WorldWideScience

Sample records for 55 mph speed limit

  1. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

  2. Feasibility of Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks with a Road Speed Capability of 45 mph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    PURPOSE MATERIAL HANDLER ACCESSORIES DRIVE-LINE SPECIFICATIONS: (ADD-ONS TO THE BASIC UNIT) ENGINE CAB ENCLOSURE Make and Model ....... PerkinsT4.236 All...Suspension System 8-Wheel Independent Fuel Tank Capacity 50 Gals Traing Arm Drive Hydraulic Tank Capacity 25 Gals Steering Pivot T Automotive Type...current specification for headlamps conforms to the relevant SAE standards but these should be reviewed for adequacy at highway speeds. Rearview

  3. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  4. 36 CFR 4.21 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 4.21 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.21 Speed limits. (a) Park area speed limits are as follows: (1) 15 miles per hour... superintendent may designate a different speed limit upon any park road when a speed limit set forth in...

  5. 32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) The authorized speed limit in the school zones is 15 miles per hour when any of the following conditions are present: (i) A school crossing attendant is present. (ii) Children are present in the area... MPH Night Driving: Trails, 5 MPH (with headlights) Cross Country, 5 MPH Night Driving: Trails, 4...

  6. 45 CFR 3.26 - Speed limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limit. 3.26 Section 3.26 Public Welfare... INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.26 Speed limit. The speed limit is 25 miles per hour, unless otherwise posted. A driver of a vehicle may not exceed the speed limit....

  7. 36 CFR 1004.21 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 1004.21 Section... limits. (a) Speed limits in the area administered by the Presidio Trust are as follows: (1) 15 miles per... Presidio Trust roads. (b) The Board may designate a different speed limit upon any Presidio Trust road...

  8. 50 CFR 38.13 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limits. 38.13 Section 38.13 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.13 Speed limits. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will exceed the speed limit for automobiles,...

  9. 32 CFR 935.132 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 935.132 Section 935.132 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.132 Speed limits. Each person operating a motor vehicle on..., or both; and (b) That does not exceed 40 miles an hour or such lesser speed limit as may be posted....

  10. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  11. 33 CFR 401.28 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 401.28 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.28 Speed limits. (a) The maximum speed over the bottom for a vessel of more than 12 m in overall length shall be regulated so as not...

  12. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  13. High Speed 1.55 μm Lasers for Fiber Optic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Paul A.

    This paper describes the essential elements for creating a practical wide bandwidth directly modulated laser source. This includes considerations of the intrinsic limitations of the laser structure, due to the resonant frequency and damping of the laser output, together with carrier transport issues to allow carriers in the device active region to be efficiently modulated at high speeds. The use of a P-doped compressively strained multiple-quantum well active region to provide high intrinsic speed and remove transport limitations is described, together with record setting results of 25 GHz modulation bandwidth for a 1.55 μm Fabry-Perot laser and 26 GHz bandwidth for a 1.55 μm DFB laser. The challenges of providing high bandwidth electrical connections to the laser on a suitable submount, together with fiber attachment and microwave packaging are discussed. Results of fully packaged 1.55 μm DFB lasers with 25 GHz modulation bandwidth are shown. Digital modulation of the packaged 1.55 μm DFB including impedance matching is described, and the transient wavelength chirp is presented. This low chirp is reduced further using an optical filter, to provide a 10 GBit/s source that can transmit error free over 38.5 km of standard optical fiber.

  14. ‘Why do an MPH?’ Motivations and intentions of physicians undertaking postgraduate public health training at the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenthal, Virginia E.M.; Marquez, Emma; London, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background Public health (PH) approaches underpin the management and transformation of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the Master of Public Health (MPH) rarely being a prerequisite for health service employment in South Africa, many physicians pursue MPH qualifications. Objectives This study identifies their motivations and career intentions and explored MPH programme strengths and gaps in under- and post-graduate PH training. Design A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was completed by physicians graduating with an MPH between 2000 and 2009 and those enrolled in the programme in 2010 at the University of Cape Town. Results Nearly a quarter of MPH students were physicians. Of the 65 contactable physicians, 48% responded. They were mid-career physicians who wished to obtain research training (55%), who wished to gain broader perspectives on health (32%), and who used the MPH to advance careers (90%) as researchers, policy-makers, or managers. The MPH widened professional opportunities, with 62% changing jobs. They believed that inadequate undergraduate exposure should be remedied by applying PH approaches to clinical problems in community settings, which would increase the attractiveness of postgraduate PH training. Conclusions The MPH allows physicians to transition from pure clinical to research, policy and/or management work, preparing them to innovate changes for effective health systems, responsive to the health needs of populations. Limited local job options and incentives are important constraining factors. Advocacy for positions requiring qualifications and benchmarking exit competencies of programmes nationally may promote enrolment. PMID:27741958

  15. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to im

  16. Theme II. Speed limits and the driver. Advisory speed limits: Should they be expanded or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    According to Dutch legislation, advisory speed limits should only be used on curves with a small radius, although there has been an increasing demand in recent years for w wider application of advisory speed limits. The behaviour of drivers on curves and the forces working on the vehicle and its occ

  17. Time-limited optimal dynamics beyond the Quantum Speed Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Das, Kunal K.; Arlt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum speed limit sets the minimum time required to transfer a quantum system completely into a given target state. At shorter times the higher operation speed has to be paid with a loss of fidelity. Here we quantify the trade-off between the fidelity and the duration in a system driven...... by a time-varying control. The problem is addressed in the framework of Hilbert space geometry offering an intuitive interpretation of optimal control algorithms. This approach leads to a necessary criterion for control optimality applicable as a measure of algorithm convergence. The time fidelity trade......-off expressed in terms of the direct Hilbert velocity provides a robust prediction of the quantum speed limit and allows to adapt the control optimization such that it yields a predefined fidelity. The results are verified numerically in a multilevel system with a constrained Hamiltonian, and a classification...

  18. Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2013-02-01

    Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.

  19. 14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...

  20. Relationship between speed and traffic accident and speed limit on freeway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Guo-zhu; PEI Yu-long

    2008-01-01

    To develop an equation between discrete degree of speed and traffic accident on freeway in China and give reasonable suggestions of speed management, the relation model was established between speed standard deviation and accident rate per 100,000,000 vehicle kilometers by regression analysis. The model shows that the more discrete is the speed distribution, the higher is the accident rate, which provides theoretical gist for speed limit on freeway. It is suggested that speed limit should be set according to 85th percentile speed obtained by the relationship between 85th percentile speed and Rcc, (curvature change rate of single circular curve), anddifferent speed limits should be set for cars and trucks. Through analyzing spot speed data of eight freeways in China, regression models were established between 85th percentile speed and RCCs and 15th percentile speed and RCCs. Reasonable speed limit suggestion values are put forward through these models.

  1. A study of speed limits and speed control measures for the urban arterial road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichuda Satiennam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed limits in accordance with environment and road functions have been used as a fundamental tool for speed management and road safety. This paper presents literatures review of speed limits measure and results from the study on speed limits problem and driver attitude toward the speed limit and speed control measure. Area of study is on the arterial road where the Mittaprab Highway passed through Khon Kaen City. The study found that improper designation of road functions is the main cause of complexity and difficulty on safety management. It suggests more researches on speed limit setting methods to accommodate the road conditions of the country. In order to increase effectiveness of speed limits measure, this paper suggests transportation-related authorities to classify this area to be the urban arterial road, to set proper speed limits, and to modify the road environment in accordance with its function. More measures to enhance speed limit effectiveness and to reduce accident are included automatic speed control devices, speed limits warning signs, and advertisement signs to use the bypass route. These could enhance the effective speed management program.

  2. A health impact assessment of a proposed bill to decrease speed limits on local roads in Massachusetts (U.S.A.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Ito, Kate; Banay, Rachel F; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Wood, Benjamin; Arcaya, Mariana C

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing traffic speeds increases the amount of time drivers have to react to road hazards, potentially averting collisions, and makes crashes that do happen less severe. Boston's regional planning agency, the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), in partnership with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) that examined the potential health impacts of a proposed bill in the state legislature to lower the default speed limits on local roads from 30 miles per hour (mph) to 25 mph. The aim was to reduce vehicle speeds on local roads to a limit that is safer for pedestrians, cyclists, and children. The passage of this proposed legislation could have had far-reaching and potentially important public health impacts. Lower default speed limits may prevent around 18 fatalities and 1200 serious injuries to motorists, cyclists and pedestrians each year, as well as promote active transportation by making local roads feel more hospitable to cyclists and pedestrians. While a lower speed limit would increase congestion and slightly worsen air quality, the benefits outweigh the costs from both a health and economic perspective and would save the state approximately $62 million annually from prevented fatalities and injuries.

  3. Testing the Speed Limit for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gros, Daniel; Jimeno, Juan; Monticelli, Carlo;

    While America has pushed the pedal to the metal and with alarming speed has accelerated its productivity growth, it would seem that Europe on the other hand is experiencing a lack of progress in its labour markets and a deceleration in labour productivity. In this third annual report by the CEPS...

  4. 7 CFR 301.55-8 - Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits. 301.55-8 Section 301.55-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-8 Attachment and disposition of certificates and limited permits. (a)...

  5. Cost benefit analysis of 20 mph zones in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Rebecca; Cairns, John; Grundy, Chris; Edwards, Phil

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that 20 mph zones are an effective intervention to reduce casualties from road traffic crashes in urban areas. This analysis compares the costs of construction of the 20 mph zone intervention in high and low casualty areas in London to the value of casualties avoided over 5 and 10 year time horizons. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantify uncertainty in the results associated with model parameters. Results indicate a net present value (NPV) of £18 947 (90% credible limits -£75 252 to £82 021 2005 prices) after 5 years and £67 306 (£-29 157 to £137 890) after 10 years when 20 mph zones are implemented in areas with one or more casualty per kilometre of road. Simulations from our model suggest that the 'threshold of casualties' where NPVs become positive using a 10 year time horizon is 0.7 casualties per kilometre.

  6. Using Appropriate Speed Tables Regarding to the Speed Limit of Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Falamarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present decade along the increasing trend of using private vehicles, calming the local streets and residential areas has been important for local authorities. There are many unsuccessful experiences of traffic calming implementations because of lacking knowledge and engineered assessment before implementing them. Considering the design speed of traffic, calming measure is an essential factor to employ these measures. Design speed of different size of speed humps is investigated in previous studies because of its circular shape but for speed tables it is unknown. In this research the design speeds of two common speed tables in the city of Tehran have been examined, 6.5 and 8.5 m speed table. For calculating the design speed of the speed tables, we asked 220 drivers to participate in our experiment by installing a GPS tracker in their vehicles and encouraging them to drive normally. Crossing speeds over 6.5 and 8.5 m speed tables have been analyzed by collecting totally 220 samples. We pick out 100 correct samples for each speed table and the 85th percentile speed has been calculated for them, consequently the results of 85th percentile calculation of the crossing speeds have been proposed as the design speeds. For 6.5 m speed table, design speed is calculated 41.5 km/h and for 8.5 m speed table, design speed is calculated 47.5 km/h. the comparison of recent findings and past finding of 9.5 m speed table which is used in Denmark with a design speed of 80 km/h reveals that 1 m increasing with the length of a 6.5 speed table plateau will result 3 km/h increase in its design speed. The findings of this research can help traffic calming experts to take in consideration of the relation between speed table physical characteristics and its design speed. Furthermore by finding the design speed of speed tables, we can choose suitable speed tables for streets with different speed limits according to the design speed of speed tables.

  7. 47 CFR 27.55 - Power strength limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., provided that such operations complied with paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section. (b) Power flux density...-746 MHz band in accordance with the provisions of § 27.50(c)(6), the power flux density that would be... antenna mounting structure. (c) Power flux density limit for stations operating in the 746-757 MHz,...

  8. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  9. Second-generation speed limit map updating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation is an Intelligent Transport System developed to significantly improve road safety in helping car drivers maintain appropriate driving behaviour. The system works in connection with the speed limits on the road network. It is thus essential to keep the speed limit map...... developed to give road authorities the opportunity to keep the speed limit map updated. However, the feedback from road authorities was insufficient. Hence a new web application based on Google Maps was made to provide easier speed limit updates for road authorities. The lessons learnt were that tools...... for map updating should preferably be made on the basis of a commercial map provider, 2 such as Google Maps and that the real challenge is to oblige road authorities to carry out updates....

