Governance reform project in European and other Countries over the last fifteen years has been the introduction of E-Government. European market leader in this field is Austria. The author reviews concept and implementation experiences of the Austrian E-Government strategy, analyzes key success factors and opens a discussion, under which conditions a successful implementation of E-Government can take place in Indonesia.

  12. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. James Gathungu; Alfred N. Mungai

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005) E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government) is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and busi...

  13. Gender Differences in the Attitude and Strategy towards Weight Control among Government Employees in Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aina Mardiah, B; Hazizi, AS; Nasir, MT Mohd; Zaitun, Y; Jan, JM Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: This was a cross-sectional study on the gender differences in weight-control behavior. The strategies used, weight status, weight satisfaction, and proportion of individuals attempting to lose weight among 233 government employees (104 men and 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building in Penang, Malaysia, were assessed. Methods: Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage were measured to determine the subjects’ body w...

  14. Gender Differences in the Attitude and Strategy towards Weight Control among Government Employees in Penang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitun, Y; MT, Mohd Nasir; AS Hazizi; Aina Mardiah, B; JM, Hamid Jan

    2012-01-01

    "nBackground: This was a cross-sectional study on the gender differences in weight-control behavior. The strategies used, weight status, weight satisfaction, and proportion of individuals attempting to lose weight among 233 government employees (104 men and 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building in Penang, Malaysia, were assessed."nMethods: Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage were measured to determine the sub...

  15. The use of Enterprise Architecture, IT Strategy and IT Governance at StatoilHydro

    OpenAIRE

    Parmo, Christopher Ludt

    2009-01-01

    The master thesis will extend the students depth study. Through the master thesis the student shall study and evaluate how IT Governance, Enterprise Architecture and IT Strategy are related in StatoilHydro. The student shall also research StatoilHydro´s awareness of the concepts. The student shall propose improvements and/or changes based on this evaluation.

  16. The work plan for the newly created IUHPE Vice President for Strategy and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The position of Vice President for Strategy and Governance was created at the first full meeting of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education Board of Trustees in June 2007 in Vancouver, Canada. Specific duties were developed for the position and the newly elected Vice President developed a work plan for the period of 2007-10. This paper describes the responsibilities of the newly created Vice Presidency and the work plan developed to meet those responsibilities. The key action areas for the focus of the work of the Vice President for Strategy and Governance include: finalising the rewritten Strategic Directions for 2008-10; developing Strategic Directions for 2010-16; developing and implementing processes to improve the strategic coordination and reporting of work plans across the organisation; and broad responsibility for eliciting and working with the organisation to respond to governance issues.

  17. Demands for media democratisation and the Latin American 'New Left': Government strategies in Argentina and Brazil in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzberger, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of government strategies vis-à-vis dominant media actors in the Latin American context, where the media’s role in democratic politics is increasingly being questioned. It compares the first two Kirchnerist presidencies in Argentina with the first two Workers’ Party-led governments in Brazil. While these governments initially adopted accommodation strategies towards media organisations, political crises subsequently disturbed the fragile coexistence of medi...

  18. 欧盟的全球治理战略%The EU Strategy for Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2012-01-01

    在有效推进区域治理和积极应对全球化的进程中,欧盟也在不断构建和完善自己的全球治理战略。欧盟支持并参与国际机制的非根本性改革,以整体身份谋求在国际事务中的代表权和话语权,提高集体军事行动能力,通过提供全球公共产品担当全球公益领域治理的主导。欧盟的全球治理战略表现出包容与排外相混合、有效多边主义、关注全球公益、推广欧盟式民主等特点,但在实施过程中,也面临着决策效率低、行动能力差、内部立场不统一等诸多制约。%In the process of effectively promoting regional governance and positively addressing globalization, EU gradually constrnets and improves its own strategy for global governance. EU supports and participates in non -fundamental reforms of international institutions, strives for representation and discourse power in international affairs as a whole, enhances the capability of collective military action, assumes the leader of global public governance through providing global public goods. EU strategy for global governance demonstrates some characteristics of hybrid of inclusiveness and exclusiveness, ef- fective multilateralism, concentration on global public areas and popularization of EU style democracy. However, during executing the strategy for global governance, EU faces several restrictions like low decision - making efficiency, poor action capacity and inside disunity positions.

  19. Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronen, Robin; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-06-01

    This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people's lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning. PMID:23690592

  20. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  1. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  2. THEORETIC INCURSION IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINANTS AND E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. EMPIRIC STUDY OVER THE GRADE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We are currently witnessing an unprecedented development of new technologies, that offers great opportunities for the modernization of the society, it changes radically the way governments, businesses and citizens have the opportunity to obtain goods and services, the way in which public services are provided that become increasingly important for citizens, the way of obtaining and transmitting information, the way in which business connections are done, the interaction between different communities, etc.. From this point of view we research the way in which public strategies of achievement and implementation of model of e-government are shaped, model which can exploit the opportunities offered by new technologies and can implement roles for the citizen and public policy makers and implicitly of local and regional development. How the public sector should support the implementation of strategies of e-government, to polarize at the highest level all communities of interest, to provide a framework for planning and action across the board, covering local administration, institutions, organizations and government agencies, to empower appropriate training for implementation of IT strategies, can lead to stimulation of generators factors of local and regional development. We also, intend to identify, from carrying out an empirical study in Bihor county, by analysis of 30 public institutions, the degree of implementation of new technologies in public administration, human resources readiness for appropriate use of IT facilities and what level of implementation of e-government in these institutions, in order to outline the main characteristics and determinants of e-government implementation. The present paper is of interest to policy-makers, researchers, local communities through analysis how the introduction of new technology development in developing and implementing public policies, particularly by networking government and e-government, can cause

  3. Gender Differences in the Attitude and Strategy towards Weight Control among Government Employees in Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: This was a cross-sectional study on the gender differences in weight-control behavior. The strategies used, weight status, weight satisfaction, and proportion of individuals attempting to lose weight among 233 government employees (104 men and 129 women working in the Federal Government Building in Penang, Malaysia, were assessed."nMethods: Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage were measured to determine the subjects' body weight status. A questionnaire covering the following items was used to assess weight-control behavior: social support, self-monitoring, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, planning, preparation/buying, portion control, social interactions, and cognitive behavioral strategies."nResults: About 50% of the subjects were classified as overweight. Based on percent body fat percentage, 70% of them were classified as having unhealthy levels of body fat. Women were found to be more dissatisfied with their current weight, and were more likely to attempt weight reduction compared to men. Women reported higher levels of social support for dieting and had better expectations for diet and exercise (P < 0.05. They also reported higher use of weight control strategies. For self-monitoring, although no gender-dependent differences (P > 0.05 were observed, women reported more frequent self-monitoring of diet, whereas men reported more frequent self-monitoring of exercise."nConclusion: Health care professionals and researchers should be aware of the different strategies used by men and women in order to plan and/or implement community-wide weight management programmes.

  4. Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: An Analysis of Ownership Structure, Profit Redistribution and Diversification Strategies of Firms in India.

    OpenAIRE

    George, R.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between corporate governance and performance of firms in India. Utilizing various theoretical bases in strategy and finance domains, the dissertation attempts to distill a better understanding of the pivotal role played by the twin dimensions of ownership structure and business group-affiliation in influencing firm strategy and performance. In particular, three pertinent issues underpinning the corporate governance-firm performance relationship are ...

  5. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed. PMID:18771835

  6. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  7. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James Gathungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and businesses locally and abroad; and to empower citizens through access and use of information. Although e-government is a rapidly growing concept in both developing and developed countries very few e-government initiatives progress to maturity. Different countries are faced with different contextual circumstances and environments in the realization of e-government initiatives. This study attempts to address the gap between theory and rhetoric about the potential of e-government and the reality of its application on the ground in Kenya. The study attempts to analyze the philosophy, theories and paradigms of e-government. The development of the commercial concept as a new paradigm in public administration replacing the traditional bureaucratic systems of government is highlighted in the study. A detailed conceptual discussion anchors the study on the Wing Lam, (2005 E-government Integration Model (EGI basing it on the Kenyan perspective. The study also reviews relevant e-government studies from an international, regional and local perspective anchoring the study on the configuration school of management thought. These discussions are used to develop new insights in view of the emerging issues and their relevance to the public sector in Kenya.  

  8. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ), a lipid signalling enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Maria-Luisa; Clarke, Jonathan H; Irvine, Robin F

    2016-05-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are an important family of enzymes, whose physiological roles are being teased out by a variety of means. Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) is especially intriguing as its in vitro activity is very low. Here we review what is known about this enzyme and discuss some recent advances towards an understanding of its physiology. Additionally, the effects of the ATP-competitive inhibitor I-OMe Tyrphostin AG-538 on all three mammalian PI5P4Ks was explored, including two PI5P4Kγ mutants with altered ATP- or PI5P-binding sites. The results suggest a strategy for targeting non-ATP binding sites on inositol lipid kinases. PMID:26710750

  9. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc

  10. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  11. Introduction to biomass energy project financing, funding sources and government strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass projects can help developing countries to protect their environment as well as to build a modem infrastructure. However, such projects present, in addition to the more typical risks associated with fossil-fuel projects, certain risks relating to the unique technologies and fuels used in such projects. Further, their location in developing countries regularly creates enhanced political and credit risk as well. Biomass power projects, like any other power project, must be financed. To be financeable, a power project should allocate risk in the most efficient way, so as to maximize return on investment. This paper examines the way in which various project documents can be structured to allocate most efficiently the technology and fuel risks unique to biomass projects, as well as the more typical risks, such as construction risk, permitting risk, expropriation risk, currency risk, country risk, sovereign risks, operating risks and credit risk. In addition, this paper summarizes the public financing sources and support that are available to assist in meeting the unique risk profiles of biomass projects. Specifically, it examines some of the principal multilateral and export credit agencies having involvement in this area. Finally, it examines potential strategies available to the developer of a biomass project for soliciting the involvement of, and negotiating with, local governments and public financing agencies. (author)

  12. Corporate governance and firm performance : An analysis of ownership structure, profit redistribution and diversification strategies of firms in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between corporate governance and performance of firms in India. Utilizing various theoretical bases in strategy and finance domains, the dissertation attempts to distill a better understanding of the pivotal role played by the twin dimensions of ownership

  13. Sustainable Cost Transformation in Governments Using Accelerated Design of Shared Services, Social CRM and Information Strategy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayas Kad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In advance of the current economic downturn, governments around the world had embarked uponvery well intentioned efficiency remedial measures by observing its customers’ needs and expectations,implementing the shared design services catering to its various common functions across the departments, leveraging benefits with state-of-art introduction of Information technology and Social CRM. Bringing this approach together helps cost reduction programs introduced by the government produce better outcome and deliver efficiencies and effectiveness in various government functions along with endorsing sustainability in its different endeavors. Strong alignment among the various government departments and buy-in to the shared-services philosophy has been realized as the major contributing factor enabling the effective functioning and hence tools the SCRM and I.T. Strategy have been bundled together forming a collaborative approach.

  14. The Government Subsidy Strategy Choice for Firm’s R&D: Input Subsidy or Product Subsidy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To encourage enterprises to conduct technology innovation, the government needs to formulate appropriate subsidies policy. This paper compares two R&D subsidy policies in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain, in which the manufacturer conducts R&D activity for quality improvement. By means of game theory, we investigate the optimal decisions of the players under the two R&D subsidy policies, that is, input subsidy policy and product subsidy policy. Finally, we compare the profits and welfare to explore the better R&D subsidy policy and provide decision support for government to formulate subsidy policy. The results show that under input subsidy policy the optimal production output, quality improvement, profits, government subsidies, and social welfare are all lower than those of product subsidy policy. Therefore, the government should use product subsidy strategy to encourage enterprise R&D activities.

  15. Cloud Computing Architecture: The Improved Strategy for Good E-Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. P. Singh Rajendra Singh Thapa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing provides a great opportunity for governments across the globe, to provide reliable E-Governance quickly, at lower costs. Cloud computing features like application virtualization, end-to-end service management, instant deployment and ease of maintenance are catalysts that jumpstart application deployment on the Cloud. With proper planning, execution, training and good management, the Cloud infrastructure can greatly reduce overall costs for government departments maintaining and managing E-Services for E-Governance, and help in efficiently utilization.

  16. Governing people's lives. Strategies for improving the health of the nations in England, Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgårda, S

    2001-12-01

    Public health strategies reflect governments' wish to make people's lives longer and healthier. This can either be achieved by influencing the frames of people's lives and activities or the way they behave, i.e. to try to 'conduct their conduct'. In this paper the motivations for and methods of four national public health strategies are analysed. They are the English, the Norwegian, the Danish and the Swedish. Four questions are addressed: i) how is the governing activities aimed at improving the health of the population justified; ii) which issues are defined as problems; iii) which causes of the problems are identified; and iv) which governing techniques are suggested to solve the problems. The English and Danish programmes focus on mortality while the others give high priority to non-lethal diseases and conditions. The Danish programme mainly aims at making people conduct themselves in a more healthy way, i.e. change their behaviour, often guided by health professionals. The Norwegian paper has empowerment as its central strategy. The strategy is based on the assumption that if people get more power over their own lives they will become more healthy and behave in a more healthy way. The Swedish emphasis is on changing people's living conditions and much less is said about the role of the individual. The English programme launches a national contract where individuals and authorities should work both to change people's behaviour and their living conditions. All strategies deal with the increasing social inequality in health, the English and Swedish strategies more than the others. There does not seem to be a specific Nordic model in this field of welfare state politics. PMID:11766478

  17. Image Repair Strategies of Rwandan Government in the Post-genocide Era: A Historical and Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji, Ebenezer Oluwole

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study employed Crisis-Communication theoretical framework to examine the responses of the government of Rwanda to the 1994 genocide which arguably posed the most serious challenge to the country’s image since independence from Belgium in 1962. It also evaluated the effectiveness of the image-restoration and repair strategies- using a model proposed by image restoration scholars, Benoit & Pang, (2008). The investigation and analysis were done using a combination of historica...

  18. Stuck in the tar sands : how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix

  19. The impact of the government policy on the Chinese electric gehicle industry and business strategy management : Case of FAW

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhe; Lu, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background: The electric vehicle industry is an emerging industry worldwide. In China the development of the electric vehicle industry is rapid. The government policy is of great influence on the economy in the Chinese context. The Chinese electric vehicle company has to design the right business strategy to maintain and enhance its competitive advantages in order to respond to challenges. Aim: This study analyzes the five competitive forces of the Chinese electric vehicle industry and the ef...

  20. The persistent food crisis in Ethiopis: causes, government responses and household strategies; the case of Enebse Sar Midir district

    OpenAIRE

    Lakew, Ejiga Jemberu

    2006-01-01

    This study looks into the underlying causes of household food shortage and coping and survival strategies of households. It also analyzes government intervention undertaken to address the problem. It was based on a field survey in three peasant associations of the Enebse Sar Midir district in Amhara Region. The findings of this study show that various and interrelated factors are responsible for the problem of household food shortage. There are many natural predisposing factors such as drough...

  1. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Zöllner, Hannah; Munding, Johanna; Klein-Scory, Susanne; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan A

    2012-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via a lentiviral vector system in two different colon cancer cell lines. This induced in both lines miR-30a-5p-mediated growth inhibition, attributable to a cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase and an induction of apoptosis. Combining global gene expression analyses of miR-30a-5p transgenic line HCT116 with in silico miRNA target prediction, we identified the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) as a potential miRNA-30a-5p target. Subsequent reporter gene assays confirmed the predicted miR-30a-5p binding site in the 3'untranslated region of DTL. Importantly, overexpression of DTL in HCT116 cells partially rescued these cells from miR-30a-5p-mediated growth suppression. In addition, TP53 and CDKN1A expression were increased in miR-30a-5p-overexpressing HCT116 cells, suggesting that miR-30a-5p is able to modulate the cell cycle via a DTL-TP53-CDKN1A regulatory circuit. Finally, 379 colorectal cancer tissues were screened for DTL expression and DTL was found to be overexpressed in 95.8% of human colorectal cancers compared with normal colon mucosa. In conclusion, our data identified miR-30a-5p as a tumor-suppressing miRNA in colon cancer cells exerting its function via modulation of DTL expression, which is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer. Thus, our data suggest that restoring miR-30a-5p function may prove useful as therapeutic strategy for tumors with reduced miR-30a-5p expression.

  2. Connected Government: An Exploration of the UAE's Identity Management Integration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ali M. Al-Khouri

    2013-01-01

    The subject of connected government is coming once again to the forefront of national development priorities around the world. This stems from the need to address various local and global necessities in light of the changing landscape of the new digital world we live in today. In a connected government context, public service agencies are needed to act as a single enterprise so that citizens feel they are being served by one organization rather than a number of different public authorities. I...

  3. Governance approaches in European territorial cooperation programmes and the implications of macro-regional strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwet, Arno; Mcmaster, Irene; BACHTLER, John

    2012-01-01

    Historically, cooperation across borders was an area of activity dominated by central government actors. However, in the EU some of the earliest institutionalised forms of territorial cooperation are based on bottom-up initiatives involving border municipalities. Current territorial cooperation arrangements continue to be strongly based upon local and regional institutions and actors. Theoretical work on Europeanisation, multi-level governance and new regionalism highlights the increased role...

  4. 卫生部门治理:战略与机制%Health sector governance:Strategies and mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽杭

    2014-01-01

    在将健康作为一个要素融入所有政府部门与社会团体政策制定中的大健康整合战略下,政府各部门及社会团体在共识基础上形成广泛性治理目标,由政府主导卫生系统的运行,通过加强政府各部门间及与社会组织的协调与合作,统筹卫生系统的服务及管理功能,建立社会参与的绩效问责机制,实现提升卫生部门治理水平,改善社会健康结果的目标。%Under the health integration strategies of public policy to health in all policies of all sectors and so-cial areas, government departments and social organizations form a broad consensus on the basis of the goals of gov-ernance, led by government health system operations, through the strengthening of coordination and cooperation a-mong government departments and social organizations as well as overall planning of the service functions of the health system, and the establishment of community participation in the performance accountability mechanism, in order to enhance the level of health sector governance and improve community health outcomes.

  5. Adaptation strategies to pasture degradation:Gap between government and local nomads in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianzhong; WU Yingying; ZHANG Yili

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade,there has been increasing interest in climate change,pasture degradation and its driving forces,and innovations in nomadic pastoralism on the Tibetan Plateau.However,little is known of indigenous strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation,which limits the effectiveness of adaptation strategies planned by local government.This paper analyzes nomads' strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation on the basis of a field survey of three townships of Dalag County in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.Pastures there have evidently degraded,with pastures in Wasai mainly in a state of slight or medium degradation and those in Manzhang and Jianshe in a state of medium or severe degradation.With the degradation of pasture,the grazing time is reduced,which affects the livelihoods of nomads.Although the Four-Package Project has commenced in this region,there is still severe fodder shortage in winter and spring.The traditional hay storage strategy does not work because of pasture degradation,and few nomads establish fenced and artificial pastures.Therefore,nomads have employed other strategies,such as renting pasture,providing supplementary feed,and diversifying their livelihoods.Local strategies taken by nomads can provide valuable insights into ecological restoration and livelihood improvement in the region and suggest changes to means promoted by local government.It is necessary to seek new means that combine the best aspects of nomadic pastoralism with modern stockbreeding technologies to help nomads adapt to pasture degeneration and improve their livelihoods.

  6. Poverty in Mexico : An Assessment of Conditions, Trends and Government Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Michael; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, half of Mexico's population lived in poverty and one fifth in extreme poverty, slightly lower than before the 1994-1995 crisis. Mexico has made major progress in some poverty dimensions -health, nutrition and education outcomes, access to basic health and education services, electricity, water and (to a lesser extent) sanitation. Large increases in government spending enabled key ...

  7. International R&D rivalry and industrial strategy without government commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Dermot; Neary, J. Peter

    1995-01-01

    We examine optimal industrial and trade policies in a series of dynamic oligopoly games in which a home and a foreign firm compete in R&D and output. Alternative assumptions about the timing of moves and the ability of agents to commit intertemporally are considered. We show that the home export subsidy, R&D subsidy and welfare are higher when government commitment is credible than in the dynamically consistent equilibrium without commitment. Commitment thus yields welfare gains (though they ...

  8. Teacher Professional Development Strategies in Australian Government and Professional Associations Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kostina Ludmyla

    2015-01-01

    Teacher in Australia is determined as an active participant of professional community with high level of collaboration, professional development coherent activities and collaborative learning practice. Thus, teacher quality is one of critical factors affecting student outcomes. The article touches upon the issue of the potential to improve secondary school teacher professional expertise in Australia. These are initiatives approved by Australian specific organizations at government and non-gov...

  9. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2011-01-01

    Most of the research on low carbon society in Denmark has hitherto focused on developing scenarios and analyzing possible policy instruments, including market mechanisms, costs and impacts in relation to known options and impacts. The Danish Council of Strategic Research funds the four year research alliance “Enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society” during 2010-2013. The aim of this alliance is to conceptualize the dynamics of transition processes towards a low carbon socie...

  10. Justifying accounting change through global discourses and legitimation strategies. The case of the UK central government.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata

    2016-01-01

    Accounting has been viewed, especially through the lens of the recent managerial reforms, as a neutral technology that, in the hands of rational managers, can support effective and efficient decision making. However, the introduction of new accounting practices can be framed in a variety of ways, from value-neutral procedures to ideologically-charged instruments. Focusing on financial accounting, budgeting and performance management changes in the UK central government, and through extensive ...

  11. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    , companies, cities, and national and international policy. Theoretically the research alliance builds upon a combination of theories including social practice theory, innovation economy, institutional theory, actor-network theory and governance theory. Through a combination of historical analysis, case...... stakeholders to make continuous adjustments of objectives and means in unavoidably conflict ridden transition processes.  Analyses of how key measures and institutions at different societal levels might contribute to transition processes.  Characterisation of 4-6 typical sustainable transition set...

  12. Spam SMS Classification Governance Strategies%垃圾短信分类治理对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾剑秋; 杨光永; 董豪

    2015-01-01

    Taking spam SMS governance as the entry point and based on the theory of supply and demand analy-sis, a two-dimensional asymmetric evaluation matrix and hierarchical classification governance strategies are presented from two dimensions of SMS content and its transmission channel.Through the analysis, it is found that the current governance emphasis is the spam SMS related with the port, of which the advertising spam mes-sage accounts for the largest proportion, while the illegal SMS spam, such as fraud and pornography spam, harms the society most, and relevant recommendations of spam SMS classification governance is put forward. Spam SMS governance is researched from a new perspective, and the results will provide references both to the regulatory authorities and to telecom operators, and promote the healthy development of SMS.%以垃圾短信治理问题为切入点, 以供需分析为理论基础, 从短信内容与短信发送渠道两个维度分别提出非对称二维评判矩阵和分层分级治理策略. 通过分析发现, 目前治理重点转向 "端口" 类垃圾短信, 广告类垃圾短信数量占比最大, 而诈骗、 色情等违法类短信社会危害最大, 因而提出垃圾短信分类治理的相关建议. 从新的视角研究垃圾短信治理问题, 给监管部门及电信运营企业提供理论及方法借鉴, 并促进短信业务的健康发展.

  13. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  14. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au)

  15. Governance Strengths and Weaknesses to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in European Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Koss, Rebecca; Piotr, Margonski;

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has been the focus of much marine research across Europe in the pursuit of achieving Good Environmental Status in the four European Union marine regions; Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North-east Atlantic. This research addres...

  16. The moderating role of competitive strategy in relating frim performance to quality management and government support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns in companies is quality management and its relationship to firm performance. Recently a growing interest in research is the important role of the business environment in the competitive strategy choices of companies. By proposing a conceptual framework for a general model th

  17. The missing link between technological standards and value-chain governance: the case of patent-distribution strategies in the mobile-communication industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Wen; Daniel You-Ren Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effects of technological standards on the governance structure of production networks by investigating patent-distribution strategies in the global mobile-communication industry. Through a comparative analysis of two mobile-communication technology standards—GSM and CDMA—we find that there exist significantly different patent-distribution strategies which result in varied governance structure as well as power relations within seemingly similar production networks....

  18. miR-199a-5p regulates β1 integrin through Ets-1 to suppress invasion in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jinbao; Zhai, Limin; Chen, Weijuan; Zhao, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that miR-199a-5p is actively involved in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in the decline of breast cancer tissues. In this research, overexpression of miR-199a-5p weakened motility and invasion of breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Upregulation of Ets-1 increased breast cancer cell invasion, but the mechanism by which miR-199a-5p modulates activation of Ets-1 in breast cancer was not clarified. We investigated the relationship between miR-199a-5p and Ets-1 on the basis of 158 primary breast cancer case specimens, and the results showed that Ets-1 expression was inversely correlated with endogenous miR-199a-5p. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p reduced the mRNA and protein levels of Ets-1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas anti-miR-199a-5p elevated Ets-1. siRNA-mediated Ets-1 knockdown phenocopied the inhibition invasion of miR-199a-5p in vitro. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-199a-5p directly targeted 3'-UTR of Ets-1 mRNA. This research revealed that miR-199a-5p could descend the levels of β1 integrin by targeting 3'-UTR of Ets-1 to alleviate the invasion of breast cancer via FAK/Src/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Our results provide insight into the regulation of β1 integrin through miR-199a-5p-mediated Ets-1 silence and will help in designing new therapeutic strategies to inhibit signal pathways induced by miR-199a-5p in breast cancer invasion.

  19. Examining Why the Canadian Federal Government Placed an Orphan Drug Strategy on Their Decision Agenda Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gary Embrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health’s announcement of a National Orphan Drug Framework on 3 October 2012 was the first federal public acknowledgement of orphan drugs since the 1997 Drugs Directorate (DD policy statement. The reform primarily announced an Orphan Drug Policy for Canada. This paper explains why the government decided to make this announcement now. Media and Parliamentary documents were analyzed for their use of symbols, numbers, and language in causal stories told by political actors. The initial story was that Canada’s population was too small and the cost too high for an orphan drug policy. Over the next fifteen years, a powerful interest group, the Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders (CORD, mobilized the rare disease community into a cooperative effort that generated collective action. They redefined the DD story from one of natural causes, to inadvertence, and finally to intentional causation. Their story invoked a federal response because it blamed the government directly for not acting on behalf of the 3 million Canadians with rare diseases, when patients in other countries were receiving better care.

  20. Open Innovation: Implications for Corporate Strategies, Government Policy and International R&D Spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Guinet; Dirk Meissner

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of public policy to the open innovation process. Innovation processes are dynamic and global. Actors must adapt their strategies to new contexts, including the increasingly knowledge-based global competition. They must reconcile the need for speed in commercial exploitation of new products in order to ensure continuous investments with long lead-time in the development of radical innovation capabilities. For the world leaders in their industries, suppliers ...

  1. Governing Migration: Immigrant Groups' Strategies in Three Italian Cities - Rome, Naples and Bari

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Kristine

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic networks constitute an important component of immigrants' integration in their host societies. This has been a particularly important strategy in Italy, where institutional assistance for immigrants is often paltry and problematic. This paper examines three ethnic communities in Italy that have been particularly successful in using their ethnic social capital for integrating into Italian society at the city level: the Mauritians in Bari, Filipinos in Rome and Chinese in Naples. Sending...

  2. Interstitial deletion 5p accompanied by dicentric ring formation of the deleted segment resulting in trisomy 5p13-cen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuffenhauer, S.; Daumer-Haas, C.; Murken, J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    Karyotypes with an interstitial deletion and a marker chromosome formed from the deleted segment are rare. We identified such a rearrangement in a newborn infant, who presented with macrocephaly, asymmetric square skull, minor facial anomalies, omphalocele, inguinal hernias, hypospadias, and club feet. The karyotype 46,XY,del(5)(pter{r_arrow}p13::cen{r_arrow}qter)/47,XY,+dicr(5)(:p13{r_arrow}cen::p13{r_arrow}cen),del(5)(pter{r_arrow}p13::cen{r_arrow}qter) was identified by banding studies and FISH analysis in the peripheral lymphocytes. One breakpoint on the del(5) maps distal to GDNF, and FISH analysis using an {alpha}-satellite probe suggests that the proximal breakpoint maps within the centromere. The dicentric r(5) consists of two copies of the segment deleted in the del(5), resulting in trisomy of proximal 5p (5p13-cen). The phenotype of the propositus is compared with other trisomy 5p cases and possible mechanisms for the generation of this unique chromosomal rearrangement are discussed. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  3. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  4. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averette, Anna F.; Lee, Soo Chan; Kim, Taeyup; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Robbins, Nicole; Heitman, Joseph; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which metal chelation

  5. Anti-corruption strategies in some South-Eastern European states.An empirical study on the impact of the government performance

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Ani; Lucica MATEI

    2010-01-01

    The preoccupations about conceiving and promoting efficient anti-corruption strategies exist in most states, especially in the developing countries. The opportunity of such strategies derives from the direct link, demonstrated theoretically and empirically, between the effects of the anti-corruption strategies and government performance, translated both in the economic and social results and living standard, welfare etc. In the last decades, the transnational actors – UN, World Bank, OECD, EU...

  6. New D1-D5-P geometries from string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Turton, David

    2011-01-01

    We derive the long range supergravity fields sourced by a D1-D5-P bound state from disk amplitudes for massless closed string emission. We suggest that since the parameter controlling the string perturbation expansion for this calculation decreases with distance from the bound state, the resulting asymptotic fields are valid even in the regime of parameters in which there is a classical black hole solution with the same charges. The supergravity fields differ from the black hole solution by multipole moments and are more general than those contained within known classes of solutions in the literature, whilst still preserving four supersymmetries. Our results support the conjecture that the black hole solution should be interpreted as a coarse-grained description rather than an exact description of the gravitational field sourced by D1-D5-P bound states in this regime of parameters.

  7. D1-D5-P microstates at the cap

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    The geometries describing D1-D5-P bound states in string theory have three regions: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter throat, and a 'cap' region at the bottom of the throat. We identify the CFT description of a known class of supersymmetric D1-D5-P microstate geometries which describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The class includes both regular solutions and solutions with conical defects, and generalizes configurations with known CFT descriptions: a parameter related to spectral flow in the CFT is generalized from integer to fractional values. We provide strong evidence for this identification by comparing the massless scalar excitation spectrum between gravity and CFT and finding exact agreement.

  8. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke;

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e......-government/e-governance and provide guidance for research, development and application of this emerging field. The papers are arranged in topical sections on challenges, performance, strategy, knowledge, and technology....

  9. MicroRNA-125a-5p modulates human cervical carcinoma proliferation and migration by targeting ABL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin X

    2015-12-01

    .Conclusion: The molecular pathway of miR-125a-5p/ABL2 plays an important role in human cervical carcinoma. Targeting miR-125a-5p/ABL2 pathway may provide a new treatment strategy for patients with cervical carcinoma. Keywords: cervical carcinoma, miR-125a-5p, ABL2, cancer proliferation, cancer migration

  10. 开放政府与政府数据公开战略%Open Government and Government Data Disclosure Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周和

    2012-01-01

    提高政府公信力是全球关注的问题,创新政府管理,建设透明与开放政府,更多地在公共事务上实行公民参与,已成为全球的发展趋势。各国政府也在努力寻找各种途径,使政府更加透明、回应性更强、更加负责和有效。这也使得美国“开放政府”行动的影响越来越大。透明度、参与和协作这三项原则,构成开放政府的基石。而合理地开放政府信息、扩大信息公开与敏感信息的保护、提高政府信息的可及性则是有效实施政府数据公开战略,建设开放政府的必然选择。%This paper describes the origin of open government, and discusses the connotation, value and trends of open government, and points out that innovative government management, building transparent and open government has become the development trend of the world. At the same time, this paper analyzes discussion of the Chinese scholars on building open government in China, and conducts specific discussion from three aspects: reali- zing greater disclosure of government data, finding a balance between open government and sensitive information protection, as well as facilitating public access to government information.

  11. GPC1 Regulated by miR-96-5p, Rather than miR-182-5p, in Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinoma Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationships between miR-96-5p/-182-5p and GPC1 in pancreatic cancer (PC, we conducted the population and in vitro studies. We followed 38 pancreatic cancer patients, measured and compared the expression of miR-96-5p/-182-5p, GPC1, characteristics and patients’ survival time of different miR-96-5p/-182-5p expression levels in PC tissues. In an in vitro study, we investigated the proliferation, cycle and apotosis in cells transfected with mimics/inhibitors of the two miRNAs, and determine their effects on GPC1 by dual-luciferase assay. In the follow-up study, we found that the expressions of miR-96-5p/-182-5p were lower/higher in PC tissues; patients with lower/higher levels of miR-96-5p/-182-5p suffered poorer characteristics and decreased survival time. In the in vitro study, the expressions of miR-96-5p/-182-5p were different in cells. Proliferation of cells transfected with miR-96-5p mimics/inhibitors was lower/higher in Panc-1/BxPC-3; when transfected with miR-182-5p mimics/inhibitors, proliferation of cells were higher/lower in AsPC-1/Panc-1. In a cell cycle study, panc-1 cells transfected with miR-96-5p mimics was arrested at G0/G1; BxPC-3 cells transfected with miR-96-5p inhibitors showed a significantly decrease at G0/G1; AsPC-1 cells transfected with miR-182-5p mimics was arrested at S; Panc-1 cells transfected with miR-182-5p inhibitors showed a decrease at S. MiR-96-5p mimics increased the apoptosis rate in Panc-1 cells, and its inhibitors decreased the apoptosis rate in BxPC-3. Dual luciferase assay revealed that GPC1 was regulated by miR-96-5p, not -182-5p. We found that miR-96-5p/-182-5p as good markers for PC; miR-96-5p, rather than -182-5p, inhibits GPC1 to suppress proliferation of PC cells.

  12. miR-339-5p regulates the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway by targeting MDM2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, M D; Djodji Damas, Nkerorema; Lees, M;

    2014-01-01

    proliferation in response to stress and represents the most commonly lost and mutated gene in human cancers. The function of p53 is inhibited by the MDM2 oncoprotein. Using a high-throughput screening approach, we identified miR-339-5p as a regulator of the p53 pathway. We demonstrate that this regulation...... occurs via the ability of miR-339-5p to target directly the 3'-untranslated region of MDM2 mRNA, reducing MDM2 expression and thus promoting p53 function. Consequently, overexpression of miR-339-5p positively impacts on p53-governed cellular responses such as proliferation arrest and senescence, whereas...... inhibition of miR-339-5p function perturbs the p53 response in cancer cells, allowing an increased proliferation rate. In addition, miR-339-5p expression is downregulated in tumors harboring wild-type TP53, suggesting that reduction of miR-339-5p level helps to suppress the p53 response in p53-competent...

  13. Inhibition of microRNA-31-5p protects human colonic epithelial cells against ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Zhang, Lu; Barron, Summer; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous non-coding small RNAs, are sensitive to environmental changes, and their differential expression is important for adaptation to the environment. However, application of miRNAs as a clinical prognostic or diagnostic tool remains unproven. In this study we demonstrate a chronic/persistent change of miRNAs from the plasma of a colorectal cancer susceptible mouse model (CPC;Apc) about 250 days after exposure to a simulated solar particle event (SPE). Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified compared to unirradiated control mice, including miR-31-5p, which we investigated further. To address the cellular function of miR-31-5p, we transfected a miR-31-5p mimic (sense) or inhibitor (antisense) into immortalized human colonic epithelial cells followed by gamma-irradiation. A miR-31-5p mimic sensitized but a miR-31-5p inhibitor protected colonic epithelial cells against radiation induced killing. We found that the miR-31-5p mimic inhibited the induction of hMLH1 expression after irradiation, whereas the miR-31-5p inhibitor increased the basal level of hMLH1 expression. The miR-31-5p inhibitor failed to modulate radiosensitivity in an hMLH1-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cell line but protected HCT116 3-6 and DLD-1 (both hMLH1-positive) colon cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that miR-31-5p has an important role in radiation responses through regulation of hMLH1 expression. Targeting this pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy for future personalized anti-cancer radiotherapy.