  10. Fetal MRI. Value and limitations. A review of 55 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Iimura, Fumitoshi; Kono, Tatsuo; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa [Dokkyo Univ., Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of fetal MR imaging. Fifty-five prenatal MRI examinations were performed, and the results were confirmed by postnatal follow-up or from pathological examination and clinical findings. All examinations were performed between 18 and 40 weeks of gestation without any premedication. A 1.5-Tesla superconductive MR imaging unit was used to obtain half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) images. There were two false-positive cases on US. MRI allowed the diagnosis of serious unsuspected lesions such as hypoplastic lung and anorectal malformation. MRI was also useful for the precise diagnosis of ventriculomegaly. However, MRI missed two cases of spinal dysraphism and one case of laryngotracheoesophageal cleft. Fetal MRI is a valuable complementary tool when prenatal US is inadequate or doubtful. MRI is useful for the evaluation of pulmonary hypoplasia or hydrocephalus and may modify obstetric management. MRI may be able to diagnose spinal dysraphism by detecting mild widening of the CSF space. However, MRI currently is not useful for making a differential diagnosis between laryngotracheoesophageal cleft and esophageal atresia. (author)

  11. Fundamental Speed Limits to the Generation of Quantumness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jun; Wu, Lian-Ao; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    Quantum physics dictates fundamental speed limits during time evolution. We present a quantum speed limit governing the generation of nonclassicality and the mutual incompatibility of two states connected by time evolution. This result is used to characterize the timescale required to generate a given amount of quantumness under an arbitrary physical process. The bound is found to be tight under pure dephasing dynamics. More generally, our analysis reveals the dependence on the initial and final states and non-Markovian effects.

  12. Is there a speed limit for trapped ion quantum computers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a speed limit for quantum processing for trapped ion quantum computers using the Kielpinski-Monroe-Wineland (KMW) architecture. The limiting speed for single-ion shuttling between a storage trap and a logic trap is constrained by the need to avoid excessive ion heating, excessive dephasing and decoherence due to the D.C. Stark effect. We estimate the relative significance of these errors and find that dephasing is dominant. We find that the minimum magnitude of dephasing is quadratic in the time of flight, and an inverse cubic in the operational time scale; from these relations, a limit on the operational speed of ion-trap quantum computers is deduced. Without subsequent phase correction, the maximum speed a qubit can be transferred across a 100 micron-long trap, without excessive error, in about 10 ns for calcium ion and 50 ps for beryllium ion.

  13. IMPACTS OF LOWER SPEED LIMITS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. WOOLLEY

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a more holistic assessment of such schemes taking into account factors in addition to speed and crashes including: traffic volume displacement, physical road network characteristics, environmental factors, community ownership and acceptance, enforcement effort and impact on travel times. The research work has included the analysis of extensive traffic data, community surveys and focus groups, the collection of environmental and travel time data from an instrumented probe vehicle and the computer modelling of road networks. The work reported is based on over 10 years of working with a 40km/h lower urban speed limit area in South Australia. The paper expands the notion of using speed and crash outcomes as the only criteria for measuring the success of lower speed limit schemes.

  14. Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario...... for the blocking dc-link voltage. Switching losses are analyzed upon a considerable variation of resistor value from turn-on gate driver side. Short circuit operations are investigated along with safe operating area for entire module to validate electrical capabilities under extreme conditions....

  15. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  16. Speed limits for quantum gates in multiqubit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashhab, S.; De Groot, P.C.; Nori, F.

    2012-01-01

    We use analytical and numerical calculations to obtain speed limits for various unitary quantum operations in multiqubit systems under typical experimental conditions. The operations that we consider include single-, two-, and three-qubit gates, as well as quantum-state transfer in a chain of qubits

  17. Is the Lorentz limiting speed equal to the speed of light? Photons vs neutrino tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frere, Jean-Marie; Mollet, Simon; Tytgat, Michel H.G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-11-15

    We discuss the possibility that the ''limiting speed'' c{sub limit} (c{sub l}) appearing in Lorentz equations might be different (i.e. slightly larger) than the observed speed of light c{sub n}. We show that such a possibility can be tested by state-of-the-art Michelson-Morley experiments, but also by careful measurement of neutrino speeds. It would indeed suffice to show that c{sub n} limits from both approaches are competitive, in some circumstances. We also comment on competing tests using gamma-ray burst, assuming a dispersive character for the propagation of light. (orig.)

  18. Speed limit on the Route de l’Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Construction work to create a cycle path is under way on the Route de l’Europe, between CERN’s Meyrin and Prévessin sites. The new cycle path is expected to be ready for use in August.   On the part of the road under construction, only one lane is open and the speed limit is 30 km/h. Unfortunately, drivers frequently exceed this limit. Those who drive too fast put their own lives at risk as well as those of the people working on the site.  Please respect the speed limit.  In addition, access to the Route de l’Europe from the SM18, SM19 and BA1 areas and from the tunnel may be in the part of the road where only one lane is open. In this case, please join the road only when the traffic lights allow travel in the relevant direction.

  19. Blazar Jets Push Closer to Cosmic Speed Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) have discovered jets of plasma blasted from the cores of distant galaxies at speeds within one-tenth of one percent of the speed of light, placing these plasma jets among the fastest objects yet seen in the Universe. "This tells us that the physical processes at the cores of these galaxies, called blazars, are extremely energetic and are capable of propelling matter very close to the absolute cosmic speed limit," said Glenn Piner of Whittier College in Whittier, California. Piner, who worked on the project with student Dipesh Bhattari, also of Whittier College, Philip Edwards of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Dayton Jones of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, California. According to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, no object with mass can be accelerated to the speed of light. To get even close to the speed of light requires enormous amounts of energy. "For example, to accelerate a bowling ball to the speed newly measured in these blazars would require all the energy produced in the world for an entire week," Piner said, "and the blobs of plasma in these jets are at least as massive as a large planet". Blazars are active galactic nuclei -- energetic regions surrounding massive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Material being drawn into the black hole forms a spinning disk called an accretion disk. Powerful jets of charged particles are ejected at high speeds along the poles of accretion disks. When these jets happen to be aimed nearly toward the Earth, the objects are called blazars. Taking advantage of the extremely sharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, the scientists tracked individual features in the jets of three blazars at distances from Earth ranging from 7.3 to 9 billion light-years. A Boston University team led by Svetlana Jorstad earlier had identified

  20. Speed and efficiency limits of multilevel incoherent heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, V.; Niedenzu, W.; Kofman, A. G.; Kurizki, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a comprehensive theory of heat engines (HE) based on a quantum-mechanical "working fluid" (WF) with periodically modulated energy levels. The theory is valid for any periodicity of driving Hamiltonians that commute with themselves at all times and do not induce coherence in the WF. Continuous and stroke cycles arise in opposite limits of this theory, which encompasses hitherto unfamiliar cycle forms, dubbed here hybrid cycles. The theory allows us to discover the speed, power, and efficiency limits attainable by incoherently operating multilevel HE depending on the cycle form and the dynamical regimes.

  1. Improvement on Transportation Safety on Bus by Installing A Speed Limiter in Conventional Engine to Reduce Speed Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is one of the conditions when the driver should be given special attention to make the motor vehicle in driving way and the driver should be in a good condition. However, the problem is in a certain condition the driver lost their control speed due to their target and minimize the driving time and it led the high potential to accident. Therefore, speed limiter which applied in the bus is urgently needed to reduce the accident and improve their awareness of road safety. Developed speed limiter is completed by fuel cut-off system to prevent the engine and maintain the speed. Limitation of speed be adapted by government regulation. From the results show that the highest and average speed of 136 km/h and 123.5 km/h is observed by bus speed prior to use speed limiter. After speed limiter applied in the bus, the approved maximum speed is 90 km/h. Those data approve that the speed limiter can reduce 83% from the top speed before speed limiter applied.

  2. The Limiting Speed of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor

    CERN Document Server

    Nirody, Jasmine A; Oster, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments on the bacterial flagellar motor have shown that the structure of this nanomachine, which drives locomotion in a wide range of bacterial species, is more dynamic than previously believed. Specifically, the number of active torque-generating units (stators) was shown to vary across applied loads. This finding invalidates the experimental evidence reporting that limiting (zero-torque) speed is independent of the number of active stators. Here, we propose that, contrary to previous assumptions, the maximum speed of the motor is not universal, but rather increases as additional torque-generators are recruited. This result arises from our assumption that stators disengage from the motor for a significant portion of their mechanochemical cycles at low loads. We show that this assumption is consistent with current experimental evidence and consolidate our predictions with arguments that a processive motor must have a high duty ratio at high loads.

  3. Speed-limited particle-in-cell (SLPIC) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gregory; Cary, John; Jenkins, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Speed-limited particle-in-cell (SLPIC) simulation is a new method for particle-based plasma simulation that allows increased timesteps in cases where the timestep is determined (e.g., in standard PIC) not by the smallest timescale of interest, but rather by an even smaller physical timescale that affects numerical stability. For example, SLPIC need not resolve the plasma frequency if plasma oscillations do not play a significant role in the simulation; in contrast, standard PIC must usually resolve the plasma frequency to avoid instability. Unlike fluid approaches, SLPIC retains a fully-kinetic description of plasma particles and includes all the same physical phenomena as PIC; in fact, if SLPIC is run with a PIC-compatible timestep, it is identical to PIC. However, unlike PIC, SLPIC can run stably with larger timesteps. SLPIC has been shown to be effective for finding steady-state solutions for 1D collisionless sheath problems, greatly speeding up computation despite a large ion/electron mass ratio. SLPIC is a relatively small modification of standard PIC, with no complexities that might degrade parallel efficiency (compared to PIC), and is similarly compatible with PIC field solvers and boundary conditions.

  4. Speed-of-light limitations in passive linear media

    CERN Document Server

    Welters, Aaron; Johnson, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    We prove that well-known speed of light restrictions on electromagnetic energy velocity can be extended to a new level of generality, encompassing even nonlocal chiral media in periodic geometries, while at the same time weakening the underlying assumptions to only passivity and linearity of the medium (either with a transparency window or with dissipation). As was also shown by other authors under more limiting assumptions, passivity alone is sufficient to guarantee causality and positivity of the energy density (with no thermodynamic assumptions). Our proof is general enough to include a very broad range of material properties, including anisotropy, bianisotropy (chirality), nonlocality, dispersion, periodicity, and even delta functions or similar generalized functions. We also show that the "dynamical energy density" used by some previous authors in dissipative media reduces to the standard Brillouin formula for dispersive energy density in a transparency window. The results in this paper are proved by exp...

  5. 49 CFR 213.329 - Curves, elevation and speed limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the following formula: ER22JN98.009 Where— Vmax = Maximum allowable operating speed (miles per... with this formula for various elevations and degrees of curvature for track speeds greater than 90 m.p... maximum operating speed for each curve may be determined by the following formula: ER22JN98.008...

  6. 49 CFR 213.57 - Curves; elevation and speed limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following formula— ER22JN98.001 Where— Vmax = Maximum allowable operating speed (miles per hour... appendix A is a table of maximum allowable operating speed computed in accordance with this formula for... following formula— ER22JN98.002 Where— Vmax = Maximum allowable operating speed (miles per hour)....

  7. Speeding Up Simulations By Slowing Down Particles: Speed-Limited Particle-In-Cell Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is often impractical for the same reason that it is powerful: it includes too much physics. Sometimes the mere ability to simulate physics on small length or time scales requires those scales to be resolved (by the cell size and timestep) to avoid instability, even when the effects at those scales contribute negligibly to the phenomenon motivating the simulation. For example, a timestep larger than the inverse plasma frequency will often result in unphysical growth of plasma oscillations, even in simulations where plasma oscillations should not arise at all. Larger timesteps are possible in simulations based on reduced physics models, such as MHD or gyrokinetics, or in simulations with implicit time-advances. A new method, speed-limited PIC (SLPIC) simulation, allows larger timesteps without reduced physics and with an explicit time-advance. The SLPIC method slows down fast particles while still accurately representing the particle distribution. SLPIC is valid when fields and...