  14. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  15. THEORETIC INCURSION IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINANTS AND E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY. EMPIRIC STUDY OVER THE GRADE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF E-GOVERNMENT IN BIHOR COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2012-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an unprecedented development of new technologies, that offers great opportunities for the modernization of the society, it changes radically the way governments, businesses and citizens have the opportunity to obtain goods and services, the way in which public services are provided that become increasingly important for citizens, the way of obtaining and transmitting information, the way in which business connections are done, the interaction between different comm...

  16. Rethinking the Changing Structures of Rural Local Government--State Power, Rural Politics and Local Political Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Simon; Goodwin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a notable absence in contemporary rural studies--of both a theoretical and empirical nature--concerning the changing nature of rural local government. Despite the scale and significance of successive rounds of local government reorganisation in the UK, very little has been written on this topic from a rural perspective. Instead research…

  17. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  18. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international context; and (3) suggest options for priorities for the next Strategy to cover period 2003-2007, paying regard to recent developments (including relevant international developments). The target of the...

  19. 76 FR 34650 - Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace AGENCY: U.S. Department of Commerce... Ecosystem Framework in accordance with the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC or... importance of cyberspace to U.S. innovation, prosperity, education and political and cultural life, and...

  20. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  1. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention. PMID:27198808

  2. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention.

  3. How Taxes Can Contribute to The Implementation of The Public Governance Strategy? – An Analysis for Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with a short literature review regarding the public governance concept in the EU approach and its methods for establishing a common way to manage different situations for all member states; we discovered that the problems they confront with have to do with good governance and qualitative public administration. In the second part, we developed an econometric model for three Eastern European countries and we found a strong correlation between the total revenues from taxes and social contributions and total gross debt in 2002-2014 period. We ended the paper by emphasizing the conclusions obtained.

  4. 基于网络营销理念提升电子政务影响力的策略研究%The Promotion Strategy of E-government's Impact Based on Network Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曼; 包文夏

    2014-01-01

    在电子政务的发展中,政府网站“重建设,轻服务”的现状影响了公众对电子政务信息和服务的获取。基于网络营销理念,提出SEO策略、网络推广策略、病毒营销策略、客户关系管理策略来提升电子政务的影响力。%In the development of e-government,situation government website"heavy construction,light service"affects public access to electronic government information and services.Based on network marketing,his article proposes 4 strategies to promote e-government's impact:SEO strategy,network marketing strategy,viral marketing strategy,customer relationship management strategy.

  5. PtdIns5P is an oxidative stress-induced second messenger that regulates PKB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David R; Foulger, Rebecca; Keune, Willem-Jan; Bultsma, Yvette; Divecha, Nullin

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress initiates signaling pathways, which protect from stress-induced cellular damage, initiate apoptosis, or drive cells into senescence or into tumorigenesis. Oxidative stress regulates the activity of the cell survival factor PKB, through the regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P₃ synthesis. Whether oxidative stress regulates other phosphoinositides to control PKB activation is not clear. Here we show that PtdIns5P is a redox-regulated second messenger. In response to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), we measured an increase in PtdIns5P in cells derived from human osteosarcoma, U2OS (5-fold); breast tumors, MDA-MB-468 (2-fold); and fibrosarcoma, HT1080 (3-fold); and in p53-null murine embryonic fibroblasts (8-fold). In U2OS cells, the increase in H₂O₂-dependent PtdIns5P did not require mTOR, PDK1, PKB, ERK, and p38 signaling or PIKfyve, a lipid kinase that increases PtdIns5P in response to osmotic and oncogenic signaling. A reduction in H₂O₂-induced PtdIns5P levels by the overexpression of PIP4K revealed its role in PKB activation. Suppression of H₂O₂-induced PtdIns5P generation reduced PKB activation and, surprisingly, reduced cell sensitivity to growth inhibition by H₂O₂. These data suggest that inhibition of PIP4K signaling might be useful as a novel strategy to increase the susceptibility of tumor cells to therapeutics that function through increased oxidative stress.

  6. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  7. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  8. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  9. MicroRNA-187-5p suppresses cancer cell progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through down-regulation of CYP1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ming; Wu, Zhouqing; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-09-16

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for over 80% of lung cancer-related deaths. Identifying novel molecular biomarker that can inhibit the progression of lung cancer will facilitate the development of new treatment strategies. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-187-5p is a tumor-suppressor miRNA in NSCLC progression. We found that expression of miR-187-5p was decreased obviously in NSCLC tissues. Down-regulation of miR-187-5p was associated with TNM stage and postoperative survival. Overexpression of miR-187-5p inhibited the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. The CYP1B1 was a direct target of miR-187-5p and promoted the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Further study showed that CYP1B1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of miR-187-5p on growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Taken together, our data highlight the pivotal role of miR-187-5p in the progression of NSCLC. Thus, miR-187-5p may be a potential prognostic marker and of treatment relevance for NSCLC progression intervention. PMID:27495872

  10. Energy strategy 2050. From coal, oil and gas to green energy; Danish Government's energy policy; Energistrategi 2050 - fra kul, olie og gas til groen energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Danish Government's ''Energy strategy 2050'' describes how the country can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by the year 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy contains a raft of initiatives that will reduce the energy industry's use of fossil fuels by 33 % in 2020, compared with 2009. The reduction will put Denmark well on its way to complete independence of fossil fuels by 2050. The strategy calls for a significant increase in renewable energy obtained from wind, biomass and biogas which over the next decade will increase the share of renewable to 33 % of energy consumption, if the initiatives in the strategy are implemented. The strategy offers an economically responsible path to the conversion of the Danish energy supply, and includes specific initiatives, that are all fully financed and which will not damage the nation's competitiveness. Homeowners will experience moderate increases in the costs of heat and electricity, but will also be given opportunities to lower their energy expenses through greater efficiency. Companies can expect added expenses amounting to 0.1 % of the rise in their gross revenue growth by 2020. (ln)

  11. Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde-Smith, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

  12. Solving Electronic Records Management (ERM) Issues for Government Websites: Policies, Practices, and Strategies. Conference Report on Questionnaire and Participant Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Jonathan; McClure, Charles R.; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    The purpose of the conference was to review the current legal issues, policies, and practices in Federal ERM electronic records; learn specific strategies and solutions for managing electronic records on Web sites; exchange ideas and share information for Web site ERM; and contribute to the development of ERM policies and guidelines for the…

  13. Shocks and Coping Strategies of Rural Households: Evidence from Ogo-Oluwa Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyi Olalekan, Olawuyi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural households in Nigeria are vulnerable to shock becauseof their limited capacity to make informed decision onsecured coping strategies which is further aggravated by somehouseholds’ specific socio-economic characteristics. Attemptswere made to identify shocks being faced by households’ headsand coping strategies. Multistage sampling technique was usedto select 80 respondents and well structured questionnaire wasused to collect data through in-depth interview. Data wereanalysed using descriptive statistics to describe households’ socio-economic variables; Probit analysis was also used to determinethe relationship between personal socio-economic characteristicsof the respondents, shocks and choice of coping actions. Theresults revealed that a large share of households experiencemultidimensional shocks, which are mainly associated toecological but also suffer from other economic, demographicand social factors. Majority of households undertake copingactions in response to shocks; coping strategies employed butnot limited to include borrowing, distress sales of assets,remittances, adjustment in food intake, drawing on savings. Educational status, household size, per capita income, shocks type,coping strategies, among others are found to significantly affectthe choice of coping actions and are likely to have implicationsfor households’ future welfare status.

  14. Economic competitiveness and governance in areas of urban deprivation: the case study of two growth strategies in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertotti, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    In an urban context characterised by concentrated and persistent deprivation there has been a history of policy intervention albeit with limited impact. Michael Porter's US inspired City Growth Strategy (CGS) initiative presented an alternative approach to urban economic regeneration within the UK characterised by a focus on the competitive advantages of deprived urban areas and a leading role for the private sector within the policy making process. This thesis investigates the implem...

  15. Brazilian policy responses to violence against women: government strategy and the help-seeking behaviors of women who experience violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision

  16. Strategies to manage stream flow to benefit people and nature: a non-government conservation organisation's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittock, J; Holland, R

    2004-01-01

    More than for any other biome, freshwater biodiversity is increasingly imperiled, particularly due to poor stream flow management and increasing demand for water diversions. The adoption by the world's governments of targets to extend water services to the poor and at the same time to conserve biodiversity increase the need to better direct investments in freshwater management. In this paper WWF draws on examples from its work to identify areas where investment can be focused to assure efficient water use and improve stream flow management, namely: Prioritize and target those river basins and sub-catchments that are most critical for conservation of freshwater biodiversity to maintain stream flows; Link strategic field, policy and market interventions at different scales in river basins to maximize the impact of interventions; Implement the World Commission on Dams guidelines to minimize investment in large scale and costly infrastructure projects; Apply market mechanisms and incentives for more sustainable production of the world's most water consuming crops Enhance statutory river basin management organizations to draw on their regulatory and financial powers; Implement international agreements, such as the Convention on Wetlands; Integrate environment and development policies. PMID:15195421

  17. MULTIPLET FINE-STRUCTURE IN THE PHOTOEMISSION OF THE GADOLINIUM AND TERBIUM 5P LEVELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; WANG, XD; HARMON, BN; LI, DQ; DOWBEN, PA

    1993-01-01

    Fine structure is observed in the photoemission of the gadolinium and terbium 5p levels. The 5p levels are split into multiplets due to spin-orbit splitting and to Coulomb and exchange interactions with the f shell. The calculated theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental resul

  18. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  19. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  20. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against industry efforts to disrupt the implementation of the FCTC and support the development of future, comparable initiatives in global health.

  1. Strategy of Government-Oriented Tourism Development%我国政府主导型旅游业发展策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏

    2015-01-01

    At present, the rapid growth of China′s tourism industry continues to rise in the status of social development and national economy. But problems arise in the financial support, infrastructure, eco-tourism, intelligent tourism, resources sharing, environmental protection, coordination among travel security and other departments, industrial upgrading and industrial management. Thus, it is particularly important to give full play to the leading role of the government. The government should take the leading role and the dominant strategy in the tourism industry, which can sort and handle coordinating relations between the government and the tourism market, avoid blind investment and major mistakes, feasibly protect national tourism resources from destruction, and effectively guarantee the healthy and sustainable development of the tourism industry.%目前,我国旅游产业规模快速壮大,在社会发展和国民经济中的地位持续提升.但在发展的同时,也带来金融支持、基础建设、生态旅游、智能旅游、资源共享、环境保护、旅行安全等部门协调、产业升级及行业管理问题. 由此,充分发挥政府的主导作用尤为重要. 政府在旅游产业中的主导行为和采取的主导策略,能够梳理与处理协调好政府与旅游市场的关系,避免投资的盲目性与重大失误,切实保护国家旅游资源不被破坏,有效保证旅游产业健康有序的持续发展.

  2. 政府推进农村信息化策略探析%Strategy on Promoting Rural Informatization by Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海梅

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems in the construction of rural informatization, this article highlighted the government functions from the view of public management. According the practice of rural informatization construction in China, strategies for government on promoting rural informatization by adjusting measures to local conditions were proposed, including overall coordination, increasing investment, reducing cost, establishing standards, perfecting the system and personnel training, etc.%针对农村信息化建设中存在的问题,从公共管理角度突出政府职能发挥,结合我国农村信息化建设实际,从统筹协调、加大投入、降低成本、建立标准、完善体系和人才培养等角度为政府因地制宜地推进我国各地区信息化建设提出策略建议。

  3. Issue 3: Driving factors for nuclear industry strategies and choices. Accelerating the nuclear renaissance: Crucial roles for government and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years ago, the phrase 'nuclear renaissance' conveyed only a cautious hope within a narrow community of dedicated professionals. Today, the rebirth of nuclear energy has become an unmistakable reality that is gathering speed and momentum on the full world stage. This revitalisation is a composite of several developments: - Continuing evolutionary advance in reactor technology; - Multinational research efforts to produce quantum leaps in technology; - Unprecedented levels of efficiency and capacity utilisation in key countries; - A robust and accumulating record of operational safety, backed by the emergence of a global nuclear safety culture; - Political progress in implementing the scientifically sound concept of waste disposal using deep geological repositories; - And the truest barometer - expansive growth planning for nuclear power in major nations in both the developed and developing worlds. In countries representing the preponderance of world economic activity and world population - from North America across much of Europe to Russia and on to the leading countries of South and East Asia - the value of nuclear power has been reviewed and reaffirmed. Major countries without nuclear power - such as Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam - stand on the threshold of introducing nuclear energy for the first time; and even Italy, the one nation ever to suspend nuclear generation, now plans to reconsider. To be sure, anti-nuclear convictions can still be found: - In the mythologies that motivate many environmental groups; - In the assumptions of environmental journalists and bureaucrats; - In the rhetoric of some small countries like Denmark and Austria that are not inhibited by the hypocrisy of importing nuclear electricity, and - In the case of Germany, in the declaratory policy of a major country where a governing coalition is temporarily beholden to a small minority party. But all of these reactionary forces, taken together, are receding under the onslaught of facts that

  4. CK1δ activity is modulated by CDK2/E- and CDK5/p35-mediated phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianes, Chiara; Xu, Pengfei; Werz, Natalie; Meng, Zhigang; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Bischof, Joachim; Knippschild, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    CK1 protein kinases form a family of serine/threonine kinases which are highly conserved through different species and ubiquitously expressed. CK1 family members can phosphorylate numerous substrates thereby regulating different biological processes including membrane trafficking, cell cycle regulation, circadian rhythm, apoptosis, and signal transduction. Deregulation of CK1 activity and/or expression contributes to the development of neurological diseases and cancer. Therefore, CK1 became an interesting target for drug development and it is relevant to further understand the mechanisms of its regulation. In the present study, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2/Cyclin E (CDK2/E) and Cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35 (CDK5/p35) were identified as cellular kinases able to modulate CK1δ activity through site-specific phosphorylation of its C-terminal domain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of CK1δ with CDK2/E or CDK5/p35 reduces CK1δ activity in vitro, indicating a functional impact of the interaction between CK1δ and CDK/cyclin complexes. Interestingly, inhibition of Cyclin-dependent kinases by Dinaciclib increases CK1δ activity in pancreatic cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that CK1δ activity can be modulated by the interplay between CK1δ and CDK2/E or CDK5/p35. These findings extend our knowledge about CK1δ regulation and may be of use for future development of CK1-related therapeutic strategies in the treatment of neurological diseases or cancer. PMID:26464264

  5. Urinary microRNA-30a-5p is a potential biomarker for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gong, Guanghui; Tan, Hong; Dai, Furong; Zhu, Xin; Chen, Yile; Wang, Junpu; Liu, Ying; Chen, Puxiang; Wu, Xiaoying; Wen, Jifang

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as biomarkers in human cancer. To determine the clinical value of urinary miRNAs for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, we collected urine samples from 39 ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients, 26 patients with benign gynecological disease and 30 healthy controls. The miRNA microarray data showed that only miR-30a-5p was upregulated and 37 miRNAs were downregulated in the urine samples of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients, when compared to healthy controls, which was confirmed after conducting quantitative PCR. The upregulation of urinary miR-30a-5p was closely associated with early stage of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma as well as lymphatic metastasis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated the potential use of urinary miR-30a-5p as a diagnostic marker for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, a lower urine level of miR-30a-5p was found in 20 gastric cancer and 20 colon carcinoma patients when compared to ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that the upregulation of urinary miR-30a-5p may be specific for ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. miR-30a-5p was also upregulated in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines, while urinary miR-30a-5p from ovarian cancer patients was notably reduced following the surgical removal of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, suggesting that urinary miR-30a-5p was derived from the ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissue. Notably, miR-30a-5p was concentrated with exosomes from the ovarian cancer cell supernatant or urine from ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients, supporting a pathway for excretion into the urine. The results also showed that the knockdown of miR-30a-5p significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first evidence of increased miR-30a-5p in the urine of ovarian serous adeno-carcinoma patients, while the inhibition of miR-30a-5p suppressed the

  6. Iterative Precision Measurement of Branching Ratios Applied to 5P states in 88Sr+

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Helena; Low, Guang Hao; Rines, Richard; Stuart, Jules; Wu, Tailin; Chuang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method for measuring the branching ratios of dipole transitions of trapped atomic ions by performing nested sequences of population inversions. This scheme is broadly applicable and does not use ultrafast pulsed or narrow linewidth lasers. It is simple to perform and insensitive to experimental variables such as laser and magnetic field noise as well as ion heating. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we make the most accurate measurements thus far of the branching ratios of both 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 states in 88Sr+ with sub-1% uncertainties. We measure 17.175(27) for the branching ratio of 5P1/2-5S1/2, 15.845(71) for 5P3/2-5S1/2, and 0.05609(21) for 5P3/2-4D5/2, ten- fold and thirty-fold improvements in precision for 5P1/2 and 5P3/2 branching ratios respectively over the best previous experimental values.

  7. A 360-degree Data Governance Strategy for Medical Institutions%面向医疗机构的360°数据管控策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 李忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide a 360-degree data governance strategy for medical institutions in order to further improve the medical information quality and access efficiency. Methods With the enterprise medical data warehouse as the basis platform, the accountability recognition mechanism of medical institutions internal data was perfected, and the active data governance was exerted with a 360-degree all-round view under data stewardship in the following areas: data quality, data integration, data security and privacy, metadata management, and master data management. Results Through this kind of full -spectrum data governance, medical institutions could greatly improve their information access efficiency and data quality, and finally step into a new elaborately-managed operational mode. Conclnsion In virtue of clear data monitoring, standardized workflow, and definitive data stewardship, this 360-degree data governance can help effectively and efficiently solve the data integration and data quality problems massively confronting medical institutions. [Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(6) :45-48]%目的:为了进一步提高医疗数据质量和信息获取效率,提出一种面向医疗机构的360°全方位数据管控机制.方法:以企业级数据仓库为基础平台,完善医疗机构内部数据认责机制,并通过对数据质量、数据集成、数据安全与隐私、元数据管理、数据标准等细分层面的主动管控,以360°全方位视角完成整个医疗机构的数据管控.结果:通过这种全方位数据管控,医疗机构可以有效提升数据准确率和利用率,通过有效反馈,不断完善,最终步入精细化运营阶段.结论:360°全方位医疗数据管控平台通过监控数据流向、规范工作流程、明确数据职责,可以有效地解决异构系统集成问题,大幅度提升数据质量和数据访问效率.

  8. Electron-impact ionization of laser-excited Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 6p) and Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 5d) atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.; Antoni, T.

    1986-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for laser-excited Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 6p; 1P1, M = - 1) and cascade-populated Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 5d; 1D + 3D) atoms were measured in the threshold to 10 eV energy range. The peak cross sections for the excited species are about a factor of 2 larger than that for ground-state Ba. In addition, it was demonstrated that ionization from individual magnetic substates of various hyperfine levels can be studied. The ionization cross sections in the case of Ba-138 (1P1) were found to be equal for the M = 0 and for the M = + or - 1 sublevels within the experimental error limit.

  9. Energy-Pooling Collisions in Rubidium: 5P3/2+ 5P3/2 → 5S + (nl = 5D, 7S)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yi-Fan; DAI Kang; MU Bao-Xia; WANG Shu-Ying; CUI Xiu-Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ We experimentally study rubidium energy pooling collisions of Rb(5P3/2) + Rb(5P3/2) → Rb(5S1/2) + Rb (nlJ =5DJ, 7S1/2) at low densities in a cell using diode laser excitation. The excited-atom density and spatial distribution are mapped by monitoring the absorption of a counterpropagating single-mode diode laser beam, tuned to the 5P3/2 → 7S1/2 transition, which could be translated parallel to the pump beam. The excited atom densities are combined with measured fluorescence ratios to determine cross sections for the rubidium energy pooling process.The cross sections for nlJ being 5D5/2, 5D3/2, and 7S1/2 are (1.32 ± 0.59) × 10-14, (1.18 ± 0.53) × 10-14 and (3.21 ± 1.44) × 10-15 cm2, respectively.

  10. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid;

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via...... a lentiviral vector system in two different colon cancer cell lines. This induced in both lines miR-30a-5p-mediated growth inhibition, attributable to a cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase and an induction of apoptosis. Combining global gene expression analyses of miR-30a-5p transgenic line HCT116...

  11. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca2+ Currents Through TRPC Channels Controlled via the PI(4,5P2-PLC Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki X Mori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca2+ currents (ROCs triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5P2 on different ROCs.

  12. Does Candida albicans Als5p Amyloid Play a Role in Commensalism in Caenorhabditis elegans?

    OpenAIRE

    Bois, Michael; Singh, Sean; Samlalsingh, Alyssa; Lipke, Peter N.; Garcia, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, a dimorphic fungus and an opportunistic pathogen, possesses a myriad of adherence factors, including members of the agglutinin-like sequence (Als) family of mannoproteins. The adhesin Als5p mediates adhesion to many substrates and is upregulated during commensal interactions but is downregulated during active C. albicans infections. An amyloid-forming core sequence at residues 325 to 331 is important for Als5p function, because a single-amino-acid substitution at position 32...

  13. Diversification and Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); A.A.C.J. van Oijen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the impact of governance structure on diversification behavior. Hypotheses are developed regarding the differences in diversification strategy of cooperatives and stock listed companies. The analysis shows that stock listed companies are more diversified than coope

  14. Involvement of aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p25 activity in experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Mohammad A; Tan, Chunfeng; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I; Lu, Fang-Min; Plautz, Erik; Zhang, Shanrong; Takahashi, Masaya; Hernandez, Adan; Kernie, Steven G; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with adverse effects on brain functions, including sensation, language, emotions and/or cognition. Therapies for improving outcomes following TBI are limited. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI may suggest novel treatment strategies to facilitate recovery and improve treatment outcome. Aberrant activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. Cdk5 is a neuronal protein kinase activated via interaction with its cofactor p35 that regulates numerous neuronal functions, including synaptic remodeling and cognition. However, conversion of p35 to p25 via Ca(2+) -dependent activation of calpain results in an aberrantly active Cdk5/p25 complex that is associated with neuronal damage and cell death. Here, we show that mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model, exhibit increased p25 levels and consistently elevated Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and retinoblastoma (Rb) protein in hippocampal lysates. Moreover, CCI-induced neuroinflammation as indicated by increased astrocytic activation and number of reactive microglia. Brain-wide conditional Cdk5 knockout mice (Cdk5 cKO) subjected to CCI exhibited significantly reduced edema, ventricular dilation, and injury area. Finally, neurophysiological recordings revealed that CCI attenuated excitatory post-synaptic potential field responses in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway 24 h after injury. This neurophysiological deficit was attenuated in Cdk5 cKO mice. Thus, TBI induces increased levels of p25 generation and aberrant Cdk5 activity, which contributes to pathophysiological processes underlying TBI progression. Hence, selectively preventing aberrant Cdk5 activity may be an effective acute strategy to improve recovery from TBI. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases astrogliosis and microglial activation

  15. A p53-dependent tumor suppressor network is induced by selective miR-125a-5p inhibition in multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, Marzia; Biamonte, Lavinia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Ronchetti, Domenica; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Botta, Cirino; Leone, Emanuela; Pitari, Maria Rita; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Amodio, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) is emerging as a novel approach to disclose the regulation of tumor suppressor or tumor promoting pathways in tumor cells. Targeting aberrantly expressed miRNAs is therefore a promising strategy for cancer treatment. By miRNA profiling of primary plasma cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients, we previously reported increased miR-125a-5p levels associated to specific molecular subgroups. On these premises, we aimed at investigating the biological effects triggered by miR-125a-5p modulation in MM cells. Expression of p53 pathway-related genes was down-regulated in MM cells transfected with miR-125a-5p mimics. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed specific p53 targeting at 3'UTR level by miR-125a-5p mimics. Interestingly, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) affected the miR-125a-5p/p53 axis, since adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs strongly up-regulated miR-125a-5p levels, while reduced p53 expression. Moreover, ectopic miR-125a-5p reduced, while miR-125-5p inhibitors promoted, the expression of tumor suppressor miR-192 and miR-194, transcriptionally regulated by p53. Lentiviral-mediated stable inhibition of miR-125a-5p expression in wild-type p53 MM cells dampened cell growth, increased apoptosis and reduced cell migration. Importantly, inhibition of in vitro MM cell proliferation and migration was also achieved by synthetic miR-125a-5p inhibitors and was potentiated by the co-expression of miR-192 or miR-194. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-125a-5p antagonism results in the activation of p53 pathway in MM cells, underlying the crucial role of this miRNA in the biopathology of MM and providing the molecular rationale for the combinatory use of miR-125a inhibitors and miR-192 or miR-194 mimics for MM treatment. PMID:24819167

  16. Smooth muscle length-dependent PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, D; Baron, C B; Broome, R; Coburn, R F

    2001-07-01

    We studied effects of increasing the length of porcine trachealis muscle on 5.5 microM carbachol (CCh)-evoked phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] synthesis and other parameters of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis rates in muscle held at 1.0 optimal length (L(o)), measured over the first 6 min of CCh stimulation, were 140 +/- 12 and 227 +/- 14% of values found in muscle held at 0.5 L(o) and in free-floating muscle, respectively. Time-dependent changes in cellular masses of PI(4,5)P2, PI, and phosphatidic acid, and PI resynthesis rates, were also altered by the muscle length at which contraction occurred. In free-floating muscle, CCh did not evoke increases in tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin (PTyr-paxillin), an index of beta1-integrin signaling; however, there were progressive increases in PTyr-paxillin in muscle held at 0.5 and 1.0 L(o) during contraction, which correlated with increases in PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates. These data indicate that PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates and other parameters of CCh-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover are muscle length-dependent and provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that length-dependent beta1-integrin signals may exert control on CCh-activated PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  17. CRAC channel is inhibited by neomycin in a Ptdlns(4,5)P2-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Yanjun; Zhao, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores evokes store-operated Ca(2+) entry through the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. In this study, we found that the store-operated Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by neomycin, an aminoglycoside that strongly binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Patch clamp recordings revealed that neomycin blocked the CRAC currents reconstituted by co-expression of Orai1 and Stim1 in HEK293 cells. Using a rapamycin-inducible PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific phosphatase (Inp54p) system to manipulate the PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane, we found that the CRAC current was not altered by PtdIns(4,5)P2 depletion. This result suggests that PtdIns(4,5)P2 is not required for CRAC channel activity, and thereby, neomycin inhibits CRAC channels in a manner that is independent of neomycin-PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding.

  18. Crystal Structure of Prp5p Reveals Interdomain Interactions that Impact Spliceosome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase Prp5p facilitates U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP binding to the intron branch site region during spliceosome assembly. We present crystal structures of S. cerevisiae Prp5p alone and in complex with ADP at 2.12 Å and 1.95 Å resolution. The three-dimensional packing of Prp5p subdomains differs strikingly from that so far observed in other DEAD-box proteins: two RecA-like subdomains adopt an “open state” conformation stabilized by extensive interactions involving sequences that flank the two subdomains. This conformation is distinct from that required for ATP hydrolysis. Consistent with this, Prp5p mutations that destabilize interdomain interactions exhibited increased ATPase activity in vitro and inhibited splicing of suboptimal branch site substrates in vivo, whereas restoration of interdomain interactions reversed these effects. We conclude that the Prp5p open state conformation is biologically relevant and that disruption of the interdomain interaction facilitates a large-scale conformational change of Prp5p during U2 snRNP-branch site recognition.

  19. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  20. Identification of Blood Let-7e-5p as a Biomarker for Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Li, Lu; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhou, Li; Yang, Binyao; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Changhui; Li, Shanshan; Cheng, Jinquan

    2016-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as novel disease biomarkers. Using a miRNA microarray, we previously showed that the whole blood level of let-7e-5p was significantly higher in ischemic stroke patients than in control subjects. However, the association between let-7e-5p expression and the occurrence of ischemic stroke remains unknown. In this study, we validated the expression levels of let-7e-5p in two case-control populations using miRNA TaqMan assays and further investigated the potential targets of let-7e-5p. The results suggest that the blood level of let-7e-5p was significantly higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in controls (p<0.05). Higher levels of let-7e-5p were associated with increased occurrence of ischemic stroke (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.61~2.21, p<0.001) in the combined population. The addition of let-7e-5p to traditional risk factors led to an improvement in the area under the curve, which increased from 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70~0.78) to 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78~0.85), with a net reclassification improvement of 16.76% (p<0.0001) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.10 (p<0.0001) for patients with ischemic stroke. Bioinformatics prediction and cell experiments suggested that the expression levels of four genes enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway were down-regulated by let-7e-5p transfection. Specifically, the expression levels of the genes CASP3 and NLK were significantly lower in ischemic stroke patients than in controls and were negatively correlated with let-7e-5p expression. In summary, our study suggests the potential use of blood let-7e-5p as a biomarker for ischemic stroke and indicates its involvement in the related pathomechanism. PMID:27776139

  1. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    BĂLĂCEANU, Cristina; TILEA, Doina; Andreea-Monica PREDONU

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are implemented around the world and may impact upon the population worldwide. In developing countries, such reforms are implemented in a broader context that is primarily defined by previous attempts of promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalization reforms associated with the economic globalization), in effect, represent a new development strategy for t...

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  3. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  4. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  5. Targeting of multiple myeloma-related angiogenesis by miR-199a-5p mimics: in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Lavinia; Amodio, Nicola; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Altomare, Emanuela; Leotta, Marzia; Caracciolo, Daniele; Gullà, Annamaria; Neri, Antonino; Taverna, Simona; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Alessandro, Riccardo; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2014-05-30

    Multiple myeloma (MM) cells induce relevant angiogenic effects within the human bone marrow milieu (huBMM) by the aberrant expression of angiogenic factors. Hypoxia triggers angiogenic events within the huBMM and the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is over-expressed by MM cells. Since synthetic miR-199a-5p mimics negatively regulates HIF-1α, we here investigated a miRNA-based therapeutic strategy against hypoxic MM cells. We indeed found that enforced expression of miR-199a-5p led to down-modulated expression of HIF-1α as well as of other pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, IL-8, and FGFb in hypoxic MM cells in vitro. Moreover, miR-199a-5p negatively affected MM cells migration, while it increased the adhesion of MM cells to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, transfection of MM cells with miR-199a-5p significantly impaired also endothelial cells migration and down-regulated the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Finally, we identified a hypoxia\\AKT/miR-199a-5p loop as a potential molecular mechanism responsible of miR-199a-5p down-regulation in hypoxic MM cells. Taken together our results indicate that miR-199a-5p has an important role for the pathogenesis of MM and support the hypothesis that targeting angiogenesis via a miRNA/HIF-1α pathway may represent a novel potential therapeutical approach for this still lethal disease. PMID:24839982

  6. Membrane association of the cycling peroxisome import receptor Pex5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerssen, Daniela; Hambruch, Eva; Klaas, Wibke; Platta, Harald W; de Kruijff, Ben; Erdmann, Ralf; Kunau, Wolf-H; Schliebs, Wolfgang

    2006-09-15

    Peroxisomal proteins carrying a peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) are recognized in the cytosol by the cycling import receptor Pex5p. The receptor-cargo complex docks at the peroxisomal membrane where it associates with multimeric protein complexes, referred to as the docking and RING finger complexes. Here we have identified regions within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex5p sequence that interconnect the receptor-cargo complex with the docking complex. Site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved tryptophan residue within a reverse WXXXF motif abolished two-hybrid binding with the N-terminal half of Pex14p. In combination with an additional mutation introduced into the Pex13p-binding site, we generated a Pex5p mutant defective in a stable association not only with the docking complex but also with the RING finger peroxins at the membrane. Surprisingly, PTS1 proteins are still imported into peroxisomes in these mutant cells. Because these mutations had no significant effect on the membrane binding properties of Pex5p, we examined yeast and human Pex5p for intrinsic lipid binding activity. In vitro analyses demonstrated that both proteins have the potential to insert spontaneously into phospholipid membranes. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that a translocation-competent state of the PTS1 receptor enters the membrane via protein-lipid interactions before it tightly associates with other peroxins. PMID:16849337

  7. MicroRNA-125b-5p mimic inhibits acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dakai; Yuan, Qinggong; Balakrishnan, Asha; Bantel, Heike; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Manns, Michael P.; Ott, Michael; Cantz, Tobias; Sharma, Amar Deep

    2016-01-01

    The lack of broad-spectrum anti-acute liver failure (ALF) therapeutic agents contributes to ALF-related mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be potent serum biomarkers for ALF, but their functional and therapeutic relevance in ALF are unclear. Here we show an unbiased approach, using two complementary miRNA screens, to identify miRNAs that can attenuate ALF. We identify miR-125b-5p as a regulator of cell death that attenuates paracetamol-induced and FAS-induced toxicity in mouse and human hepatocytes. Importantly, administration of miR-125b-5p mimic in mouse liver prevents injury and improves survival in models of ALF. Functional studies show that miR-125b-5p ameliorates ALF by directly regulating kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, in turn elevating expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, a known regulator in ALF. Collectively, our findings establish miR-125b-5p as an important regulator of paracetamol-induced and FAS-induced cell death. Thus, miR-125b-5p mimic may serve as a broad-spectrum therapeutic attenuator of cell death during ALF. PMID:27336362

  8. The Role of Government and Markets in the Strategy “Europe 2020” of the European Union: A Robust Political Economy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandel Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s current ten year strategy “Europe 2020” aims to set out a vision of a European social market economy for the 21st century that will promote economic growth with social and ecological attributes. This article analyzes the roles ascribed to the government and the market and the extent this role allocation is suitable to enhance growth of the European Union’s member states. Based on a robust political economy framework it is argued that this new economic policy concept is in essence a technocratic approach and a form of selective interventionism. As such it suffers from three major shortcomings: (1 it underestimates the difficulties of gathering and analyzing the relevant information necessary for steering the economy in the desired direction, (2 it encourages rent-seeking rather than productive entrepreneurship, and (3 it may cause a subtle transformation of the societal order through the diminution of individual liberties. It is contended that while an interventionist policy approach meets the preferences of large parts of the population, not the least in Germany, it is unlikely to boost economic growth and employment in the EU.

  9. Consultancy support to GCC ICT Authorities to assist in creating common guidelines and strategies to enhance the development of eGovernment within the eGULF Initiative: final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Millard; J. Shahin

    2010-01-01

    This consultancy support analyses global experience in eGovernment cooperation between responsible authorities, examines the needs and existing strategies of each of the six GCC Countries, identifies common elements and areas where mutual cooperation will be beneficial, and proposes common guideline

  10. Enterprise IT governance key decision-making based on strategy alignment and analytic hierarchy process%基于战略匹配和层次分析的企业IT治理关键问题决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计春阳; 唐志豪

    2012-01-01

    The alignment between business strategy and IT strategy is the bases for good IT governance performance. And enterprises have to do five key decisions for their IT governance. To convert the alignment ideal into quantitative model so as to support enterprise IT governance decision, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) algorithm was introduced , and collaboration between business and IT strategy was simulated. Business strategy management of Porter, and strategy alignment management of Henderson were borrowed to represent business strategy and IT strategy. An IT governance key decision-making model based on the quantitative results of strategic alignment was put forward and validated through computation and analysis of real cases.%企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配是确保IT治理取得良好绩效的重要前提.企业的IT治理必须完成五个关键问题的决策.为有效地将战略对应的思想转化为量化模型,支持企业决策,本文引入网络层次分析法模拟企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配关系,分别借用Porter的战略管理理论和Henderson的战略匹配模型代表企业战略和IT战略,提出了基于战略匹配的企业IT治理五个关键问题决策模型,并通过实例分析与运算验证了该模型的有效性.

  11. Interferon gamma response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific lipopentapeptide antigen L5P in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Sébastien; Branger, Maxime; Souriau, Armel; Lamoureux, Bérénice; Ganneau, Christelle; Richard, Gaëlle; Cochard, Thierry; Tholoniat, Christophe; Bay, Sylvie; Winter, Nathalie; Moyen, Jean Louis; Biet, Franck

    2015-10-01

    After Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response indicative of early Th1 activation may be detected using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Currently, the purified protein derivatives (PPDs), i.e., the total extract of mycobacteria antigens are used to recall CMI responses against Map. This study aimed to assess the ability of the chemically synthesized Map specific cell wall lipopentapeptide L5P to induce CMI response in cows infected by Map compared to PPD. L5P and PPD elicited an IFN-γ response in 12 and 35 animals from two Map infected herds respectively, but IFN-γ was not detected in the 13 cows recruited from a non-infected herd. Levels of IFN-γ detected were higher with PPD than with L5P. There was no correlation between the IFN-γ response and the humoral response to Map or faecal culture. PMID:26412530

  12. Identification of miR-194-5p as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporosis is high in postmenopausal women due to altered estrogen levels and continuous calcium loss that occurs with aging. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in the development of osteoporosis. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers to identify women at a high risk for developing the disease. In this study, whole blood samples were collected from 48 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis and pooled into six groups according to individual T-scores. A miRNA microarray analysis was performed on pooled blood samples to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Five miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, -151a-3p, -151b, -194-5p, and -590-5p were identified in the microarray analysis. These dysregulated miRNAs were subjected to a pathway analysis investigating whether they were involved in regulating osteoporosis-related pathways. Among them, only miR-194-5p was enriched in multiple osteoporosis-related pathways. Enhanced miR-194-5p expression in women with osteoporosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis. For external validation, a significant correlation between the expression of miR-194-5p and T-scores was found in an independent patient collection comprised of 24 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density, 30 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and 32 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (p < 0.05. Taken together, the present findings suggest that miR-194-5p may be a viable miRNA biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy;

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other...... governments, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors...

  14. 浅析突发事件处理中政府与媒体的沟通策略%on Government and Media's Communication Strategies During the Process of Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗

    2012-01-01

    在突发事件的处理过程中,政府部门能否成功与媒体沟通、把握舆论导向已经成为决定突发事件处理效果的关键因素。因此在突发事件的处理中,政府应该要掌握与媒体沟通的各种策略。主要体现为政府与媒体沟通中的信息掌控策略——主动提供;政府与媒体沟通中的信息处理策略——真实有效;政府与媒体沟通中的信息发布策略——及时渐进;政府与媒体沟通中的信息提供策略——口径一致;政府与媒体沟通中的信息表达策略——有人情味;政府与媒体沟通中的信息选择策略——勇于担当。%During the process of emergencies, it has become a key factor to decide the effect of handling the emergencies, whether the government can communicate with media successfully and steer the public opinions. So, in the course of handling the emergencies, government should master all kinds of communication strategies with media. Mainly , they are strategies of controlling the information in government and media communication, to provide actively; They are they are strategies of han- dling the information in government and media communication,to he real effective;They are they are strategies of puhlishng the information in government and media communication, to be timely and gradual;They are they are strategies of providng the in- formation in government and media communication, to be one voice; They are they are strategies of expressling the information in government and media communication,to be human;

  15. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 30-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/20/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280S, 168 09.878W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 10-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 47-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/3/2004 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (6 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Baker Island Site 5P 2/9/2001 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (0 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P 0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W, between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, ATI A-3000 5P BAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of March 24-25, 1999, tests of ATI's A-3000 5P Bag paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic performance factor being ver...

  20. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Closure of the telephone switchboard at 5 p.m. on 20 December

    CERN Multimedia

    Communications Support Section

    2013-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 5 p.m. on Friday 20 December, instead of 6 p.m. (usual time), to allow time for all systems to be properly closed before the annual closure.   Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will cease. All other phone services will run as usual.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 7-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 55-56M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 55 and 56 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 40-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Baker Island Site 5P 3/19/2000 90-91M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 90 and 91 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Baker Island Site 5P 1/24/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Baker Island, site 5P (00 11.781N, 176 29.176W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Kingman Reef Site 5P 4/1/2000 81-82M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Kingman Reef, site 5P (06 23.805N, 162 20.941W), between 81 and 82 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. PtdIns5P and Pin1 in oxidative stress signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Jones, David R; Divecha, Nullin

    2013-05-01

    Oxidative signaling is important in cellular health, involved in aging and contributes to the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and diabetes. Correct management of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prevents oxidative stress within cells and is imperative for cellular wellbeing. A key pathway that is regulated by oxidative stress is the activation of proline-directed stress kinases (p38, JNK). Phosphorylation induced by these kinases is often translated into cellular outcome through the recruitment of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1. Pin1 binds to phosphorylated substrates using its WW-domain and can induce conformational changes in the target protein through its prolyl-isomerase activity. We show that exposure of cells to UV irradiation or hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), induces the synthesis of the phosphoinositide second messenger PtdIns5P in part by inducing the interaction between phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4K) enzymes that remove PtdIns5P, with Pin1. In response to H₂O₂ exposure, Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Pin1⁻/⁻ mice showed increased cell viability and an increased abundance of PtdIns5P compared to wild-type MEFs. Decreasing the levels of PtdIns5P in Pin1⁻/⁻ MEFs decreased both their viability in response to H₂O₂ exposure and the expression of genes required for cellular ROS management. The decrease in the expression of these genes manifested itself in the increased accumulation of cellular ROS. These data strongly argue that PtdIns5P acts as a stress-induced second messenger that can calibrate how cells manage ROS.

  14. Identification of miR-194-5p as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Zhang, Dapeng; Pan, Nanan; Sun, Ning; Wang, Qiujun; Fan, Jingxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Wenliang; Jiang, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis is high in postmenopausal women due to altered estrogen levels and continuous calcium loss that occurs with aging. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the development of osteoporosis. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers to identify women at a high risk for developing the disease. In this study, whole blood samples were collected from 48 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis and pooled into six groups according to individual T-scores. A miRNA microarray analysis was performed on pooled blood samples to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Five miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, -151a-3p, -151b, -194-5p, and -590-5p) were identified in the microarray analysis. These dysregulated miRNAs were subjected to a pathway analysis investigating whether they were involved in regulating osteoporosis-related pathways. Among them, only miR-194-5p was enriched in multiple osteoporosis-related pathways. Enhanced miR-194-5p expression in women with osteoporosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. For external validation, a significant correlation between the expression of miR-194-5p and T-scores was found in an independent patient collection comprised of 24 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density, 30 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and 32 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (p osteoporosis.

  15. IT GOVERNANCE AND BUSINESS CORPORATE STRATEGY – BASED ON EMBEDDING THE PROGRAM AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT WITH THE IT&C VALUE CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Sădeanu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the key concepts related to the current process of IT Governance in modern corporations. The first part addresses the definitions of IT Governance and its life-cycle model, the covered strategic areas and the effective governance management ways, the IT value management for ensuring value delivery, and the IT value chain based on projects and programs together with the organizational value of the IT&C programs and projects. The second part deals with the IT value chain bas...

  16. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra;

    2004-01-01

    -nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia.......Ownership is determined by firm specific factors and the environment. Firms change over their life-cycle. The governance cycle - here defined as changes in identity of the dominant owner and own-ership concentration - is marked by key phases including start-up, growth, and possibly a restructur...

  17. Flat color TV 'FACE{sub TM}' 32Z5P; Flat color TV 'FACE{sub TM}' 32Z5P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A flat wide color TV, 'FACE{sub TM}' 32Z5P, was commercialized that was mounted with the 'digital million progressive circuit' in which points constituting a signal were increased to about one million. This circuit made the horizontal density to be twice in addition to the conventional vertical density, enabling more precise image expression. Further, the TV was mounted with a three-dimensional DNR (Digital Noise Reduction) circuit that reduces noise without sacrificing the picture quality, allowing the reproduction of a clean image even with the source having a lot of noise. For the purpose of coping with the diversification of an image source, the TV is equipped with two systems of D terminals which are convenient in connecting an adapter for receiving digital broadcasting for example. Furthermore, a miniaturizing design for the audio/mechanism system realized the horizontal width equivalent to that of the conventional 28 type TV. (translated by NEDO)

  18. MicroRNA-542-5p as a novel tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Isabella; Tivnan, Amanda; Bryan, Kenneth; Foley, Niamh H; Watters, Karen M; Tracey, Lorraine; Davidoff, Andrew M; Stallings, Raymond L

    2011-04-01

    Several studies have implicated the dysregulation of microRNAs in neuroblastoma pathogenesis, an often fatal paediatric cancer arising from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Our group and others have demonstrated that lower expression of miR-542-5p is highly associated with poor patient survival, indicating a potential tumor suppressive function. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic over-expression of this miRNA decreases the invasive potential of neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro, along with primary tumor growth and metastases in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model, providing the first functional evidence for the involvement of miR-542-5p as a tumor suppressor in any type of cancer.

  19. Microstates of D1–D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory

  20. Microstates of D1–D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takeshi, E-mail: morita.takeshi@shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Shiba, Shotaro, E-mail: sshiba@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-Motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2015-07-30

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  1. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a "knowledge governance approach" as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment ...

  2. The proteasome cap RPT5/Rpt5p subunit prevents aggregation of unfolded ricin A chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Paola; Vasisht, Nishi; Cook, Jonathan P;

    2013-01-01

    model is that the bulk of ER-dislocated RTA is degraded by proteasomes. We show here that the proteasome has a more complex role in ricin intoxication than previously recognised, that the previously reported increase in sensitivity of mammalian cells to ricin in the presence of proteasome inhibitors......5p in the triage of substrates in which either activation (folding) or inactivation (degradation) pathways may be initiated....

  3. miR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun, E-mail: mjgugonglihos@yeah.net

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC. - Highlights: • miR-204-5p expression is downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. • miR-204-5p suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in PTC cells. • miR-204-5p suppresses IGFBP5 expression by direct binding to the 3′-UTR. • IGFBP5 overexpression reverses the effects of miR-204-5p.

  4. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  5. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  6. 大股东干预对上市公司多元化投资影响的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis on the Impact of the Listed Companies' Diversification Strategies from Government Interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瀛

    2012-01-01

    This article is mainly about the impact from government interference. The local government is the ultimate owner of state-owned enterprises (SOE), and is also the important participant in market-based economy. This article takes analysis on the Impact of the Listed Companies' Diversification Strategies for the big shareholder' character, from the viewpoint that the local government is a participant in the market.%本文主要从大股东干预的角度出发,通过分析政府作为国有上市公司大股东终极所有权人以及地方政府作为市场管制主体的角度来分析大股东性质对上市公司多元化投资决策的影响。

  7. Regulation of UGT2B Expression and Activity by miR-216b-5p in Liver Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Sutliff, Aimee K; Chen, Gang; Watson, Christy J W; Ishmael, Faoud T; Lazarus, Philip

    2016-10-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B enzymes are important in the detoxification of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including many hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Identifying novel mechanisms governing their expression is important in understanding patient-specific response to drugs and cancer risk factors. In silico prediction algorithm programs were used to screen for microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential regulators of UGT2B enzymes, with miR-216b-5p identified as a potential candidate. Luciferase data suggested the presence of a functional miR-216b-5p binding motif within the 3' untranslated regions of UGTs 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10. Overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimics significantly repressed UGT2B7 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.0018) mRNA levels in HuH-7 cells and UGT2B4 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.018) mRNA in Hep3B cells. UGT2B7 protein levels were repressed in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells in the presence of increasing miR-216b-5p concentrations, corresponding with significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively) decreases in glucuronidation activity against the UGT2B7-specific substrate epirubicin. Inhibition of endogenous miR-216b-5p levels significantly increased UGT2B7 mRNA levels in HuH-7 (P = 0.021) and Hep3B (P = 0.0068) cells, and increased epirubicin glucuronidation by 85% (P = 0.057) and 50% (P = 0.012) for HuH-7 and Hep3B cells, respectively. UGT2B4 activity against codeine and UGT2B10 activity against nicotine were significantly decreased in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0048, and P = 0.017 and P = 0.043, respectively) after overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimic. This is the first evidence that miRNAs regulate UGT 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10 expression, and that miR-216b-5p regulation of UGT2B proteins may be important in regulating the metabolism of UGT2B substrates.

  8. Revealing the Anti-Tumor Effect of Artificial miRNA p-27-5p on Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line T-47D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs cause mRNA degradation or translation suppression of their target genes. Previous studies have found direct involvement of miRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Artificial miRNAs, designed to target single or multiple genes of interest, provide a new therapeutic strategy for cancer. This study investigates the anti-tumor effect of a novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, on breast cancer. In this study, we reveal that miR P-27-5p downregulates the differential gene expressions associated with the protein modification process and regulation of cell cycle in T-47D cells. Introduction of this novel artificial miRNA, miR P-27-5p, into breast cell lines inhibits cell proliferation and induces the first “gap” phase (G1 cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines but does not affect normal breast cells. We further show that miR P-27-5p targets the 3′-untranslated mRNA region (3′-UTR of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 and reduces both the mRNA and protein level of CDK4, which in turn, interferes with phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB1. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of miR p-27-5p on cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest are through the downregulation of CDK4 and the suppression of RB1 phosphorylation. This study opens avenues for future therapies targeting breast cancer.

  9. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5p by a natural compound extracted from Brazilian Red Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Lotti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms leading to the treatment failure of some forms of cancer or life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections is often caused by the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily. The multidrug resistance of fungal cells often involves the overexpression of efflux pumps belonging to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR family of ABC transporters. Possibly the best-studied fungal PDR transporter is the multidrug resistance transporter Pdr5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some research groups have been searching for new inhibitors of these efflux pumps in order to alleviate resistance. Natural products are a great source for the discovery of new compounds with biological activity. Propolis is a complex resinous material collected by honeybees from exudates and buds of certain plant sources and this material is thought to serve as a defense substance for bee hives. Propolis is widely used in traditional medicine and is reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Literature reported some biological functionalities of propolis, such as antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. The chemical composition of propolis is qualitatively and quantitatively variable. Components isolated from methanolic extract of red Brazilian propolis (Alagoas, Northeast of Brazil are isoflavonoids (including pterocarpans, isoflavans, isoflavones, flavanones and polyprenylated benzophenones. In this work we demonstrated the effects of five different isolated compounds on the ATPase activity of Pdr5p. Out of all five substances tested, only BRP-1 was able to completely abolish the enzymatic activity while others worked as positive modulators of the enzyme activity. BRP-1also inhibited the efflux of Rhodamine 6G from yeast cells overexpressing Pdr5p. Taken together, these results

  10. Predatory Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that imperfect corporate control is a determinant of market structure. We integrate a widely accepted version of the separation of ownership and control -- Jensen's (1986) 'empire-building' hypothesis -- into a dynamic oligopoly model. Our main observation is that, due to product market competition, shareholders face an endogenous opportunity cost of governance. We derive shareholders' optimal governance choices and show analytically that governance has a first-order effect ...

  11. The Governance Structure, Mechanism and Strategy of Library Consortia%图书馆联盟治理的结构、机制及策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽萍

    2015-01-01

    文章在探究图书馆联盟治理的涵义和主要特征的基础上,对图书馆联盟治理结构模型和管理机制进行了重点分析,从政府、行业协会、图书馆、社会以及科研角度出发,提出了改进和提升图书馆联盟治理水平的对策和建议,为促进图书馆联盟治理和提高协同水平,实现可持续发展目标提供理论依据.%On the basis of the meaning and key feature of library consortia governance this paper analyzes the governance structure model and management mechanism and proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to enhance level of library consortia governance in order to promote the library consortia governance and improve the cooperative level, achieve the goal of sustainable development providing theoretical foundation from the government, industry associations, library, social and scientiifc research.

  12. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    is faster in Estonia and this can be explained by the relatively fast pace of institutional change and evolution of important gov-ernance institutions, including tough bankruptcy legislation and advances in the financial system. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 Keywords: corporate governance, life......We begin by identifying a typical governance life-cycle, defined as changes in ownership structure, and including both the identity of the major owner and ownership concentration. The cycle is marked by key events and phases including start-up, initial growth, mature growth, and possibly a crisis...... and restructuring stage or exit stage. The governance cycle for transitional countries reflects some specific characteristics -e.g. often privatization produces specific initial ownership structures, with an unusually high proportion of insider, especially, employee ownership. Subsequently pres...

  13. Diversification and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrikse, George; van Oijen, A.A.C.J.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the impact of governance structure on diversification behavior. Hypotheses are developed regarding the differences in diversification strategy of cooperatives and stock listed companies. The analysis shows that stock listed companies are more diversified than cooperatives, related as well as unrelated.

  14. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    Full Text Available FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686: one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains.

  15. miR-487b-5p Regulates Temozolomide Resistance of Lung Cancer Cells Through LAMP2-Medicated Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang; Lv, Lei; Feng, Jinping; Chen, Yuyu; Wang, Xinhua; Han, Shuguang; Zhao, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a standard agent used in the treatment of various types of cancers, including lung carcinoma, but TMZ resistance is common and accounts for many treatment failures. We investigated miRNA-487b-5p (miR-487b-5p) was highly expressed in A549 and H1299 cells which acquired TMZ resistance. Suppression of miR-487b-5p had overt effects on cellular proliferation and migration in the presence of TMZ. On the other hand, knockdown of miR-487b-5p resulted in increased survival and moderate tumor growth in vivo. In addition, the decreased cellular proliferation following miR-487b-5p suppression was linked to enhanced autophagy, evident by drastically increased levels of LC3-II, BECLIN1, and LAMP2 when miR-487b-5p was knocked down. Further analysis revealed that LAMP2 might be the target gene of miR-487b-5p. In conclusion, our study suggested that miR-487b-5p may be a potential biomarker of acquired TMZ resistance in lung cancer cells, and miR-487b-5p inhibition can be further explored as a chemotherapy target in the treatment of TMZ-resistant lung carcinoma.

  16. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  17. Brain enhancer activities at the gene-poor 5p14.1 autism-associated locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yukiko U; Inoue, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the vast clinical and genetic heterogeneity, identification of causal genetic determinants for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has proven to be complex. Whereas several dozen 'rare' genetic variants for ASD susceptibility have been identified, studies are still underpowered to analyse 'common' variants for their subtle effects. A recent application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to ASD indicated significant associations with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 5p14.1, located in a non-coding region between cadherin10 (CDH10) and cadherin9 (CDH9). Here we apply an in vivo bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) based enhancer-trapping strategy in mice to scan the gene desert for spatiotemporal cis-regulatory activities. Our results show that the ASD-associated interval harbors the cortical area, striatum, and cerebellum specific enhancers for a long non-coding RNA, moesin pseudogene1 antisense (MSNP1AS) during the brain developing stages. Mouse moesin protein levels are not affected by exogenously expressed human antisense RNAs in our transgenic brains, demonstrating the difficulty in modeling rather smaller effects of common variants. Our first in vivo evidence for the spatiotemporal transcription of MSNP1AS however provides a further support to connect this intergenic variant with the ASD susceptibility. PMID:27503586

  18. Up-regulated miR-199a-5p in gastric cancer functions as an oncogene and targets klotho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have shown that miR-199a-5p plays opposite roles in cancer initiation and progression of different cancer types, acting as oncogene for some cancer types but as tumor suppressor gene for others. However, the role and molecular mechanism of miR-199a-5p in gastric cancer are largely unknown. In this study, miR-199a-5p expression level in gastric cancer was first analyzed by qPCRand then validated in 103 gastric cancer patients by in situ hybridization (ISH). Gastric cancer cell lines were transfected with miR-199a-5p inhibitor and mimic, and underwent in vitro transwell assays. Target genes (klotho) were identified using Luciferase reporter assay. Immunohistochemical staining was also used to investigate on how miR-199a-5p regulates the tumour-suppressive effects of klotho in gastric cancer. In our present study, we found that miR-199a-5p level was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared to paired normal tissues. We observed that miR-199a-5p could promote migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. In situ hybridization of miR-199a-5p also confirmed that higher miR-199a-5p expression level was associated with increased likelihood of lymph node metastasis and later TNM stage. Luciferase reporter assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that klotho might be the downstream target of miR-199a-5p. Our present study suggests that miR-199a-5p acts as an oncogene in gastric cancer and functions by targeting klotho

  19. Electric-dipole 5s - 5p Transitions in Promethiumlike Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2008-02-29

    The 5s-5p electric-dipole resonance transitions in highly ionized promethiumlike ions have been studied applying relativistic multi-reference Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory. The transition wavelengths are determined to within 0.2 {angstrom} in the more highly charged ions, where the level degeneracies are small. For somewhat lighter ions a very large reference space was used in order to account for the many degeneracies. In order to calculate transition probabilities and lifetimes, correlation corrections have been added to the transition operator in the next order. The contributions from the higher orders of the theory, that is, frequency-dependent Breit correction, Lamb shift, and mass shifts, have been estimated. The results are used to re-assess spectroscopic data from beam-foil, electron beam ion trap, and tokamak observations.

  20. Sua5p is required for telomere recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Meng; Xiao-Fen Chen; Yan Hu; Hong-Bo Tang; Wei Dang; Jin-Qiu Zhou

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Telomeres are highly organized DNA-protein struc-tures at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes [1]. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each chro-mosome end has TG_(1-3)/C_(1-3)A double-stranded telomeric DNA and a G-rich single-stranded tail [2]. The replica-tion of telomere involves both telomerase and recombi-nation pathways [3, 4]. When telomerase is absent, te-lomeric DNA will progressively shorten, and the colony will eventually undergo senescence [4]. Some survivors will escape senescence by maintaining telomeres through a Rad52-dependent homologous recombination mecha-nism [3]. Our previous work had identified a conserved non-OB-fold single-stranded telomeric (ssTG) DNA binding protein Sua5p, which facilitates telomerase ac-tivity [5].

  1. Smooth non-extremal D1-D5-P solutions as charged gravitational instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative and more direct construction of the non-supersymmetric D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. We show that these solutions --- with all three charges and both rotations turned on --- can be viewed as a charged version of the Myers-Perry instanton. We present an inverse scattering construction of the Myers-Perry instanton metric in Euclidean five-dimensional gravity. The angular momentum bounds in this construction turn out to be precisely the ones necessary for the smooth microstate geometries. We add charges on the Myers-Perry instanton using appropriate SO(4,4) hidden symmetry transformations. The full construction can be viewed as an extension and simplification of a previous work by Katsimpouri, Kleinschmidt and Virmani.

  2. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supe...

  3. A Climatology of Global Aerosol Mixtures to Support Sentinel-5P and Earthcare Mission Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M.; Kazadzis, S.; Amaridis, V.; Kahn, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Since constraining aerosol type with satellite remote sensing continues to be a challenge, we present a newly derived global climatology of aerosol mixtures to support atmospheric composition studies that are planned for Sentinel-5P and EarthCARE. The global climatology is obtained via application of iterative cluster analysis to gridded global decadal and seasonal mean values of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) of sulfate, biomass burning, mineral dust and marine aerosol as a proportion of the total AOD at 500nm output from the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART). For both the decadal and seasonal means, the number of aerosol mixtures (clusters) identified is ≈10. Analysis of the percentage contribution of the component aerosol types to each mixture allowed development of a straightforward naming convention and taxonomy, and assignment of primary colours for the generation of true colour-mixing and easy-to-interpret maps of the spatial distribution of clusters across the global grid. To further help characterize the mixtures, aerosol robotic network (AERONET) Level 2.0 Version 2 inversion products were extracted from each cluster's spatial domain and used to estimate climatological values of key optical and microphysical parameters. The aerosol type climatology represents current knowledge that would be enhanced, possibly corrected, and refined by high temporal and spectral resolution, cloud-free observations produced by Sentinel-5P and EarthCARE instruments. The global decadal mean and seasonal gridded partitions comprise a preliminary reference framework and global climatology that can help inform the choice of components and mixtures in aerosol retrieval algorithms used by instruments such as TROPOMI and ATLID, and to test retrieval results.

  4. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G;

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...

  5. New EMBO members' review: actin cytoskeleton regulation through modulation of PI(4,5)P(2) rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, P

    2001-08-15

    The phosphoinositide lipid PI(4,5)P(2) is now established as a key cofactor in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton and in vesicle trafficking. PI(4,5)P(2) accumulates at membrane rafts and promotes local co-recruitment and activation of specific signaling components at the cell membrane. PI(4,5)P(2) rafts may thus be platforms for local regulation of morphogenetic activity at the cell membrane. Raft PI(4,5)P(2) is regulated by lipid kinases (PI5-kinases) and lipid phosphatases (e.g. synaptojanin). In addition, GAP43-like proteins have recently emerged as a group of PI(4,5)P(2) raft-modulating proteins. These locally abundant proteins accumulate at inner leaflet plasmalemmal rafts where they bind to and co-distribute with PI(4,5)P(2), and promote actin cytoskeleton accumulation and dynamics. In keeping with their proposed role as positive modulators of PI(4,5)P(2) raft function, GAP43-like proteins confer competence for regulated morphogenetic activity on cells that express them. Their function has been investigated extensively in the nervous system, where their expression promotes neurite outgrowth, anatomical plasticity and nerve regeneration. Extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors may thus converge to modulate PI(4,5)P(2) rafts, upstream of regulated activity at the cell surface.

  6. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A;

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that...

  7. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years. PMID:26845819

  8. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  9. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells

  10. hsa-miR-125a-5p Enhances Invasion Ability in Non-Small Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhua WANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by partially binding complementary to target sites in mRNAs. Although some impaired miRNA regulations have been observed in many human cancers, the functions of miR-125a are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p in NSCLC cell lines and the relationship between hsa-miR-125a-5p and the invasion of lung cancer cells. Methods The expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p and the effectiveness for a given period time after being transfected sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide, which were 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h and 72 h, were examined by realtime PCR. Meanwhile, we investigated the modification of invasive ability in A549 and NCI-H460 cells by transwell. Results Real-time PCR showed that hsa-miR-125a-5p was poorly-expressed in 6 lung cancer cell lines, especially in LH7, NCI-H460, SPC-A-1 and A549. The highest expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p occurred in the cells transfected with sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide 36 h. Furthermore, the invasive abilities of A549 and NCI-H46O were enhanced by up-regulating hsa-miR-125a-5p. Conclusion hsa-miR-125a-5p was poorly-expressed in lung cancer cells and it could enhance lung cancer cell invasion by up-regulating hsa-miR-125a-5p.

  11. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Gang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liu, Dingyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wang, Zeyou [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Minghua [The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yuan, Xianrui, E-mail: xry69@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells.

  12. Territorial Governance and Area Image

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Bellini

    2004-01-01

    The image of a region or a city is an emerging topic in most debates about economic development strategies at the local and national level. Local and national policies of innovation which form an essential part of modern policies of local development are less and less an expression of government and increasingly an exercise of governance. The concept that allows best to describe and understand the practical meaning and implications of governance is 'policy network'. The establishment, selecti...

  13. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  14. Research on Pricing Strategy of the Reverse Supply Chain Considering the Government's Rewards and Punishment%考虑政府奖惩的逆向供应链定价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦飞; 刘坪; 贡文伟

    2013-01-01

    探讨一个制造商和多个零售商组成的逆向供应链定价策略问题,以再制品市场需求信息不完全为前提,运用博弈论和委托代理理论研究分析政府不参与逆向供应链运作、政府对制造商实施奖惩措施和政府对零售商实施奖惩措施三种情形下逆向供应链各主体的定价策略.并通过数值仿真验证了定价策略分别与市场需求和奖惩力度的关系.研究表明:成本较高的零售商期望收益较小;在两种奖惩力度相同的情况下,政府对制造商实施奖惩措施后逆向供应链的整体收益更大,而政府对零售商实施奖惩措施后制造商会更倾向于不传递真实市场信息的信号.%The article discusses pricing strategy problem of the reverse supply chain consisted of a manufacturer and multiple retailers.With the remade-products' market demand information incomplete as premise,using the game theory and the principal-agent theory to analyze the pricing strategy of the reverse supply chain in three situations such as when government does not participate in reverse supply chain operation,when government implements reward and punishment policy to the manufacturer and when government implements reward and punishment policy to retailers.Also,the relationship between pricing strategies and market requirements or punishment strengths is been proved through numerical simulation.The study shows that:retailers with higher cost expect less profit.Under the condition that two kinds of rewards and punishment strength is equal,when government implements rewards and punishment policy to manufacturer,the reverse supply chain obtains more overall revenue,but when government implements rewards and punishment policy to retailers,the manufacturer will have more tendency to conceal real market information signal.

  15. Evaluating the ability of artificial neural network and PCA-M5P models in predicting leachate COD load in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Amiri, Hamid; Rakhshandehroo, G Reza

    2016-09-01

    Waste burial in uncontrolled landfills can cause serious environmental damages and unpleasant consequences. Leachates produced in landfills have the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater resources. Leachate management is one of the major issues with respect to landfills environmental impacts. Improper design of landfills can lead to leachate spread in the environment, and hence, engineered landfills are required to have leachate monitoring programs. The high cost of such programs may be greatly reduced and cost efficiency of the program may be optimized if one can predict leachate contamination level and foresee management and treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to develop two expert systems consisting of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis-M5P (PCA-M5P) models to predict Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load in leachates produced in lab-scale landfills. Measured data from three landfill lysimeters, including rainfall depth, number of days after waste deposition, thickness of top and bottom Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs), and thickness of top cover over the lysimeter, were utilized to develop, train, validate, and test the expert systems and predict the leachate COD load. Statistical analysis of the prediction results showed that both models possess good prediction ability with a slight superiority for ANN over PCA-M5P. Based on test datasets, the mean absolute percentage error for ANN and PCA-M5P models were 4% and 12%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient for both models was greater than 0.98. Developed models may be used as a rough estimate for leachate COD load prediction in primary landfill designs, where the effect of a top and/or bottom liner is disputed. PMID:27264459

  16. PU.1 Is Identified as a Novel Metastasis Suppressor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Regulating the miR-615-5p/IGF2 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-Jie; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Chang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Yan-Feng; Zong, Hong; Fan, Qing-Xia; Wang, Liu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis is the major cause of tumor recurrence, difficulty for cure and low survival rate. Excavating key transcription factors, which can regulate tumor invasion and metastasis, are crucial to the development of therapeutic strategies for cancers. PU.1 is a master hematopoietic transcription factor and a vital regulator in life. Here, we report that, compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues, expression of PU.1 mRNA in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but not primary HCC, was significantly down-regulated. In addition, levels of PU.1 mRNA in metastatic hepatoma cell lines MHCC97L and MHCC97H were much lower than in non-metastatic Hep3B cells. Transwell invasion assays after PU.1 siRNA transfection showed that the invasion of hepatoma cell lines was increased markedly by PU.1 knockdown. Oppositely, overexpression of PU.1 suppressed the invasion of these cells. However, knockdown and overexpression of PU.1 did not influence proliferation. Finally, we tried to explore the potential mechanism of PU.1 suppressing hepatoma cell invasion. ChIP-qPCR analysis showed that PU.1 exhibited a high binding capacity with miR-615-5p promoter sequence. Overexpression of PU.1 caused a dramatic increase of pri-, pre- and mature miR-615-5p, as well as a marked decrease of miR-615-5p target gene IGF2. These data indicate that PU.1 inhibits invasion of human HCC through promoting miR-615-5p and suppressing IGF2. These findings improve our understanding of PU.1 regulatory roles and provided a potential target for metastatic HCC diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Molecular Recognition of PTS-1 Cargo Proteins by Pex5p: Implications for Protein Mistargeting in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mesa-Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3–4 orders of magnitude reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.

  18. PI(4,5)P2-dependent microdomain assemblies capture microtubules to promote and control leading edge motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Tamara; Caroni, Pico

    2005-04-11

    The lipid second messenger PI(4,5)P(2) modulates actin dynamics, and its local accumulation at plasmalemmal microdomains (rafts) might mediate regulation of protrusive motility. However, how PI(4,5)P(2)-rich rafts regulate surface motility is not well understood. Here, we show that upon signals promoting cell surface motility, PI(4,5)P(2) directs the assembly of dynamic raft-rich plasmalemmal patches, which promote and sustain protrusive motility. The accumulation of PI(4,5)P(2) at rafts, together with Cdc42, promotes patch assembly through N-WASP. The patches exhibit locally regulated PI(4,5)P(2) turnover and reduced diffusion-mediated exchange with their environment. Patches capture microtubules (MTs) through patch IQGAP1, to stabilize MTs at the leading edge. Captured MTs in turn deliver PKA to patches to promote patch clustering through further PI(4,5)P(2) accumulation in response to cAMP. Patch clustering restricts, spatially confines, and polarizes protrusive motility. Thus, PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent raft-rich patches enhance local signaling for motility, and their assembly into clusters is regulated through captured MTs and PKA, coupling local regulation of motility to cell polarity, and organization.

  19. MiR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC.

  20. miR-204-5p regulates cell proliferation and metastasis through inhibiting CXCR4 expression in OSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjuan; Li, Fujun; Zhou, Xiaoli

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important small molecules in cancer including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) which regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. MiR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in some of cancers, but the role of it in OSCC is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and functional roles of miR-204-5p in OSCC. The results showed that the expression of miR-204-5p was lower in cancer tissues or cells. Next, cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion were detected. It was found that miR-204-5p could enhance OSCC cell proliferation and metastasis. MiR-204-5p was predicted as a regulatory miRNA of CXCR4 in OSCC, and the data analysis indicated that there was a negatively relationship between miR-204-5p and CXCR4 expression in OSCC tissues from the patients. In a conclusion, our findings suggested that miR-204-5p may function as an inhibitory RNA molecule in OSCC by targeting CXCR4. PMID:27470356

  1. An Investigation into the Effectiveness of the RewardSystem in the Government Sector in the Sultanate ofOman and the Potential for Introducinga Total Reward Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Jarradi, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the migration of talent from developed countries is not a new one, andessentially it is understood that the reward systems of the countries involved are at faultin not providing individuals with rewards that they value. In the Sultanate of Oman,such a brain drain is not yet a problem, but over the last few years there has been anincreasing departure of talented people from the Omani Government Sector, as theprivate sector has more to offer. Such a phenomenon is wasteful in resp...

  2. PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis regulates activation and inactivation of TRPC6/7 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Hase, Hideharu; Okamura, Yasushi; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential classical (or canonical) (TRPC)3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 are a subfamily of TRPC channels activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) produced through the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) by phospholipase C (PLC). PI(4,5)P2 depletion by a heterologously expressed phosphatase inhibits TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 activity independently of DAG; however, the physiological role of PI(4,5)P2 reduction on channel activity remains unclear. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure PI(4,5)P2 or DAG dynamics concurrently with TRPC6 or TRPC7 currents after agonist stimulation of receptors that couple to Gq and thereby activate PLC. Measurements made at different levels of receptor activation revealed a correlation between the kinetics of PI(4,5)P2 reduction and those of receptor-operated TRPC6 and TRPC7 current activation and inactivation. In contrast, DAG production correlated with channel activation but not inactivation; moreover, the time course of channel inactivation was unchanged in protein kinase C-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that inactivation of receptor-operated TRPC currents is primarily mediated by the dissociation of PI(4,5)P2. We determined the functional dissociation constant of PI(4,5)P2 to TRPC channels using FRET of the PLCδ Pleckstrin homology domain (PHd), which binds PI(4,5)P2, and used this constant to fit our experimental data to a model in which channel gating is controlled by PI(4,5)P2 and DAG. This model predicted similar FRET dynamics of the PHd to measured FRET in either human embryonic kidney cells or smooth muscle cells, whereas a model lacking PI(4,5)P2 regulation failed to reproduce the experimental data, confirming the inhibitory role of PI(4,5)P2 depletion on TRPC currents. Our model also explains various PLC-dependent characteristics of channel activity, including limitation of maximum open probability, shortening of the peak time, and the bell-shaped response of total

  3. A multichannel harpoon model for reactive quenching of Xe 5p56p by Cl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A harpoon reaction model employing multiple crossings based on the formalism of Bauer et al and Gislason and Sachs is developed to explain the large cross sections (σ ∼400 A2) measured for the reaction Xe 5p56p + Cl2. The model calculates the Landau-Zener transition probability for each intermediate ionic crossing with the covalent surface. The transition matrix elements are represented as a product of the electronic interaction (modeled by the empirical result of Olson et al) and a Frank-Condon factor for the Cl2 → Cl2- transition. The model predicts near unit probability for a transition to the ionic surface for impact parameters less than 20 Bohr. Once transfer occurs, the pair is captured by dissociation of Cl2- to form XeCl. The large temperature dependence observed qualitatively in the experiments is explained by the increased cross section for vibrationally excited Cl2. A simple model for orbiting collisions is used to estimate the effect of termolecular collisions

  4. Isotope shifts of the 4s2 1S0 -> 4s5p 1P1 transition and hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p 1P1 state in calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, A.; Lindballe, J. J. T.; Jensen, I. S.; Staanum, P.; Voigt, D.; Drewsen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a technique based on production of ion Coulomb crystals, the isotope shifts of the 4s2 1S0 -> 4s5p 1P1 transition for all naturally occurring isotopes of calcium as well as the hyperfine splitting of the 4s5p 1P1 state in Ca-43 have been measured. The field shift and specific mass shift coefficients as well as the hyperfine structure constants for Ca-43 have been derived from the data.