  8. Yeast Mph1 helicase dissociates Rad51-made D-loops: implications for crossover control in mitotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Rohit; Satory, Dominik; Dray, Eloïse; Papusha, Almas; Scheller, Jürgen; Kramer, Wilfried; Krejci, Lumir; Klein, Hannah; Haber, James E; Sung, Patrick; Ira, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotes possess mechanisms to limit crossing over during homologous recombination, thus avoiding possible chromosomal rearrangements. We show here that budding yeast Mph1, an ortholog of human FancM helicase, utilizes its helicase activity to suppress spontaneous unequal sister chromatid exchanges and DNA double-strand break-induced chromosome crossovers. Since the efficiency and kinetics of break repair are unaffected, Mph1 appears to channel repair intermediates into a noncrossover pathway. Importantly, Mph1 works independently of two other helicases-Srs2 and Sgs1-that also attenuate crossing over. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we find targeting of Mph1 to double-strand breaks in cells. Purified Mph1 binds D-loop structures and is particularly adept at unwinding these structures. Importantly, Mph1, but not a helicase-defective variant, dissociates Rad51-made D-loops. Overall, the results from our analyses suggest a new role of Mph1 in promoting the noncrossover repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

  9. 49 CFR 213.9 - Classes of track: operating speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of track: operating speed limits. 213.9... speed limits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and §§ 213.57(b), 213.59(a), 213.113(a), and 213.137(b) and (c), the following maximum allowable operating speeds apply— Over...

  10. Exploring the quantum speed limit with computer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob W. H.; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael; Haikka, Pinja; Jensen, Jesper Halkjær; Planke, Tilo; Andreasen, Morten Ginnerup; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Mølmer, Klaus; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2016-04-01

    Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science (or crowd sourcing) is a way of exploiting this ability by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. ‘Gamification’—the application of game elements in a non-game context—is an effective tool with which to enable citizen scientists to provide solutions to research problems. The citizen science games Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire have been used successfully to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping, but so far gamification has not been applied to problems in quantum physics. Here we report on Quantum Moves, an online platform gamifying optimization problems in quantum physics. We show that human players are able to find solutions to difficult problems associated with the task of quantum computing. Players succeed where purely numerical optimization fails, and analyses of their solutions provide insights into the problem of optimization of a more profound and general nature. Using player strategies, we have thus developed a few-parameter heuristic optimization method that efficiently outperforms the most prominent established numerical methods. The numerical complexity associated with time-optimal solutions increases for shorter process durations. To understand this better, we produced a low-dimensional rendering of the optimization landscape. This rendering reveals why traditional optimization methods fail near the quantum speed limit (that is, the shortest process duration with perfect fidelity). Combined analyses of optimization landscapes and heuristic solution strategies may benefit wider classes of optimization problems in quantum physics and beyond.

  11. Exploring the quantum speed limit with computer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob W H; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael; Haikka, Pinja; Jensen, Jesper Halkjær; Planke, Tilo; Andreasen, Morten Ginnerup; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Mølmer, Klaus; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F

    2016-04-14

    Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science (or crowd sourcing) is a way of exploiting this ability by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. 'Gamification'--the application of game elements in a non-game context--is an effective tool with which to enable citizen scientists to provide solutions to research problems. The citizen science games Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire have been used successfully to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping, but so far gamification has not been applied to problems in quantum physics. Here we report on Quantum Moves, an online platform gamifying optimization problems in quantum physics. We show that human players are able to find solutions to difficult problems associated with the task of quantum computing. Players succeed where purely numerical optimization fails, and analyses of their solutions provide insights into the problem of optimization of a more profound and general nature. Using player strategies, we have thus developed a few-parameter heuristic optimization method that efficiently outperforms the most prominent established numerical methods. The numerical complexity associated with time-optimal solutions increases for shorter process durations. To understand this better, we produced a low-dimensional rendering of the optimization landscape. This rendering reveals why traditional optimization methods fail near the quantum speed limit (that is, the shortest process duration with perfect fidelity). Combined analyses of optimization landscapes and heuristic solution strategies may benefit wider classes of optimization problems in quantum physics and beyond.

  12. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  13. Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakubka, Florian; Heyder, Madeleine; Machui, Florian;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic...... semiconductor inks relevant for organic solar cells. The coating stability window was first determined experimentally by a sheet to sheet coater at velocities of up to 10 m/min. A numerical simulation model based on the Coating Window Suite 2010 software was established to give insight into the coating......-xylene and tetrahydronaphthalene showed the possibility of coating speeds up to 60 m/min. The simulation further revealed the maximum coating head distances for a given wet film thickness. Finally, we show a solar-cell with slot-die coated PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM-layer based on the parameters obtained by the simulated data, which...

  14. Phase transition on speed limit traffic with slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xing-Li; Song Tao; Kuang Hua; Dai Shi-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Through introducing a generalized optimal speed function to consider spatial position, slope grade and variable safe headway, the effect of slope in a single-lane highway on the traffic flow is investigated with the extended optimal speed model. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the flux of the whole road with the upgrade (or downgrade) increases linearly with density, saturates at a critical density, then maintains this saturated value in a certain density range and finally decreases with density. The value of saturated flux is equal to the maximum flux of the upgrade (or downgrade) without considering the slight influence of the driver's sensitivity. And the fundamental diagrams also depend on sensitivity, slope grade and slope length. The spatiotemporal pattern gives the segregation of different traffic phases caused by the rarefaction wave and the shock wave under a certain initial vehicle number.A comparison between the upgrade and the downgrade indicates that the value of saturated flux of the downgrade is larger than that of the upgrade under the same condition. This result is in accordance with the real traffic.

  15. Improving Road Safety of Tank Truck in Indonesia by Speed Limiter Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank truck in order to improve safety engineering system, decrease accident and to maintain engine performance. This research is conducted in Indonesia especially in Java-Bali route travel. Speed limiter is installed to the tank truck engine which completed by fuel cut-off solenoid to reduce the speed automatically when it exceeding the maximum speed that has been determined. From the result shows that top speed which performed by driver up to 133 km/h when tank truck uninstalled by speed limiter. Meanwhile, when speed limiter is installed to the tank truck, top speed locked at 70 km/h even though the driver want to speed up. It means that fuel cut-off system is very effective to lock the speed at 70 km/h and it shown the improvement up to 65%. The monitoring activities observed that the decreasing number of fatalities caused by tank truck accident become 7% as compared to last year of 17%. It can be found that the speed limiter coupled by speed recorder was very efficient to improve safety engineering system of the tank truck.

  16. Using business plan development as a capstone project for MPH programs in Canada: validation through the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Andrew; Britten, Nicole; Hatcher, Meghan; Rainville, Keira

    2013-10-01

    Master of Public Health (MPH) programs have been developed across Canada as a response to the need for adequately trained individuals to work in the public health sector. Educational institutions that deliver MPH programs have a responsibility to ensure that graduates of their program have the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes to begin a successful career in public health. The Public Health Agency of Canada has created the core competencies for public health to guide the development, delivery and evaluation of MPH programs. In Canada, a capstone project is the recommended method of evaluating the MPH graduate's ability to demonstrate proficiency in the public health core competencies. A business plan that develops the framework for a public health program is an ideal capstone project currently used in practice within the University of Guelph MPH program. This group assignment incorporates all 36 of the public health core competencies while providing students with a real-world public health experience, and should be considered for inclusion within MPH programs across Canada. Business planning provides students the opportunity to engage in practice-based learning, applying theoretical knowledge to practice. Further, the ability to develop realistic but financially feasible public health problems is an invaluable skill for MPH graduates. As the development of programs becomes more restricted and the continuation of other programs are under constant threat, the ability to develop a sound business plan is a required skill for individuals entering the public health sector, and will ensure students are able to maximize outcomes given tight fiscal budgets and limited resources.

  17. Improving Road Safety of Tank Truck in Indonesia by Speed Limiter Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto Hadi; Leman A.M; Baba Ishak; Feriyanto Dafit; Putra Gama Widya

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank tru...

  18. Improving transition between power optimization and power limitation of variable speed/variable pitch wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Bindner, H. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Rebsdorf, A. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The paper summarises and describes the main results of a recently performed study of improving the transition between power optimization and power limitation for variable speed/variable pitch wind turbines. The results show that the capability of varying the generator speed also can be exploited in the transition stage to improve the quality of the generated power. (au)

  19. Rotor aerodynamic power limits at low tip speed ratio using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sarmast, Sasan; Henningson, Dan;

    2014-01-01

    . In the present work we study in detail, using a CFD actuator line model, the flow behavior for rotors at small tip speed ratios. It is shown that the excessive swirl appearing towards the rotor center at small tip speed ratios generates vortex breakdown, causing a recirculating zone in the wake that limits...... the power yield of the rotor. The appearance of vortex breakdown has a similar effect on the flow behavior as the vortex ring state that usually appears at higher tip speed ratios. Limits to where vortex breakdown might occur with tip speed ratio and rotor loading as parameter are investigated and presented...... in the paper. The limits found correspond to well-known criterion for vortex breakdown onset for swirling flows in general. By applying a criterion for vortex breakdown in combination with the general momentum theory, the power performance always stays below the Betz limit....

  20. CHANGING ATTITUDES OF SPEED-LIMIT OFFENDERS USING A MULTIMEDIA PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J.J.M. STEYVERS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An interactive multimedia computer program was developed to change speed-limit offenders' attitudes with respect to speeding. The computer program is meant to be used during speed controls; the offender may be remitted a part of the fine by completing the program. The objective of the program is to make speeders aware of the negative implications of their behavior and to change their attitude negatively towards offending speed limits. To attain this goal, offenders are confronted with possible negative consequences of speeding while their arguments for speeding are refuted, using small video-clips, demonstrations of counter-arguments and short verbal stories. The effects of this multimedia program were studied in a laboratory evaluation, in terms of knowledge and attitudes, compared with two information conditions, a general leaflet about traffic, and a specific leaflet about speeding. One week after participation in the study subjects were sent a questionnaire, to measure whether changes in knowledge and attitudes were retained afterwards. It appeared that the general attitude towards speeding was changed most in the multimedia program condition, subjects became more negative towards speeding and various related aspects. The specific speeding leaflet appeared to influence the attitude towards driving fun positively and obeying traffic rules negatively, which are unwanted directions. With regard to knowledge of speeding and its consequences the computer program did not do better than the other conditions. However, the subjects considered the program more impressive than the leaflet conditions and indicated that they would consent to participate when being stopped in real speeding conditions.

  1. Evaluating the time limit at maximum aerobic speed in elite swimmers. Training implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, J C

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to make use of the concepts of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and time limit (tlim) in order to determine the relationship between these two elements, and this in an attempt to significantly improve both speed and swimming performance during a training season. To this same end, an intermittent training model was used, which was adapted to the value obtained for the time limit at maximum aerobic speed. During a 12 week training period, the maximum aerobic speed for a group of 9 top-ranking varsity swimmers was measured on two occasions, as was the tlim. The values generated indicated that: 1) there was an inverse relationship between MAS and the time this speed could be maintained, thus confirming the studies by Billat et al. (1994b); 2) a significant increase in MAS occurred over the 12 week period, although no such evolution was seen for the tlim; 3) there was an improvement in results; 4) the time limit could be used in designing a training program based on intermittent exercises. In addition, results of the present study should allow swimming coaches to draw up individualized training programs for a given swimmer by taking into consideration maximum aerobic speed, time limit and propelling efficiency.

  2. NEW TYPE OF LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL WITH THREE-PITCH FLUCTUATING SPEED RATIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; WANG Xiaochun

    2008-01-01

    A type of three-pitch fluctuating speed ratio limited-slip differential (TPLSD) is presented for the first time, analyzed its working principle, introduced the tooth profile design method of using non-involute tooth profile and separated tooth profile design along the pitch line. Performance comparison between vehicles equipped with three-pitch fluctuating speed ratio limited-slip differential and common open differential is finished. The data from experiments prove that three-pitch fluctuating speed ratio limited-slip differential can increase the traction of a vehicle, improve its acceleration performance, decrease braking distance and limit sideslip. The basic structure of new differential is the same of open differential, the only difference is that they have different tooth profile, so the new differential has a high performance price.

  3. MPH-Induced Changes in Right Frontal Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The effects of methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that increases dopamine, on brain glucose metabolism in 20 cocaine abusers was studied using PET scans and measurements of D2 receptors at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and New York University, NY.

  4. Determination of Fe-55 and Ni-63 in Environmental Samples. Analytical Problems. Characteristic Limits. Automatized Calculation; Determinacion de 55{sup F}e y 63{sup N}i en Muestras Ambientales. Problemas Analiticos. Limites Caracteristicos. Calculo Automatizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Gonzalez, P.; Heras, M. C.; Gapan, M. P.; Alonso, C.; Calderon, A.; Sanchez, D.; Morante, R.; Fernandez, M.; Gajate, A.; Alvarez, A.