  5. Binding of PLCδ1PH-GFP to Ptdlns(4,5)P2 prevents inhibition of phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of Ptdlns(4,5)P2 by neomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan WANG; Xiao-na DU; Qing-zhong JIA; Hai-lin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of phospholipase Cδ1 (PLCδ1PH) on inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] by neomycin.Methods: A fusion construct of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PLCδ1PH (PLCδ1PH-GFP), which is known to bind Ptdlns(4,5)P2 specifically, together with laser-scanning confocal microscopy, was used to trace PtdIns(4,5)P2 translocation.Results: Stimulation of the type 1 muscarinic receptor and the bradykinin 2 receptor induced a reversible PLCδ1PH-GFP translocation from the membrane to the cytosol in COS-7 cells. PLC inhibitor U73122 blocked the translocation.Wortmannin, a known PtdIns kinase inhibitor, did not affect the translocation induced by ACh, but blocked recovery after translocation, indicating that PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis occurs through receptor-mediated PLC activation.Neomycin, a commonly used phospholipase C blocker, failed to block the receptor-induced PLCδ1PH-GFP translocation, indicating that neomycin is unable to block PLC-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. However, in the absence of PLCδ1PH-GFP expression, neomycin abolished the receptor-induced hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by PLC. Conclusion: Although PLCδ1PH and neomycin bind to PtdIns(4,5)P2 in a similar way, they have distinct effects on receptor-mediated activation of PLC and PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis.

  6. Government Regulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  7. Implementing e-Government in Bosnia and Herzegovina : Practices and Challenges for the State government

    OpenAIRE

    Bajramovic, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Context: Electronic Government (sometimes referred to as digital government, online government) is the use of information and communication technologies to: a) enable optimization and innovation of all government internal processes in the back-office and external processes by providing government services to customers through Internet and other electronic means; and b) facilitate achieving goals of all government policies and strategies. Objectives: In this study we are explaining e-Governmen...

  8. Foundations' Governance for Strategic Philanthropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Boesso; Fabrizio Cerbioni; Andrea Menini; Antonio Parbonetti

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether effective governance plays a major role in driving foundations’ strategy when it comes to making the choice between reactive or proactive philanthropy models. More specifically, we investigate the relationships between philanthropic strategy (expressive, receptive, proactive and collaborative) and [a] board capital (competences and networks), [b] board processes (planning, control, evaluation, etc.), and [c] chairman power (entrenchment and tenure).

  9. Submission to the Government of Canada, in the national interest : a Canadian oil and natural gas strategy for a North American energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) sees a need for more federal emphasis on six main principles regarding an energy strategy that will ensure that Canada's economy and citizens benefit from free access to North American markets. The development of energy resources must be done in a manner that meets North American demand for energy supplies, addresses high prices by increasing supply and enhances Canada's role as a reliable energy supplier. CAPP has proposed the following six main principles for an energy strategy: (1) development of market oriented policies, (2) ensure regulatory effectiveness, (3) promote greater industry competitiveness, (4) create more jobs for stronger communities, (5) foster the development of technological innovation, and (6) use energy wisely and efficiently. The key components of each principle were described in detail, along with their benefits to the Canadian economy

  10. Dawn of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Damsgaard, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest...... internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental...

  11. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3'UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1 and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26261542

  12. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  13. 论政府责任与残疾人就业促进保障策略%Government Responsibility an Strategy in Promoting the Disable’s Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜竹

    2012-01-01

      残疾人失业问题是我国转型期以及后危机时期面临的最严峻挑战之一。在应对这个挑战的过程中,政府的战略选择经历了一个重要的转变。从最初实行再就业工程,逐渐过渡到采取“再就业”、“失业保障”等多管齐下的策略,来应对严峻而复杂的残疾人就业形势。可见,升级公共就业服务能力的同时健全残疾人就业保障体系将是我国经济社会和谐发展的重要任务之一。结合残疾人所面临的就业压力及制约就业的因素,应当彰显政府责任,激发社会资源共同创建“灵活性”与“安全性”并行的就业格局是实现残疾人就业促进目标的必然选择,为此,完善政府相关就业保障策略是十分必要的。%  The unemployment problem is one of the most serious challenges in China in transition and post-crisis period. Therefore, the government's strategic choice has undergone a major transformation:from the initial implementation of re-employment project, a gradual transition to adopt a“re-employment”and “social protection against unemployment”, two-pronged approach to deal with severe and complex employment situation. It’s thus clear that upgrading public employment capacity and services and employment security system will be an important task of China's economic and social development. By summing up the international experience and analysis of the employment pressure facing with China, the authors believed that it’s the inevitable choice to reaffirm government's responsibility to create a employment pattern with “flexibility” and “security”. It’s necessary to reform government-related employment security policy.

  14. miR-339-5p inhibits alcohol-induced brain inflammation through regulating NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Guangkuan [Department of Neurology, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Di, Zhiyong [Department of Laboratory, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin 150036 (China); Zhao, Qingjie, E-mail: zhaoqingjie2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated School of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-26

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alcohol upregulates miR-339-5p expression. • miR-339-5p inhibits the NF-kB pathway. • miR-339-5p interacts with and blocks activity of IKK-beat and IKK-epsilon. • miR-339-5p modulates IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Abstract: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by the innate immunesystem. Pro-inflammatory responses to alcohol are modulated by miRNAs. The miRNA miR-339-5p has previously been found to be upregulated in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. However, little has been elucidated on the regulatory functions of this miRNA in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. We investigated the function of miR-339-5p in alcohol exposed brain tissue and isolated microglial cells using ex vivo and in vitro techniques. Our results show that alcohol induces transcription of miR 339-5p, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse brain tissue and isolated microglial cells by activating NF-κB. Alcohol activation of NF-κB allows for nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. miR-339-5p inhibited expression of these pro-inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway by abolishing IKK-β and IKK-ε activity.

  15. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  16. 政府干涉下闭环供应链的回收渠道选择策略%Recycling Channel Selection Strategy of Closed-loop Supply Chain under Government Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the recovery efficiency , recycling channel selection of closed-loop supply chain under government intervention is studied .Closed-loop supply chain decision models are established under single recycling channel ( the manufacturer ) , single recycling channel ( the retailer ) and mixed re-cycling channel .Then strategies for choosing recycling channel are studied respectively from the perspec -tives of consumers , the government , the manufacturer , the retailer and the whole supply chain .The re-sults show that the retailer always wants to participate in recycling and that from the other four perspec -tives, with recycling channel selection mainly affected by recycling competing intensity , government inter-vention has little effect on recycling channel selection .The results can be used as a reference for the gov-ernment's environmental policy and macro-control policy , recycling channel selection for the members of the closed-loop supply chain and consumers .%为了提高回收效率,在政府对制造商的回收行为进行干涉下建立了制造商回收、零售商回收和混合回收决策模型,分别从消费者、政府、制造商、零售商和供应链整体五个角度研究了回收渠道的选择策略。结果表明,零售商总是希望参与回收;从其他四个角度来看,回收渠道选择主要受回收渠道竞争强度的影响,政府干涉对渠道选择影响不大。

  17. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  18. 中国政务微博发展对策研究--基于2014年的数据分析%Study on the Strategies of Chinese Government Microblogging Development Based on the Data of 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋亲; 杨天保

    2016-01-01

    2014 is the node time of Chinese government microblogging development.Generally,it surpassed the previous years in scale,structure,the degree of government participation and the effects of information communication,etc.,and basically achieved the goal of“soft landing”,which laid the cornerstone for national governance system.However,there are still problems of out-dated concept of governance,unbalanced development among regions and departments,less communication between the government and people,and so on.To this end,the strategy is,firstly,to enhance a cognitive level,based on a new pattern of Internet Politics both concentrated on “nation”and “citizens”,and clarify the relationship between the subject and the object,rebuilding governance structure;secondly, it’s necessary to“de-bureaucratize”the traditional governance mode and highlight the role of Internet in modern political development ;thirdly,we have to integrate political resources,enhance the intensity expert governance;fourthly,the “State - society”relations should be properly handled, optimizing the control of the ecological,vigorously develop social management of new elements;fifthly,we must upgrade rural hardware systems,ease the development gap between urban and rural areas;finally,we need to cure the disease of modern political apathy of our citizens and build the“government -citizen”interactive relationship of mutual trust.%2014年是中国政务微博发展的节点。总体而论,其规模、格局、政府参与度和信息传播效果等,皆超越往年,基本实现“软着陆”,为融入国家治理体系奠定了基石。但是,治理理念相对滞后,区域、部门及城乡间的发展不平衡,官民“互粉率”偏低等问题依旧存在。针对存在的问题,提出了中国政务微博的发展对策:一要提升认知水平,基于“国家公民”双本位的互联网政治新格局,明确主客体关系,重建治理结构;二

  19. Organizational Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Peter G. Klein

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the incomplete-contracts or property-rights approach. We distill the main unifying characteristics of these streams, survey each stream, and offer some critical commentary and suggestions for moving forward.

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  1. Research on the relation between the knowledge governance mechanism and the strategy orientation%知识治理机制和战略导向的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 王影

    2013-01-01

    在认同知识治理的本质是对知识活动所涉主体行为的协调这一基础上,归纳和分析官僚控制、社区自治、市场调节三类典型的知识治理机制的总体特征;同时,基于顾客导向、创新导向的战略导向分类,以不同战略导向匹配相异的知识治理机制组合权重为切入点,提出环境变动、知识活动障碍是企业战略导向、知识治理机制、知识活动之间演进关系的内在机理;最后,总结分析两条典型的演进路径,并指出顾客知识、治理经验的累积是演进关系螺旋上升的源动力。%On the basis of the fact that the essence of knowledge governance is to coordinate the behavior of knowledge sub -jects related to the knowledge activity , we analyze the general feature of hierarchy control、 communication autonomy、 mar-ket transaction by means of theory induction.At the same time , in this paper , the variation of environment and the barrier of knowledge activity are the inner cause of the evolutionary relation between strategy orientation 、 knowledge governance mechanism and knowledge activity if the different strategy , which includes customer orientation and innovation orientation , match the different combined weight of the governance mechanisms.Finally, two typical evolutionary paths are generated in this paper.And the original dynamic leading to the upward spiral of evolutionary relation lies in the accumulation of custom -er knowledge and governance experience.

  2. 面向电子政务的 MongoDB 与 MySQL 混合存储策略%Hybrid Storage Strategy with MongoDB and MySQL for E-government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀君

    2014-01-01

    针对传统电子政务平台所采用的关系型数据库在存储非结构化数据时的缺陷,利用MongoDB存储海量非结构化数据的优势,提出MongoDB与MySQL混合存储的策略。 MongoDB负责存储图片、视频等非结构化数据,MySQL负责存储用户注册信息、工资表等结构化数据。二者协同提供政务数据的云存储服务和查询操作,从而降低MySQL数据库服务器的负载,节约MySQL的存储空间,增强电子政务后台数据库的扩展性。实验结果表明,该混合策略能大大提高电子政务平台的查询效率。%For the defects of relational database used in traditional e-government platform when storing unstructured data , the ad-vantages of MongoDB in storing mass unstructured data are used to put forward a hybrid storage strategy with MongoDB and MySQL.MongoDB is responsible for storing unstructured data such as pictures , video.MySQL is responsible for storing structured data such as user registration information , payroll.Both of them work together to provide data cloud storage services and query operations of e-government data , thereby reducing the load on the database server of MySQL , saving the storage space and enhancing the scalability of e-government back-end database .Comparative tests show that the hybrid strategy can greatly im-prove the query efficiency of e-government platform .

  3. miR-139-5p sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil by targeting NOTCH-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heyong; Yin, Yuan; Hu, Yaling; Feng, Yuyang; Bian, Zehua; Yao, Surui; Li, Min; You, Qingjun; Huang, Zhaohui

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), a phenomenon that often occurs with drug treatment and is characterized by relapse or attenuation of drug efficacy, is almost unavoidable in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Our previous study has identified miR-139-5p as a potential tumor suppressor in CRC, but its role in chemoresistance of CRC has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-139-5p was down-regulated either in CRC tumors receiving chemotherapy or in 5-FU-resistant CRC cell lines (HCT-8/5-FU and HCT-116/5-FU). Ectopic expression of miR-139-5p sensitized CRC cells to 5-FU by increasing 5-FU-induced apoptosis. In addition, miR-139-5p inhibited the expression of the miR-139-5p target gene NOTCH-1 and its downstream molecules MRP-1 and BCL-2, two key MDR-associated genes. Furthermore, silencing NOTCH-1 expression promoted the chemotherapeutic effects of 5-FU, and up-regulation of NOTCH-1 abrogated miR-139-5p-mediated sensitization to 5-FU in LoVo and HCT-116 cells. Taken together, our data indicate a new role of miR-139-5p/NOTCH-1 pathway in the drug resistance of CRC cells to 5-FU, which may be a promising therapeutic target for the anti-MDR treatment of CRC. PMID:27173050

  4. MicroRNA-30a-5p in the prefrontal cortex controls the transition from moderate to excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcq, E; Warnault, V; Phamluong, K; Besserer, G M; Liu, F; Ron, D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) induce messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and repress mRNA translation. Several miRNAs control the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BDNF signaling pathway is activated by moderate intake of alcohol to prevent escalation to excessive drinking. Here, we present data to suggest that the transition from moderate to uncontrolled alcohol intake occurs, in part, upon a breakdown of this endogenous protective pathway via a miRNA-dependent mechanism. Specifically, a mouse paradigm that mimics binge alcohol drinking in humans produced a robust reduction in BDNF mRNA levels in the medial PFC (mPFC), which was associated with increased expression of several miRNAs including miR-30a-5p. We show that miR-30a-5p binds the 3' untranslated region of BDNF, and that overexpression of miR-30a-5p in the mPFC decreased BDNF expression. Importantly, overexpression of miR-30a-5p in the mPFC produced an escalation of alcohol intake and a preference over water. Conversely, inhibition of miR-30a-5p in the mPFC using a Locked Nucleic Acid sequence that targets miR-30a-5p restored BDNF levels and decreased excessive alcohol intake. Together, our results indicate that miR-30a-5p plays a key role in the transition from moderate to excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25330738

  5. Role of miR-181a-5p and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the regulation of myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; Tao, Xuelian; Xu, Huaming; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Li; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Mingzhou; Jiang, Anan; Shuai, Surong; Ma, Jideng; Jin, Long; Wen, Anxiang; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Guangxiang; Xie, Meng; Wu, Jiayun; He, Tao; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuewei

    2016-10-30

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play critical roles in myoblast differentiation. However, the regulation roles of miRNAs and ER stress in myogenic differentiation have not been fully revealed and need to be further studied. Here, we discovered that the expression levels of miR-181a-5p were strongly upregulated during C2C12 cell differentiation. miR-181a-5p overexpression promoted ER stress and differentiation of C2C12 cells, which was accompanied by increasing expression levels of marker genes related to ER stress-mediated apoptosis and myogenic differentiation. Opposite results were observed after inhibition of the miR-181a-5p expression. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments on C2C12 cells showed that miR-181a-5p affected the development of muscle fiber type, but had no significant influence on C2C12 cell proliferation. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells induced by thapsigargin (Tg), the expression levels of both miR-181a-5p and marker genes related to ER stress and myogenesis were upregulated. In the ER-stressed C2C12 cells and porcine muscle fibroblast (PMF) cells pretreated with Tg, we found that miR-181a-5p targeted glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BIP), and influenced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, these results indicate that miR-181a-5p and ER stress have positive synergistic effects on myogenic differentiation by increasing the expression levels of myogenic differentiation key genes and activating the ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway.

  6. MicroRNA-219-5p Inhibits Morphine-Induced Apoptosis by Targeting Key Cell Cycle Regulator WEE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wei; Zhang, Xingwang; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To identify the effects of microRNA (miR)-219-5p on morphine-induced apoptosis by targeting WEE1. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty Balb/C mice (Toll-like receptor 9, TLR9 knockout) were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups (20 in each group). The baseline miR-219-5p expression was detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). After morphine was injected at 6 h on the 2nd and 6th days, experimental and control groups received miR-219-5p mimics or miRNA-negative control (NC), respectively, compound injection. Tissues and cells were later obtained from subjects in each group separately after mice were killed. TUNEL assay was used to investigate apoptosis in both groups. RAW264.7 cells were treated with miR-219-5p mimics and controls, respectively. After 24 h, 10 μM of morphine was added at 24 h. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometer. The WEE1 and Phospho-cdc2 (Tyr15) expressions were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS MiR-219-5p expression in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (PWEE1 and Tyr15 protein expressions in the miR-219-5p NC group and morphine group were obviously stronger than those in the blank control group (all PWEE1 and Tyr15 protein expressions were significantly lower compared with those in the miR-219-5p NC group and morphine group (all PWEE1 to suppress Tyr15 expressions and activate Cdc2, thus inhibiting the morphine-induced macrophage apoptosis. PMID:27253431

  7. miR-493-5p attenuates the invasiveness and tumorigenicity in human breast cancer by targeting FUT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifen; Feng, Xiaobin; Song, Xiaobo; Zhou, Huimin; Zhao, Yongfu; Cheng, Lei; Jia, Li

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Altered fucosylation was found to be closely associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis, and aberrant miRNA expression has been observed in breast cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and miR-493-5p in breast cancer and investigate their relationship. In the present study, we demonstrated the differential expressional profiles of FUT4 and miR‑493-5p in 29 clinical breast cancer tissues, matched adjacent tissue samples and two breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Briefly, altered expression levels of FUT4 modified the invasive activities and tumorigenicity of the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Further study demonstrated that miR-493-5p plays a role as a suppressor in breast cancer cell invasion and tumorigenicity. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-493-5p were inversely proportional to those of FUT4 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR‑493-5p bound to the 3'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region of FUT4, and inhibited the expression of FUT4 in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FUT4 may have a potential role in the treatment of breast cancer, as well as miR-493-5p is a novel regulator of invasiveness and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells through targeting FUT4. The miR-493-5p/FUT4 pathway has therapeutic potential in breast cancer. PMID:27375041

  8. The government draft of the Combined Heat and Power Generation Act 2016. Exit strategy or prospects for the future?; Der Regierungsentwurf zum KWKG 2016. Ausstiegsszenario oder Zukunftsperspektive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Julius [enervis energy advisors GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The combined heat and power (CHP) is in addition to renewable energy and energy efficiency a cornerstone for the transformation of the energy sector towards greater climate and environmental friendliness. Due to the situation in the energy markets currently plants operated with natural gas have come under pressure. Against the background of the critical economic situation of many gas-based cogeneration plants, it is therefore necessary, with a new combined heat and power law (CHP) to provide planning security for the plant operator. Meanwhile, there is a government draft of the Combined Heat and Power Generation Act in 2016, which includes far-reaching changes for the CHP. This article summarizes the most important changes. [German] Die Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung (KWK) ist neben den erneuerbaren Energien und der Energieeffizienz einer der Eckpfeiler fuer die Transformation des Energiesektors hin zu mehr Klima- und Umweltfreundlichkeit. Aufgrund der Situation auf den Energiemaerkten sind aber gerade mit Erdgas betriebene Anlagen unter Druck geraten. Vor dem Hintergrund der wirtschaftlich kritischen Situation vieler gasbasierter KWK-Anlagen gilt es daher, durch ein neues Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungs-Gesetz (KWKG) Planungssicherheit fuer die Anlagenbetreiber zu schaffen. Inzwischen liegt ein Regierungsentwurf zum KWKG 2016 vor, der weitreichende Aenderungen fuer die KWK beinhaltet. Dieser Artikel fasst die wichtigsten Aenderungen zusammen.

  9. Government Construction Safety Supervision and Strategies Game%政府建筑安全监管博弈分析及策略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝春

    2011-01-01

    建筑安全事故的频繁发生已严重制约着和谐社会的构建和建筑业的健康发展.基于博弈论原理,从政府监管机构、承包商、监理三个安全责任主体利益考虑,构建了监管机构与承包商、监管机构与监理的博弈模型,分析了建筑安全事故产生的本质原因,并提出了安全监管的应对措施,以降低建筑安全事故的发生.%The frequent occurrence of accidents in censtruction has seriously restricted the construction of harmonious society and the healthy development of the construction industry.Based on the game theory, from the government regulatory agencies, contractors, supervision of the security responsibility of the three main interests, the paper builds regulatory agencies and contractors, regulatory agencies and supervision of the game model to analyze the construction safety accidents of nature, and puts forward security control measures in order to lower construction safety accidents.

  10. Strategi Pemberdayaan Perusahaan Waralaba Lokal Menuju Waralaba Global: Studi Kasus Good Corporate Governance oleh Eksekutif Puncak di J.Co, Es Teller 77, dan Pecel Lele Lela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelo Yosep Laurentius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly intended for reviewing and strengthening leadership, corporate governance good practices and management philosophy in the concepts, systems, and human resources (HR of the company. A new progressive corporate leader should be able to quickly identify the strengths and weaknesses of his/her business, to increase the first and to reduce the pressures or to liquidate the later. Finally, he/she must be able to encourage his/her subordinates to achieve easily identified and highly attractive goals. The target is to build the 21st-century company where all employees realize that they can make it different and that they will warmly welcome the managerial motivation. Thus, the chief executive officer assumes the responsibility for constructive managerial skills. Research used qualitative approach to disclose GCG in local franchise companies. Case study was done purposively with chief executive officer of the company. Data were gathered by observation and literature study. Analysis was conducted by data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion.

  11. miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p promote adipogenesis via suppressing the RhoA/ROCK1/ERK1/2 pathway in multiple symmetric lipomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; He, Honghui; Xie, Yanhong; Zhao, Liling; Zhao, Shaoli; Wan, Xinxing; Yang, Wenjun; Mo, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is a rare disease characterized by symmetric and abnormal distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT); however, the etiology is largely unknown. We report here that miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p are upregulated in the SAT of MSL patients, promoting adipogenesis through suppressing the RhoA/ROCK1/ERK1/2 pathway. TaqMan microRNA (miR) array analysis revealed that 18 miRs were upregulated in the SAT of MSL patients. Transfection of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) with the individual agomirs of these 18 miRs showed that miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p significantly promoted adipogenesis. A dual-luciferase assay showed that RhoA and ERK1 were the targets of miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p, respectively. Moreover, transfection of hADSCs with mimics of miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p resulted in a pronounced decrease of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the nucleus; conversely, transfection of hADSCs with inhibitors of miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p led to a significant increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the nucleus. Most importantly, we found that miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p promoted de novo adipose tissue formation in nude mice. These results demonstrated that miR-125a-3p and miR-483-5p coordinately promoted adipogenesis through suppressing the RhoA/ROCK1/ERK1/2 pathway. Our findings may provide novel strategies for the management and treatment of MSL or obesity. PMID:26148871

  12. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  13. Circulating MiR-19b-3p, MiR-134-5p and MiR-186-5p are Promising Novel Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jing Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent studies have shown that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs are emerging as promising biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine whether miR-19b-3p, miR-134-5p and miR-186-5p can be used as novel indicators for acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: To investigate the kinetic expression of the three selected miRNAs, we enrolled 18 patients with AMI and 20 matched controls. Plasma samples were collected from each participant, and total RNA was extracted. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA assays were used to investigate the expression of circulating miRNAs and cardiac troponin I (cTnI, respectively. Plasma samples from another age- and gender-matched cohort were collected to investigate the impact of medications for AMI on the expression of the selected miRNAs. Results: Levels of plasma miR-19b-3p, miR-134-5p and miR-186-5p were significantly increased in early stage of AMI. Plasma miR-19b-3p and miR-134-5p levels reached peak expression immediately after admission (T0, whereas miR-186-5p achieved peak expression at 4 h after T0. All of these times were earlier than the peak for cTnI (8 h after T0. In addition, all three miRNAs were positively correlated with cTnI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis indicated that each single miRNA showed considerable diagnostic efficiency for predicting AMI. Furthermore, combining all three miRNAs in a panel increased the efficiency of distinguishing between patients with AMI and controls. Moreover, we found that heparin and medications for AMI did not impact the expression of these circulating miRNAs. Conclusion: Circulating miR-19b-3p, miR-134-5p and miR-186-5p could be considered promising novel diagnostic biomarkers for the early phase of AMI.

  14. Urban Decline and Failed Reconversion Process: the Role of "Path Dependence" and Governance Theories in Local Actors' Strategies. The Case of Langreo (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ PRADA TRIGO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the sixties and the seventies, most of the European cities suffered an economic crisis and an urban restructuring process, particularly the traditional industrial cities and regions. These places suffered a deep slow-down in their growth and a decline process. In Spain, Asturias is one of the most affected regions by the crisis, and the Asturian cities specialized in the mining activity and the traditional industry (Avilés, Gijón, Langreo and Mieres entered a process of decline in the sixties that in some cases continues today. In Langreo, the strong reindustrialisation policy developed by the local actors has not contributed to modify the image of “industrial city”. Today, the important presence of the industry in Langreo is paradoxical, when services are the economic driving force of the city and its principal source of employment. The lack of urban planning has given rise to a deteriorated urban landscape, where people do not wish to live today because of the proximity of industrial activities and the troubles that in some ways they cause. This paper analyses the unsuccessful process of urban and economic renovation as well as the current situation of Langreo. In order to do this, it uses a methodology that combines statistical information with interviews with local actors involved in the city’s development. The main results are: (i A critical analysis of the situation of Langreo and its future perspectives, (ii A summary of the contrast between the different models proposed by the local actors for the city and (iii Some conclusions about the importance of executing an urban organization to fit the economic and employment parameters with the physical and territorial conditions of the city. Some issues like the different intensity in the implication of local agents, or the mechanism that govern the alliances between them also stand out.

  15. Regulating Government

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Katherine; Davies, J. Clarence

    2001-01-01

    Federal, state, and local governments are major polluters of the environment. They account for more than 7% of SO2 air pollution emissions and more than 5% of all NO2 air emissions in the United States. Public entities are more likely than private ones to be in violation of the Clean Water Act, and they account for two-thirds of all major facilities in significant noncompliance with the act. Department of Energy nuclear sites are the worst hazardous waste problems in the nation. A lack of ade...

  16. Governance processes and change within organizational participants of multi-sectoral community health care alliances: the mediating role of vision, mission, strategy agreement and perceived alliance value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Multi-sectoral community health care alliances are organizations that bring together individuals and organizations from different industry sectors to work collaboratively on improving the health and health care in local communities. Long-term success and sustainability of alliances are dependent on their ability to galvanize participants to take action within their 'home' organizations and institutionalize the vision, goals, and programs within participating organizations and the broader community. The purpose of this study was to investigate two mechanisms by which alliance leadership and management processes may promote such changes within organizations participating in alliances. The findings of the study suggest that, despite modest levels of change undertaken by participating organizations, more positive perceptions of alliance leadership, decision making, and conflict management were associated with a greater likelihood of participating organizations making changes as a result of their participation in the alliance, in part by promoting greater vision, mission, and strategy agreement and higher levels of perceived value. Leadership processes had a stronger relationship with change within participating organizations than decision-making style and conflict management processes. Open-ended responses by participants indicated that participating organizations most often incorporated new measures or goals into their existing portfolio of strategic plans and activities in response to alliance participation.

  17. Differential expression of microRNA501-5p affects the aggressiveness of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mangolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is a common neoplasia of the adult kidney that accounts for about 3% of adult malignancies. Clear cell renal carcinoma is the most frequent subtype of kidney cancer and 20–40% of patients develop metastases. The absence of appropriate biomarkers complicates diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. In this regard, small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs, which are mutated in several neoplastic diseases including kidney carcinoma, may be optimal candidates as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of cancer. Here we show that patients with clear cell kidney carcinoma that express low levels of miR501-5p exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with unchanged or high levels of this microRNA. Consistently, in kidney carcinoma cells the downregulation of miR501-5p induced an increased caspase-3 activity, p53 expression as well as decreased mTOR activation, leading to stimulation of the apoptotic pathway. Conversely, miR501-5p upregulation enhanced the activity of mTOR and promoted both cell proliferation and survival. These biological processes occurred through p53 inactivation by proteasome degradation in a mechanism involving MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination. Our results support a role for miR501-5p in balancing apoptosis and cell survival in clear cell renal carcinoma. In particular, the downregulation of microRNA501-5p promotes a good prognosis, while its upregulation contributes to a poor prognosis, in particular, if associated with p53 and MDM2 overexpression and mTOR activation. Thus, the expression of miR501-5p is a possible biomarker for the prognosis of clear cell renal carcinoma.

  18. Mission Objectives Of The Atmospheric Composition Related Sentinels S5p, S4, And S5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingmann, Paul; Veihelmann, Ben; Langen, Jorg; Meijer, Yasjka

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry observations from space have been made for over 30 years, in the beginning mainly by US missions. These missions have always been motivated by the concern about a number of environmental issues. At present European instruments like GOME-2 on MetOp/EPS-A and -B and OMI on NASA's Aura are in space and, despite being designed for research purposes, perform routine observations. The space instruments have helped improving our understanding of processes that govern stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and the transport of pollutants. However, long-term continuous time series of atmospheric trace gas data have been limited to stratospheric ozone and a few related species. According to current planning, meteorological satellites will maintain these observations over the next decade. They will also add some measurements of tropospheric trace gases critical for climate forcing. However, as their measurements have been motivated by meteorology, vertical sensitivities and accuracies are marginal for atmospheric chemistry applications. With the exception of stratospheric ozone, reliable long-term space-based monitoring of atmospheric constituents with quality attributes sufficient to serve atmospheric chemistry applications still need to be established. The need for a GMES atmospheric service (GAS), its scope and high level requirements were laid down in an orientation papers organised by the European Commission and then updated by an Implementation Group (IG) [1], backed by four working groups, advising the Commission on scope, architecture, in situ and space requirements. The goal of GAS is to provide coherent information on atmospheric variables in support of European policies and for the benefit of European citizens. Services cover air quality, climate change/forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. To meet the needs of the user community atmospheric composition mission concepts for GEO and LEO have been defined usually referred to

  19. Corporate governance and financial globalization

    OpenAIRE

    René M. Stulz

    2005-01-01

    At the global level, governance has been viewed primarily as intergovernmental relationships, but it must now be understood as also involving non-governmental organizations, citizen’s movements, multinational corporations, and the global capital market. Therefore it should be analyzed how corporate governance might affect global strategy and global organization, which in turn will shape the patterns of globalization. Also, it should be done a theoretical analysis regarding how each corporate ...

  20. Governing Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions w...

  1. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... offers new perspectives on data, concepts and production of political numbers. Based on an analysis of various approaches to estimation of the number of irregular migration and an outline of biometric visions in the European Union on data production, the paper concludes that the changes caused...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  2. Urban Governance of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Fischer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth, urbanization, and the growing challenges faced by the urban poor require redefining the paradigm for public health interventions in the 21st century, creating new approaches that take urban determinants of health into consideration. The widening disparity between the urban poor and the urban rich further exacerbates health inequities. Existing tools for global governance of urban health risks fall short, particularly in the lack of formal mechanisms to strengthen collaboration and communication among national and municipal agencies and between their local and international non-governmental partners. There is also a clear disconnect between governance strategies crafted at the international level and implementation on the ground. The challenge is to find common ground for global goods and municipal needs, and to craft innovative and dynamic policy solutions that can benefit some of the poorest citizens of the global urban network.

  3. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  4. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative...... relationships between technological uncertainty and market performance, (2) moderates the negative relationship between performance uncertainty and market performance, and (3) moderates the negative relationship between transaction specific assets and market performance. However, the moderating effect depends...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  5. Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now become quite obvious that the Internet has brought significant changes to our society and a break on how we lived before its emergence. It is still too early to assess the impact on society of the new services at our disposal, such as the capacity to communicate faster and cheaper on a global scale, access information and, perhaps more importantly, to produce and disseminate information in a way that is accessible to all.It is clear that the advent of the Information Society implies changes in our society that constitute a point of no return. However, contrary to what happened when we entered the Industrial Age about three centuries ago, when the changing process was slow and led by older individuals, these days the entrance into the Information Society is taking place rapidly and the decisive players are younger people. The global nature of the Internet, the possibility of producing and distributing any type of content in digital form at almost zero cost, as well as the vast number of people who use the web, have highlighted the need for new forms of intervention in a sector where there are many types of players. It is in this context that the problem of Internet Governance becomes a very current issue, inasmuch as one feels the need to guarantee a diversity of rights and duties, which may appear difficult to reconcile.This paper presents a brief overview of the main players and initiatives which, in the field of Internet Governance, have tried to contribute to turning this network into a factor for social development and democraticity on a global scale.

  6. Phase sensitive parametric interactions in a $Ga_{0.5}In_{0.5}P$ photonic crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Willinger, Amnon; De Rossi, Alfredo; Eisenstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    We report phase sensitive amplification in a 1.5mm long, $Ga_{0.5}In_{0.5}P$ dispersion engineered photonic crystal waveguide which has a flattened dispersion profile. A signal degenerate configuration with pulsed pumps whose total peak power is only 0.5W yields a phase sensitive extinction ratio of 10dB.

  7. Confirmation of 5p12 As a Susceptibility Locus for Progesterone-Receptor-Positive, Lower Grade Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Goode, Ellen L; García-Closas, Montserrat;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Associatio...

  8. Confirmation of 5p12 As a Susceptibility Locus for Progesterone-Receptor-Positive, Lower Grade Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Roger L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Garca-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J.; Severi, Gianluca; Hein, Rebecca; Fredericksen, Zachary; Malats, Nuria; Pilar Zamora, M.; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Benitez, Javier; Doerk, Thilo; Schuermann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Elliot, Graeme; Cross, Simon S.; Seal, Sheila; Turnbull, Clare; Renwick, Anthony; Rahman, Nazneen; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Alnaes, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Borrensen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Zalutsky, Iosif V.; Rogov, Yuri I.; Fasching, Peter A.; Bayer, Christian M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Mueller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Meindl, Alfons; Heil, Joerg; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Thomas, Gilles D.; Hoover, Robert N.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna J.; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pooley, Karen A.; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Hamann, Ute; Harth, Volker; Justenhoven, Christina; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Hooning, Maartje; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofieva, Darya; Farahtdinova, Albina; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer Association C

  9. Confirmation of 5p12 as a susceptibility locus for progesterone-receptor- positive, lower grade breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Milne (Roger); E.L. Goode (Ellen); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); F.J. Couch (Fergus); G. Severi (Gianluca); R. Hein (Rebecca); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); N. Malats (Núria); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); J. Benítez (Javier); T. Dörk (Thilo); P. Schürmann (Peter); J.H. Karstens (Johann); P. Hillemanns (Peter); A. Cox (Angela); I.W. Brock (Ian); K.S. Elliot (Katherine); S.S. Cross (Simon); S. Seal (Sheila); C. Turnbull (Clare); A. Renwick (Anthony); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); C.-S. Huang (Chiun-Sheng); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); C. Lanng (Charlotte); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A.-L. Børrensen-Dale (Anne-Lise); J.L. Hopper (John); G.S. Dite (Gillian); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Lambrechts (Diether); B.T. Yesilyurt (Betül); O.A.M. Floris; K. Leunen; S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); V. Gaborieau (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); M. Barile (Monica); G.G. Giles (Graham); L. Baglietto (Laura); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.E. Sherman (Mark); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); I.V. Zalutsky (Iosif); Y.I. Rogov (Yuri); P.A. Fasching (Peter); T. Bayer (T.); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); H. Brenner (Hermann); H. Müller (Heike); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J. Hartikainen (Jaana); A. Meindl (Alfons); J. Heil (Joerg); C.R. Bartram (Claus); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); G. Thomas (Gilles); R.N. Hoover (Robert); O. Fletcher (Olivia); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); J. Peto (Julian); S. Nickels (Stefan); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Robert); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); K.A. Pooley (Karen); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); D. Kang (Daehee); K-Y. Yoo (Keun-Young); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); S.-H. Ahn (Sei-Hyun); D. Hunter (David); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); P. Kraft (Peter); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); J. Beesley (Jonathan); U. Hamann (Ute); V. Harth (Volker); C. Justenhoven (Christina); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofieva (Darya); A. Farahtdinova (Albina); J.E. Olson (Janet); X. Wang (Xing); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 5p12-rs10941679 has been found to be associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We aimed to further explore this association overall, and by tumor histopathology, in the Breast Cancer A

  10. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections. PMID:27052555

  11. Quantitative Analyses of Force-Induced Amyloid Formation in Candida albicans Als5p: Activation by Standard Laboratory Procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho X J Chan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans adhesins have amyloid-forming sequences. In Als5p, these amyloid sequences cluster cell surface adhesins to create high avidity surface adhesion nanodomains. Such nanodomains form after force is applied to the cell surface by atomic force microscopy or laminar flow. Here we report centrifuging and resuspending S. cerevisiae cells expressing Als5p led to 1.7-fold increase in initial rate of adhesion to ligand coated beads. Furthermore, mechanical stress from vortex-mixing of Als5p cells or C. albicans cells also induced additional formation of amyloid nanodomains and consequent activation of adhesion. Vortex-mixing for 60 seconds increased the initial rate of adhesion 1.6-fold. The effects of vortex-mixing were replicated in heat-killed cells as well. Activation was accompanied by increases in thioflavin T cell surface fluorescence measured by flow cytometry or by confocal microscopy. There was no adhesion activation in cells expressing amyloid-impaired Als5pV326N or in cells incubated with inhibitory concentrations of anti-amyloid dyes. Together these results demonstrated the activation of cell surface amyloid nanodomains in yeast expressing Als adhesins, and further delineate the forces that can activate adhesion in vivo. Consequently there is quantitative support for the hypothesis that amyloid forming adhesins act as both force sensors and effectors.

  12. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

  13. Lipotoxic disruption of NHE1 interaction with PI(4,5)P2 expedites proximal tubule apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shenaz; Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Goel, Monu; Schilling, William P; Parker, Mark D; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Yadav, Satya P; Harris, Raymond C; El-Meanawy, Ashraf; Hoshi, Malcolm; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Deschênes, Isabelle; Ficker, Eckhard; Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease progression can be predicted based on the degree of tubular atrophy, which is the result of proximal tubule apoptosis. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulates proximal tubule cell survival through interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], but pathophysiologic triggers for NHE1 inactivation are unknown. Because glomerular injury permits proximal tubule luminal exposure and reabsorption of fatty acid/albumin complexes, we hypothesized that accumulation of amphipathic, long-chain acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) metabolites stimulates lipoapoptosis by competing with the structurally similar PI(4,5)P2 for NHE1 binding. Kidneys from mouse models of progressive, albuminuric kidney disease exhibited increased fatty acids, LC-CoAs, and caspase-2-dependent proximal tubule lipoapoptosis. LC-CoAs and the cytosolic domain of NHE1 directly interacted, with an affinity comparable to that of the PI(4,5)P2-NHE1 interaction, and competing LC-CoAs disrupted binding of the NHE1 cytosolic tail to PI(4,5)P2. Inhibition of LC-CoA catabolism reduced NHE1 activity and enhanced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of proximal tubule LC-CoA generation preserved NHE1 activity and protected against apoptosis. Our data indicate that albuminuria/lipiduria enhances lipotoxin delivery to the proximal tubule and accumulation of LC-CoAs contributes to tubular atrophy by severing the NHE1-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, thereby lowering the apoptotic threshold. Furthermore, these data suggest that NHE1 functions as a metabolic sensor for lipotoxicity.

  14. Synthetic Steroid Hormones Regulated Cell Proliferation Through MicroRNA-34a-5p in Human Ovarian Endometrioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Yi; Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Liang, Peir-In; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is the hormone-dependent product of endometrial tissue found outside the uterus. Recently, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) were shown to play a role in endometriotic lesion development. However, the mechanism of steroid hormones responsible for miRNA remains obscure. In the present study, we assayed for the effects of synthetic steroid hormones (danazol, progesterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA]) on miRNAs in endometriosis. We used a global miRNA expression profile microarray to evaluate miRNA expression in endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EN-MSCs) of ovarian endometrioma following treatment with 1 μM danazol, progesterone, or MPA. Furthermore, we selected candidate miRNAs whose expression changed more than fivefold and compared the effects of danazol, progesterone, and MPA treatments and also compared those results with controls in EN-MSCs. Among those with a fivefold change, we found 13 ectopically upregulated miRNAs in EN-MSCs. To understand the function of these 13 miRNAs, we subjected their sequences to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. According to both the etiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis, we found that miR-199a-5p and miR-34a-5p showed specific association with the disease, including molecular and cellular functions. Steroid hormone treatment elevated the levels of miR-199a-5p and miR-34a-5p. An inhibitor of miR-34a-5p also reduced the synthetic steroid hormones effects on cell proliferation. In vivo data revealed that miRNA levels in endometriotic lesions correlated with findings following in vitro synthetic hormone treatment. Our data show the effects of synthetic steroid hormones on miRNA regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the synthetic steroid hormones and suggest a potential mechanism for endometriosis treatment. PMID:26819477

  15. Shareholder Voting and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    David Yermack

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent research into corporate voting and elections. Regulatory reforms have given shareholders more voting power in the election of directors and in executive compensation issues. Shareholders use voting as a channel of communication with boards of directors, and protest voting can lead to significant changes in corporate governance and strategy. Some investors have embraced innovative empty voting strategies for decoupling voting rights from cash flow rights, enabling t...

  16. 基于5P4F的电子商务模式创新方法研究%5P4F-based Innovation Method of E-Commerce Business Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方孜; 王刊良

    2002-01-01

    互联网的发展为商务模式创新开辟了广阔空间和自由度,持续创新是电子商务模式与生俱来的本质.亚马逊等商务模式在美国专利与商标局获得专利极大地刺激了商务模式创新活动.本文提出了基于5P4F(5P指Product、Price、Place、Promotion和Potion;4F指business flow、information flow、capital flow和logistics flow)的电子商务模式的分析方法,提出了基于5P4F的企业电子商务模式创新方法.

  17. 韩国政府反腐倡廉策略及其对我国的启示%The Implementation of Anti-corruption Strategies by Korea's Government and the Significance to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许吉

    2012-01-01

    韩国曾经是一个腐败问题比较严重的国家之一。为打击腐败和发展经济,韩国走过了一条曲折的反腐败道路,并经过多年的努力正在逐步走向清廉的国家。综观其反腐历程,韩国政府所采取的行政伦理法制化策略、政府运作"阳光机制"策略、加大腐败成本策略、鼓励社会力量参与反腐败策略等,对有效遏制与消除公职人员和公共部门的腐败起到了十分重要的作用,确实有不少经验值得中国借鉴。%Korea has made great efforts to fight against corruption and develop its economy, and now a clean and honest government is being built. The successful implementation of anti-corruption strategies in- cluding the legalization of administrative ethics, the "sunshine mechanism" of government operation, the increase of corruption cost and the participation of nongovernmental sectors in anti-corruption plays impor- tant role in restraining and eliminating corruption by civil servants and public sectors. All this is beneficial to China to refer to in fighting against its corruption.

  18. Industrial Strategy:The Role of Government in Building Industrial Competitiveness Generative Capacity%产业战略:政府在构建产业竞争力生成能力中的作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧毅

    2014-01-01

    通过对发达国家在重点产业选择上的经验借鉴,指出中国的产业发展战略必须从以“有利于交换”为核心的制度观转向“有利于生产和创新”的制度观,从“低技术-低附加值-低工资”的产业发展观转变为“高技术-高附加值-高工资”的产业发展观。政府可以不管企业,但不能不管产业。政府可从间接打造产业环境方面入手,构建有利于ICGC提升的产业战略支持环境。%From the experience of the developed countries ’ choice of key industry , this paper points out:Chi-na’ s industrial development strategy must be changed from “the system facilitating the exchange” to “the system facilitating production and innovation”, and industrial development opinion should be changed from “low technolo-gy, low added value and low wage” to “high technology , high added value and high wage”.The government needn ’ t supervise enterprise , but it must supervise the industries .The government should start from indirect crea-ting the industry environment , building conducive industries strategic supporting environment to promote industrial competitiveness generative capacity ( ICGC) .

  19. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  20. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage. This volume brings together prominent voices on competence, governance...

  1. IT governance a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This new downloadable pocket guide in the Practical IT Governance series, is designed to provide the reader with a basic understanding of how an organization's Information Technology supports and enables the achievement of its strategies and objectives.

  2. Building Blocks of an E-Government: A Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Jatinder N. Gupta

    2003-01-01

    The movement toward electronic government (e-government) is rapidly advancing as nations exploit new electronic means of communication such as the Internet. The e-government transformation process can be and often is seriously hindered when initiatives are disjointed and uncoordinated by an overall strategy. Although many countries are creating e-government services, there is no documentation of an e-government framework to guide the process. Guidelines for implementation of e-government are ...

  3. miR-31 and miR-17-5p levels change during transformation of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary Ann; Edmonds, Mick D; Liang, Shan; McClintock-Treep, Sara; Wang, Xuan; Li, Shaoying; Eischen, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    The 30% of patients whose indolent follicular lymphoma transforms to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have poor survival. Reliable predictors of follicular B-cell lymphoma transformation to DLBCL are lacking, and diagnosis of those that will progress is challenging. MicroRNA, which regulates gene expression, has critical functions in the growth and progression of many cancers and contributes to the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Using 5 paired samples from patients who presented with follicular lymphoma and progressed to DLBCL, we identified specific microRNA differentially expressed between the two. Specifically, miR-17-5p levels were low in follicular lymphoma and increased as the disease transformed. In contrast, miR-31 expression was high in follicular lymphoma and decreased as the lymphoma progressed. These results were confirmed in additional unpaired cases of low-grade follicular lymphoma (n = 13) and high-grade follicular lymphoma grade 3 or DLBCL (n = 17). Loss of miR-31 expression in DLBCL was not due to deletion of the locus. Changes in miR-17-5p and miR-31 were not correlated with immunophenotype, genetics, or status of the MYC oncogene. However, increased miR-17-5p expression did significantly correlate with increased expression of p53 protein, which is indicative of mutant TP53. Two pro-proliferative genes, E2F2 and PI3KC2A, were identified as direct messenger RNA targets of miR-31, suggesting that these may contribute to follicular lymphoma transformation. Our results indicate that changes in miR-31 and miR-17-5p reflect the transformation of follicular lymphoma to an aggressive large B-cell lymphoma and may, along with their targets, be viable markers for this process.

  4. Kar5p Is Required for Multiple Functions in Both Inner and Outer Nuclear Envelope Fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jason V.; Rose, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    During mating in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse via two sequential membrane fusion steps. SNAREs (i.e., soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and Prm3p mediate outer nuclear membrane fusion, but the inner membrane fusogen remains unknown. Kar5p is a highly conserved transmembrane protein that localizes adjacent to the spindle pole body (SPB), mediates nuclear envelope fusion, and recruits Prm3p adjacent to the SPB. To sepa...

  5. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Observation of the 5p Rydberg states of sulfur difluoride radical by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qun; Li, Quanxin; Yu, Shuqin; Ma, Xingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur difluoride radicals in their ground state have been produced by a "laser-free" pulsed dc discharge of the SF$_{6}$/Ar gas mixtures in a supersonic molecular beam and detected by mass-selective resonance-enhanced multilphoton ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy in the wavelength range of 408 - 420 nm. Analyses of the (3 + 1) REMPI excitation spectrum have enabled identification of three hitherto unknown Rydberg states of this radical. Following the Rydberg state labeling in our previous work [see J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7233 (1998)], these we label the K(5p$_{1}$) [$nu_{0-0}$ = 71 837 cm$^{-1}$, $omega_{1}^{'}$(a$_{1}$ sym str) = 915 cm$^{-1}$], L(5p$_{2}$) [$nu_{0-0}$ = 72 134 cm$^{-1}$, $omega_{1}^{'}$(a$_{1}$ sym str) = 912 cm$^{-1}$], and M(5p$_{3}$) [$nu_{0-0}$ = 72 336 cm$^{-1}$, $omega_{1}^{'}$(a$_{1}$ sym str) = 926 cm$^{-1}$] Rydberg states, respectively. [Origins, relative to the lowest vibrational level of the X$^{1}$A$_{1}$ ground state, and vibrational frequencies of the symmetric S-F stretching ...

  7. Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana AtNAP57--a homologue of yeast pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceluch, J; Kmieciak, M; Szweykowska-Kulińska, Z; Jarmołowski, A

    2001-01-01

    Rat Nap57 and its yeast homologue Cbf5p are pseudouridine synthases involved in rRNA biogenesis, localized in the nucleolus. These proteins, together with H/ACA class of snoRNAs compose snoRNP particles, in which snoRNA guides the synthase to direct site-specific pseudouridylation of rRNA. In this paper we present an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that is highly homologous to Cbf5p (72% identity and 85% homology) and NAP57 (67% identity and 81% homology). Moreover, the plant protein has conserved structural motifs that are characteristic features of pseudouridine synthases of the TruB class. We have named the cloned and characterized protein AtNAP57 (Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of NAP57). AtNAP57 is a 565 amino-acid protein and its calculated molecular mass is 63 kDa. The protein is encoded by a single copy gene located on chromosome 3 of the A. thaliana genome. Interestingly, the AtNAP57 gene does not contain any introns. Mutations in the human DKC1 gene encoding dyskerin (human homologue of yeast Cbf5p and rat NAP57) cause dyskeratosis congenita a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and mucosal leukoplakia.

  8. Seroreactivity against Specific L5P Antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Children at Risk for T1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegowska, Magdalena; Rapini, Novella; Biet, Frank; Piccinini, Simona; Bay, Sylvie; Lidano, Roberta; Manca Bitti, Maria Luisa; Sechi, Leonardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Although numerous environmental agents have been investigated over the years as possible triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D), its causes remain unclear. We have already demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avuim subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) homologous to human zinc transporter 8 protein (ZnT8) and proinsulin in Italian subjects at risk for or affected by T1D. In this study, we compared titers of the previously detected antibodies with seroreactivity to MAP lipopentapetide (L5P) that recently emerged as a strong immunogenic component able to specifically distinguish MAP from other mycobacteria. Methods Plasma of 32 children and youth at risk for T1D including follow-up samples and 42 age-matched healthy controls (HC) recruited at the Tor Vergata University Hospital in Rome was analyzed by indirect ELISA for the presence of antibodies against MAP-derived epitopes MAP3865c133–141, MAP3865c125-133, MAP2404c70-85 and MAP1,4αgbp157-173 along with their ZnT8 and proinsulin homologs. The data were analyzed through two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test and relation between variables was determined by principal component analysis. Results Responses to L5P were not detectable in subjects whose initial seroreactivity to MAP peptides and their human homologs was lost in follow-up samples, whereas anti-L5P antibodies appeared constantly in individuals with a stable immunity against MAP antigens. The overall coincidence in positivity to L5P and the four MAP epitopes both in children at risk for T1D and HC exceeded 90%. Conclusions MAP-derived homologs may cross-react with ZnT8 and proinsulin peptides inducing immune responses at a young age in subjects predisposed for T1D. Thus, L5P may have a diagnostic value to immediately indicate the presence of anti-MAP seroreactivity when evaluation of a more complex antibody status is not required. Almost complete coincidence in responses to both types of antigens lends

  9. Seroreactivity against Specific L5P Antigen from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Children at Risk for T1D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Niegowska

    Full Text Available Although numerous environmental agents have been investigated over the years as possible triggers of type 1 diabetes (T1D, its causes remain unclear. We have already demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avuim subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP homologous to human zinc transporter 8 protein (ZnT8 and proinsulin in Italian subjects at risk for or affected by T1D. In this study, we compared titers of the previously detected antibodies with seroreactivity to MAP lipopentapetide (L5P that recently emerged as a strong immunogenic component able to specifically distinguish MAP from other mycobacteria.Plasma of 32 children and youth at risk for T1D including follow-up samples and 42 age-matched healthy controls (HC recruited at the Tor Vergata University Hospital in Rome was analyzed by indirect ELISA for the presence of antibodies against MAP-derived epitopes MAP3865c133-141, MAP3865c125-133, MAP2404c70-85 and MAP1,4αgbp157-173 along with their ZnT8 and proinsulin homologs. The data were analyzed through two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test and relation between variables was determined by principal component analysis.Responses to L5P were not detectable in subjects whose initial seroreactivity to MAP peptides and their human homologs was lost in follow-up samples, whereas anti-L5P antibodies appeared constantly in individuals with a stable immunity against MAP antigens. The overall coincidence in positivity to L5P and the four MAP epitopes both in children at risk for T1D and HC exceeded 90%.MAP-derived homologs may cross-react with ZnT8 and proinsulin peptides inducing immune responses at a young age in subjects predisposed for T1D. Thus, L5P may have a diagnostic value to immediately indicate the presence of anti-MAP seroreactivity when evaluation of a more complex antibody status is not required. Almost complete coincidence in responses to both types of antigens lends support to the involvement of MAP

  10. Promote the Construction of the Third Phase of Local Self-government--How our national intellectual property strategy from the"National Strategy"into the"base strategy"%我国国家知识产权战略如何从“全国战略”转入“据点战略”--推进第三阶段的地方自治建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国高技术产业发展促进会知识产权战略研究课题组

    2014-01-01

    Most of the knowledge economy scale of the United States are small, sparse scientiifc and technological innovation, intellectual property density is low. U.S. knowledge economy is mainly gathered in a few areas, in fact, the spontaneous implementation of the "base strategy." Similar to the United States, other large-scale knowledge-based economy, developing countries have good prospects for local self-government system generally adopted. In contrast, China's State Intellectual Property strategy is"national strategy."If you do not adjust the appropriate stage as a stronghold strategy, it may distort the economy.%美国大部分地区的知识经济规模很小,科技创新稀疏,知识产权密度很低;美国知识经济主要聚集在少数地区,实际上是自生自发地实施了“据点战略”。与美国类似,其它知识经济规模大,发展前景好的国家都普遍采取地方自治制度。相比之下,中国的国家知识产权战略是“全国战略”。如果不在适当阶段调整为据点战略,则可能扭曲国民经济。

  11. 基于空间格局的西安大都市主体功能区划管治策略%Zoning Governance Strategy of the Metropolitan Main Function of Xi’an Based on Spatial Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 王欣

    2014-01-01

    本文基于对西安大都市区的空间格局窘况,进一步审视主体功能区划作为协调各类空间规划和专项规划、提高资源利用效率的要义,立足于规划体制、资源环境承载力和城乡发展,提出西安大都市区主体功能区划的管治策略。%This paper based on the predicament of the spatial pat ern of Xi’an metropolitan area, further examines the es-sence of the main function division as the coordination of va-rious spatial planning and special planning, improvement the efficiency of resource use, based on the planning system, the bearing capacity of resources, environment and urban and rural development, puts forward the governance strategy of main function zoning of Xi'an metropolitan.

  12. 论G20机制化及中国在全球经济治理中的策略%Institutionalization of G20 and China's Strategy in Global Economic Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹亚宝; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    2008年金融危机以来,G20成为最重要的国际经济协商机制。本文对(320机制化的动因和制约因素加以分析,认为G20机制化的主要动因是金融危机后世界力量格局和经济结构的变迁。而由于G20受到内部和外部的双重制约,其机制化前景并不明朗,很难突破原有的G8模式。本文在此基础上提出中国在全球经济治理中的策略。%G20 has become the most important international economic consultation mechanism after the financial crisis in 2008. This article analyzes the motivations and constraints of the G20 institutionalization, and points out that the pivotal reason of its institutionalization is the change of the power pattern and the economic structure of the world after the financial crisis. Moreover, as the G20 is restricted by both the internal and external factors, its institutionalizing prospect is still uncertain. It may not be able to dismantle the basis of G8. With this consideration, the article offers some useful strategies for China in global economic governance.

  13. 政府会计改革:战略次序、框架设计与冲突协调%Government Accounting Reform: Strategy Sequence, Framework Design and Conflict Harmonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路军伟

    2011-01-01

    Government accounting reform is a long and gradual process, in order to push this reform process successfully; we should establish a gradual strategy sequence: from control-orientation, management-orientation to report-orientation, according to objective%政府会计改革是一个长期和渐进的过程,为顺利推进我国政府会计改革进程,应根据国际政府会计改革的客观规律、我国的现实环境以及现行预算会计的弊端,确立“控制取向→管理取向→报告取向”的渐进式政府会计改革的战略次序安排;以包含政府财务会计和政府预算会计在内的双轨制政府会计体系为执行这一战略次序安排的支撑框架;以技术协调为核心,以组织协调为突破,循序渐进地推进我国政府会计改革。

  14. 政府监管策略与供应链生产商绿色行为博弈研究%Researches on Strategy for Supervision of Government and Green Behavior of Manufacturer in Supply Chain based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金常飞

    2011-01-01

    应用博弈理论构建了供应链中政府与生产商的多策略博弈模型,求出博弈双方的混合策略最优解,使绿色供应链中政府与生产商之间达到共赢的结果.然后根据求解结果分析,分析政府监督成本以及非绿色行为的惩罚程度等因素对博弈均衡结果的影响,最后进一步阐明提高绿色供应链整体效益的基本思路和政策建议.%In order to seek the "win-win" situation between government and manufacturer in green supply chain, the game model of multi-strategy between government and suppliers is constructed. The optimal mixed-strategies of the government and suppliers under equilibrium conditions are seeked by using game theory. It is shown that the economic policy can be adjusted by the government according to the costs of government supervision and the penalties on non-green behaviors. Based on this,theoretical ideas for government are provided to improve the efficiency of the green supply chain.

  15. Dual Embeddedness of Governance and Strategy-Analysis Based on Interlocking Directorate Network%治理与战略的双重嵌入性——基于连锁董事网络的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方

    2011-01-01

    迄今为止,连锁董事网络效应方面的研究还存在着很大的分歧。本文打开连锁董事网络运作的“黑箱”,以可以消除分歧的嵌入性视角进行分析.认为连锁董事网络嵌入实质上体现了治理与战略的双重嵌入性,是以连锁董事网络为载体.通过连锁董事社会资本到企业社会资本的内化,以治理与战略的整合作用而产生效应的.并因嵌入惰性和嵌入寻租而存在过度嵌入陷阱。为了不囿于连锁董事研究,本文进行了扩展性分析.探讨企业社会关系的“差序格局”和嵌入层次,以及三层次嵌入下的关系治理与网络战略.在此基础上,认为可以将嵌入的本质收益和成本理解为社会资本和社会责任.而社会责任可分为保健型和激励型两类,分别起到维持和提升社会资本的作用.并针对连锁董事网络制度设计等问题提出了相关建议.%So far, there are differences on interlocking directorate network eiffel. This paper opened the black box of interlocking directorate network, taking the perspective of embeddedness, which can eliminate differences. Interlocking directorate network embeddedness embodies double embeddedness of corporate governanee and strategy in essence, and it takes network as carrier, having effect though social capital from individual to enterprise and integrated action of corporate governance and strategy. And it is constrained within the moderate embeddedness. In order not to be limited to interlocking directorate study, extended analysis was taken in this paper, discussing the enterprise's Chaxu pattern of social relationship, embeddedness levels and corporate relational governance and network strategy under three-level embeddedness. On this basis, this paper considered social capital and social responsibility as benefit and cost of embeddedness, social responsibility can be divided into motivation and hygiene, which taking

  16. Governance Structure, Product Diversification, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.C.J. van Oijen; G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProduct diversification and its financial outcomes have been studied exhaustively. However, previous literature has focused on corporations, ignoring other important legal organizations or governance structures. In this paper, we study the diversification strategies of cooperatives and c

  17. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RELATIONSHIP WITH STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Issam MF SALTAJI

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights on corporate governance relation through collecting and analyzing different secondary resources such as websites, lectures, published articles and books and primary resources about performance of leading companies implement new strategic models and adopt governance principles. The financial crisis has asked responsible institutions to review all the topics under discussion in this paper through adding more responsibilities on corporate governance and adopting new strategi...

  18. Government Response Strategy to Network Public Opinion Based on Multi-game%基于多方博弈的政府回应网络舆情策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周飞; 郭韧

    2015-01-01

    Cyberspace has become a public space for Internet users to express themselves, but it is different from the general type of public places in that where the communication is more instant, convenient with high speed, the participants in the communication can express themselves more freely and more people are involved in the communication groups, which has a significant impact on the overall pattern of Internet public opinion in China. With the social public opinion space expanded, participant characteristics of public opinion have changed. Based on game theory, in response to the situation that each participant expresses himself and chooses his own set of policies and makes strategic choices according to the objective of maximizing his own interests, a network of multilateral game is then set up, which in-volves government, netizens and internet media, and replicator dynamics equation analysis is used to select the participation strategy of each participant;each participant’ s choice is then evaluated. Finally, according the results of game theory analysis, some useful advices on appropriate government responses to network public opinion are given.%网络空间已成为网民自我表达的公共空间,它不同于一般的公共场所,具有言论传播更加及时便捷、言论更加自由、言论发表群体更加的庞大等特点,对我国的舆情格局产生了重大的影响,网络舆情有效的回应是政府公信力和网络和谐环境建立的基础。基于博弈论的研究方法,面对网络舆情各参与人有各自的策略选择集,根据最大化自身利益的目的针对网络舆情做出策略选择,建立起一个网民、政府、网媒多方参与的网络博弈场,用动态复制方程分析多个参与主体的策略选择,对政府的决策提出建议。最后根据博弈分析结果,提出了政府回应网络舆情的相关策略。

  19. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  20. MicroRNA-155-5p is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis and poor prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Osamu; Hasegawa, Shogo; Nagai, Hiroki; Uchida, Fumihiko; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Kanno, Naomi I.; Yamagata, Kenji; Sakai, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Toru; BUKAWA, HIROKI

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAbnormal miRNA expression was recently implicated in the metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and with a poor prognosis. The initiation of the invasion-metastasis cascade involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our aim was to clarify how miRNA, especially miR-155-5p misexpression contributes to OSCC metastasis through EMT.MethodsWe collected tumor samples from 73 subjects with OSCC. The samples were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase cha...

  1. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  2. Confirmation of 5p12 As a Susceptibility Locus for Progesterone-Receptor-Positive, Lower Grade Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Goode, Ellen L; García-Closas, Montserrat;

    2011-01-01

    Consortium. METHODS: Data were combined from 37 studies, including 40,972 invasive cases, 1,398 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 46,334 controls, all of white European ancestry, as well as 3,007 invasive cases and 2,337 controls of Asian ancestry. Associations overall and by tumor invasiveness......, and 3/4, respectively; P(trend) = 5 × 10(-7)]. CONCLUSION: 5p12 is a breast cancer susceptibility locus for PR-positive, lower grade breast cancer. Impact: Multicenter fine-mapping studies of this region are needed as a first step to identifying the causal variant or variants. Cancer Epidemiol...

  3. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this fram

  4. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain. PMID:24560259

  5. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  6. Between Democracy and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The work of Gerry Stoker and Colin Hay considers the alliance between neoliberalism and public choice theory to be the motor of anti-politics and depoliticization in contemporary Western societies. Their effects have been to hollow out strong statecraft and hard state capacity, as well as the thick...... collective capacities for representation, participation and deliberation crucial to keeping democratic government responsive, effective and accountable to the common will. On this view, all new forms of connective action are ipso facto rejected as the spawn of neoliberalism: They appear as individualistic...... and preventing the much needed repoliticizations that can bring the old, strong combination of hard state power and thickly integrated citizenship back in. I do not think this type of politicization strategy will work. There are good reasons why it has fizzled out over time. New forms of political participation...

  7. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  8. 基于政府补贴分析的新能源战略博弈模型研究%Research on New Energy Strategy Game Model based on Government Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡伟琨; 贾磊丽; 张聪

    2012-01-01

    In the new energy strategy,if we don't choose the development of new energy strategy,the cost savings ε1 the higher,the lower the marginal cost of C1,and the differences in price of new energy products and traditional products are bigger.With the increase of consumer satisfaction for the environment-care are willing to pay the value of "K",with the result,both the two products,prices will increase.In other words,with increasing consumer awareness of environmental protection,environmental satisfaction,willingness to pay will increase.Such a result is not only good for manufacturers who use the new energy,but good for manufacturers who not use the new energy.Government to increase the market the lowest green degree of access standards,the low green degree of traditional products and new energy product prices will increase.And it affect the market share of market.%企业在新能源战略中如果不发展新能源战略带来的成本节约率ε1越高,其边际成本C1越低,新能源产品和传统产品的价格差异越大。随着消费者对每个环境满意度愿意支付的K值的增加,两个厂商的产品价格都会增加,也就是说,随着消费者环保意识的增加,环境满意度支付意愿也会增加,这样的结果不仅仅是生产新能源的厂商2受益,厂商1也会受益;政府提高市场最低绿色程度准入标准,低绿色程度的传统产品和新能源产品的价格都会增加。政府设定的市场最低绿色准入标准会对两个厂商的市场份额有影响。

  9. Functional link between Rab GTPase-mediated membrane trafficking and PI4,5P2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuifang; Kita, Ayako; Hashimoto, Yuuka; Ihara, Misako; Kato, Ayaka; Ogura, Naoya; Doi, Akira; Oku, Masahide; Itoh, Toshiki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Sugiura, Reiko

    2014-03-01

    Fission yeast its3(+) encodes an essential phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5K) that regulates cell integrity and cytokinesis. We performed a genetic screen to identify genes that function in PI4P5K-mediated signaling, and identified gyp10(+) encoding a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP), a negative regulator for Rab GTPase signaling. Its3 overproduction caused growth defects and abnormal cytoplasmic accumulation of the Its3 protein, which can be stained by calcofluor. Notably, Its3 overproducing cells displayed abnormal membranous structures, multilamella Golgi and fragmented vacuoles showed by Electron microscopy. Furthermore, the excess cytoplasmic Its3 structure partly colocalized with the fluorescence of FM4-64. Gyp10 rescued both growth defects and abnormal Its3 localization when it was over-expressed. Gyp10 functionally interacted with the Rab GTPases Ypt3 and Ryh1, both of which regulate Golgi membrane trafficking. Consistently, mutation or deletion of Ypt3 and Ryh1 suppressed phenotypes associated with Its3 overproduction. Importantly, the plasma membrane localization of Its3 was also affected by the impairment of the Ypt3/Ryh1 Rab membrane trafficking, thus suggesting that membrane trafficking events regulated by two Rab GTPases functionally interacts with PI4,5P2 signaling. These results suggest a mechanism whereby PI4P5K signaling/localization is affected by Golgi membrane trafficking, thus provide a functional link between the PI4,5P2 signaling and Rab-mediated trafficking. PMID:24350606

  10. 美国联邦及州政府的课程管理:特点、策略及启示%The Characteristics, Strategy and Enlightenment of Curriculum Management of the U. S. Federal and State Governments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳玉乐; 李志超

    2012-01-01

    美国联邦及州政府课程管理具有注意加强课程政策条文的连续性,保证配套财政资助与教学改进的协调性,以及注重满足课程利益相关者的利益需求等特点。美国联邦及州政府课程管理政策重点在于形成具体明确的政策条文,加强高标准的学术性课程设置,构建“适当年度进步”的绩效问责框架等方面。鉴于此,我国当前课程管理应注意加强以下几点:以课程政策向法制化轨道迈进为前提条件,以课程参与者的思想共识为主要途径,以社会力量的监督反馈为保障。%Curriculum management of U. S. federal and state governments is characterized by their emphasis on the continuity of curriculum policies, by its integration which ensures the coordination of financial support and teaching improvement, and by its efforts in satisfying the needs and interests of the stakeholders. The focus of America's curriculum management strategy is to formulate specific policies, to strengthen high-level academic curriculum, and to build "Adequate Yearly Progress" performance accountability framework, etc. In view of the above, the scientific and rational curriculum management of curriculum reform in China should be premised on formulating a legal system of curriculum policy, reaching a consensus among the curriculum participants, and should be safeguarded by the supervision and feedback from the public.

  11. ER-Golgi Transport Defects Are Associated with Mutations in the Sed5p-binding Domain of the COPII Coat Subunit, Sec24p

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Yiting; Barlowe, Charles; Schekman, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Selective cargo capture into ER-derived vesicles is driven by the Sec24p subunit of the COPII coat, which contains at least three independent cargo-binding sites. One of these, the “A-site,” interacts with a NPF motif found on the SNARE, Sed5p. We have characterized the Sec24p-Sed5p interaction through mutation of the putative ER export motifs of Sed5p and the cargo-binding A-site of Sec24p. Mutational analysis of Sed5p suggests that the NPF motif is the dominant ER export signal. Mutation of...

  12. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Heijden

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  13. Cross-Cultural Analysiis of European e-Government Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut, Arslan

    2009-01-01

    In terms of adoption, the topic of e-government has focused on the supply side (or government-related issues) such as strategies and policy, challenges, technical issues, evaluation of the usability of e-government Websites; however, less attention has been given to the demand (or citizen’s) perspective. Recent studies of the citizen adoption of e-government services suggest that trust, security, and transparency are the major issues for e-government adoption. The aim of this study ...

  14. Government cloud computing and the policies of data sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Irion, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Government cloud services are a new development at the intersection of electronic government and cloud computing which holds the promise of rendering government service delivery more effective and efficient. Cloud services are virtual, dynamic and potentially stateless which has triggered governments' concern about data sovereignty. This paper explores data sovereignty in relation to government cloud services and how national strategies and international policy evolve. It concludes that for c...

  15. miR-590-5p regulates gastric cancer cell growth and chemosensitivity through RECK and the AKT/ERK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Yu, Shaorong; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xiaoyou; Zhong, Jian; Feng, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the role of miRNA-590-5p in gastric cancer (GC) progression. Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure endogenous miR-590-5p levels in GC cells and tissues. Overexpression or knockdown of miR-590-5p in GC cells was performed by transfection with mimics or an inhibitor, respectively. MTT, matrigel transwell, and Western blot assays were used to assess the effects of miR-590-5p on cell proliferation, invasion, chemosensitivity of GC cells, and the AKT pathway, respectively. In silico prediction and luciferase reporter activity were used to identify potential targets of miR-590-5p. A xenograft model was also established to evaluate the function of miR-590-5p in vivo. Results The expression of miR-590-5p was significantly increased in GC cells and tissues, and upregulated miR-590-5p was associated with increased tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and poor survival. Overexpression of miR-590-5p promoted cell proliferation and invasion and reduced the sensitivity of GC cells to cisplatin and paclitaxel. In contrast, inhibition of miR-590-5p had the opposite effects on GC cells. RECK was identified as a direct target of miR-590-5p. Knockdown of RECK accelerated cell proliferation and motility and decreased the drug sensitivity. Furthermore, reintroduction of RECK inhibited the oncogenic effects of miR-590-5p by suppressing cell proliferation and invasion and increasing drug sensitivity. We found that the AKT/ERK and STAT3 signaling pathways were activated by miR-590-5p overexpression. The chemoresistance of miR-590-5p was also verified by in vivo analysis. Conclusion In summary, we suggest that the miR-590-5p/RECK/AKT axis contributes to GC and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for treatment. PMID:27757042

  16. MiR-361-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription-6(STAT6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dachuang [Department of Urology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Department of Urology, Xuzhou Central Hospital Affiliated with Southeast University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221009 (China); Surgery Central Laboratory of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Tao, Tao; Xu, Bin; Chen, Shuqiu; Liu, Chunhui [Department of Urology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Surgery Central Laboratory of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Zhang, Lei; Lu, Kai [Department of Urology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Huang, Yeqing; Jiang, Liang [Department of Urology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Surgery Central Laboratory of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Zhang, Xiaowen [Department of Urology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Huang, Xiaoming [Surgery Central Laboratory of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Zhang, Lihua [Department of Pathology, Zhongda Hospital Affiliated with Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Han, Conghui [Department of Urology, Xuzhou Central Hospital Affiliated with Southeast University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province 221009 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: mingchenseu@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China); Surgery Central Laboratory of Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • The role of miR-361-5p in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been evaluated until date. • We found that the expression of miR-361-5p in CRPC was lower than in ADPC. • MiR-361-5p suppressed DU145 cell proliferation and triggered apoptosis. • STAT6 is a direct target of miR-361-5p. • STAT6 enhances the expression of Bcl-xL at the transcriptional level. - Abstract: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), whose pathogenesis is known to be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), has a poor prognosis. In our present study, we found that the expression of miR-361-5p in CRPC was lower than in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC), indicating that miR-361-5p may play an important role in the progression of ADPC to CRPC. The role of miR-361-5p in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been evaluated until date. Our findings suggest that miR-361-5p is a suppressor in CRPC. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6), a direct target of miR-361-5p, enhances the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), while miR-361-5p inhibits its expression through STAT6. Therefore, miR-361-5p has great clinical significance in preventing the malignant progression of PCa.