    2008-08-06

    The Department of Vigilance Radiologica y Radiactividad Ambiental from CIEMAT has developed an appropriate analytical methodology for Fe-55 and Ni-63 sequential determination in environmental samples based on the procedure used by RIS0 Laboratories. The experimental results obtained in the mayor and minor elements behaviour (soil and air constituents) in the different types of resins used for separating Fe-55 and Ni-63 are showed in this report. The measuring method of both isotopes by scintillation counting has been optimized with Ultima Gold liquid with different concentrations of stable element Fe and Ni. The decontamination factors of different gamma-emitters are experimentally determined in this method with the presence of soil matrix. The Fe-55 and Ni-63 activity concentrations and their associated uncertainties have been calculated from the counting data and sample preparation. A computer application has been implemented in Visual Basic in excel sheets for: (I) obtaining the counting data from spectrometer and counts in each window, (II) representing graphically the background and sample spectrums, (III) determining the activity concentration and its associated uncertainty and (IV) calculating the characteristic limits using ISO 11929 (2007) with various confidence levels. (Author) 30 refs.

  5. Waveless ships in the low speed limit: Results for multi-cornered hulls

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Philippe H

    2015-01-01

    In the low-speed limit, a blunt ship modeled as two-dimensional semi-infinite body with a single corner can never be made waveless. This was the conclusion of the previous part of our work in Trinh et al. (2011), which focused on the Dagan & Tulin (1972) model of ship waves in the low speed limit. In this accompanying paper, we continue our investigations with the study of more general, piecewise-linear, or multi-cornered ships. The low-speed or low-Froude limit, coupled with techniques in exponential asymptotics allows us to derive explicit formulae relating the geometry of the hull to the form of the waves. Configurations with closely spaced corners present a non-trivial extension of the theory, and we present the general methodology for their study. Lastly, numerical computations of the nonlinear ship-wave problem are presented in order to confirm the analytical predictions.

  6. Advisory speed limits : should they be expanded or not? Contribution XVth International Study Week Traffic Engineering and safety: Traffic engineering & the Driver, Theme 2: Speed limits and the driver, Venice, 23-28 September 1985.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Advisory speed limits are meant to be used intermittently in situations which are recognised by the road user, while at the same time, not giving a clear suggestion as to the speed which should be sustained. At present advisory speed limits are almost exclusively applied in narrow road curves. Th

  7. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, J -P; Bellini, V; Beretta, M; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Lehnert, R; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the ESRF's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropiesrepresenting the first non-threshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal Standard-Model Extension,this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6 x 10^{-14} at 95 % confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients

  8. Limit speed of particles in a non-homogeneous electric field under friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cano, A [Departamento de Algebra, Facultad de CC. Matematicas, UCM (Spain); Gonzalez-Gascon, F [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, UCM (Spain)

    2007-12-14

    It is shown that under certain conditions the limit speed of electric charges moving in a space of type R{sup n} of dimension one or two, under isotropic friction, is preserved under some perturbations. These results hold when relativistic equations of motion are considered.

  9. Development of an algorithm for using weather-dependent dynamic speed limits to enhance safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, E.; Klunder, G.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Rooy, R. de

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing research project in the Netherlands for lowering the speed limit, depending on the weather condition (in particular rain) to enhance traffic safety. The research in this project consists of three main parts. In the first part, research has been conducted on the strate

  10. 49 CFR 213.307 - Class of track: operating speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material, as defined at 49 CFR 171.8, except as provided in Column 9A of the Hazardous Materials Table (49 CFR 172.101) for movement in the same train as a passenger-carrying vehicle or in Column 9B of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class of track: operating speed limits....

  11. SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE WORK OF SPEED LIMITER IN LINE STRAINING SYSTEM IN A FRICTIONAL LIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lonkwic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of selected work parameters of speed limiter in line straining system. We analyzed the effect of changing the geometrical conditions of the new solution for the speed limiter in line straining system upon the working conditions in frictional lift braking system. Within the conducted simulations of the work of the system, which is responsible for lift braking with a tension with spring, a test bed was prepared, which simulated the work of tension-rope-limiter system. The tests were performed in the conditions reflecting the work of a lifting appliance. Analyzing the results obtained through empirical calculations, we can conclude that there is a possibility of applying the spring to eliminate the weight.

  12. An evaluation of speed limit measure: A case of the Mittraphap highway passing through Khon Kaen city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongphan Tankasem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the speed control measure on the arterial road of Khon Kaen city. The 60 km/hr speed limit was posted on the urban arterial since 2012. To reveal the existing conditions, this study analyzed the accident data, speed data and enforcement data. Driver’s and government officer’s attitudes toward the existing speed control measures are captured through the questionnaires survey and interview processes, respectively. The study results reveal that under the existing road environment, the drivers disagree with the posted 60 km/h speed limit and it cannot be enforced by the police. However, 1-year of speed control program significantly reduces the number of traffic injuries and fatalities. Spot speed study revealed that most of drivers reduced their speed once they saw the police with the radar gun. 86% of drivers agree with the speed control measure and 93% of drivers aware that driving speed is related to safety. Therefore, to support the existing speed control measure, this study suggests that the responsible authorities should consider and study for the suitable speed limit for the area and modify the road geometries accordingly. Besides, installing automatic speed enforcement devices, and continuing public campaign directly to the risk groups could also increase the effectiveness of the program.

  13. Limits on light-speed anisotropies from Compton scattering of high-energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, J-P; Moricciani, D; Bellini, V; Beretta, M; Casano, L; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Gurzadyan, V G; Kashin, A; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Lehnert, R; Levi Sandri, P; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Nedorezov, V; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Rudnev, N; Russo, G; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-06-18

    The possibility of anisotropies in the speed of light relative to the limiting speed of electrons is considered. The absence of sidereal variations in the energy of Compton-edge photons at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility's GRAAL facility constrains such anisotropies representing the first nonthreshold collision-kinematics study of Lorentz violation. When interpreted within the minimal standard-model extension, this result yields the two-sided limit of 1.6×10(-14) at 95% confidence level on a combination of the parity-violating photon and electron coefficients (κ(o+))(YZ), (κ(o+))(ZX), c(TX), and c(TY). This new constraint provides an improvement over previous bounds by 1 order of magnitude.

  14. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

  15. Exploring the impact of a coordinated variable speed limit control on congestion distribution in freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, urban freeway congestion has been highly recognized as a serious and worsening traffic problem in the world. To relieve freeway congestion, several active traffic and demand management (ATDM methods have been developed. Among them, variable speed limit (VSL aims at regulating freeway mainline flow upstream to meet existing capacity and to harmonize vehicle speed. However, congestion may still be inevitable even with VSL implemented due to extremely high demand in actual practice. This study modified an existing VSL strategy by adding a new local constraint to suggest an achievable speed limit during the control period. As a queue is a product of the congestion phenomenon in freeway, the incentives of a queue build-up in the applied coordinated VSL control situation were analyzed. Considering a congestion occurrence (a queue build-up characterized by a sudden and sharp speed drop, speed contours were utilized to demonstrate the congestion distribution over a whole freeway network in various scenarios. Finally, congestion distributions found in both VSL control and non-VS control situations for various scenarios were investigated to explore the impact of the applied coordinated VSL control on the congestion distribution. An authentic stretch of Whitemud Drive (WMD, an urban freeway corridor in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, was employed to implement this modified coordinated VSL control strategy; and a calibrated micro-simulation VISSIM model (model functions was applied as the substitute of the real-world traffic system to test the above mentioned performance. The exploration task in this study can lay the groundwork for future research on how to improve the presented VSL control strategy for achieving the congestion mitigation effect on freeway.

  16. Inficon Transpector MPH Mass Spectrometer Random Vibration Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Bond, Jo; Captain, Janine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this test report is to summarize results from the vibration testing of the INFICON Transpector MPH100M model Mass Spectrometer. It also identifies requirements satisfied, and procedures used in the test. As a payload of Resource Prospector, it is necessary to determine the survivability of the mass spectrometer to proto-qualification level random vibration. Changes in sensitivity of the mass spectrometer can be interpreted as a change in alignment of the instrument. The results of this test will be used to determine any necessary design changes as the team moves forward with flight design.

  17. No speed limits in medical imaging and high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rita Giuffredi & Tom Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Speed, or high time resolution, is becoming increasingly important, if not crucial, in the high-energy physics domain, both for particle acceleration and detection systems. Medical-imaging technology also vitally depends on high time resolution detection techniques, often the offspring of today’s large particle physics experiments. The four-year FP7 Marie Curie Training Project “PicoSEC-MCNet”, which draws to a close at the end of November, was designed to develop ultra-fast photon detectors for applications in both domains. The project has achieved important results that promise to trigger further developments in the years to come.   The PicoSEC-MCNet project participants. “New requirements in high-energy physics force us to push the limits of photon detection speed, as future high-luminosity accelerators will force us to cope with the unprecedentedly short bunch crossing intervals needed to produce sufficient luminosity,” explains Tom M...

  18. Development of control strategy of variable speed limits for improving traffic operations at freeway bottlenecks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 刘攀; 王炜; 徐铖铖

    2014-01-01

    A control strategy of variable speed limits (VSL) was developed to reduce the travel time at freeway recurrent bottleneck areas. The proposed control strategy particularly focused on preventing the capacity drop and increasing the discharge flow. A cell transmission model (CTM) was developed to evaluate the effects of the proposed VSL control strategy on the traffic operations. The results show that the total travel time is reduced by 25.5% and the delay is reduced by 56.1%. The average travel speed is increased by 34.3% and the queue length is reduced by 31.0%. The traffic operation is improved by the proposed VSL control strategy. The way to use the proposed VSL control strategy in different types of freeway bottlenecks was also discussed by considering different traffic flow characteristics. It is concluded that the VSL control strategy is effective for merge bottlenecks but is less effective for diverge bottlenecks.

  19. Limits to high-speed simulations of spiking neural networks using general-purpose computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann eZenke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand how the central nervous system performs computations using recurrent neuronal circuitry, simulations have become an indispensable tool for theoretical neuroscience. To study neuronal circuits and their ability to self-organize, increasing attention has been directed towards synaptic plasticity. In particular spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP creates specific demands for simulations of spiking neural networks. On the one hand a high temporal resolution is required to capture the millisecond timescale of typical STDP windows. On the other hand network simulations have to evolve over hours up to days, to capture the timescale of long-term plasticity. To do this efficiently, fast simulation speed is the crucial ingredient rather than large neuron numbers. Using different medium-sized network models consisting of several thousands of neurons and off-the-shelf hardware, we compare the simulation speed of the simulators: Brian, NEST and Neuron as well as our own simulator Auryn. Our results show that real-time simulations of different plastic network models are possible in parallel simulations in which numerical precision is not a primary concern. Even so, the speed-up margin of parallelism is limited and boosting simulation speeds beyond one tenth of real-time is difficult. By profiling simulation code we show that the run times of typical plastic network simulations encounter a hard boundary. This limit is partly due to latencies in the inter-process communications and thus cannot be overcome by increased parallelism. Overall these results show that to study plasticity in medium-sized spiking neural networks, adequate simulation tools are readily available which run efficiently on small clusters. However, to run simulations substantially faster than real-time, special hardware is a prerequisite.

  20. Optimization of cold rolling process parameters in order to increasing rolling speed limited by chatter vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Ali; Forouzan, Mohammad R

    2013-01-01

    Chatter has been recognized as major restriction for the increase in productivity of cold rolling processes, limiting the rolling speed for thin steel strips. It is shown that chatter has close relation with rolling conditions. So the main aim of this paper is to attain the optimum set points of rolling to achieve maximum rolling speed, preventing chatter to occur. Two combination methods were used for optimization. First method is done in four steps: providing a simulation program for chatter analysis, preparing data from simulation program based on central composite design of experiment, developing a statistical model to relate system tendency to chatter and rolling parameters by response surface methodology, and finally optimizing the process by genetic algorithm. Second method has analogous stages. But central composite design of experiment is replaced by Taguchi method and response surface methodology is replaced by neural network method. Also a study on the influence of the rolling parameters on system stability has been carried out. By using these combination methods, new set points were determined and significant improvement achieved in rolling speed.

  1. Psychosocial Predictors of Compliance with Speed Limits and Alcohol Limits by Spanish Drivers: Modeling Compliance of Traffic Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Bautista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To prevent dangerous driving behaviors, the Spanish government has implemented public policies focused primarily on increasing the harshness of sanctions for violations of traffic laws. However, empirical evidence has demonstrated that other factors, such as social norms and one’s own value system, have an impact on people’s motivation to obey the law. A telephone survey was administered to a random sample of 570 Spanish drivers in order to determine the role played by each of these factors in compliance with two of the most flouted traffic rules. Logistic regression of the data allowed for the construction of models and arrive at the following conclusions: (1 social influence exerted by the reference group is a determining factor in compliance with both traffic laws; (2 legitimacy factors play an important role in complying with alcohol limits; and (3 variables from the deterrence approach only influenced compliance with speed limits, and then only moderately. The results of the present study suggest a need for a review of current public policy approaches for the prevention of dangerous driving behaviors.

  2. Modeling Speed Limit Offenders in Mauritius Using Symmetric and Asymmetric GARCH Models: From Financial Modeling to Traffic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranarain Ramlall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have adopted important policies in view of curbing the number of injuries/fatal road accidents with the most important being speed limit enforcement. In that respect, Mauritius has recently embarked on a strategy of using cameras in view of detecting violations to speed limits. However, the empirical literature on speed limit offenders is still very poor in terms of modeling. In essence, this paper constitutes the very first study that provides sound econometric modeling for speed limit offenders. Findings suggest that vanilla GARCH can be used to model the number of speed limit offenders. Above all, leverage effects are also noted, clearly showing the importance of the type of traffic flow of speed limit offenders which underpins the non-compliance/breach to speed limits. Furthermore, results show the presence of strong weekend effects as confirmed by the dummy variable. The research is expected to provide a momentum in the use of GARCH models for traffic modeling not only for Mauritius but also for other countries in the world.

  3. Quantum speed limits of a qubit system interacting with a nonequilibrium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei; Li, Li; Wang, Qiong

    2016-08-01

    The speed of evolution of a qubit undergoing a nonequilibrium environment with spectral density of general ohmic form is investigated. First we reveal non-Markovianity of the model, and find that the non-Markovianity quantified by information backflow of Breuer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210401 (2009)] displays a nonmonotonic behavior for different values of the ohmicity parameter s in fixed other parameters and the maximal non-Markovianity can be achieved at a specified value s. We also find that the non-Markovianity displays a nonmonotonic behavior with the change of a phase control parameter. Then we further discuss the relationship between quantum speed limit (QSL) time and non-Markovianity of the open-qubit system for any initial states including pure and mixed states. By investigation, we find that the QSL time of a qubit with any initial states can be expressed by a simple factorization law: the QSL time of a qubit with any qubit-initial states are equal to the product of the coherence of the initial state and the QSL time of maximally coherent states, where the QSL time of the maximally coherent states are jointly determined by the non-Markovianity, decoherence factor and a given driving time. Moreover, we also find that the speed of quantum evolution can be obviously accelerated in the wide range of the ohmicity parameter, i.e., from sub-Ohmic to Ohmic and super-Ohmic cases, which is different from the thermal equilibrium environment case. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61505053 and 61475045), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China(Grant No. 2015JJ3092), the School Foundation from the Hunan University of Arts and Science (Grant No. 14ZD01), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Information Integration and Optical Manufacturing Technology of Hunan Province, China, and the Construction Program of the Key Discipline in Hunan University of Arts and Science (Optics).

  4. Relationship between quantum speed limit time and memory time in a photonic-band-gap environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wu, Y. N.; Mo, M. L.; Zhang, H. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Non-Markovian effect is found to be able to decrease the quantum speed limit (QSL) time, and hence to enhance the intrinsic speed of quantum evolution. Although a reservoir with larger degree of non-Markovianity may seem like it should cause smaller QSL times, this seemingly intuitive thinking may not always be true. We illustrate this by investigating the QSL time of a qubit that is coupled to a two-band photonic-band-gap (PBG) environment. We show how the QSL time is influenced by the coherent property of the reservoir and the band-gap width. In particular, we find that the decrease of the QSL time is not attributed to the increasing non-Markovianity, while the memory time of the environment can be seen as an essential reflection to the QSL time. So, the QSL time provides a further insight and sharper identification of memory time in a PBG environment. We also discuss a feasible experimental realization of our prediction.

  5. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  6. Effects of vehicle-pedestrian interaction and speed limit on traffic performance of intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-10-01

    The intersection model consisting of vehicle model, pedestrian model, pedestrian-vehicle interaction model and intersection rules has been presented in this paper. The well-established vehicle and pedestrian movement models in the literature are combined and applied to the intersection system with additional rules. Extensive numerical simulations with different scenarios are carried out. The effects of road speed limit, vehicle arrival rate, pedestrian regularity rate and vehicle rational rate on the intersection performance are quantitatively investigated. Three measures of the traffic performance are studied including transportation efficiency, energy economy and traffic safety. We have found that the energy economy can be achieved with the high transportation efficiency, and that the traffic safety is in conflict with the efficiency. Furthermore, we have found that the pedestrian interference makes the intersection performance worse, resulting in lower transportation efficiency, more energy consumptions and higher safety risk.

  7. Fundamental High-Speed Limits in Single-Molecule, Single-Cell, and Nanoscale Force Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Force spectroscopy is enhancing our understanding of single-biomolecule, single-cell, and nanoscale mechanics. Force spectroscopy postulates the proportionality between the interaction force and the instantaneous probe deflection. By studying the probe dynamics, we demonstrate that the total force acting on the probe has three different components: the interaction, the hydrodynamic, and the inertial. The amplitudes of those components depend on the ratio between the resonant frequency and the frequency at which the data are measured. A force–distance curve provides a faithful measurement of the interaction force between two molecules when the inertial and hydrodynamic components are negligible. Otherwise, force spectroscopy measurements will underestimate the value of unbinding forces. Neglecting the above force components requires the use of frequency ratios in the 50–500 range. These ratios will limit the use of high-speed methods in force spectroscopy. The theory is supported by numerical simulations. PMID:27359243

  8. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  9. Momentum of electromagnetic fields, speed of light in moving media, and the photon mass

    CERN Document Server

    Spavieri, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    In both the equations for matter and light wave propagation, the momentum of the electromagnetic fields Pe reflects the relevant em interaction. As a review of some applications of wave propagation properties, an optical experiment which tests the speed of light in moving rarefied gases is described. Moreover, Pe is also the link to the unitary vision of the quantum effects of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) type, which provide a useful quantum approach for the limit of the photon mass mph. A bench-top experiment based on effects of the AB type that exploit new interferometric techniques, is foreseen to yield the limit mph = 10^-54 g, a value that improves upon the results achieved with other approaches.

  10. Mte1 interacts with Mph1 and promotes crossover recombination and telomere maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina; Altmannova, Veronika; Luke-Glaser, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    , Mte1 (Mph1-associated telomere maintenance protein 1) binds directly to DNA with a preference for branched molecules such a D loops and fork structures. In addition, Mte1 stimulates the helicase and fork regression activities of Mph1 while inhibiting the ability of Mph1 to dissociate recombination...... intermediates. Deletion of MTE1 reduces crossover recombination and suppresses the sensitivity of mph1Δ mutant cells to replication stress. Mph1 and Mte1 interdependently colocalize at DNA damage-induced foci and dysfunctional telomeres, and MTE1 deletion results in elongated telomeres. Taken together, our data...... indicate that Mte1 plays a role in regulation of crossover recombination, response to replication stress, and telomere maintenance....

  11. A Brief Analysis of the Action Speed of the Elevator Speed Limiter%浅析电梯用限速器的动作速度要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓金; 段志梅; 周莎

    2015-01-01

    根据《电梯制造与安装安全规范(GB7588-2003)》中对限速器动作速度的要求,通过数学公式描述的方式,详细分析了在限速器-安全钳系统(轿厢下行超速保护装置)中以及轿厢上行超速保护装置中的限速器动作速度要求。数学公式的描述简单明了、通俗易懂。%According to the requirement of speed limiter action speed in GB7588-2003, The article detailed analyzed the action speed of the speed limiter in the car downward overspeed protection device and car upgoing overspeed protection device by the way of mathematical formula. The merits of the mathematical formulas are simple and clear, popular and easy to understand.

  12. Modeling and analyzing traffic safety perceptions: An application to the speed limit reduction pilot project in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; El-Bassiouni, Mohamed Yahia

    2013-03-01

    To address the speeding problem in residential areas, the City of Edmonton initiated a pilot project to reduce the posted speed limit from 50km/h to 40km/h within six residential communities. This paper investigates the community perceptions of traffic safety within the six pilot communities in two phases: prior to project initiation (pre-pilot) and following the end of the project (post-pilot). This objective was accomplished by analyzing the results of two random dialing telephone surveys comprising 300 residents each. A preliminary analysis showed compatible demographic configurations for the two samples and confirmed that the residents were aware of both the posted speed limits and the adopted speed management controls. For the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a two-group (pre-pilot and post-pilot) three-factor model was used to assess the residents' perceptions of the speeding behavior (Speeding), their concerns about traffic safety issues (Concerns), and their perceptions of traffic safety (Safety). Comparing the CFA results of the post-pilot survey versus those of the pre-pilot survey, it was evident that there was a significant decrease in Speeding and Concerns accompanied by a significant increase in Safety. A structural equations model (SEM) was also fitted to the data in order to assess the impact of Speeding and Concerns on Safety. The results showed that Concerns increase significantly with Speeding, and that both factors have significant negative impacts on Safety. However, while the impact of Concerns on Safety was direct, that of Speeding on Safety was largely indirect (i.e., mediated through Concerns). Overall, the multivariate analysis has demonstrated that the pilot project was successful in improving the residents' perceptions of traffic safety in their community.

  13. Modeling the Driver's Recognitive Characteristics to Crossing Pedestrians at Night for the Maximum Speed Limit and Lighting Index in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the number of crashes caused by speeding at night on road section with a crosswalk, a study was conducted on the maximum speed limit and safe average luminance at night. In order to investigate the potential relationship between drivers’ recognitive characteristics and driving speed under different road lighting features, data of remaining driving time (period from the time that crossing pedestrian is recognized to the time that vehicle arrives at crosswalk with an uniform speed were recorded. The results of the data analysis show that it is more difficult for divers to recognize crossing pedestrian at night when a single pedestrian is statistic and wears dark clothes. The remaining driving time decreases with the increase of driving speed and the decrease of road luminance. With the collected data, several multivariate nonlinear regression models were established to capture the relationship among the variables of remaining driving time at night, the driving speed, and the average luminance. Then the modeling results were used to develop the reasonable speed limit and safe average luminance by physical equations. The case studies are also introduced at the end of the paper.

  14. Effects of heterogeneous traffic with speed limit zone on the car accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoug, R.; Lakouari, N.; Bentaleb, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-06-01

    Using the extended Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model, we numerically study the impact of the heterogeneity of traffic with speed limit zone (SLZ) on the probability of occurrence of car accidents (Pac). SLZ in the heterogeneous traffic has an important effect, typically in the mixture velocities case. In the deterministic case, SLZ leads to the appearance of car accidents even in the low densities, in this region Pac increases with increasing of fraction of fast vehicles (Ff). In the nondeterministic case, SLZ decreases the effect of braking probability Pb in the low densities. Furthermore, the impact of multi-SLZ on the probability Pac is also studied. In contrast with the homogeneous case [X. Li, H. Kuang, Y. Fan and G. Zhang, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 25 (2014) 1450036], it is found that in the low densities the probability Pac without SLZ (n = 0) is low than Pac with multi-SLZ (n > 0). However, the existence of multi-SLZ in the road decreases the risk of collision in the congestion phase.

  15. The Bluebird Electric 300 mph challenge - exploring and extending E.V. technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cave, T. [Bluebird Electric Project (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The marketing image of the electric car is poor, irrespective of environmental concerns. Electric cars need to match i. c. cars in all respects. The 'green image' alone cannot excite change without legislation. The Bluebird electric speed record team, developing a 300 mph electric car, has considered the progress required before electric cars eclipse the i.c. engine. A typical saloon i.c. power train can achieve 1.4 to 2 kWh/kg. Bluebird technology brushless, in-hub motors and gearboxes achieve 8-10 kWh/kg, necessitating 1.8 - 2.1 kwh/kg batteries for an electric car to match i.e. performance. This is excessive even for fuel cells. Most structural and mechanical refinement to reduce this power requirement would be available to i.c. also and cannot redress the balance entirely. Consequently, wholly new battery technologies are probably needed, especially structural batteries. Considerable benefits for new battery technology in other markets are outlined. Performance modelling and rolling resistance issues are also significant for the LSR programme and are offered among topics for collaboration with industry. Wider environmental aspects might also change car use and affect the electric/i.c. balance. (author)

  16. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-03-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode Z associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian √{1 -(∂0Z )2 } detecting the speed of light (|∂0Z |=1 ) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli ɛ to all orders in (∂ɛ ). The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: L =g (√{1 +(∂μɛ )2 }). This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on ∂0ɛ , i.e., a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit exists even for solitons in some nonrelativistic field theories, where we find that ɛ is a type I Nambu-Goldstone mode that also obeys a nonlinear dispersion to reach the speed limit. This offers a possibility of detecting the speed limit in condensed matter experiments.