  17. MiR-361-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription-6(STAT6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The role of miR-361-5p in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been evaluated until date. • We found that the expression of miR-361-5p in CRPC was lower than in ADPC. • MiR-361-5p suppressed DU145 cell proliferation and triggered apoptosis. • STAT6 is a direct target of miR-361-5p. • STAT6 enhances the expression of Bcl-xL at the transcriptional level. - Abstract: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), whose pathogenesis is known to be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), has a poor prognosis. In our present study, we found that the expression of miR-361-5p in CRPC was lower than in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC), indicating that miR-361-5p may play an important role in the progression of ADPC to CRPC. The role of miR-361-5p in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been evaluated until date. Our findings suggest that miR-361-5p is a suppressor in CRPC. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6), a direct target of miR-361-5p, enhances the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), while miR-361-5p inhibits its expression through STAT6. Therefore, miR-361-5p has great clinical significance in preventing the malignant progression of PCa

  18. Arranged marriage in lipid signalling? The limited choices of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in finding the right partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, M; Heilmann, I

    2013-09-01

    Inositol-containing phospholipids (phosphoinositides, PIs) control numerous cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. For plants, a key involvement of PIs has been demonstrated in the regulation of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and in processes mediating the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) mediates its cellular functions via binding to various alternative target proteins. Such downstream targets of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) are characterised by the possession of specific lipid-binding domains, and binding of the PtdIns(4,5)P(2) ligand exerts effects on their activity or localisation. The large number of potential alternative binding partners - and associated cellular processes - raises the question how alternative or even contrapuntal effects of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) are orchestrated to enable cellular function. This article aims to provide an overview of recent insights and new views on how distinct functional pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) are generated and maintained. The emerging picture suggests that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) species containing different fatty acids influence the lateral mobility of the lipids in the membrane, possibly enabling specific interactions of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) pools with certain downstream targets. PtdIns(4,5)P(2) pools with certain functions might also be defined by protein-protein interactions of PI4P 5-kinases, which pass PtdIns(4,5)P(2) only to certain downstream partners. Individually or in combination, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) species and specific protein-protein interactions of PI4P 5-kinases might contribute to the channelling of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) signals towards specific functional effects. The dynamic nature of PI-dependent signalling complexes with specific functions is an added challenge for future studies of plant PI signalling.

  19. The Politics of Governance Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Radaelli, Claudio M.

    2011-01-01

    Governance architectures are strategic and long-term institutional arrangements of international organizations exhibiting three features; namely, they address strategic and long-term problems in a holistic manner, they set substantive output-oriented goals, and they are implemented through...... not being identified as an object of study on its own right. We define the Lisbon Strategy as a case of governance architecture, raising questions about its creation, evolution and impact at the national level. We tackle these questions by drawing on institutional theories about emergence and change...... of institutional arrangements and on the multiple streams model. We formulate a set of propositions and hypotheses to make sense of the creation, evolution and national impact of the Lisbon Strategy. We argue that institutional ambiguity is used strategically by coalitions at the EU and national level in (re...

  20. New directions in hospital governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes. PMID:10303235

  1. New directions in hospital governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes.

  2. miRNA 206 and miRNA 574-5p are highly expression in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianqing; Shao, Guofeng; Chen, Xiaoliang; Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Ping; Ba, Yanna; Zhang, Lin; Jehangir, Tashina; Bu, Shizhong; Liu, Ningsheng; Lian, Jiangfang

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Innovative diagnostic biomarkers are a pressing need for this disease. miRNAs profiling is an innovative method of identifying biomarkers for many diseases and could be proven as a powerful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD. We performed miRNA microarray analysis from the plasma of three CAD patients and three healthy controls. Subsequently, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of miRNA expression in plasma of another 67 CAD patients and 67 healthy controls. We identified two miRNAs (miR-206 and miR-574-5p) that were significantly up-regulated in CAD patients as compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated these two miRNAs had great potential to provide sensitive and specific diagnostic value for CAD. PMID:26685009

  3. JR-spectra and structure of MoO3-V2O5-P2O5 system glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification range is ascertained, IR absorption spectra are studied and the main structural characteristics of anion net in glasses of the system MoO3-V2O5-P2O5 are determined. The reference of the absorption bands in the spectra to the vibrations of P-O, V-O, No-O bonds and P-O-P, V-O-V, Mo-O-Mo bridges is made. It is shown that disordered net of the glasses consists of phosphate, vanadate and molybdate chains bound by P-O-V and P-O-Mo bridges, which are respectively built of POO3/2, VOO3/2 tetrahedrons and MoO2O4/2 octahedrons. According to concentrational dependence of the spectra the character of the change in structural-chemical composition of the glasses depending on the component concentration is clarified

  4. Association between 5p12 genomic markers and breast cancer susceptibility: evidence from 19 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between polymorphisms on 5p12 and breast cancer (BC has been widely evaluated since it was first identified through genome-wide association approach; however, the studies have yielded contradictory results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on two wildly studied polymorphisms (rs10941679 and rs4415084 on 5p12. METHODS: Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to assess the strength of association. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles involving 100,083 cases and 163,894 controls were included. An overall random-effects per-allele OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06-1.12; P = 4.5 × 10(-8 and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05-1.12; P = 4.2 × 10(-7 was found for the rs10941679 and rs4415084 polymorphism respectively. Significant results were found in Asians and Caucasians when stratified by ethnicity; whereas no significant associations were found among Africans/African-Americans. Similar results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In addition, we find both rs4415084 and rs10941679 conferred significantly greater risks of ER-positive breast cancer than of ER-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that rs10941679-G allele and rs4415084-T allele might be risk-conferring factors for the development of breast cancer, especially in Caucasians and East-Asians.

  5. ER-Golgi transport defects are associated with mutations in the Sed5p-binding domain of the COPII coat subunit, Sec24p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Liu, Yiting; Barlowe, Charles; Schekman, Randy

    2005-08-01

    Selective cargo capture into ER-derived vesicles is driven by the Sec24p subunit of the COPII coat, which contains at least three independent cargo-binding sites. One of these, the "A-site," interacts with a NPF motif found on the SNARE, Sed5p. We have characterized the Sec24p-Sed5p interaction through mutation of the putative ER export motifs of Sed5p and the cargo-binding A-site of Sec24p. Mutational analysis of Sed5p suggests that the NPF motif is the dominant ER export signal. Mutation of the NPF binding pocket on Sec24p led to a dramatic reduction in the capture of Sed5p into COPII vesicles, whereas packaging of other ER-Golgi SNAREs was normal. Of all the cargoes tested, only Sed5p was depleted in vesicles made with Sec24p A-site mutants. Surprisingly, vesicles generated with the mutant Sec24p were unable to fuse with the Golgi apparatus. This inability to fuse was not the result of the lack of Sed5p, because vesicles specifically depleted of Sed5p generated by antibody inhibition targeted and fused normally. We propose that the A-site of Sec24p is a multipurpose cargo-binding site that must recognize additional unidentified cargo proteins, at least one of which is essential at a late stage of vesicle fusion. PMID:15930124

  6. Audit Methodology for IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the new IT technologies was followed up by a rapid integration of them at the organization level. The management of the organizations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organization. These changes have had a great impact on the governance of the IT component. The paper proposes an audit methodology of the IT Governance at the organization level. From this point of view the developed audit strategy is a strategy based on risks to enable IT auditor to study from the best angle efficiency and effectiveness of the IT Governance structure. The evaluation of the risks associated with IT Governance is a key process in planning the audit mission which will allow the identification of the segments with increased risks. With now ambition for completeness, the proposed methodology provides the auditor a useful tool in the accomplishment of his mission.

  7. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2015-11-03

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  8. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Duran, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory) perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome. PMID:26673647

  9. Metropolitan Governance Reforms: The Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Snyder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seoul is transforming into a global city that is competitive with many of the most notable cities in the world such as Tokyo, New York, and London. Seoul’s metropolitan governance structure is uniquely suited to the Korean peninsula and has been able to be dynamic in order to adapt to political changes the country has experienced. This article examines the initiatives behind metropolitan governance reforms in Seoul and the factors that play an important role in influencing the current governance structure. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG is set on improving the lives of citizens and ensuring they are happy with their city through transparency, accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of government among other things. This region has become a strong contributor to the economic growth of the county and helped to create opportunities to attract and retain businesses, implement innovative investment projects and develop a talented workforce. Amongst other reasons, Seoul’s solid fiscal system has allowed the city to build the necessary organizational capacity for SMG as well. Additionally, Seoul citizens enjoy a good quality of life because of the educational options, employment opportunities, housing spaces, leisure activities, and cultural experiences found in the city. There are still some challenges ahead but Seoul realizes the importance of civic participation for capacity building and sustainability. One of Seoul’s strategies to promoting sustainable living within the city is its ability to engage the public. By promoting citizen participation and feedback, Seoul feels that it will gain new perceptivities during the policy decision-making process. The city’s current governance methods continue to succeed because the leaders at SMG understand what is essential to executing successful governance reform: citizens.

  10. Metropolitan Governance Reforms: The Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Snyder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seoul is transforming into a global city that is competitive with many of the most notable cities in the world such as Tokyo, New York, and London. Seoul's metropolitan governance structure is uniquely suited to the Korean peninsula and has been able to be dynamic in order to adapt to political changes the country has experienced. This article examines the initiatives behind metropolitan governance reforms in Seoul and the factors that play an important role in influencing the current governance structure. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG is set on improving the lives of citizens and ensuring they are happy with their city through transparency, accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of government among other things. This region has become a strong contributor to the economic growth of the county and helped to create opportunities to attract and retain businesses, implement innovative investment projects and develop a talented workforce. Amongst other reasons, Seoul's solid fiscal system has allowed the city to build the necessary organizational capacity for SMG as well. Additionally, Seoul citizens enjoy a good quality of life because of the educational options, employment opportunities, housing spaces, leisure activities, and cultural experiences found in the city. There are still some challenges ahead but Seoul realizes the importance of civic participation for capacity building and sustainability. One of Seoul's strategies to promoting sustainable living within the city is its ability to engage the public. By promoting citizen participation and feedback, Seoul feels that it will gain new perceptivities during the policy decision-making process. The city's current governance methods continue to succeed because the leaders at SMG understand what is essential to executing successful governance reform: citizens.

  11. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Saltman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  12. A Screen Identifies the Oncogenic Micro-RNA miR-378a-5p as a Negative Regulator of Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooistra, Susanne Marije; Rudkjær, Lise Christine; Lees, Michael James;

    2014-01-01

    fibroblasts. This screen led to the identification of miR-378a-5p and in addition several other miRNAs that have previously been shown to play a role in senescence. We show that ectopic expression of miR-378a-5p reduces the expression of several senescence markers, including p16INK4A and senescence......-associated β-galactosidase. Moreover, cells with ectopic expression of miR-378a-5p retain proliferative capacity even in the presence of an activated Braf oncogene. Finally, we identified several miR-378a-5p targets in diploid fibroblasts that might explain the mechanism by which the microRNA can delay OIS. We...... speculate that miR-378a-5p might positively influence tumor formation by delaying OIS, which is consistent with a known pro-oncogenic function of this microRNA....

  13. MicroRNA-17-5p promotes gastric cancer proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting early growth response 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Huasi; Huang, Jingjing; Yan, Xizhong; Zhang, Yunfei; Gao, Yongshun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) has previously been reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, it functions differently regarding different kinds of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) still lacks investigation. In this study, we detected the relationship between miR-17-5p and the development of GC by qRT-PCR, and it turned out that the level of miR-17-5p was significantly higher in GC patients than that in normal controls, and the aberrant expression of miR-17-5p was correlated with lymph node metastasis. After that, we examined the effect of miR-17-5p taking on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of GC cells and the underlying mechanism. Experiments indicated that knockdown of miR-17-5p inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration, while promoting apoptosis of SGC7901 cells. Early Growth Response 2 (EGR2) protein or mRNA levels were downregulated or upregulated after overexpression or knockdown of miR-17-5p, respectively. By using dual luciferase assay and Western blot, we identified EGR2 as a functional target of miR-17-5p. As far as we know, this could be the first study to demonstrate that miR-17-5p is associated with tumor stage of GC and that it could possibly become a new therapeutic method for the treatment of GC.

  14. Down-regulation of miR-20a-5p triggers cell apoptosis to facilitate mycobacterial clearance through targeting JNK2 in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Liu, Xi; Wang, Wenfei; Cai, Yi; Li, Shaoyuan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Mingfeng; Zhang, Mingxia; Zeng, Gucheng; Zhou, Boping; Feng, Carl G; Chen, Xinchun

    2016-09-16

    Induction of cell apoptosis is one of the major host defense mechanisms through which macrophages control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, the mechanisms underlying macrophage apoptosis triggered by Mtb infection are still largely unknown. In this study, a microarray profiling survey revealed 14 miRNAs were down-regulated in CD14+ monocytes from active pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and only the reduction of miR-20a-5p could be reversed after successful anti-tuberculosis treatment. Validation of miR-20a-5p expression was confirmed using real time qPCR. Moreover, miR-20a-5p expression also decreased in differentiated THP-1 macrophages after mycobacterial infection in vitro. Functional assays through forced or inhibited expression of miR-20a-5p in THP-1 macrophages demonstrated that miR-20a-5p functioned as a negative regulator of mycobacterial-triggered apoptosis. Importantly, inhibition of miR-20a-5p expression resulted in more efficient mycobacterial clearance from infected THP-1 macrophages while miR-20a-5p overexpression promoted mycobacterial survival. Mechanistically, miR-20a-5p was demonstrated to regulate Bim expression in a JNK2-dependent manner, unlike Bcl2, and luciferase assay showed JNK2 was a novel direct target of miR-20a-5p. Together, our findings indicate that downregulation of miR-20a-5p triggers macrophage apoptosis as a novel mechanism for host defense against mycobacterial infection. PMID:27494776

  15. 5P Marketing Strategy on Sodium Diacetate Used as Feed Additive%饲料添加剂双乙酸钠的5P营销策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢清若; 郑立文; 李克林; 凌新龙

    2011-01-01

    基于产品(product)、价格(price)、地点(place)和推广(promotion)等市场营销4P策略的内容,结合双乙酸钠的特征、应用和市场现状,整合融入营销平台(platform),即从4P策略过渡到5P策略,并对双乙酸钠市场营销的5P策略实施进行了分析与探讨.

  16. Institutional Impacts of the Local Government Reform Program on Good Local Governance in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface E.S. Mgonja; Charles Tundui

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the early 1990s, Tanzania’s government has embarked upon ambitious and far-reaching reform programs to improve the socioeconomic condition of the country. Among them was the development of anti-corruption strategies and the local government reform program. Overall, these reform programs were expected to improve good governance through reformed and autonomous local institutions. As such, this paper provides a detailed analysis of two reform initiatives, namely, anti-corruption strat...

  17. MicroRNA-379-5p inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting FAK/AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Song; Li, Hua-Shu; Huang, Jiong-Qiang; Dong, Shi-Hao; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Yi, Wei; Zhan, Gao-Fang; Feng, Ju-Tao; Sun, Jian-Cong; Huang, Xiao-Hui

    2016-05-28

    Some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, the roles and mechanisms of several miRNAs in HCC remain poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-379-5p, which is down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, is associated with advanced TNM stage and metastasis in HCC. The ectopic overexpression of miR-379-5p inhibited HCC cell migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, miR-379 knockdown increased migration, invasion and EMT in HCC cells. Moreover, miR-379-5p exerted this function by directly targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) 3'-UTR and repressing FAK expression, thus leading to suppression of AKT signaling. Furthermore, the tumor suppressive effects of miR-379-5p in HCC cells were reversed by activating AKT signaling or restoring FAK expression. In clinical samples of HCC, miR-379-5p negatively correlated with FAK, which was up-regulated in HCC. Taken together, our findings highlight the important role of miR-379-5p in regulating the EMT and metastasis of HCC by targeting FAK/AKT signaling, suggesting that miR-379-5p may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for HCC. PMID:26944318

  18. Long noncoding RNA H19 contributes to gallbladder cancer cell proliferation by modulated miR-194-5p targeting AKT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Cai; Zhang, Ming-Di; Weng, Ming-Zhe; Zhou, Di; Quan, Zhi-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly malignant cancer with poor prognosis. Although long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been reported to play vital role in many human cancers, whether it is involved in GBC proliferation is still unknown. This study was designed to explore the effect of H19 in GBC cell proliferation. The expression of H19 and AKT2 were significantly elevated in GBC tissues, and the level of miR-194-5p is markedly decreased. Moreover, the RNA levels of H19 and AKT2 were positively correlated, and H19 elevation was significantly associated with tumor size. Cell proliferation decreased significantly after knockdown of H19 in GBC-SD and NOZ cells and after knockdown of AKT2 in NOZ cells. Results from cell cycle studies indicated that the S phase were significantly decreased after knockdown of H19 in NOZ cells but significantly elevated after overexpression of H19 in GBC-SD cells. Furthermore, knockdown of H19 upregulated miR-194-5p levels, yet significantly decreased miR-194-5p targeting AKT2 gene expression in NOZ cells. Inhibitor against miR-194-5p reversed these effects. In addition, overexpression of H19 in GBC-SD cells downregulated miR-194-5p and markedly increased AKT2 expression, and miR-194-5p mimic reversed these effects. Eventually, GBC cells were arrested in G0/G1-phase after H19 knockdown, inhibition of miR-194-5p markedly promoted cells into S-phase and co-transfection of siH19, and miR-194-5p inhibitor exerted mutually counter-regulated effects on cell cycle. These results suggested that H19/miR-194-5p/AKT2 axis regulatory network might modulate cell proliferation in GBC. PMID:26803515

  19. Clinical significance of miR-140-5p and miR-193b expression in patients with breast cancer and relationship to IGFBP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Güllü

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The functional role of IGFBP5 in breast cancer is complicated. Experimental and bioinformatics studies have shown that IGFBP5 is targeted by miR-140-5p and miR-193b, although this has not yet been proven in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of miR-140-5p and miR-193b in breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue and assess its correlation with IGFBP5 and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. IGFBP5 protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically and IGFBP5, miR-140 and miR-193b mRNA expression levels were analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. Tumor tissue had higher miR-140-5p expression than adjacent normal tissue (p = 0.015. Samples with no immunohistochemical staining for IGFBP5 showed increased miR-140-5p expression (p = 0.009. miR-140-5p expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinomas (p = 0.002, whereas basal-like tumors had decreased expression of miR-140-5p compared to other tumors (p = 0.008. Lymph node-positive samples showed an approximately 13-fold increase in miR-140-5p expression compared to lymph node-negative tissue (p = 0.049. These findings suggest that miR-140-5p, but not miR-193b, could be an important determinant of IGFBP5 expression and clinical phenotype in breast cancer patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the expressional regulation of IGFBP5 by miR-140-5p.

  20. The Role of Governance in Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, J. F.; Stoelhorst, W. J

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the corporate social performance (CSP) model by studying the role of governance structures and governance systems in shaping corporate social responsibility. The authors argue that a governance perspective offers a fruitful research strategy both to study empirically how firms b

  1. The 5s25p 2P-5s5p24P intercombination lines in the In I isoelectronic sequence from Sb III to La IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5s25p2P-5s5p24P intercombination lines in indium-like ions have been identified from Sb III to La IX. For Sb III and Te IV previously reported values are confirmed and for I V, the 5s5p24P3/2 level has been revised while all other 5s5p24P levels for all spectra have been reported for the first time. Thirty-three lines are classified, of which 20 are new. (author)

  2. Plasma Levels of hsa-miR-619-5p and hsa-miR-1184 Differ in Prostatic Benign Hyperplasia and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, E N; Fomicheva, K A; Mikhailenko, D S; Nyushko, K M; Samatov, T R; Alekseev, B Ya; Shkurnikov, M Yu

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral blood plasma profiles of circulating microRNA expression were analyzed in patients with prostatic cancer and benign hyperplasia. In prostatic cancer, significant increase in hsa-miR-619-5p and hsa-miR-1184 microRNA expression and significant decrease in hsalet-7b-5p and hsa-let-7c-5p microRNA expression were observed. The role of the relationship between the microRNA expression and the activities and functions of host genes with introns encoding these microRNA is discussed. PMID:27265125

  3. Role of MiR-3619-5p in β-Catenin-Mediated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Growth and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecai Niu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is largely due to its fast growth and invasion. WNT/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in regulating NSCLC carcinogenesis. Hence, suppression of β-catenin signal transduction in NSCLC cells may improve the therapeutic outcome. Methods: We analyzed the levels of β-catenin and miR-3619-5p in NSCLC specimens, compared to paired non-tumor normal lung tissue (NT. We did Bioinformatics analyses on the binding sites of 3'-UTR of β-catenin mRNA by miR-3619-5p. We modified the levels of miR-3619-5p in NSCLC cells and examined their effects on β-catenin levels, and on the growth and invasion of NSCLC cells in an MTT assay and a transwell cell migration assay, respectively. Results: NSCLC specimens had significant higher levels of β-catenin, and significantly lower levels of miR-3619-5p, compared to NT. The levels of β-catenin and miR-3619-5p were inversely correlated in NSCLC specimens. Bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-3619-5p bound to 3'-UTR of β-catenin mRNA in NSCLC cells to inhibit its translation. Overexpression of miR-3619-5p decreased β-catenin protein, while depletion of miR-3619-5p increased β-catenin protein in NSCLC cells, without altering β-catenin mRNA levels. Overexpression of miR-3619-5p in NSCLC cells inhibited cell growth and invasion, while depletion of miR-3619-5p in NSCLC lines increased cell growth and invasion. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for miR-3619-5p in suppression of β-catenin-mediated cancer growth and invasion in NSCLC cells, and highlight miR-3619-5p as a novel cancer suppressor in NSCLC.

  4. Bradykinin and nerve growth factor release the capsaicin receptor from PtdIns(4,5)P2-mediated inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, H H; Prescott, E D; Kong, H; Shields, S; Jordt, S E; Basbaum, A I; Chao, M V; Julius, D

    2001-06-21

    Tissue injury generates endogenous factors that heighten our sense of pain by increasing the response of sensory nerve endings to noxious stimuli. Bradykinin and nerve growth factor (NGF) are two such pro-algesic agents that activate G-protein-coupled (BK2) and tyrosine kinase (TrkA) receptors, respectively, to stimulate phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways in primary afferent neurons. How these actions produce sensitization to physical or chemical stimuli has not been elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we show that bradykinin- or NGF-mediated potentiation of thermal sensitivity in vivo requires expression of VR1, a heat-activated ion channel on sensory neurons. Diminution of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) levels through antibody sequestration or PLC-mediated hydrolysis mimics the potentiating effects of bradykinin or NGF at the cellular level. Moreover, recruitment of PLC-gamma to TrkA is essential for NGF-mediated potentiation of channel activity, and biochemical studies suggest that VR1 associates with this complex. These studies delineate a biochemical mechanism through which bradykinin and NGF produce hypersensitivity and might explain how the activation of PLC signalling systems regulates other members of the TRP channel family. PMID:11418861

  5. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... to promote international competitiveness of domestic businesses. Both sets of explanations see governments as driving CSR policies to meet particular national government goals. Support is found for the thesis that CSR policies are often related to international competitiveness, yet our findings suggest...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  6. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  7. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  8. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  9. Master spreadsheet for visual censusing corals by maximum diameter size class at Site Number ROS-5P on 2/20/2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site ROS-5P at Rose Atoll on 2/20/2002.

  10. cMyc/miR-125b-5p signalling determines sensitivity to bortezomib in preclinical model of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfè, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta; Willumsgaard, Ayalah;

    2013-01-01

    improve their clinical efficacy. Using cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) as a model of the chemotherapy-resistant peripheral lymphoid malignancy, we demonstrated that resistance to proteasome inhibition involved a signaling between the oncogene cMyc and miR-125b-5p. Bortezomib repressed cMyc...... and simultaneously induced miR-125b-5p that exerted a cytoprotective effect through the downmodulation of MAD4. Overexpression of cMyc repressed miR-125b-5p transcription and sensitized lymphoma cells to bortezomib. The central role of miR-125b-5p was further confirmed in a mouse model of T-cell lymphoma, where...

  11. Corporate governance quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bocean, Claudiu George

    2008-01-01

    Corporate governance quality in most countries has overall improved, although to varying degrees and with a few notable exceptions. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance quality issues. In emerging countries the impact of improvements in corpo...

  12. Privacy and Open Government

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-01-01

    The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to bala...

  13. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA; Monica-Violeta ACHIM

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at re...

  14. Practice of good governance and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Bălăceanu Cristina; Tutor Predonu Andreea – Monica

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...

  15. Specific residues of the GDP/GTP exchange factor Bud5p are involved in establishment of the cell type-specific budding pattern in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Pil Jung; Lee, Bongyong; Park, Hay-Oak

    2004-07-01

    Cells of the budding yeast undergo oriented cell division by choosing a specific site for growth depending on their cell type. Haploid a and alpha cells bud in an axial pattern whereas diploid a/alpha cells bud in a bipolar pattern. The Ras-like GTPase Rsr1p/Bud1p, its GDP-GTP exchange factor Bud5p, and its GTPase-activating protein Bud2p are essential for selecting the proper site for polarized growth in all cell types. Here we showed that specific residues at the N terminus and the C terminus of Bud5p were important for bipolar budding, while some residues were involved in both axial and bipolar budding. These bipolar-specific mutations of BUD5 disrupted proper localization of Bud5p in diploid a/alpha cells without affecting Bud5p localization in haploid alpha cells. In contrast, Bud5p expressed in the bud5 mutants defective in both budding patterns failed to localize in all cell types. Thus, these results identify specific residues of Bud5p that are likely to be involved in direct interaction with spatial landmarks, which recruit Bud5p to the proper bud site. Finally, we found a new start codon of BUD5, which extends the open reading frame to 210 bp upstream of the previously estimated start site, thus encoding a polypeptide of 608 amino acid residues. Bud5p with these additional N-terminal residues interacted with Bud8p, a potential bipolar landmark, suggesting that the N-terminal region is necessary for recognition of the spatial cues. PMID:15136576

  16. Cisplatin-induced downregulation of miR-199a-5p increases drug resistance by activating autophagy in HCC cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning; Zhang, Jianjun; Shen, Conghuan; Luo, Yi; Xia, Lei; Xue, Feng [Department of Transplantation and Hepatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127, People' s Republic of China (China); Xia, Qiang, E-mail: xiaqiang1@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Transplantation and Hepatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-199a-5p levels were significantly decreased after cisplatin treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cisplatin treatment induced autophagy activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cisplatin-induced downregulation of miR-199a-5p increases drug resistance by activating autophagy in HCC cell. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with advanced liver cancer. However, chemoresistance to cisplatin is a major limitation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the clinic, and the underlying mechanism of such resistance is not fully understood. In the study, we found that miR-199a-5p levels were significantly reduced in HCC patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Cisplatin treatment also resulted in decreased miR-199a-5p levels in human HCC cell lines. Forced expression of miR-199a-5p promoted cisplatin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. Cisplatin treatment activated autophagy in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, which increased cell proliferation. We further demonstrated that downregulated miR-199a-5p enhanced autophagy activation by targeting autophagy-associated gene 7 (ATG7). More important, autophagy inhibition abrogated miR-199a-5p downregulation-induced cell proliferation. These data demonstrated that miR-199a-5p/autophagy signaling represents a novel pathway regulating chemoresistance, thus offering a new target for chemotherapy of HCC.

  17. HTR1A a novel type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene on chromosome 5p13-q13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Asad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage study in Scandinavian Type 1 diabetes (T1D families. In the Swedish families, we detected suggestive linkage (LOD≤2.2 to the chromosome 5p13-q13 region. The aim of our study was to investigate the linked region in search for possible T1D susceptibility genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microsatellites were genotyped in the Scandinavian families to fine-map the previously linked region. Further, SNPs were genotyped in Swedish and Danish families as well as Swedish sporadic cases. In the Swedish families we detected genome-wide significant linkage to the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A gene (LOD 3.98, p<9.8×10(-6. Markers tagging two separate genes; the ring finger protein 180 (RNF180 and HTR1A showed association to T1D in the Swedish and Danish families (p<0.002, p<0.001 respectively. The association was not confirmed in sporadic cases. Conditional analysis indicates that the primary association was to HTR1A. Quantitative PCR show that transcripts of both HTR1A and RNF180 are present in human islets of Langerhans. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the presence of the 5-HTR1A protein in isolated human islets of Langerhans as well as in sections of human pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified and confirmed the association of both HTR1A and RFN180, two genes in high linkage disequilibrium (LD to T1D in two separate family materials. As both HTR1A and RFN180 were expressed at the mRNA level and HTR1A as protein in human islets of Langerhans, we suggest that HTR1A may affect T1D susceptibility by modulating the initial autoimmune attack or either islet regeneration, insulin release, or both.

  18. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  19. Foundations of Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Volonté, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the foundations of corporate governance. The discussion includes a review on the modern corporation, transaction costs theory, agency costs theory, legal investor protection, investor protection by corporate governance and its various mechanisms, as well as an overview of the determinants of corporate governance.

  20. Jordan Corporate Governance Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Institute of Directors

    2013-01-01

    As the importance of Corporate Governance increases, an awareness and understanding of the different relevant regulations becomes of paramount value. The importance and value of Corporate Governance is not the core of this publication. The publication is built around the premise that Corporate Governance is important and increasingly becoming of significant importance for growth, continued...

  1. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... serve the Federal Government's needs and to manage the risk associated with the goods and services being... misuse, or otherwise not well designed to serve the needs of the Federal Government or the interests of... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also...

  2. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and inco

  3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN THE CURRENT CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia VASILE; Ion CROITORU

    2013-01-01

    Corporate governance is a set of functional processes and structures established by the leadership of the organization in order to inform, direct and monitor lead activities in order to achieve predetermined objectives. Efficient and effective corporate governance involves goals, long-term strategic plans, policies and implementation of the strategy, but also a proper leadership which sets the appropriate issue appropriate decisions to achieve the objectives and ensure the functioning of the ...

  4. MicroRNA-674-5p/5-LO axis involved in autoimmune reaction of Concanavalin A-induced acute mouse liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kunkai; Wang, Qi; Qi, Luoyang; Hua, Dasong; Tao, Jingjing; Mangan, Connor J; Lou, Yijia; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized, in part, by the pathways involving cysteinyl-leukotriene metabolites of arachidonic acid, the dynamics of which remain unclear. Here, we explored post-transcriptional regulation in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway of arachidonic acid in a Concanavalin A (Con A) induced mouse model. We found that Con A administration lead to 5-LO overexpression and cysteinyl-leukotriene release in early hepatic injury, which was attenuated by cyclosporin A pretreatment. Subsequent microarray and qRT-PCR analysis further showed that microRNA-674-5p (miR-674-5p) displayed a significant decrease in expression in Con A-damaged liver. Noting that miR-674-5p harbors a potential binding region for 5-LO, we further transfected hepatic cell lines with overexpressing miR-674-5p mimic and discovered a negative regulating effect of miR-674-5p on 5-LO expression in the presence of IL-6 or TNF-α. These findings suggest that miR-674-5p might be a negative regulator in 5-LO mediated autoimmune liver injury, representing a compelling avenue towards future therapeutic interventions. PMID:27313091

  5. Inactivation of oncogenic cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4D by miR-139-5p in response to p53 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Wang, Kebing; Liao, Jun-Ming; Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Peng; Zeng, Shelya X; He, Meifang; Chen, Lianzhou; He, Yulong; Li, Wen; Lu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of microRNAs in mediating p53’s tumor suppression functions. Here, we report miR-139-5p as another new p53 microRNA target. p53 induced the transcription of miR-139-5p, which in turn suppressed the protein levels of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), an oncogenic protein involved in multiple tumor promoting processes. Knockdown of p53 reversed these effects. Also, overexpression of miR-139-5p decreased PDE4D levels and increased cellular cAMP levels, leading to BIM-mediated cell growth arrest. Furthermore, our analysis of human colorectal tumor specimens revealed significant inverse correlation between the expression of miR-139-5p and that of PDE4D. Finally, overexpression of miR-139-5p suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors, accompanied by decrease in PDE4D and increase in BIM. These results demonstrate that p53 inactivates oncogenic PDE4D by inducing the expression of miR-139-5p. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15978.001 PMID:27383270

  6. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Expression of MMD is increased in lung cancer tissues. • Knockdown of MMD inhibits growth of A549 and LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. • MMD is a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. • MiR-140-5p/MMD axis regulates Erk1/2 signaling. - Abstract: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) is identified in macrophages as a gene associated with the differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. Recent microarray analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that MMD is an important signature associated with relapse and survival among patients with NSCLC. Therefore, we speculate that MMD likely plays a role in lung cancer. In this study, we found that the protein level of MMD was increased in lung cancer compared to benign lung tissues, and knockdown of MMD inhibited the growth of A549 and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Integrated analysis demonstrated that MMD was a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-140-5p/MMD axis could affect the cell proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating Erk signaling. Together, our results highlight the significance of miR-140-5p/MMD axis in lung cancer, and miR-140-5p/MMD axis could serve as new molecular targets for the therapy against lung cancer

  7. Inactivation of oncogenic cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4D by miR-139-5p in response to p53 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bo; Wang, Kebing; Liao, Jun-Ming; Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Peng; Zeng, Shelya X; He, Meifang; Chen, Lianzhou; He, Yulong; Li, Wen; Lu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of microRNAs in mediating p53's tumor suppression functions. Here, we report miR-139-5p as another new p53 microRNA target. p53 induced the transcription of miR-139-5p, which in turn suppressed the protein levels of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), an oncogenic protein involved in multiple tumor promoting processes. Knockdown of p53 reversed these effects. Also, overexpression of miR-139-5p decreased PDE4D levels and increased cellular cAMP levels, leading to BIM-mediated cell growth arrest. Furthermore, our analysis of human colorectal tumor specimens revealed significant inverse correlation between the expression of miR-139-5p and that of PDE4D. Finally, overexpression of miR-139-5p suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors, accompanied by decrease in PDE4D and increase in BIM. These results demonstrate that p53 inactivates oncogenic PDE4D by inducing the expression of miR-139-5p. PMID:27383270

  8. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weina, E-mail: liweina228@163.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); He, Fei, E-mail: hesili1027@163.com [Department of Hepatic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Expression of MMD is increased in lung cancer tissues. • Knockdown of MMD inhibits growth of A549 and LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. • MMD is a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. • MiR-140-5p/MMD axis regulates Erk1/2 signaling. - Abstract: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) is identified in macrophages as a gene associated with the differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. Recent microarray analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that MMD is an important signature associated with relapse and survival among patients with NSCLC. Therefore, we speculate that MMD likely plays a role in lung cancer. In this study, we found that the protein level of MMD was increased in lung cancer compared to benign lung tissues, and knockdown of MMD inhibited the growth of A549 and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Integrated analysis demonstrated that MMD was a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-140-5p/MMD axis could affect the cell proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating Erk signaling. Together, our results highlight the significance of miR-140-5p/MMD axis in lung cancer, and miR-140-5p/MMD axis could serve as new molecular targets for the therapy against lung cancer.