  17. A cooperative system based variable speed limit control algorithm against jam waves: an extension of the SPECIALIST algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.; Netten, B.D.; Wang, M.; Schakel, W.; Schreiter, T.; Yuan, Y.; Arem, B. van; Alkim, T.

    2013-01-01

    The SPECIALIST algorithm can resolve jam waves on freeways using roadside technology: detector loops and speed limit gantries. In this paper we extend the algorithm, enabling the integration with cooperative system technologies and other road side detectors, such as in-car detection and actuation, a

  18. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  19. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  20. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level...... and power output during intense exercise. Regular speed endurance training (SET), i.e. exercise performed at intensities above that corresponding to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max ), enhances intense exercise performance. However, most of the studies that have provided mechanistic insight...

  1. Speed limits in The Netherlands : a detailed consideration of the situation inside and outside built-up areas. Contribution to the International OECD symposium "The Effects of Speed Limits on Traffic Accidents and Transport Energy Use", Dublin, 6-8 October, 1981.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the international OECD symposium "the effect of speed limits on traffic accidents and transport energy use", held in Dublin on 6-8 October 1981. Outlined are the problems of actual speeds, how speed is influenced, speed restrictions etc. in the Netherlands. In additio

  2. Some limitations in applying classical EHD film-thickness formulae to a high-speed bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Elastohydrodynamic film thickness was measured for a 20 mm ball bearing using the capacitance technique. The bearing was thrust loaded to 90, 448, and 778 N. The corresponding maximum stresses on the inner race were 1.28, 2.09, and 2.45 GPa. Test speeds ranged from 400 to 14,000 rpm. Film thickness measurements were taken with four different lubricants: (1) synthetic paraffinic; (2) synthetic paraffinic with additives; (3) neopentylpolyol (tetra) ester; and (4) synthetic cycloaliphatic hydrocarbon traction fluid. The test bearing was mist lubricated. Test temperatures were 300, 338, and 393 K. The measured results were compared to theoretical predictions and are presented.

  3. Alumni survey of Masters of Public Health (MPH training at the Hanoi School of Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To elicit the opinions of the Public Health alumni of the MPH program; 2 To assess the applicability of the knowledge and skills acquired; 3 To identify the frequency of the public health competencies that the alumni performed. Methods We requested 187 graduates to complete a self-administered questionnaire and conducted in-depth interviews with 8 alumni as well as a focus group discussion with 14 alumni. Results In total 79.1% (148 of the MPH graduates completed and returned the questionnaire. Most alumni (91% agreed that the MPH curriculum corresponded with the working requirements of public health professionals; and nearly all were satisfied with what they have learnt (96%. Most respondents said that the MPH program enabled them to develop relevant professional skills (95% and that they were satisfied with the curriculum (90%. Notably fewer respondents (73% felt that the MPH program structure was balanced and well designed. Most alumni (64.3% were satisfied with Hanoi School of Public Health (HSPH full-time lecturers; but even more (83% were satisfied with visiting lecturers. The most commonly selected of the 34 pre-identified public health competencies were: applying computer skills (66.4%, planning and managing health programs (47.9%, communicating with the community and/or mobilizing the community to participate in health care (43.2%. Overall, the MPH alumni felt that HSPH emphasized research methods at the expense of some management and operational competencies. The most important challenges at work identified by the alumni were insufficient skills in: data analysis, decision making, inter-sectoral cooperation development, English language and training. Conclusion The training program should be reviewed and revised to meet the needs of its graduates who enter diverse situations and positions. English language skills were identified as top priority for further emphasis. The training program should comply with a more

  4. A low upper limit on the subsurface rise speed of solar active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Aaron C; Braun, Douglas C; Cameron, Robert; Gizon, Laurent; Löptien, Björn; Rempel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field emerges at the surface of the Sun as sunspots and active regions. This process generates a poloidal magnetic field from a rising toroidal flux tube, it is a crucial but poorly understood aspect of the solar dynamo. The emergence of magnetic field is also important because it is a key driver of solar activity. We show that measurements of horizontal flows at the solar surface around emerging active regions, in combination with numerical simulations of solar magnetoconvection, can constrain the subsurface rise speed of emerging magnetic flux. The observed flows imply that the rise speed of the magnetic field is no larger than 150 m/s at a depth of 20 Mm, that is, well below the prediction of the (standard) thin flux tube model but in the range expected for convective velocities at this depth. We conclude that convective flows control the dynamics of rising flux tubes in the upper layers of the Sun and cannot be neglected in models of flux emergence.

  5. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode $Z$ associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian $\\sqrt{1 - (\\partial_0 Z)^2}$ detecting the speed of light ($|\\partial_0 Z|=1$) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli $\\epsilon$ to all order in $(\\partial \\epsilon)$. The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: $L = g(\\sqrt{1 + (\\partial_\\mu \\epsilon)^2})$. This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on $\\partial_0 \\epsilon$, i.e. a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit...

  6. Perceptual and Cognitive Factors Imposing "Speed Limits" on Reading Rate: A Study with the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primativo, Silvia; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; De Luca, Maria; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2016-01-01

    Adults read at high speed, but estimates of their reading rate vary greatly, i.e., from 100 to 1500 words per minute (wpm). This discrepancy is likely due to different recording methods and to the different perceptual and cognitive processes involved in specific test conditions. The present study investigated the origins of these notable differences in RSVP reading rate (RR). In six experiments we investigated the role of many different perceptual and cognitive variables. The presence of a mask caused a steep decline in reading rate, with an estimated masking cost of about 200 wpm. When the decoding process was isolated, RR approached values of 1200 wpm. When the number of stimuli exceeded the short-term memory span, RR decreased to 800 wpm. The semantic context contributed to reading speed only by a factor of 1.4. Finally, eye movements imposed an upper limit on RR (around 300 wpm). Overall, data indicate a speed limit of 300 wpm, which corresponds to the time needed for eye movement execution, i.e., the most time consuming mechanism. Results reconcile differences in reading rates reported by different laboratories and thus provide suggestions for targeting different components of reading rate.

  7. Local Limit Phenomena, Flow Compression, and Fuel Cracking Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    dynamic adaptive hybrid integration, was developed for stiff chemistry. 15. SUBJECT TERMS chemical explosive mode analysis ( CEMA ...TECHNICAL DISCUSSION 1. Chemical explosive mode analysis ( CEMA ) for computational flame diagnostics The method of chemical explosive mode...analysis ( CEMA ) is a systematic approach to identify limit flame phenomena, including local ignition, extinction, and premixed and non- premixed reaction

  8. Wind speed reductions by large-scale wind turbine deployments lower turbine efficiencies and set low generation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M; Kleidon, Axel

    2016-11-29

    Wind turbines generate electricity by removing kinetic energy from the atmosphere. Large numbers of wind turbines are likely to reduce wind speeds, which lowers estimates of electricity generation from what would be presumed from unaffected conditions. Here, we test how well wind power limits that account for this effect can be estimated without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. We first use simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) that explicitly simulates the effects of wind turbines to derive wind power limits (GCM estimate), and compare them to a simple approach derived from the climatological conditions without turbines [vertical kinetic energy (VKE) estimate]. On land, we find strong agreement between the VKE and GCM estimates with respect to electricity generation rates (0.32 and 0.37 We m(-2)) and wind speed reductions by 42 and 44%. Over ocean, the GCM estimate is about twice the VKE estimate (0.59 and 0.29 We m(-2)) and yet with comparable wind speed reductions (50 and 42%). We then show that this bias can be corrected by modifying the downward momentum flux to the surface. Thus, large-scale limits to wind power use can be derived from climatological conditions without explicitly simulating atmospheric dynamics. Consistent with the GCM simulations, the approach estimates that only comparatively few land areas are suitable to generate more than 1 We m(-2) of electricity and that larger deployment scales are likely to reduce the expected electricity generation rate of each turbine. We conclude that these atmospheric effects are relevant for planning the future expansion of wind power.

  9. Summarization of Treating ADHD by Using MPH with Neuro - feedback%哌甲酯联合神经反馈治疗儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芳; 谢维爵; 钟昆

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate(MPH)is a key drug to treat children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disor-der(ADHD),and neuro - feedback(NF)is a new technique for the treatment of ADHD,MPH and NF have their own advantages and limitations in treating ADHD. In recent years,in order to explore the better treatment effect for the ADHD,clinical doctors and researchers have reported the present situations of application and re-searches relating to MPH combined with NF in the treatment of ADHD. The paper summarizes the documents a-bout ADHD treatment in use of MPH combined NF,analyzes and comments on several factors which influence the effect,aiming at offering some references for combination therapy research about ADHD.%哌甲酯(Methylphenidate,MPH)是目前治疗儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(Attention - deficit/ hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)的一线药物,神经反馈(Neuro - feedback,NF)是治疗 ADHD 的新技术。两种方法在治疗 ADHD 方面具有不同优势和局限性。近年来,为了探讨更好的 ADHD 治疗效果,临床工作者和研究者报道了 MPH 联合 NF治疗 ADHD 的临床应用与研究情况。文章综述了 MPH 联合 NF 治疗 ADHD 的相关文献,分析和评述了影响其疗效的各种可能因素。旨在为不断完善 ADHD 综合治疗研究提供一定的参考。

  10. Limit of the speed-resolution properties in adiabatic supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-06-21

    the column efficiency at high speeds. Eventually, for the same stationary phase and speed of analysis, SFC methods using pure CO2 may provide at least a twice column efficiency than LC methods using pure acetonitrile. For a constant pressure drop and resolution power, SFC methods may generate four times faster analyses than LC methods. Ultimately, a standard commercial 4.6mm × 50mm long column packed with 2.6 μm core-shell particles, operated with an inlet flow rate of 25 mL/min in fast SFC (200 bar back pressure, 40 °C) may provide a hold-up time of about 1s requiring data acquisition at a frequency of 400 Hz, with a variance of 0.35 μL(2). This performance will require the use of new, ultra-low dispersion SFC system.

  11. 汽车电子自动限速系统的设计%The design of car electronic automated speed limit system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝敏

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the car automated speed limit system based on MSP430F149 controller and NRF2401 wireless receive and dispatch chips. The system can set up aggregate speed limit number through the three kinds of parameters in road state, weather and car model. When entering different sections, the cars can automatically change speed limit number, but the drivers cannot do it. The system tests the present speed and compares it with speed limit number. When cars exceed the speed limit for 30S, the system sends out speeding language alarm prompt, controls automobile oil line, and keeps the speed near the speed limit number to automatically limit running speed of automobiles. All of these measures will greatly reduce traffic accidents.%文中介绍了以MSP430F149为控制器,以NRF2401为无线收发芯片的汽车自动限速系统。该系统能根据道路状况、天气、车型三种参数综合设定限速值,行车进入不同的路段,自动地改变限速值,司机无法更改。通过检测当前车速,并与限速值进行比较,当超速30S时,发出超速语言报警提示,并控制汽车油路,使车速保持在限速值附近,从而达到自动限制汽车行驶速度的目的。这将大大减少交通事故的发生。

  12. Fault ride-through enhancement of fixed speed wind turbine using bridge-type fault current limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa I. Marei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between wind energy turbines and the grid results in two main problems, increasing the short-circuit level and reducing the Fault Ride-Through (FRT capability during faults. The objective of this paper is to solve these problems, for fixed speed Wind Energy Systems (WECS, utilizing the bridge-type Fault Current Limiter (FCL with a discharging resistor. A simple cascaded control system is proposed for the FCL to regulate the terminal voltage of the generator and limit the current. The system is simulated on PSCAD/EMTDC software to evaluate the dynamic performance of the proposed WECS compensated by FCL. The simulation results show the potentials of the FCL as a simple and effective method for solving grid interconnection problems of WECS.

  13. A new limit on the light speed isotropy from the GRAAL experiment at the ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G; Beretta, M; Bocquet, J -P; D'Angelo, A; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gervino, G; Giardina, G; Ghio, F; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Kashin, A; Khachatryan, H G; Knyazyan, S; Lapik, A; Sandri, P Levi; Lleres, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Margarian, A; Mehrabyan, S; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Nedorezov, V; Rebreyend, D; Russo, G; Rudnev, N; Schaerf, C; Sperduto, M -L; Sutera, M -C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2010-01-01

    When the electrons stored in the ring of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble) scatter on a laser beam (Compton scattering in flight) the lower energy of the scattered electron spectra, the Compton Edge (CE), is given by the two body photon-electron relativistic kinematics and depends on the velocity of light. A precision measurement of the position of this CE as a function of the daily variations of the direction of the electron beam in an absolute reference frame provides a one-way test of Relativistic Kinematics and the isotropy of the velocity of light. The results of GRAAL-ESRF measurements improve the previously existing one-way limits, thus showing the efficiency of this method and the interest of further studies in this direction.

  14. Ultrawide bandwidth 1.55-um lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Paul A.; Tanbun-Ek, Tawee; Logan, Ralph A.; Ackerman, David A.; Shtengel, Gleb E.; Yadvish, R. D.; Sergent, A. M.; Sciortino, Paul F., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the essential elements for creating a practical wide bandwidth directly modulated laser source. This includes considerations of the intrinsic limitations of the laser structure, due to the resonant frequency and damping of the laser output, together with carrier transport issues to allow carriers in the device active region to be efficiently modulated at high speeds. the use of a P-doped compressively strained multiple-quantum well active region to provide high intrinsic speed and remove transport limitations is described, together with record setting results of 25 GHz modulation bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer Fabry-Perot laser and 26 GHz bandwidth for a 1.55 micrometer DFB laser. The challenges of providing high bandwidth electrical connections to the laser on a suitable submount, together with fiber attachment and microwave packaging, are discussed. Results of fully packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB lasers with 25 Ghz modulation bandwidth are shown. Digital modulation of the packaged 1.55 micrometer DFB including impedance matching is described, and the transient wavelength chirp is presented. This low chirp is reduced further using an optical filter, to provide a 10 GBit/s source with chirp similar to that of an external electroabsorption modulator.

  15. SU-E-P-55: The Reaserch of Cervical Cancer Delivered with Constant Dose Rate and Gantry Speed Arc Therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) On Conventional Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Bai, W; Chi, Z; Gao, C; Xiaomei, F [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Gao, Y [Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Postoperative cervical cancer patients with large target volume and the target shape is concave, treatmented with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is time consuming. The purpose of this study is to investigate using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) on conventional linear accelrator, by comparing with the IMRT technology to evaluate the performance of CDR-CAS-IMAT on postoperative cervical cancer patients. Methods: 18 cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT on Varian 23IX were replanted using CDR-CAS-IMAT. The plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI) of target volume, the dose of organs at risk, radiation delivery time and monitor units were also compared. SPSS 19.0 software paired T-test analysis was carried out on the two sets of data. Results: Compared with the IMRT plans PTV’s CI (t= 3.85, P =0.001), CTV’s CI, HI, D90, D95, D98, V95, V98, V100 (t=4.21, −3.18, 2.13, 4.65, 7.79, 2.29, 6.00, 2.13, p=0.001, 0.005, 0.049, 0.000, 0.000, 0.035, 0.000, 0.049), and cord D2 and rectum V40 (t=−2.65, −2.47, p= P =0.017, 0.025), and treatment time and MU (t=−36.0, −6.26, P =0.000, 0.000) were better than that of IMRT group. But the IMRT plans in terms of decreasing bladder V50, bowel V30 (t=2.14, 3.00, P =0.048, 0.008) and low dose irradiation volume were superior to that of CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. There were no significant differences in other statistical index. Conclusion: Cervical cancer patients with CDR-CAS-IMAT on Varian Clinical 23IX can get equivalent or superior dose distribution compared with the IMRT technology. IMAT have much less treatment time and MU can reduce the uncertainty factor and patient discomfort in treatment. This work was supported by the Medical Science Foundation of the health department of Hebei

  16. CLUB 55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rojano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una reconceptualización del concepto de envejecimento. Se plantea la necesidad de revisar las etapas del desarrollo psicológico descritas por Erikson. Los recientes cambios demográficos y la prolongación de la expectativa de vida justifican el replanteamiento conceptual. Actualmente la tercera edad no es la última edad. Características que se le atribuían a este período de la vida ahora corresponden a la cuarta edad. El Departamento de Servicios Humanos de Hartford ha creado el Club 55, un proyecto basado en este nuevo paradigma.

  17. Framing the future's expert panel report on the MPH degree: a step backward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaff, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Framing the Future Task Force, a group assembled by the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health to identify key issues facing public health education as it enters its second 100 years, has recently released a report, "A Master of Public Health Degree for the 21st Century." The report calls for a significant shift in emphasis for the MPH degree away from a generalist, core curriculum in favor of a greater emphasis on areas of specialty. This commentary argues that such a shift would reverse the progress made since the 1988 Institute of Medicine report called on academia to better meet practice needs. Rather, the MPH of the 21st century should continue to focus on methods to better teach core competencies in public health practice at an advanced level.

  18. Some Empirical Aspects regarding the Relationship between Inflation and Economic Growth in Romania – the Speed Limit Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei BIRMAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study briefly presents theoretical aspects related to the relationship between inflation and economic growth and provides an empirical study for the Romanian economy, for the period 2000 – 2011. The econometric methodology used is that of vector auto-regressions.The results showed that a sudden increase in the change of the output gap (i.e. a shock to the growth rate of the output gap does not determine an increase in CPI. Hence, the hypothesis of the existence of a speed limit effect in Romania is rejected. In concrete terms, this means that the monetary authorities should not fear for eventual inflationary pressures when sudden increases of demand arise, if the output gap is negative (the potential output is higher that the effective output. The National Bank of Romania may avoid, therefore, taking some monetary policy decisions meant to temper the rise in inflation (as would have been the case if a speed limit effect was present but which would have induced unnecessary volatility into the output. However, the study indicates that National Bank of Romania should communicate to the public the state of the economy in order to timely anchor the inflation expectations. This is a very important aspect, since the inflation expectations firmly react to a shock into the growth rate of the output gap, i.e. to a strong increase in the effective output.The study also showed a positive response of the growth rate of the output gap to a positive shock in inflation, with a maximum effect after three quarters. This shows that the inflation was mainly driven by demand factors in the analysed period, with the consumers increasing current consumption in order to avoid the future higher prices and with the economic agents increasing the supply such as to maximise the unitary profits. Also, this result shows a rather inelastic demand or a possible captivity of consumers in the face of producers.

  19. Hidroroute 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, M.; Eixarch, E.; Ortonobes, C.

    2012-04-01

    "HIDROROUTE 55" Saving water is a recurrent topic for students in Spain because the Mediterranean zone suffers periodically severe droughts. Any student knows it and is able to repeat some basic advices like "take showers instead of baths, or "close the tap when brushing your teeth..." But maybe this is a quite superficial awareness about shortage and saving water. Where does the home flowing water come from? How can we be sure that this water is clean and safe to drink? And, tomorrow or next week, will be there water in our tap? Perhaps working in these questions is a good way to understand how difficult is to get water to our homes. In order to deepen in the question we are preparing a teaching unit titled "Hydro route 55: from the Earth to la Maurina trough the water" on 1rst ESO level students (12 years old) of the secondary public school "Institut les Aymerigues" in Terrassa (Barcelona). Students' tasks will be to search information about the way water gets to their homes, including water cycle, treatment and saving water... This unit belongs to an integrated project with all areas involved (history, mathematics, technology, languages and music) that aims to approach students to different aspects of their zone in Terrassa (La Maurina) and it will be implemented at the end of the second term, just some weeks before the Vienna's meeting. School and teaching team: Institut les Aymerigues is a new school that this year has only 1rst ESO students (12 years old). Teaching staff is engaged in developing an integrated and based on competences curriculum. In this context we integrate English and Science content in a unified teaching schedule of six hours per week for the students. One English teacher and two Science teachers are involved in it. In addition we have three student teachers from "Master of Secondary Teachers Training" that are in charge of preparing the Hydroroute 55 activities with the titular teachers. We illustrate students' tasks such as the

  20. Differentiation in neuroblastoma: diffusion-limited hypoxia induces neuro-endocrine secretory protein 55 and other markers of a chromaffin phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Hedborg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy of sympathetic embryonal origin. A high potential for differentiation is a hallmark of neuroblastoma cells. We have previously presented data to suggest that in situ differentiation in tumors frequently proceeds along the chromaffin lineage and that decreased oxygen (hypoxia plays a role in this. Here we explore the utility of Neuro-Endocrine Secretory Protein 55 (NESP55, a novel member of the chromogranin family, as a marker for this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridizations were performed on human fetal tissues, mouse xenografts of human neuroblastoma cell lines, and on specimens of human neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Effects of anaerobic exposure on gene expression by cultured neuroblastoma cells was analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Fetal sympathetic nervous system expression of NESP55 was shown to be specific for chromaffin cell types. In experimental and clinical neuroblastoma NESP55 immunoreactivity was specific for regions of chronic hypoxia. NESP55 expression also correlated strikingly with morphological evidence of differentiation and with other chromaffin-specific patterns of gene expression, including IGF2 and HIF2α. Anaerobic culture of five neuroblastoma cell lines resulted in an 18.9-fold mean up-regulation of NESP55. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data confirms that chronic tumor hypoxia is a key microenvironmental factor for neuroblastoma cell differentiation, causing induction of chromaffin features and NESP55 provides a reliable marker for this neuronal to neuroendocrine transition. The hypoxia-induced phenotype is the predominant form of differentiation in stroma-poor tumors, while in stroma-rich tumors the chromaffin phenotype coexists with ganglion cell-like differentiation. The findings provide new insights into the biological diversity which is a striking feature of this group of tumors.

  1. HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-10-26

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

  2. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in TG (r=0.67, pvoluntary muscle activation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...

  3. Relação dos peixes coletados nos limites da plataforma continental e nas montanhas submarinas Vitória, Trindade e Martin Vaz, durante a campanha oceanográfica MD-55 Brasil List of fishes collected at the continental shelf limits Vitória, Trinidade and Martin Vaz seamounts during the MD-55 Brazil oceanographic campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Andreata

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of an agreement between Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro and the Museum of Natural History of Paris, was the oceanographic campaign MD-55 Brasil which took place between May 6th and June 2nd of 1987, aboard the R/V "Marion Dufresne" of the Terres Australes et Antartique Françaises (TAAF. Samples were collected between latitudes 23º36'40"S and 18º49'S. Ichthyofauna sampled was relatively low, and comprised of just one family of Chondrichthyes (three species and 50 families of Osteichthyes (104 species. Zenion hololepsis (Goode & Bean, 1895 (Zeniodontidae is recorded for the first time from the western South Atlantic, as well as is extended the geographic limits for Myrophis frio Jordan & Davis. 1892 (Ophichthidae and Prionotus nudigula Ginshurg, 1950 (Triglidae. Even though relatively not very representative, the species collected from the seamount chain Vitoria/Trindade and Martin Vay suggest being identical to those which occur along the Brazilian continental platform.

  4. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather cond

  5. The dual DVM/MPH degree at the University of Wisconsin--Madison: a uniquely interdisciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christopher W; Remington, Patrick L

    2008-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison (UWM) launched a new Master of Public Health (MPH) degree program in 2005. This 42-credit MPH degree consists of 18 core and 14 elective course credits, two seminar credits, and eight field project/culminating experience credits. Unique strengths of the program include its strongly interdisciplinary philosophy, encompassing both health science (human medicine, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, nursing) and social science units on campus, and its emphasis on service learning through instructional and field project ties to the public-health community of the state and beyond. To date, the program has admitted 87 students, including full-time students as well as part-time students who continue to work in the health care and/or public-health sectors. The program is currently proceeding with the process for accreditation through the Council for Education in Public Health. In 2007, a formal dual DVM/MPH program was approved to allow students to integrate DVM and MPH training and complete both degrees in a total of five years. Nine MPH students over the first three years of admissions have been individuals affiliated with veterinary medicine (five DVM students and four post-graduate veterinarians).