  9. Regulation of UHRF1 by dual-strand tumor-suppressor microRNA-145 (miR-145-5p and miR-145-3p): inhibition of bladder cancer cell aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryosuke; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Enokida, Hideki; Goto, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Yonemori, Masaya; Inoguchi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Seki, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    In microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, the guide-strand of miRNA integrates into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), whereas the passenger-strand is inactivated through degradation. Analysis of our miRNA expression signature of bladder cancer (BC) by deep-sequencing revealed that microRNA (miR)-145-5p (guide-strand) and miR-145-3p (passenger-strand) were significantly downregulated in BC tissues. It is well known that miR-145-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer. However, the impact of miR-145-3p on cancer cells is still ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-145-3p and BC oncogenic pathways and targets regulated by miR-145-5p/miR-145-3p. Ectopic expression of either miR-145-5p or miR-145-3p in BC cells significantly suppressed cancer cell growth, migration and invasion and it also induced apoptosis. The gene encoding ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) was a direct target of these miRNAs. Silencing of UHRF1 induced apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in BC cells. In addition, overexpressed UHRF1 was confirmed in BC clinical specimens, and the high UHRF1 expression group showed a significantly poorer cause specific survival rate in comparison with the low expression group. Taken together, our present data demonstrated that both strands of miR-145 (miR-145-5p: guide-strand and miR-145-3p: passenger-strand) play pivotal roles in BC cells by regulating UHRF1. The identification of the molecular target of a tumor suppressive miRNAs provides novel insights into the potential mechanisms of BC oncogenesis and suggests novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27072587

  10. Institutional Impacts of the Local Government Reform Program on Good Local Governance in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface E.S. Mgonja

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the early 1990s, Tanzania’s government has embarked upon ambitious and far-reaching reform programs to improve the socioeconomic condition of the country. Among them was the development of anti-corruption strategies and the local government reform program. Overall, these reform programs were expected to improve good governance through reformed and autonomous local institutions. As such, this paper provides a detailed analysis of two reform initiatives, namely, anti-corruption strategies and LGRP based on their main policy goals as well as impacts on the overall institutional performance of local institutions in Tanzania. Drawing upon review of some empirical studies, the paper discusses what is seen as major structural concerns in the workings of these reforms in their entirety. This paper builds on the proposition that, unless someone addresses “institutional shortfalls” within the greater system of governance, any policy or reform initiative aimed at improving good governance will ultimately fail to deliver.

  11. Filling the Gap between IT Governance and IT Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Jette

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore coordination mechanisms as part of a solution to fill the gap between IT Governance and IT project management. The Gap between IT governance and IT project management has not been fully explored in IT management research. Both in theory and in practice...... there is a gap between IT governance and IT project management. Theory on IT governance assumes that strategies are implemented through projects - but do not go into detail on how to do it. Theories on project management do not include interaction with governance processes. A gap between IT governance...

  12. miR-106a-5p inhibits the proliferation and migration of astrocytoma cells and promotes apoptosis by targeting FASTK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Astrocytomas are common malignant intracranial tumors that comprise the majority of adult primary central nervous system tumors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs (20-24 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression by negatively regulating the stability or translational efficiency of their target mRNAs. In our previous studies, we found that the downregulation of miR-106a-5p in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. However, its specific gene target(s and underlying functional mechanism(s in astrocytomas remain unclear. In this study, we used mRNA microarray experiments to measure global mRNA expression in the presence of increased or decreased miR-106a-5p levels. We then performed bioinformatics analysis based on multiple target prediction algorithms to obtain candidate target genes that were further validated by computational predictions, western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and the luciferase reporter assay. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK was identified as a direct target of miR-106a-5p. In human astrocytomas, miR-106a-5p is downregulated and negatively associated with clinical staging, whereas FASTK is upregulated and positively associated with advanced clinical stages, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the reduced expression of miR-106a-5p or the increased expression of FASTK is significantly associated with poor survival outcome. These results further supported the finding that FASTK is a direct target gene of miR-106a-5p. Next, we explored the function of miR-106a-5p and FASTK during astrocytoma progression. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-106a-5p can significantly inhibit cell proliferation and migration and can promote cell apoptosis in vitro. The knockdown of FASTK induced similar effects on astrocytoma cells as those induced by the overexpression of miR-106a-5p. These

  13. The oncogenic MicroRNA Hsa-miR-155-5p targets the transcription factor ELK3 and links it to the hypoxia response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Douglas Robertson

    Full Text Available The molecular response to hypoxia is a critical cellular process implicated in cancer, and a target for drug development. The activity of the major player, HIF1α, is regulated at different levels by various factors, including the transcription factor ELK3. The molecular mechanisms of this intimate connection remain largely unknown. Whilst investigating global ELK3-chromatin interactions, we uncovered an unexpected connection that involves the microRNA hsa-miR-155-5p, a hypoxia-inducible oncomir that targets HIF1α. One of the ELK3 chromatin binding sites, detected by Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation Sequencing (ChIP-seq of normal Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC, is located at the transcription start site of the MIR155HG genes that expresses hsa-miR-155-5p. We confirmed that ELK3 binds to this promoter by ChIP and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR. We showed that ELK3 and hsa-miR-155-5p form a double-negative regulatory loop, in that ELK3 depletion induced hsa-miR-155-5p expression and hsa-miR-155-5p expression decreased ELK3 expression at the RNA level through a conserved target sequence in its 3'-UTR. We further showed that the activities of hsa-miR-155-5p and ELK3 are functionally linked. Pathway analysis indicates that both factors are implicated in related processes, including cancer and angiogenesis. Hsa-miR-155-5p expression and ELK3 depletion have similar effects on expression of known ELK3 target genes, and on in-vitro angiogenesis and wound closure. Bioinformatic analysis of cancer RNA-seq data shows that hsa-miR-155-5p and ELK3 expression are significantly anti-correlated, as would be expected from hsa-miR-155-5p targeting ELK3 RNA. Finally, hypoxia (0% oxygen down-regulates ELK3 mRNA in a microRNA and hsa-miR-155-5p dependent manner. These results tie ELK3 into the hypoxia response pathway through an oncogenic microRNA and into a circuit implicated in the dynamics of the hypoxic response. This crosstalk could

  14. The oncogenic MicroRNA Hsa-miR-155-5p targets the transcription factor ELK3 and links it to the hypoxia response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, E Douglas; Wasylyk, Christine; Ye, Tao; Jung, Alain C; Wasylyk, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    The molecular response to hypoxia is a critical cellular process implicated in cancer, and a target for drug development. The activity of the major player, HIF1α, is regulated at different levels by various factors, including the transcription factor ELK3. The molecular mechanisms of this intimate connection remain largely unknown. Whilst investigating global ELK3-chromatin interactions, we uncovered an unexpected connection that involves the microRNA hsa-miR-155-5p, a hypoxia-inducible oncomir that targets HIF1α. One of the ELK3 chromatin binding sites, detected by Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation Sequencing (ChIP-seq) of normal Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC), is located at the transcription start site of the MIR155HG genes that expresses hsa-miR-155-5p. We confirmed that ELK3 binds to this promoter by ChIP and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). We showed that ELK3 and hsa-miR-155-5p form a double-negative regulatory loop, in that ELK3 depletion induced hsa-miR-155-5p expression and hsa-miR-155-5p expression decreased ELK3 expression at the RNA level through a conserved target sequence in its 3'-UTR. We further showed that the activities of hsa-miR-155-5p and ELK3 are functionally linked. Pathway analysis indicates that both factors are implicated in related processes, including cancer and angiogenesis. Hsa-miR-155-5p expression and ELK3 depletion have similar effects on expression of known ELK3 target genes, and on in-vitro angiogenesis and wound closure. Bioinformatic analysis of cancer RNA-seq data shows that hsa-miR-155-5p and ELK3 expression are significantly anti-correlated, as would be expected from hsa-miR-155-5p targeting ELK3 RNA. Finally, hypoxia (0% oxygen) down-regulates ELK3 mRNA in a microRNA and hsa-miR-155-5p dependent manner. These results tie ELK3 into the hypoxia response pathway through an oncogenic microRNA and into a circuit implicated in the dynamics of the hypoxic response. This crosstalk could be important for

  15. 大数据时代的政府回应--变革、挑战与应对%Government responses in the age of big data:Reform, challenge and strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨戴萍; 古小华; 欧阳彬

    2015-01-01

    Big data thinking and application has been penetrating into public management, bringing not only reforms of government responses but also new challenges for government and society. To improve government re-sponses, it is of necessity to build an innovative response mechanism that will make responses more initiative, di-versified and multi-channeled, by integrating big data thought into the concept, approach and decision-making of government responses, establishing the strategic status of big data, building data culture and regulating data use.%大数据思维和应用已经渗透到政府治理范畴中,为政府回应带来了多方面的变革,使得政府和社会面临诸多新的挑战。必须把大数据思维融入政府回应的理念向度、工作方式和决策思路中,确立大数据的战略地位,营造数据文化,规范数据使用,创新政府回应机制,加强政府回应的主动性,拓展政府回应的渠道,真正提升政府回应能力。

  16. Government responses in the age of big data:Reform, challenge and strategy%大数据时代的政府回应--变革、挑战与应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨戴萍; 古小华; 欧阳彬

    2015-01-01

    Big data thinking and application has been penetrating into public management, bringing not only reforms of government responses but also new challenges for government and society. To improve government re-sponses, it is of necessity to build an innovative response mechanism that will make responses more initiative, di-versified and multi-channeled, by integrating big data thought into the concept, approach and decision-making of government responses, establishing the strategic status of big data, building data culture and regulating data use.%大数据思维和应用已经渗透到政府治理范畴中,为政府回应带来了多方面的变革,使得政府和社会面临诸多新的挑战。必须把大数据思维融入政府回应的理念向度、工作方式和决策思路中,确立大数据的战略地位,营造数据文化,规范数据使用,创新政府回应机制,加强政府回应的主动性,拓展政府回应的渠道,真正提升政府回应能力。

  17. 审计问责视角下国家治理方略实现的路径选择%The Selection of Realization Paths of National Governance Strategy from the Perspective of Audit Accountability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑芳; 曹政

    2012-01-01

    Governing based on determined responsibility in accordance with laws is the fundamental way to realize the target of national management in China.In an authoritarian society,national governance should be changed from limiting the power of government to clarify the responsibility of government.Being regarded as an important tool to realize sound management,audit accountability leads diversified subjects participating in accountability and helps in constructing government responsibility system,simultaneously,making a clear division of responsibilities in different governance levels.Audit accountability clearly clarifies the audit and audited relationship as a derivative contract of national governance.The successful performance of this contractual relationship needs to bring the instrumental rationality of audit accountability into play,expend and deepen it from three aspects: the breadth,depth and strength so as to achieving the path selection from "treating disease" to "preventing disease".%依法定责而治是中国国家治理目标实现的根本途径。在权力型社会中,国家治理应从限制政府权力转为明确政府责任。审计问责作为实现良治的重要工具,引导多元主体参与问责,构建政府责任体系并对不同层级提出明确的责任划分,将审计与被审计关系明确为国家治理的派生性契约。这一契约关系的顺利履行需要发挥审计问责的工具理性,并从广度、强度和力度三方面进行拓展及深化,从而实现从"治已病"走向"治未病"的路径。

  18. Downregulation of miR-151-5p contributes to increased susceptibility to arrhythmogenesis during myocardial infarction with estrogen deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. But merely estrogen supplementary treatment can induce many severe complications such as breast cancer. The present study was designed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of arrhythmogenesis during myocardial infarction with estrogen deprivation, which provides us a new target to cure cardiac disease accompanied with estrogen deprivation. We successfully established a rat model of myocardial ischemia (MI accompanied with estrogen deprivation by coronary artery ligation and ovariectomy (OVX. Vulnerability and mortality of ventricular arrhythmias increased in estrogen deficiency rats compared to non estrogen deficiency rats when suffered MI, which was associated with down-regulation of microRNA-151-5p (miR-151-5p. Luciferase Reporter Assay demonstrated that miR-151-5p can bind to the 3'-UTR of FXYD1 (coding gene of phospholemman, PLM and inhibit its expression. We found that the expression of PLM was increased in (OVX+MI group compared with MI group. More changes such as down-regulation of Kir2.1/IK1, calcium overload had emerged in (OVX+MI group compared to MI group merely. Transfection of miR-151-5p into primary cultured myocytes decreased PLM levels and [Ca(2+]i, however, increased Kir2.1 levels. These effects were abolished by the antisense oligonucleotides against miR-151-5p. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent experiments confirmed the co-localization between Kir2.1 and PLM in rat ventricular tissue. We conclude that the increased ventricular arrhythmias vulnerability in response to acute myocardial ischemia in rat is critically dependent upon down-regulation of miR-151-5p. These findings support the proposal that miR-151-5p could be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of ischemic arrhythmias in the subjects with estrogen deficiency.

  19. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  20. "Mobile USPTO Strategy"Tracking--Is US Federal Government in the Transition to the Mobile Internet ?%“移动USPTO战略”跟踪*--美国联邦政府在向移动互联网转型吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国高技术产业发展促进会知识产权战略研究课题组

    2015-01-01

    Now is big transition period of the American society for the"mobile Internet". There are a lot of development changes in their respective ifelds.The new laws,new policies and new plans which released by the federal government can be described as"numberless as the sand".But the federal government to the reform of mobile Internet transformation on the development of the information industry has a positive role in promoting.We should pay great importance on the Internet strategy of the United States.We should be clear to"iflter"out of the"landmark"document which may affect the process of United States , providing mirroring for the industrial development of China.

  1. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; HungKuang Univ., Taichung (China). Dept. of Biotechnology; Lin, K.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Chiou, J.F. [Taipei Medical Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hospice and Palliative Center; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Cancer Center; Jeng, S.C. [Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hemato-Ongology; Lin, W.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Thoracic Surgery; Wu, L.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Lee, H.L. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Chen, R.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital and National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  2. Increased Expression of mir-34a-5p and Clinical Association in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients and in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting-ying; Lou, Ji-yu

    2016-01-01

    Background MiRNA is widely recognized as the most important regulator in various diseases. However, there has been little research regarding miRNA expression and its involvement in ischemic stroke. Material/Methods In this study, we investigated the pattern of miRNA-34a-5p expression along with its clinical application in human ischemic stroke and in an in vivo rat model. We recruited 102 cerebral ischemia patients and 97 health controls for this study. Clinical data were gathered and recorded with the help of questionnaires. Blood samples were obtained from patients within 72 h after cerebral ischemia. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and infarct volume were used to analyze the correlation of miRNA-34a-5p expression and clinical information. In addition, blood samples and brain tissues were collected from an established middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model consisting of 20 adult male mice at 24 h after the MCAO. Expression level of miRNA-34a-5p was detected by real-time polymerase chain reactions. Results Results showed overexpression of miRNA-34a-5p in acute ischemic stroke patients blood samples compared to the controls (p<0.05). Also, large and small arterial strokes types demonstrated elevated miRNA-34a-5p expression levels. Further correlation analysis revealed a negative association between miRNA-34a-5p and NIHSS scores (r=−0.692 p<0.05) and infarct volume (r=−0.719, p<0.05). Moreover, in vivo experiment results showed significant up-regulated expression of miRNA-34a-5p in middle cerebral artery occlusion compared to controls, along with a positive correlation between miRNA-34a-5p in blood and brain (r=0.742, p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest there is a potential regulatory role of miRNA-34a-5p in acute ischemic stroke, which could serve as a therapeutic target or biomarker in stroke prognosis. PMID:27545688

  3. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  4. A screen identifies the oncogenic micro-RNA miR-378a-5p as a negative regulator of oncogene-induced senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Marije Kooistra

    Full Text Available Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS can occur in response to hyperactive oncogenic signals and is believed to be a fail-safe mechanism protecting against tumorigenesis. To identify new factors involved in OIS, we performed a screen for microRNAs that can overcome or inhibit OIS in human diploid fibroblasts. This screen led to the identification of miR-378a-5p and in addition several other miRNAs that have previously been shown to play a role in senescence. We show that ectopic expression of miR-378a-5p reduces the expression of several senescence markers, including p16(INK4A and senescence-associated β-galactosidase. Moreover, cells with ectopic expression of miR-378a-5p retain proliferative capacity even in the presence of an activated Braf oncogene. Finally, we identified several miR-378a-5p targets in diploid fibroblasts that might explain the mechanism by which the microRNA can delay OIS. We speculate that miR-378a-5p might positively influence tumor formation by delaying OIS, which is consistent with a known pro-oncogenic function of this microRNA.

  5. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengchao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF and Tyrosinase (TYR were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5.

  6. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Apostol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was focused on measuring the performance level of corporate governance in Romania. This is carried out by evaluating the importance level given to the principles of corporate governance in the Romanian economy, while the practices of transparency and dissemination of companies’ information in the selected sample were monitored. To achieve the objectives of the study, we need to examine the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Sample companies were selected and their information from the “Comply or Explain” Statements was analyzed.The research method is a non-participating observation—based on the information from the “Comply or Explain” Statement to determine whether companies are applying corporate governance and transparency elements. The research results highlight the progress of Romanian companies in the process of exercising to the principles of corporate governance, becoming internationally recognized, and integrating into the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  7. Ethics and Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Groenfeldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and values are important dimensions of water governance. We show how a "values approach" contributes to an understanding of global water governance, and how it complements other perspectives on governance, namely management, institutional capacity, and social-ecological systems. We connect these other approaches to their own value systems and the ethical attitudes they engender. We then offer a way to explicitly incorporate, and where necessary adjudicate, competing value systems through a values-based approach to governance. A case of the Santa Fe River in New Mexico, USA illustrates how value systems are reflected in water policies and how these values affect governance priorities, such as in environmental flows. The values-based approach clarifies tacit values and creates space to align local values with those needed for effective water governance at the global level.

  8. Multistakeholder Internet Governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Global debate over alternative approaches to governing the Internet has been wide ranging, but increasingly has pivoted around the wisdom of “multistakeholder governance.” This paper takes controversy around a multistakeholder versus an alternative multilateral approach as a focus for clarifying the changing context and significance of Internet governance. A critical perspective on this debate challenges some of the conventional wisdom marshaled around positions on the history ...

  9. Governance and Socioeconomic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, A; Šenfelde, M

    2012-01-01

    There are wide discussions on the causes of the differences in the economic performance. Recent studies have stressed out the crucial role of institutions – formal and informal constraints that shape human interaction. The aim of this article is to evaluate the influence of governance – traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised –on the socioeconomic development. To measure the level of governance we used World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators and such indi...

  10. Corporate Governance and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Bolton; Marco Becht; Alisa Röell

    2002-01-01

    Corporate governance is concerned with the resolution of collective action problems among dispersed investors and the reconciliation of conflicts of interest between various corporate claimholders. In this survey we review the theoretical and empirical research on the main mechanisms of corporate control, discuss the main legal and regulatory institutions in different countries, and examine the comparative corporate governance literature. A fundamental dilemma of corporate governance emerges ...

  11. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  12. Understanding Government Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka V. Půlpánová

    2013-01-01

    Government fi nal consumption represents one of the key indicators provided by national accounts, but at thesame time one with relatively problematic economic interpretation. Th e concept of government fi nal consumptionexpenditure involves a number of conventions. As a result, its economic and statistical character diff ersfrom other fi nal expenditure components in total economy like household consumption or investment. Th earticle explains how government fi nal consumption expenditure and ...

  13. Governance Issues for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Clarke; Alice Klettner

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Prin...

  14. Ethics and Water Governance

    OpenAIRE

    David Groenfeldt; Jeremy J. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Ethics and values are important dimensions of water governance. We show how a "values approach" contributes to an understanding of global water governance, and how it complements other perspectives on governance, namely management, institutional capacity, and social-ecological systems. We connect these other approaches to their own value systems and the ethical attitudes they engender. We then offer a way to explicitly incorporate, and where necessary adjudicate, competing value systems throu...

  15. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-01-01

    Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the st...

  16. The Study of the Optimization of Corporate Governance Based on Refocusing Strategy Implement A n Empirical Test from the Perspective of Board Structure%基于归核化战略实施保障的公司治理优化研究——来自董事会结构的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 薛有志

    2012-01-01

    This paper induces the endogenous change of governance environment, including the degree of information asymmetry, the mechanism of product competition, the power of manager and creditor after the implementation of refocusing strategy. Then this paper eonslructs the optimizing model of contingency corporate governance based on refocusing strategy in the light of the matching principle between the governance environment and governance function from the perspective of resource providing and strategic control ability. Finally, the study tests the theory model using the board structure, and the results indicate that, on the one hand, independent director can't possess the ability of strategic control, and this prevents the implementation efficiency of refocusing strategy; on the other hand, non-paid director can supply the resource for the implementation efficiency of refocusing strategy.%本文提炼出归核化战略实施后信息不对称程度、产品竞争机制、管理者与债权人地位等治理环境产生的自发性变化;然后,根据治理环境与治理职能相匹配的思路.推演出公司在归核化战略实施后,对公司治理的战略控制与资源供给职能的需求;据此构建了基于归核化战略实施保障的治理优化模型。最后,利用董事会结构变量对模型进行检验,结果表明:独立董事的战略控制能力较弱,不利于归核化战略的有效实施;而未领取报酬董事可以为归核化战略的实施提供资源保障。

  17. Rhythmic oscillations of the microRNA miR-96-5p play a neuroprotective role by indirectly regulating glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Chisato; Aoyama, Koji; Matsumura, Nobuko; Kikuchi-Utsumi, Kazue; Watabe, Masahiko; Nakaki, Toshio

    2014-05-07

    Glutathione (GSH) is a key antioxidant that plays an important neuroprotective role in the brain. Decreased GSH levels are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that a diurnal fluctuation of GSH levels is correlated with neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress in dopaminergic cells. In addition, we found that the cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), which is involved in neuronal GSH synthesis, is negatively regulated by the microRNA miR-96-5p, which exhibits a diurnal rhythm. Blocking miR-96-5p by intracerebroventricular administration of an inhibitor increased the level of EAAC1 as well as that of GSH and had a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress in the mouse substantia nigra. Our results suggest that the diurnal rhythm of miR-96-5p may play a role in neuroprotection by regulating neuronal GSH levels via EAAC1.

  18. Repumping and spectroscopy of laser-cooled Sr atoms using the (5s5p)3P2 - (5s4d)3D2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    Mickelson, P G; Anzel, P; DeSalvo, B J; Nagel, S B; Traverso, A J; Yan, M; Killian, T C

    2009-01-01

    We describe repumping and spectroscopy of laser-cooled strontium (Sr) atoms using the (5s5p)3P2 - (5s4d)3D2 transition. Atom number in a magneto-optical trap is enhanced by driving this transition because Sr atoms that have decayed into the (5s5p)3P2 dark state are repumped back into the (5s2)1S0 ground state. Spectroscopy of 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, and 88Sr improves the value of the (5s5p)3P2 - (5s4d)3D2 transition frequency for 88Sr and determines the isotope shifts for the transition.

  19. Repumping and spectroscopy of laser-cooled Sr atoms using the (5s5p)3P2-(5s4d)3D2 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, P. G.; Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Anzel, P.; De Salvo, B. J.; Nagel, S. B.; Traverso, A. J.; Yan, M.; Killian, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    We describe repumping and spectroscopy of laser-cooled strontium (Sr) atoms using the (5s5p)3P2-(5s4d)3D2 transition. Atom number in a magneto-optical trap is enhanced by driving this transition because Sr atoms that have decayed into the (5s5p)3P2 dark state are repumped back into the (5s2)1S0 ground state. Spectroscopy of 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr and 88Sr improves the value of the (5s5p)3P2-(5s4d)3D2 transition frequency and determines the isotope shifts for the transition accurately enough to guide laser-cooling experiments with less abundant isotopes.

  20. Construction Strategies of the Long-term Government Regulations Mechanism of Energy Saving and Emission Reduction in Shandong Province%山东省节能减排政府规制长效机制的构建策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩慧健; 辛况; 陶续云

    2012-01-01

    自市场化改革以来,中国经济在获得快速增长的同时也付出了惨重的资源和环境代价。若要维持经济的可持续发展,需要对节能减排颁布实施对应的政府政策,特别是建立节能减排的政府规制长效机制。但目前尚未形成此长效机制,这是导致能源与环境问题不能得到很好解决的根源。因此,本文选择山东省作为典型地区进行节能减排的政府规制政策长效机制构建,首先探讨了进行节能减排规制的必要性;在此基础上借鉴国外节能减排规制实践经验,挖掘山东省节能减排规制取得的成绩与存在的问题;最终构建山东省节能减排规制的长效机制。%Since the market-oriented reforms,China’s access to rapid economic growth has been at the expense of resources and the environment.To maintain the sustainable development of economy,the government need to imply the corresponding policies on energy saving and emission reduction,especially the establishment of the long-term government regulation mechanism.However,this mechanism has not yet been established,which leads to the energy and environmental problems.Thus,this article chooses Shandong Province as the typical area to establish the long-term government regulation mechanism of energy saving and emission reduction.First,this article investigates the necessity of government regulations on energy saving and emission reduction.Based on the necessity mentioned above,we draw lessons from the foreign experience of energy saving and emission reduction regulations.Then,energy-saving and emission reduction regulation's achievements and existing problems in Shandong province are demonstrated.Finally,we construct the long-term government regulation mechanism of energy saving and emission reduction in Shandong Province.

  1. Network governance and capacity of local governments to deliver LED in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose B Namara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses network governance and its contribution to the capacity of local governments (LGs to deliver local economic development (LED in Uganda. Although a formal LED policy was only established in Uganda in February 2014, there have been LED-inspired practices in the past decade. Various scholars and practitioners have observed that the autonomy and capacity of LGs to deliver LED is limited, but have been hopeful that new governance strategies like network governance would increase the capacities of LGs. However, neither network governance arrangements among LGs, nor their potential to improve governance capacity, have been documented. In a case study of Kyenjojo District, this paper finds that existing network governance arrangements have been fundamental in improving financial autonomy at this LG, delivering some income to invest in LED activities, although no evidence was found of reduced transaction costs in transforming local economies. The study further reveals that network governance arrangements have not led to the development of specialised skills in regulation or law enforcement, and capacity gaps are evident amongst staff and members in understanding the private sector and how it works. On a positive note, there is clear evidence of attempts by the LG to be innovative. Based on these findings, this study recommends that LGs need to consider a multi-pronged or multi-network governance approach to LED, which in turn will require a refocusing of governance mechanisms to become more dynamic and responsive, and offer incentives to the various actors in the development sector.

  2. Distinct plasma-membrane PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 dynamics in secretagogue-stimulated beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Anne; Sågetorp, Jenny; Tengholm, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Phosphoinositides regulate numerous processes in various subcellular compartments. Whereas many stimuli trigger changes in the plasma-membrane PtdIns(4,5)P(2) concentration, little is known about its precursor, PtdIns(4)P, in particular whether there are stimulus-induced alterations independent of those of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). We investigated plasma-membrane PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P(2) dynamics in insulin-secreting MIN6 cells using fluorescent translocation biosensors and total internal reflection microscopy. Loss of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) induced by phospholipase C (PLC)-activating receptor agonists or stimulatory glucose concentrations was paralleled by increased PtdIns(4)P levels. In addition, glucose-stimulated cells regularly showed anti-synchronous oscillations of the two lipids. Whereas glucose-induced PtdIns(4)P elevation required voltage-gated Ca(2+) entry and was mimicked by membrane-depolarizing stimuli, the receptor-induced response was Ca(2+) independent, but sensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition and mimicked by phorbol ester stimulation. We conclude that glucose and PLC-activating receptor stimuli trigger Ca(2+)- and PKC-dependent changes in the plasma-membrane PtdIns(4)P concentration that are independent of the effects on PtdIns(4,5)P(2). These findings indicate that enhanced formation of PtdIns(4)P, apart from ensuring efficient replenishment of the PtdIns(4,5)P(2) pool, might serve an independent signalling function by regulating the association of PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins with the plasma membrane.

  3. MiR-21-5p Links Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype with Stem-Like Cell Signatures via AKT Signaling in Keloid Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Liu, YuanBo; Wang, LianZhao; Pan, Bo; Lv, XiaoYan; Jiao, Hu; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, XueJian; Xiao, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Keloid is the abnormal wound healing puzzled by the aggressive growth and high recurrence rate due to its unrevealed key pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs contribute to a series of biological processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cells stemness involved in fibrotic disease. Here, using microRNAs microarray analysis we found mir-21-5p was significantly up-regulated in keloid epidermis. To investigate the role of miR-21-5p in keloid pathogenesis, we transfected miR-21-5p mimic or inhibitor in keloid keratinocytes and examined the abilities of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, the expressions of EMT-related markers vimentin and E-cadherin and stem-like cells-associated markers CD44 and ALDH1, and the involvement of PTEN and the signaling of AKT and ERK. Our results demonstrated that up-regulation or knockdown of miR-21-5p significantly increased or decreased the migration, invasion and sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, and the phenotype of EMT and cells stemness were enhanced or reduced as well. Furthermore, PTEN and p-AKT were shown to participate in the regulation of miR-21-5p on EMT phenotypes and stemness signatures of keloid keratinocytes, which might account for the invasion and recurrence of keloids. This molecular mechanism of miR-21-5p on keloid keratinocytes linked EMT with cells stemness and implicated novel therapeutic targets for keloids. PMID:27596120

  4. miR-150-5p and miR-133a suppress glioma cell proliferation and migration through targeting membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Moustafa; Takino, Takahisa; Sabit, Hemragul; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Li, Zichen; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-08-10

    Gliomas are the most frequent primary tumors of the brain, and there is no successful treatment for highly malignant gliomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a variety of biological processes. Recent studies showed that miR-150-5p and miR-133a are downregulated in various human malignancies, and one of target mRNAs was shown to be membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) mRNA. However, their detailed role in the processes of cancer remains to be determined. Here we found that miR-150-5p and miR-133a expression was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal tissues, and that MT1-MMP expression was inversely upregulated in glioma tissues. Knockdown of MT1-MMP by specific siRNAs in U87 and U251 glioma cells induced suppression of cell proliferation and invasion/migration. Transfection of miR-150-5p or miR-133a mimics into glioma cell lines reduced MT1-MMP expression and MMP-2 activation by these cells, and cell proliferation and invasion/migration were also suppressed by it. Co-transfection of specific inhibitor oligo DNA for miR-150-5p or miR-133a abrogated miR-150-5p or miR-133a mimic's actions, respectively. These results suggest that miR-150-5p and miR-133a may suppress malignancy of gliomas by targeting MT1-MMP, and could be used as an anti-metastatic therapy for glioma patients. PMID:27154818

  5. hsa-miR-125a-5p Enhances Invasion in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines by Upregulating Rock-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili JIANG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding small RNA in eukaryotes. They recognize their target sites by incomplete base pairing and posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression, and function on a lot of complex vital processes of organisms. The objective of this work is to study how hsa-miR-125a-5p enhances the invasive ability of lung cancer cells. Methods The target gene and its target sites of hsa-miR-125a-5p were predicted by microRNA.org. We investigated Rock-1 mRNA and protein expressions by RT-PCR and Western blot according to the result of prediction further. The invasive ability of A549 cells, which were transfected with sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide after being blocked by anti-Rock-1, was observed by Transwell. Results With RT-PCR and Western blot, Rock-1 mRNA and protein were both increased in A549 cells transfected with sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide and were both decreased in the cells which transfected with antisense vs control groups. The invasive ability of A549 cells transfected with sense hsa-miR-125a-5p 2’-O-methyl oligonucleotide were weakened after being blocked by anti-Rock-1, vs non-blocking group by Transwell test. Conclusion hsa-miR-125a-5p could up-regulate Rock-1 and enhance invasion in lung cancer cells.

  6. MiR-21-5p Links Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype with Stem-Like Cell Signatures via AKT Signaling in Keloid Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Liu, Yuanbo; Wang, Lianzhao; Pan, Bo; Lv, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Hu; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2016-09-01

    Keloid is the abnormal wound healing puzzled by the aggressive growth and high recurrence rate due to its unrevealed key pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs contribute to a series of biological processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cells stemness involved in fibrotic disease. Here, using microRNAs microarray analysis we found mir-21-5p was significantly up-regulated in keloid epidermis. To investigate the role of miR-21-5p in keloid pathogenesis, we transfected miR-21-5p mimic or inhibitor in keloid keratinocytes and examined the abilities of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, the expressions of EMT-related markers vimentin and E-cadherin and stem-like cells-associated markers CD44 and ALDH1, and the involvement of PTEN and the signaling of AKT and ERK. Our results demonstrated that up-regulation or knockdown of miR-21-5p significantly increased or decreased the migration, invasion and sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, and the phenotype of EMT and cells stemness were enhanced or reduced as well. Furthermore, PTEN and p-AKT were shown to participate in the regulation of miR-21-5p on EMT phenotypes and stemness signatures of keloid keratinocytes, which might account for the invasion and recurrence of keloids. This molecular mechanism of miR-21-5p on keloid keratinocytes linked EMT with cells stemness and implicated novel therapeutic targets for keloids.

  7. MiR-21-5p Links Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype with Stem-Like Cell Signatures via AKT Signaling in Keloid Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Liu, YuanBo; Wang, LianZhao; Pan, Bo; Lv, XiaoYan; Jiao, Hu; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, XueJian; Xiao, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Keloid is the abnormal wound healing puzzled by the aggressive growth and high recurrence rate due to its unrevealed key pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs contribute to a series of biological processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cells stemness involved in fibrotic disease. Here, using microRNAs microarray analysis we found mir-21-5p was significantly up-regulated in keloid epidermis. To investigate the role of miR-21-5p in keloid pathogenesis, we transfected miR-21-5p mimic or inhibitor in keloid keratinocytes and examined the abilities of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, the expressions of EMT-related markers vimentin and E-cadherin and stem-like cells-associated markers CD44 and ALDH1, and the involvement of PTEN and the signaling of AKT and ERK. Our results demonstrated that up-regulation or knockdown of miR-21-5p significantly increased or decreased the migration, invasion and sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, and the phenotype of EMT and cells stemness were enhanced or reduced as well. Furthermore, PTEN and p-AKT were shown to participate in the regulation of miR-21-5p on EMT phenotypes and stemness signatures of keloid keratinocytes, which might account for the invasion and recurrence of keloids. This molecular mechanism of miR-21-5p on keloid keratinocytes linked EMT with cells stemness and implicated novel therapeutic targets for keloids. PMID:27596120

  8. 《榆林日报》时政新闻中的政府媒介形象塑造与改进策略%The Government Media Images’Shaping and Strategies of Improvement in the Political News’Coverage on Yulin Daily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓暹; 熊秋萍

    2016-01-01

    新闻媒体对政府媒介形象的塑造通过多种方式来实现,时政新闻因其特殊的政治性、权威性和规范性成为建构政府媒介形象的最佳选择。在塑造地方政府媒介形象的过程中,《榆林日报》时政新闻采取了多种策略,其新闻文本在写作上表现出高度的规范性,题材和视角上具有较强的民生化倾向,有利于塑造良好的榆林市政府媒介形象。从塑造政府媒介形象的角度出发,《榆林日报》还需在现有基础上作出改进。%News media shapes the government media image through a variety of ways. There are many special char-acteristics in the coverage of political news,such as political nature,authority and normalization,which makes it the best choice to construct the government media image. In the course of shaping the government media image, Yulin Daily has adopted a variety of strategies. The political news in this newspaper is written normatively and standardly. Its theme and viewpoint choice has a strong tendency to people’s livelihood. Those approaches help improve the Yulin government media image shaping. Some corresponding suggestions on their improvement are put forward ,which can become a reference for Yulin Daily to improve its credibility and preferably shape the Yulin gov-ernment media image.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in In0.5Ga0.5P/GaAs Grown by MOVPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Acar; A. Yíldíz; M. Kasap; M. Bosi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Hall effect measurements in undoped In0.5Ga0.5P/GaAs alloy grown by metal organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) have been carried out in the temperature range 15-350K. The experimental results are analysed using a two-band model including conduction band transport calculated using an iterative solution of the Boltzmann equation. A good agreement was obtained between theory and experiment. The impurity contents of In0.5Ga0.5P/GaAs alloy, such as donor density ND, acceptor density NA and donor activation energy εD, were also determined.

  10. Urban transport, the environment and deliberative governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2006-01-01

    , a range of deliberative and more interactive governance approaches have emerged. This article discusses the central role of interdependence and trust in such approaches, based on three cases, Aalborg (DK), Lund (S) and Groningen (NL), in which environmental objectives and strategies have materialized...

  11. Headquarters-subsidiary relationship governance in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses the views of agency and stewardship theory on governance of the relationship between headquarters and subsidiaries. It explores the influence of strategy, task environment and cultural differences on this relationship. The conceptual model is explored based on a survey of 76 poli

  12. Decision Theory and the Governance of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decision making process for science and technology. Finds that government agencies and officials are not the major decision makers. Examines obstacles to achieving intelligent decisions when policy makers are scientists, business executives, and consumers. Concludes with five strategies for improving technological…

  13. Measuring the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotel, Trine; Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    model helps to assess the democratic performance of specific governance networks and to gain knowledge about the critical factors that determine their degree of democratic anchorage. Such knowledge is crucial for developing proactive strategies for enhancing the democratic performance of specific...

  14. Governance Mechanisms in Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Kiron

    2010-01-01

    While the dominance of Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) as a sourcing strategy would seem to indicate successful and well-informed practice, frequent examples of unraveled engagements highlight the associated risks. Successful instances of outsourcing suggest that governance mechanisms effectively manage the related risks. This…

  15. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  16. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  17. Civil Preparedness: Government Propaganda

    OpenAIRE

    Grieve, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The United States government used civil defense theater as a means to distract the U.S. public from the dangers of atomic weapons and the build up and testing of its nuclear stockpile. When defense theater failed, the government sought out other events as a means to continue the distraction.

  18. Government Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  19. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  20. Benefit from the Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Profijt van de overheid. Income levels are determined to a considerable extent by the government, which exerts an influence through social security and taxation. The traditional purchasing power tables are a reflection of this. However, the influence of the government goes further;

  1. Policy Governance Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William J.

    2001-01-01

    An administrator trainer/former superintendent's experience suggests that corporate governance models don't fit the reality of school governance in many districts. Elected board members define their roles differently than their business counterparts and derive little or no monetary benefit from public service. The "new breed" resemble political…

  2. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  3. Making Government Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    - an assemblage. We argue that understanding such assemblages-their emergence, activity, and, frequently, their failures-opens a window on analysing the nature of contemporary forms of financialised governance as a technosocial system. In so doing we suggest that the governance devices approach can off er a way......The financialised character of contemporary rationalities of public governance has been the subject of increased attention within a range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. With this paper we propose a particular analytical framework, focused on the notion of 'governance devices......', for understanding the processes that underpin financialised governance and, more fundamentally, maintain the connections between markets and politics. Deploying three distinct cases, we indicate that these devices transcend divisions between the actor and the device and create a diff erent form of agency...

  4. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  5. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination

  6. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    as the child’s best teacher”. The program involves parents as facilitators modifying the child’s behavior instead of working directly on the child, thereby widening the target of intervention. PMTO exemplifies an arrangement that engages the private sphere in the conduct of public governance aiming at creating......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  7. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  8. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journe...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time.......An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...

  9. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  10. 政府主导的区域电子商务平台SWOT分析及发展策略%SWOT Analysis and its Development Strategy of Government-guided Regional E-commerce Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡林娜

    2011-01-01

    Due to the high cost and low-level customers of the commercialized third-party B2B e-commerce platform service model,the small and medium-sized enterprises have difficulties in selecting the appropriate e-business model.The government-guided regional e-commerce platform with strengths and weaknesses coexisting has opportunities and challenges.It has the advantages of being government-guided,involved by many sides,resource sharing and having regional characteristics,and can provide support for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.To speed up its development,measures should be taken in making good use of the opportunities,bringing the government function into play,expanding the cooperation and training the regional e-commerce personnel.%商业化第三方B2B电子商务平台服务模式由于费用高、客户含金量低等问题而使中小企业难以选择适合的电子商务模式。政府主导的区域电子商务平台优势与劣势并存,机遇与挑战同在。区域电子商务平台具有政府主导、多方参与、资源共享、区域特色等优势,可为区域内中小企业的发展提供实际的支持和帮助。为加快政府主导的区域电子商务平台的发展,必须采取借势发展、发挥政府职能、扩大合作、培养区域电子商务人才等措施。

  11. Coping Strategies of Public Opinion of Government Micro-blog Public Emergencies%政务微博突发公共事件舆情应对策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹欢芳

    2011-01-01

    Micro-blog information dissemination superiority has been generally recognized by the community, various government agencies and officials have opened the micro-blog, making the "micro-blog asks government" has become one of the hot points and trends. Public emergency public opinion because of its complexity and sensitivity, as well as the rapid spread characteristics, let government micro-blog in response to public opinion crisis difficulties. In this paper, through the analysis of e-government micro-blog public emergency coping situation of public opinion, attempts to propose the micro-blog guide public opinion of the specific methods and measures, for the building of a harmonious society will play a positive role.%微博的信息传播优势已得到了社会的普遍认可,各级政府机构和官员纷纷开设政务微博,使得“微博问政”成为当前的热点和趋势。突发公共事件舆论因其复杂性、敏感性以及传播迅速等特点,让政务微博在应对舆情危机时困难重重。本文通过分析政务微博突发公共事件的舆情应对现状,试图提出微博舆论引导的具体方法和对策,对于构建和谐社会将起到积极的作用。

  12. 基于社会治理视角的公立医院社会评价策略及研究框架构建%Developing the social evaluation strategy and the study framework for public hospitals as seen from the social governance perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小合; 黄仙红; 李瑞; 赵红; 高建民; 郭清; 张亮

    2011-01-01

    社会治理是基于对社会管理过程中权力格局分析与判断,在政府、市场、社会与公民基本关系明确定位的前提下倡导的新型公共管理模式.社会评价是基于社会治理理论的一种有效实现载体和手段,由于其对公众利益和责任表达、解决突出社会矛盾问题具针对性和优越性,已得到普遍促进和应用.在基于社会治理理论开展公立医院管理改革情景分析的基础上,阐述了国内外社会治理及社会评价理论、内涵与进展,以及对相关社会领域社会评价治理路径及实践探索进行梳理分析,提出了在医疗服务管理领域探讨和开发其公立医院社会评价策略及研究框架构建,为探索建立公立医院社会管理制度以及政策制定提供依据.%Social governance is a novel form of public administration made based on the analysis and judgment for the power pattern in the course of social administration, a model advocated in the premise of a clearly positioned relationship among the government, marketplace, society and citizens.Social evaluation is an effective carrier and means leveraging the social governance theory, which has found extensive and outstanding use in such issues as expression of public interests and responsibilities,and in tackling sharp social problems. The authors called into play the scenario analysis based on public hospital management reforms with the social governance theory. In addition, they explored social governance at home and abroad as well as the theories, meaning and progress of social evaluation, and analyzed the pathways and probes in social evaluation and governance in the fields in question. On such basis, the paper proposed to explore and develop the social evaluation strategies and study framework for public hospitals in terms of healthcare management, aiming at building the social governance system and policies for public hospitals.

  13. A Research on Interaction Mechanism and Management Strategy of Government and Private Pension Institutions%政府与民办养老机构互动机理及管理策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳键; 舒斯亮

    2013-01-01

    The paper constructs a game model between government and private pension institutions, to explore the relation-ship between pricing of private pension institutions and government's subsidy, the selection of the single-class service mode or the multi-class service model, then to analyze the influences of the related factors to government and private pension insti-tutions. The results show that: the private pension institutions should expand the gap of service level appropriately when the multi-class service mode is selected, the multi-class pension service mode is better than the single-class pension service mode when the pension demand level is higher, the single-class pension service mode is better than the multi-class pension service mode when the pension demand level is lower, the government and private pension institutions perform better with the multi-class pension service mode when service preference of senior people increases, the pension service institutions with higher cost should choose single-class pension service mode, while the pension service institutions with lower cost should select multi-class pension service mode.%文章通过建立民办养老机构与政府的博弈模型,探讨政府补贴与民办养老机构定价的关系,以及单层级服务与多层级服务选择问题,分析相关因素变化对政府与民办养老机构所带来的影响。结果表明,民办养老机构选择多层级模式时,应适当拉开服务水平层级差距;养老需求水平较高时,多层级模式优于单层级模式,养老需求水平较低时,单层级模式优于多层级模式;老年人的机构养老服务偏好越大,选择多层级模式对政府及民办养老机构越有利;高服务成本的养老机构宜选择单层级模式,低服务成本的养老机构宜选择多层级模式。

  14. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic studies of Cu2+, Sn2+ and N3− substituted K5Sb5P2O20

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ch Sudhakar Reddy; Sreenu K; J R Reddy; A Hari Padmasri; Ravi Gundeboina; M Vithal

    2016-04-01

    Potassium antimony phosphates (K-Sb-P-O) exhibit different structural networks and therefore they were studied as photocatalysts in the present investigation. K5Sb5P2O20 was prepared by solid state method. Metal ions (Cu2+ and Sn2+), and non-metal anion, N3−, were substituted into the K5Sb5P2O20 for possible enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The precursor and substituted compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, SEM-EDS and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Nitrogen substitution into K5Sb5P2O20 lattice was studied by O-N-H and XPS measurements. The photocatalytic activity of all the compounds was studied by degradation of methylene blue and methyl violet. The ion-substituted K5Sb5P2O20 have shown higher photocatalytic activity against both the dyes. The role of reactive intermediate species produced in the photocatalytic reaction was studied using their appropriate scavengers.

  15. A scalable low-cost cGMP process for clinical grade production of the HIV inhibitor 5P12-RANTES in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerini, Fabrice; Gaertner, Hubert; Madden, Knut; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Brown, Scott; Laukens, Bram; Callewaert, Nico; Harner, Jay C; Oommen, Anna M; Harms, John T; Sump, Anthony R; Sealock, Robert C; Peterson, Dustin J; Johnson, Scott K; Abramson, Stephan B; Meagher, Michael; Offord, Robin; Hartley, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    In the continued absence of an effective anti-HIV vaccine, approximately 2 million new HIV infections occur every year, with over 95% of these in developing countries. Calls have been made for the development of anti-HIV drugs that can be formulated for topical use to prevent HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. Because these drugs are principally destined for use in low-resource regions, achieving production costs that are as low as possible is an absolute requirement. 5P12-RANTES, an analog of the human chemokine protein RANTES/CCL5, is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor which acts by achieving potent blockade of the principal HIV coreceptor, CCR5. Here we describe the development and optimization of a scalable low-cost production process for 5P12-RANTES based on expression in Pichia pastoris. At pilot (150 L) scale, this cGMP compliant process yielded 30 g of clinical grade 5P12-RANTES. As well as providing sufficient material for the first stage of clinical development, this process represents an important step towards achieving production of 5P12-RANTES at a cost and scale appropriate to meet needs for topical HIV prevention worldwide.

  16. Bystander autophagy mediated by radiation-induced exosomal miR-7-5p in non-targeted human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Shang, Zeng-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Da-Fei; Wang, Qi; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) describes a set of biological effects in non-targeted cells that receive bystander signals from the irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to adjacent normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk than previously thought. Excessive release of some substances from irradiated cells into extracellular microenvironment has a deleterious effect. For example, cytokines and reactive oxygen species have been confirmed to be involved in RIBE process via extracellular medium or gap junctions. However, RIBE-mediating signals and intercellular communication pathways are incompletely characterized. Here, we first identified a set of differentially expressed miRNAs in the exosomes collected from 2 Gy irradiated human bronchial epithelial BEP2D cells, from which miR-7-5p was found to induce autophagy in recipient cells. This exosome-mediated autophagy was significantly attenuated by miR-7-5p inhibitor. Moreover, our data demonstrated that autophagy induced by exosomal miR-7-5p was associated with EGFR/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, our results support the involvement of secretive exosomes in propagation of RIBE signals to bystander cells. The exosomes-containing miR-7-5p is a crucial mediator of bystander autophagy. PMID:27417393

  17. Replication of lung cancer susceptibility loci at chromosomes 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, T.; Hung, R.J.; Amos, C.I.; Wu, X.; Bickeboller, H.; Rosenberger, A.; Sauter, W.; Illig, T.; Wichmann, H.E.; Risch, A.; Dienemann, H.; Kaaks, R.; Yang, P.; Jiang, R.; Wiencke, J.K.; Wrensch, M.; Hansen, H.; Kelsey, K.T.; Matsuo, K.; Tajima, K.; Schwartz, A.G.; Wenzlaff, A.; Seow, A.; Ying, C.; Staratschek-Jox, A.; Nurnberg, P.; Stoelben, E.; Wolf, J.; Lazarus, P.; Muscat, J.E.; Gallagher, C.J.; Zienolddiny, S.; Haugen, A.; Heijden, H.F. van der; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Isla, D.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Rafnar, T.; Stefansson, K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Chang, S.C.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, Y.C.; Duell, E.J.; Andrew, A.S.; Lejbkowicz, F.; Rennert, G.; Muller, H.; Brenner, H.; Marchand, L. le; Benhamou, S.; Bouchardy, C.; Teare, M.D.; Xue, X.; McLaughlin, J.; Liu, G.; McKay, J.D.; Brennan, P.; Spitz, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we cond

  18. Significance of microRNA-146b-5p in dif-fuse large B-cell lymphoma and its relationship with risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹其伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of miR-146b-5p in diffuse large B cell lymphoma(DLBCL),and its rela-tionship with risk assessment. Methods 62 cases of nod-al DLBCL with follow-up data were collected from Shanxi

  19. Information Management and Governance in UK Higher Education Institutions: Bringing IT in from the Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Michael; Kelly, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    In the 21st Century, IT Governance is, within the broader corporate governance context, critical for all organisations. Those without an IT governance strategy face significant risks; those with one perform measurably better (Calder 2005). There has been little field based research on IT governance, and few publications help managers understand…

  20. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  1. Governing To‐day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Kevin

    Governing To-day denotes a domain of research, and what the thesis undertakes is a theoretical discussion of some questions of method vis-à-vis researching this domain. There are two aspects to the title that enfold one another. Firstly, “governing to-day” signposts that it is to!day that is to b...... of departure in the research and writing of the French philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault. It is primarily within the writings of Foucault that the thesis seeks to find a workaround to the problem thrown forth by the aforementioned questions of method.......Governing To-day denotes a domain of research, and what the thesis undertakes is a theoretical discussion of some questions of method vis-à-vis researching this domain. There are two aspects to the title that enfold one another. Firstly, “governing to-day” signposts that it is to...... in time, in the present!day, in this time that is our own, and so forth, that forms the object of enquiry. Accordingly, “governing to!day” denotes both a government of the present and government in the present. In working through said questions of method, the thesis sketches out an approach that takes...

  2. Risk Management in IT Governance Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of governance has an already old contour: the system by which business corporations are directed and controlled. The most praised principles regarding shareholder rights, transparency and board accountability now constitute the foundation for new tendencies evolved from such ground. Executive compensation, transparency and shareholder reporting are new issues attached to board responsibilities. Besides such almost negative approaches the board faces a more and more prominent role from risk management and IT governance perspective. Nowadays is generally acknowledged that the board is in charge for managing and controlling the risks to assets of the enterprises and business future. IT Governance has emerged as a support for corporate governance, as an important part of board’s striving efforts to perform better in a competition environment. These responsibilities, risk management and IT Governance, remain within the framework of old concept of corporate governance and are fed from its substance. The interaction between these concepts is the core interest of this research.IT Governance is defined as procedures and policies established in order to assure that the IT system of an organization sustains its goals and strategies. The management of the organisations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organisation. The evolution of the present IT environment is a natural process according to which business environment should adapt.

  3. Selective targeting of IRF4 by synthetic microRNA-125b-5p mimics induces anti-multiple myeloma activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, E; Leone, E; Cantafio, M E Gallo; Di Martino, M T; Amodio, N; Biamonte, L; Gullà, A; Foresta, U; Pitari, M R; Botta, C; Rossi, M; Neri, A; Munshi, N C; Anderson, K C; Tagliaferri, P; Tassone, P

    2015-11-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is an attractive therapeutic target in multiple myeloma (MM). We here report that expression of IRF4 mRNA inversely correlates with microRNA (miR)-125b in MM patients. Moreover, we provide evidence that miR-125b is downregulated in TC2/3 molecular MM subgroups and in established cell lines. Importantly, constitutive expression of miR-125b-5p by lentiviral vectors or transfection with synthetic mimics impaired growth and survival of MM cells and overcame the protective role of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. Apoptotic and autophagy-associated cell death were triggered in MM cells on miR-125b-5p ectopic expression. Importantly, we found that the anti-MM activity of miR-125b-5p was mediated via direct downregulation of IRF4 and its downstream effector BLIMP-1. Moreover, inhibition of IRF4 translated into downregulation of c-Myc, caspase-10 and cFlip, relevant IRF4-downstream effectors. Finally, in vivo intra-tumor or systemic delivery of formulated miR-125b-5p mimics against human MM xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient/non-obese diabetic mice induced significant anti-tumor activity and prolonged survival. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that miR-125b, differently from other hematologic malignancies, has tumor-suppressor activity in MM. Furthermore, our data provide proof-of-concept that synthetic miR-125b-5p mimics are promising anti-MM agents to be validated in early clinical trials. PMID:25987254

  4. Governance Issues for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clarke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations were appropriate for SMEs. It describes the SME responses to the requirements, how these differ from those of larger companies, and how these differences impact on small companies.

  5. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs......” in their communication efforts, and that they face a daily professional challenge as they attempt to promote the European Parliament and its activities to the news media in a way that will not compromise their credibility as government sources. The study provides new insights into communicative aspects of EU governance...

  6. e-Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vellendorfová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Although the e-Government was mentioned more frequently, especially because of data boxes, its origin dates back to 90th the 20th century. Then the first efforts to development of information systems began to connect various governmental offices. However, these efforts haven't been very successful. Subsequently, different e-Government services start developing and this is what the diploma thesis is about. First it outlines the progress of the e-Government. Then this thesis attempts to the e-G...

  7. Serum microRNAs; miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p could be used as novel non-invasive biomarkers for HCV-positive cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Zehra; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Kaplan, Engin; Dogen, Aylin; Tezcan, Seda; Aslan, Gonul; Emekdas, Gurol; Sezgin, Orhan; Altintas, Engin; Tiftik, Eyup Naci

    2015-03-01

    Recently, serum miRNAs have been evolved as possible biomarkers for different diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma and other types of cancers. Investigating certain serum miRNAs as novel non-invasive markers for early detection of HCV-positive cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression profiles of 58 miRNA were analyzed in patient's plasma of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), HCV-positive cirrhosis and HCV-positive HCC and compared with control group samples. Totally 94 plasma samples; 64 patient plasma (26 CHC, 30 HCV-positive cirrhosis, 8 HCV-positive HCC) and 28 control group plasma, were included. The expression profiles of 58 miRNAs were detected for all patient and control group plasma samples by qRT-PCR using BioMarkTM 96.96 Dynamic Array (Fluidigm Corporation) system. In CHC group, expression profiles of miR-30a-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-206 and miR-302c-3p were found significantly deregulated (p < 0.05) when compared versus control group. In HCV-positive cirrhosis group, expression profiles of miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-130a-3p, miR-93-5p, miR-302c-5p and miR-223-3p were found significantly deregulated (p < 0.05). In HCV-positive HCC group, expression profiles of miR-17-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-24-3p were found significant (p < 0.05). When all groups were compared versus control, miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p were found significantly deregulated for cirrhosis and HCC. These results imply that miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p could be used as novel non-invasive biomarkers of HCV-positive HCC in very early, even at cirrhosis stage of liver disease. PMID:25391771

  8. “半公众参与决策模式”应对邻避冲突的政府策略∗%“Semi-Public Decision-Making Model”Governments'Strategy on Responding to NIMBY Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振威

    2015-01-01

    在保持决策高效率的同时控制决策风险是各国政府追求的目标。为了化解日益高涨的邻避冲突,政府决策和公众参与在寻求良性互动的过程中逐渐形成了两种基本决策模式:政府自主决策模式和公众参与决策模式。然中国的情况却与此并不相同,从 X市和Z市处置“PX”项目的对比案例来看,我国正在形成一种“半公众参与决策模式”,其特点可简单概括为“封闭决策+半开放的政策过程”。这种决策模式目前已成为政府防止决策失误,应对公众挑战的一个重要机制。%Risk-control while maintaining the high efficiency of decision-making is a goal pursued by governments all over the world.In order to resolve the rising NIMBY conflict,government decision-mak-ing and public participation have gradually formed two basic decision-making models in positive interac-tions:Government Autonomous Decision-Making Model and Public Decision-Making Model.However, Chinese experiences show considerable differences:a research on the contrast cases of“PX”proj ect from X City and Z City shows that China has been forming a “Semi-Public Decision-Making Model”,which can be summarized as “closed decision-making combining with semi-opening policy process”.This decision model has become an important mechanism to prevent decision failure and deal with public challenges in recent China.

  9. “租税替代”、财政收入与政府的房地产政策%Rent-Tax Substitution, Fiscal Revenue and Government Real Estate Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄少安; 陈斌开; 刘姿彤

    2012-01-01

    本文从理论和实证两方面研究了房地产发展与政府财政收入之间的关系,揭示了“租税替代”原理。理论研究表明:在静态框架下,政府财政收入满足“租税等价”原理,即政府通过土地租金融资和通过企业税收融资是等价的,其总收入水平只取决于土地资源总量,与融资方式无关。在动态框架下,政府财政收入在长期内满足“租税等价”,在短期内存在“租税替代”关系,即政府来自于房地产的租金收入越高,来自于其它行业的税收收入越低。文章基于1998-2008年工业企业调查数据对“租税替代”机制进行了实证检验。研究发现,住房价格上涨将导致企业税收(增值税、所得税、主营业务税金及附加)和企业利润的全面下降,很好地支持了“租税替代”理论。本文还进一步考察了地方政府热衷于发展房地产的原因以及房地产片面发展对实体经济的不良影响,发现现行财政体制、政府官员短期行为以及官员政绩考核体系不合理是其背后最重要的原因。%This paper studies the relationship between real estate development and government fiscal revenue both theoretically and empirically. The theoretical model shows that the government's total revenue is determined by the amount of land in long run, while financing through land rents or corporate tax does not matter. In the short run, the Rent-Taxsubstitution mechanism characterizes the relationship of government revenue from land rents and corporate tax; the higher the land rent is, the lower the corporate tax will be. Based on 1998-2008 industrial enterprises survey data, this paper tests the “ Rent-Tax Substitution” mechanism empirieally, The results reveal that housing prices will result in a decline of eorporate tax (value added tax, income tax and business tax) and eorporate profits, whieh strongly supports the Rent-Tax substitution

  10. O ato de governar as tensões constitutivas do agir em saúde como desafio permanente de algumas estratégias gerenciais Governing tensions in the health action as a permanent challenge of some managerial strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Elias Merhy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor procura sintetizar, neste ensaio, o que tem animado, recentemente, suas reflexões sobre o ato de governar estabelecimentos de saúde, em vários artigos e livros, tomando como desafio a tentativa de imprimir mudanças no dia-a-dia do fabricar os modelos de atenção à saúde, no interior das práticas dos trabalhadores, mesmo não tendo grande concentração de poder para a transformação, procurando então compreender como e por onde produzir poderes. Como explorar terrenos de potências no campo da saúde que estão presentes na conformação tensional de seu território de ação, fazendo-se uso das distintas ferramentas gerenciais disponíveis no campo das ciências e técnicas de governo, na saúde. Utiliza a atenção gerenciada para desenvolver certas análises.In the current essay, the author tries to synthesize what has livened him up lately in relation to his thinkings over the act of governing health organizations having several articles and books as a starting point, taking as a challenge the attempt of imprinting changes in the everyday life of the making of health attention models, in the core of the workers practices, even when a great concentration of power is not noticed as for transformation feasibility. Therefore there is a search to understand how and where power may be produced. How to explore terrains of potencies within the health field which are present in the tensional conformation of its action territory, using the managerial tools which are available in the area of science and government techniques - in health. Use managed care to developed analysis.

  11. 政府财政介入幼儿教育的必要性、问题及其策略分析%Analysis of the Necessity, Problems and Strategy of Government Financial Intervention in Early Childhood Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2012-01-01

    Governments at all levels have the responsibility to develop early childhood education in China.However, the problems in gov- ernments' financial intervention seriously hinder the development of early childhood education. Due to the weak financial investment in early childhood education, poor coordination of financial deparmaents, and the lack of legal guarantee and the inadequate financial invesmaent that does not catch up with the speed of social development, the paper puts forward some proposals for developing early childhood education in terms of the responsibilities of relevant depamnents of governments at all levels, the establishment of legal guarantee and the setup of the special edu- cation fimds for early childhood education in order to provide govemn~ents with some references for exploring the development of early childhood education.%大力发展幼儿教育是我国各级政府义不容辞的责任,但是在政府作为中存在着许多的问题严重阻碍了幼儿教育的发展。针对我国当前幼儿教育财政投入薄弱、政府财政介入部门协调力度疲软、缺乏法律保障以及财政投入落后于社会发展速度等问题,从各级政府及相关部门职责、制定法律保障和设立幼儿教育专项基金等方面给出发展幼儿教育事业的一些建议,以期为政府探索发展幼儿教育事业提供一些参考。

  12. Restructuring Strategy of Governance Structure for Colleges based on Reconstructing Theory of Business Process%基于业务流程再造理论的院校治理结构重构策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 盖馥

    2011-01-01

    The traditional higher vocational educational management model cannot adapt to the requirment of markets for high skilled talents' cultivation in our country.Therefore,it is necessary to make adeep discussion.Under the enlightenment of governance structure and idea in Gold Coast Institute of TAFE,Australia,this paper uses reconstructing theory of euterprises business process for reference,restructuring the present governance structure in higher vocational colleges It stands out the ecore position of major coustruction,and realizes the separation of three powers smong decision-making,execution and supervisionof higher vocational colleges as well as market operating .so the teaching operation of higher vocational colleges is more efficient.%我国传统的高职教育管理模式已无法适应对符合市场需要的高技能人才培养的要求。因而有必要对其进行深入撂讨。在澳大利亚黄金海岸职业技术学院的治理结构与理念所提供经验的启示下。借鉴企业业务流程再造理论,对当前的高职院校治理结构进行了重构,凸显了专业建设的核心地位,实现了高职院校决策、执行与监督的三权分立和市场化运营,使高职院校的教学运营更为高效。

  13. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  14. Suing the Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary people getting involved in administrative lawsuits usually find themselves under great pressure, as they doubt whether their cases can be treated impartially Slapping local government with a lawsuit isn’t something you imme-diately equate with o

  15. Managing e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby; Heeager, Lise Tordrup;

    2015-01-01

    Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment...

  16. Explaining governance outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Paul; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    as overarching measures of how governance outcomes vary between different governance arrangements. This provides the basis for a broader discussion of how these outcomes are conditioned by both a network’s structural characteristics and the way in which it is managed.......This article focuses on two sets of literature that have developed out of a shared concern with networks: the network governance school, which has been engaged in a set of macro-level questions about the extent to which networks are changing the nature of state–society relations; and the policy...... between vertical coordination on the state–society axis and horizontal coordination on the interest integration axis. This produces a typology of governance arrangements, which are evaluated according to the level of input and output legitimacy that they are likely to generate, two criteria that are taken...

  17. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ...

  18. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  19. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  20. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  1. Districting and Government Overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Baqir

    2001-01-01

    The common-pool problem is a central issue in the relationship between the political structure of jurisdictions and the size of public spending. Models predict that, other things being equal, greater political districting of a jurisdiction raises the scale of government. This paper presents new evidence on this and related predictions from a cross-section of city governments in the United States. The main finding is that one additional legislator is associated, on average, with 3 percent larg...

  2. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit information, supporting re-ruse by multiple agencies and coordination of government activities) and includes the business side; creating an Extended Single Window. An Extended Single Window includes business...

  3. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  4. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  5. Managerial Corporate Governance Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio M. Brondoni

    2006-01-01

    Corporate governance communication has steadily become more important as markets have globalised. On open markets, the specific report on economic-financial disclosures supplements the communication system of companies, whose policies are founded strongly on integration, in order to tackle an economic context that is characterised by strong competitive dynamics and growing managerial complexity. Globalisation tends to underline the importance of corporate governance communication designed to ...

  6. IT governance for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Devos, Jan

    2010-01-01

    IT Governance is placing information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) on the agenda of CEOs. However research on the IT/IS value proposition is elaborate and strongly focused on large firms. Despite the numerous successes illustrating the advantages of IT Governance in organizations it is commonly accepted that the processes of developing and using IS are not straightforward. The focus of this research is the complex relation of IT/IS and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) ...

  7. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  8. eGovernment

    OpenAIRE

    Machačová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Summary This thesis is concerned with the use of e-Government in civil services especially at the work of The Czech Telecommunication Office. First of all there are described the basics of e-Government, its history and the most important terms, that are connected with the electronic services. Above all it is focused on delivering documents. Nowadays there are coexisting two ways of delivering. The first possibility is delivering by electronic mailbox; the second one is the traditio...

  9. The Role of Governance in Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, J.; Stoelhorst, W., J

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the corporate social performance (CSP) model by studying the role of governance structures and governance systems in shaping corporate social responsibility. The authors argue that a governance perspective offers a fruitful research strategy both to study empirically how firms balance the competing moral frameworks and political philosophies that are part and parcel of defining their role in society and to further the theoretical integration of the descriptive and normati...

  10. The emerging knowledge governance approach : challenges and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    The “knowledge governance approach” is characterized as a distinctive, emerging approach that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy, and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear micro (behavioural) foundations, adopts an economizing perspective, and examines the links between knowledg...

  11. The Governance of Knowledge: Perspectives from Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningrum, Farah; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Ariff Lim, Syamimi; Anthony Banyouko, Ndah

    2014-01-01

    The paper revisits the concept of knowledge governance by drawing on the experience of building knowledge clusters in two countries; Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. It explores the strategies by which a country may take up the governance of knowledge, in the context of avoiding the knowledge trap drawing on experiences of Southeast Asian countries. We posit that an investigation of knowledge governance would require a study of the formal and informal institutional arrangements allowing knowle...

  12. Shared Governance and Regional Accreditation: Institutional Processes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative single-case research study was conducted to gain deeper understanding of the institutional processes to address shared governance accreditation criteria and to determine whether institutional processes altered stakeholder perceptions of shared governance. The data collection strategies were archival records and personal…

  13. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  14. Resistance to the CCR5 inhibitor 5P12-RANTES requires a difficult evolution from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nedellec

    Full Text Available Viral resistance to small molecule allosteric inhibitors of CCR5 is well documented, and involves either selection of preexisting CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants or envelope sequence evolution to use inhibitor-bound CCR5 for entry. Resistance to macromolecular CCR5 inhibitors has been more difficult to demonstrate, although selection of CXCR4-using variants might be expected. We have compared the in vitro selection of HIV-1 CC1/85 variants resistant to either the small molecule inhibitor maraviroc (MVC or the macromolecular inhibitor 5P12-RANTES. High level resistance to MVC was conferred by the same envelope mutations as previously reported after 16-18 weeks of selection by increasing levels of MVC. The MVC-resistant mutants were fully sensitive to inhibition by 5P12-RANTES. By contrast, only transient and low level resistance to 5P12-RANTES was achieved in three sequential selection experiments, and each resulted in a subsequent collapse of virus replication. A fourth round of selection by 5P12-RANTES led, after 36 weeks, to a "resistant" variant that had switched from CCR5 to CXCR4 as a coreceptor. Envelope sequences diverged by 3.8% during selection of the 5P12-RANTES resistant, CXCR4-using variants, with unique and critical substitutions in the V3 region. A subset of viruses recovered from control cultures after 44 weeks of passage in the absence of inhibitors also evolved to use CXCR4, although with fewer and different envelope mutations. Control cultures contained both viruses that evolved to use CXCR4 by deleting four amino acids in V3, and others that maintained entry via CCR5. These results suggest that coreceptor switching may be the only route to resistance for compounds like 5P12-RANTES. This pathway requires more mutations and encounters more fitness obstacles than development of resistance to MVC, confirming the clinical observations that resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors very rarely involves coreceptor switching.

  15. Differential effects of miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p on SiHa cells proliferation apoptosis, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jesus Adrian [Laboratorio de Terapia Genica, Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, CINVESTAV, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat, E-mail: lalvarez@cinvestav.mx [Laboratorio de Terapia Genica, Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, CINVESTAV, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we examine miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p functions in SiHa cells. {yields} We study miRNA effect on cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, apoptosis, cell motility and invasion. {yields} We find that miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p inhibition of proliferation and anchorage independent growth are exclusive to SiHa cells. {yields} miR-34c-3p induces apoptosis and inhibits cell motility and invasion in SiHa cells. {yields} In this study we conclude that miR-34c-3p functions as a tumor suppressor differ from miR-34c-5p. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate expression of several genes associated with human cancer. Here, we analyzed the function of miR-34c, an effector of p53, in cervical carcinoma cells. Expression of either miR-34c-3p or miR-34c-5p mimics caused inhibition of cell proliferation in the HPV-containing SiHa cells but not in other cervical cells irrespective of tumorigenicity and HPV content. These results suggest that SiHa cells may lack of regulatory mechanisms for miR-34c. Monolayer proliferation results showed that miR-34c-3p produced a more pronounced inhibitory effect although both miRNAs caused inhibition of anchorage independent growth at similar extent. However, ectopic expression of pre-miR-34c-3p, but not pre-miR-34c-5p, caused S-phase arrest in SiHa cells triggering a strong dose-dependent apoptosis. A significant inhibition was observed only for miR-34c-3p on SiHa cells migration and invasion, therefore implying alternative regulatory pathways and targets. These results suggest differential tumor suppressor roles for miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p and provide new insights in the understanding of miRNA biology.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of epithelial sodium channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5P3 dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Zhang

    Full Text Available Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P3 in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS. Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC P(O; however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO . Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5P3. Moreover, BPV(pic, a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5P3 dependent pathway.

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  18. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  19. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report assesses Vietnam's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Vietnam. It is an update of the 2006 Corporate Governance ROSC for Vietnam. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, protec...

  20. 世界银行治理结构改革与中国的应对策略∗%The Reform of the World Bank Governance Structure and China’ s strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶扬; 张文

    2015-01-01

    世界银行在全球经济治理中发挥着重要作用,但随着新兴经济体的崛起和近年来金融危机、债务危机频发,世界银行治理结构所存在的制度性缺陷显露无遗,相应改革势在必行。但是,由于世界银行具有公共组织与股份公司的双重属性,使得改革方向出现分歧,改革进程推进缓慢。从根本上说,世界银行改革中发达国家与发展中国家并不存在不可调和的利益冲突,在减贫等问题上双方存在着合作的基础。中国应积极推进世界银行治理结构改革:首先,必须明确“负责任、有作为的大国”定位,表现出推动改革的积极态度;其次,要紧密围绕“发展”主题,注重长远利益;再次,要加强对世界银行人事安排的参与;最后,要积极构建世界银行框架下发展中国家沟通与合作的正式协调机制。%The World Bank plays an important role in global economic governance. With the rise of emerging economies and frequent occurrence of financial crisis, institutional defects of the World Bank ’ s governance structure become more and more apparent. Therefore, corresponding reform is imperative. The biggest obstacle to reform is that the World Bank is not only public organization but also a corporation. The dual attributes lead to the disagreement on the reform direction. However, the conflict between the developed countries and the developing countries is not irreconcilable. They can cooperate on many issues, such as alleviating poverty. China should positively promote the reform of the World Bank governance structure. Firstly, China must clear the position of“responsible and capable power” and show a positive attitude to promote the reform. Secondly, closely focus on the theme of development and concern long⁃term interests. Thirdly, step up participation of personnel arrangements in the World Bank. Finally, actively build a formal coordination mechanism