  6. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias; Magnussen, Line V; Andersen, Marianne; Caserotti, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed of analysis: n=16 in the training group (TG: 12weeks of progressive high-load power training, 2 sessions per week; age: 82.3±1.3years, 56% women) and n=21 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age: 81.6±1.1years, 67% women). Knee extensor muscle thickness (ultrasonography), strength (isokinetic dynamometry), voluntary activation (interpolated twitch technique), and gait speed (2-min maximal walking test) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, TG and CG were comparable for all measures. Post-intervention, significant between-group changes (TG vs. CG; pgait speed (+0.12m/s), whereas the between-group change in muscle thickness was non-significant (+0.08cm). Improvements in voluntary muscle activation were associated with improvements in gait speed in TG (r=0.67, ppower training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms influencing muscle mechanical function and gait speed in older adults.

  7. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  8. Insights into resistance mechanism of the macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) binding to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanjun; Ding, Jing-Na; Fan, Song; Han, Ju-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) has been known as a key regulatory protein in metabolite sensing and genetic expression regulating. MphR(A) protein binds to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (Ery) and releases the gene operon, thus activates expression of the mphA gene and initiates Ery resistance. The two mutant amino acid residues (V66L and V126L) might potentially disrupt Ery binding to MphR(A). In these studies, the binding of macrolide antibiotic Ery to wild type (Wt) MphR(A) and double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A) are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the Apo-MphR(A) protein and Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, many interesting effects owing to the double mutant (V66L/V126L) are discovered. In the case of Ery, Helix I which plays an important role in transcription shows itself a right-hand α helix in Wt-MphR(A)-Ery, whereas the activated helix is broken down in double mutant-V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery. The calculated results exhibit that the double mutant V66L/V126L reduces the binding affinity of the V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery, resulting in the block of Ery resistance. The binding free energy decomposition analysis reveals that the decrease of the binding affinity for the variant V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery is mainly attributed to the gas phase electrostatic energies. The residue Leu66, Thr154, and Arg122 enhance the binding affinity of V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery. The residues Tyr103 and His147 contributes mainly to binding energies in the Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, whereas the two residues have no contribution to the binding free energy inV66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery complex. Our study gives useful insights into the nature of amino acids mutation effect, the mechanism of blocking drug resistance at the atomic level and the characteristics in binding affinity for Ery to double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A), which will contribute to the design of more effective macrolide antibiotics.

  9. Insights into resistance mechanism of the macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) binding to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingting; Zhang, Yanjun; Ding, Jing-Na; Fan, Song; Han, Ju-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Macrolide biosensor protein MphR(A) has been known as a key regulatory protein in metabolite sensing and genetic expression regulating. MphR(A) protein binds to macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (Ery) and releases the gene operon, thus activates expression of the mphA gene and initiates Ery resistance. The two mutant amino acid residues (V66L and V126L) might potentially disrupt Ery binding to MphR(A). In these studies, the binding of macrolide antibiotic Ery to wild type (Wt) MphR(A) and double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A) are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the Apo-MphR(A) protein and Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, many interesting effects owing to the double mutant (V66L/V126L) are discovered. In the case of Ery, Helix I which plays an important role in transcription shows itself a right-hand α helix in Wt-MphR(A)-Ery, whereas the activated helix is broken down in double mutant-V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery. The calculated results exhibit that the double mutant V66L/V126L reduces the binding affinity of the V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery, resulting in the block of Ery resistance. The binding free energy decomposition analysis reveals that the decrease of the binding affinity for the variant V66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery is mainly attributed to the gas phase electrostatic energies. The residue Leu66, Thr154, and Arg122 enhance the binding affinity of V66L/V126L-MphR(A) to Ery. The residues Tyr103 and His147 contributes mainly to binding energies in the Wt-MphR(A)-Ery complex, whereas the two residues have no contribution to the binding free energy inV66L/V126L-MphR(A)-Ery complex. Our study gives useful insights into the nature of amino acids mutation effect, the mechanism of blocking drug resistance at the atomic level and the characteristics in binding affinity for Ery to double mutant (V66L/V126L) MphR(A), which will contribute to the design of more effective macrolide antibiotics.

  10. Applications of a saving method with max-min ant system to a vehicle routing problem with time windows and speed limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Speed Limits (VRPTWSL, which has received considerable attention in recent years. The vehicle routing problem with time windows is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP and involves a fleet of vehicles set of from a depot to serve a number of customers at different geographic locations with various demands within specific time and speed limits before returning to the depot eventually. To solve the problem, an efficient Saving Method-Max Min Ant System (Saving-MMAS with Local Search algorithm is applied. Using minimization of the total transportation costs as the objective of the extension VRPTWSL, a mathematic model is constructed. Finally, the Saving-MMAS algorithms indicated the good quality of the method in this problem.

  11. Graviton time delay and a speed limit for small black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory

    CERN Document Server

    Papallo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Camanho, Edelstein, Maldacena and Zhiboedov have shown that gravitons can experience a negative Shapiro time delay, i.e. a time advance, in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. They studied gravitons propagating in singular "shock-wave" geometries. We study this effect for gravitons propagating in smooth black hole spacetimes. For a small enough black hole, we find that gravitons of appropriate polarisation, and small impact parameter, can experience time advance. Such gravitons can also exhibit a deflection angle less than $\\pi$, characteristic of a repulsive short-distance gravitational interaction. We discuss problems with the suggestion that the time advance can be used to build a "time machine". In particular, we argue that a small black hole cannot be boosted to a speed arbitrarily close to the speed of light, as would be required in such a construction.

  12. Graviton time delay and a speed limit for small black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papallo, Giuseppe; Reall, Harvey S.

    2015-11-01

    Camanho, Edelstein, Maldacena and Zhiboedov have shown that gravitons can experience a negative Shapiro time delay, i.e. a time advance, in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. They studied gravitons propagating in singular "shock-wave" geometries. We study this effect for gravitons propagating in smooth black hole spacetimes. For a small enough black hole, we find that gravitons of appropriate polarisation, and small impact parameter, can experience time advance. Such gravitons can also exhibit a deflection angle less than π, characteristic of a repulsive short-distance gravitational interaction. We discuss problems with the suggestion that the time advance can be used to build a "time machine". In particular, we argue that a small black hole cannot be boosted to a speed arbitrarily close to the speed of light, as would be required in such a construction.

  13. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  14. Teaching Note--Educating Public Health Social Work Professionals: Results from an MSW/MPH Program Outcomes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Velásquez, Esther E. M.; Bachman, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-degree programs in public health and social work continue to proliferate, yet there has been little research on master's of social work (MSW)/master's of public health (MPH) graduates. The purpose of this study was to describe and better understand the self-reported professional experiences, identities, roles, and outcomes associated with 1…

  15. On the MAC/Network/Energy Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del-Valle-Soto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH, the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR, all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  16. On the MAC/network/energy performance evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Orozco-Lugo, Aldo; Lara, Mauricio; Galván-Tejada, Giselle M; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-12-02

    Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH), the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR), all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  17. Unsafe at Any (Wind) Speed?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hammer, Barbara; King, Paul; Ono, Yuichi; Miller, L. Scott; Thumann, Gregory

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relative safety and stability of stationary motor vehicles exposed to severe winds. The focus was on private passenger vehicles. 1) The behavior of two instrumented storm-chase vehicles that were exposed to severe winds, 2) the behavior of 291 vehicles exposed to a tornado, and 3) the wind speed required to upset a sedan and a minivan exposed to winds in a wind tunnel were studied. A wind as strong as 47 m s1 (105 mph) has been measured by a storm-chase pickup truck and 44 m s1 (98 mph) by a storm chase sedan. The vehicles were not adversely affected by the wind. Also studied were 291 vehicles parked outdoors at homes struck by tornadoes, and the behavior of the vehicles was compared to the F-scale damage to the house. At sites with F1 or F2 damage, 72% of the vehicles were not moved by the wind and 96% were not tipped over. At sites with F3 or F4 damage, 50% were not moved by the wind and 82% were not tipped over. Wind tunnel tests on a sedan and minivan showed they were most vulnerable to upset (lifting of one tire from the ground) with wind directions near 45° and 135°, as measured from the front. When modeled with 5° of suspension tilt to the side, the sedan was found to be upset at wind speeds of 51-67 m s1 (115-150 mph), and the minivan was upset at wind speeds of 58-80 m s1 (130-180 mph). Although an underground shelter or sturdy building offer the best protection from severe winds, it is found that a vehicle may be a relatively stable place and may be safer than a mobile home or the outdoors. These findings may warrant changes to public recommendations made during tornado warnings and other severe storm situations.

  18. 高速公路主线收费站可变限速控制%Variable speed-limit control before expressway mainline toll station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲云; 胡路; 蒋阳升; 朱娟秀; 彭博

    2012-01-01

    以事故率最小为目标,以费用与速度限制为约束条件,建立可变限速控制优化模型,确定可变信息板数目与相应的可变限速值。采用交通波理论模型计算可变信息板设置间距,并利用Vissim仿真软件对模型进行验证。利用不同交通流量下的单向双车道6个收费窗口的高速公路,进一步模拟可变限速控制与静态限速控制。试验结果表明:在高速公路主线收费站排队广场前应设4块可变信息板,设置间距分别为1293、2695、4056m,仿真结果与交通波理论模型计算值的相对误差最小为3.9%,最大为9.5%;可变限速控制中,通过车辆数较静态限速控制增长51.82%,行程时间与排队长度分别平均缩短15.81%、18.98%,验证了本文设计体系的合理性。%An optimization model of variable speed-limit control with the object of the least accident rate and the limitations of cost and speed was set up, in which the number of variable message signs and corresponding variable limit speeds were determined. The distances between variable message signs were computed by using the traffic wave model, and the optimization model was verified by using the simulation software Vissim. For different traffic flows, variable speed-limit control and static speed-limit control were simulated on the expressway with two- lanes and six toll windows in single direction. Analysis result shows that when 4 variable message signs with setting separation distances of 1 293, 2 695 and 4 056 m apart are installed before the queuing square of expressway mainline toll station, the minimum relative error between simulation result and calculated values of traffic wave model is 3.9~, and the maximum is 9.5%. Compared with static speed-limit control, passing vehicle number in variable speed-limit control rises by 51.82%, average travel time and queue length decrease by 15.81%and 18.98% respectively, which proves that the

  19. A computational study of residual KPP front speeds in time-periodic cellular flows in the small diffusion limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Penghe; Chen, Long; Xin, Jack

    2015-09-01

    The minimal speeds (c∗) of the Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (KPP) fronts at small diffusion (ɛ ≪ 1) in a class of time-periodic cellular flows with chaotic streamlines is investigated in this paper. The variational principle of c∗ reduces the computation to that of a principle eigenvalue problem on a periodic domain of a linear advection-diffusion operator with space-time periodic coefficients and small diffusion. To solve the advection dominated time-dependent eigenvalue problem efficiently over large time, a combination of spectral methods and finite element, as well as the associated fast solvers, are utilized to accelerate computation. In contrast to the scaling c∗ = O(ɛ 1 / 4) in steady cellular flows, a new relation c∗ = O(1) as ɛ ≪ 1 is revealed in the time-periodic cellular flows due to the presence of chaotic streamlines. Residual propagation speed emerges from the Lagrangian chaos which is quantified as a sub-diffusion process.

  20. 基于Vissim的高速公路隧道限速分析%Analysis of Highway Tunnel Speed Limit Based on Vissim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芮; 张道文; 陈奇; 王鑫

    2015-01-01

    To ensure that the best traffic efficiency as the basis of speed limit under the premise of tun-nel traffic safety, the process of the driving behavior of drivers through the tunnel was analyzed, and the key parameters were calibrated. A traffic simulation model of a highway tunnel and its passageway was established based on Vissim simulation software. Under the different traffic volume and speed, the run-ning state of the vehicle was observed. On the basis of satisfying peak traffic volume, the speed under the optimal traffic volume was selected, and according to the corresponding requirements of highway 's curve radius and design of ultra-highway, the reasonableness of the highway tunnel speed limit value was verified by traffic simulation.%以确保隧道交通安全前提下的最佳通行效率作为限速的依据,分析了驾驶人通过隧道的驾驶行为过程,标定了关键的驾驶行为参数.基于Vissim仿真软件,建立了某高速公路隧道及出入口的交通仿真模型,观察不同车流量和车速下,车辆的运行状态.在满足高峰流量的基础上,选择最优车流量下的车速,并根据高速公路圆曲线半径与超高的设计对应要求,通过交通仿真验证了高速公路隧道限速值的合理性.

  1. Take-off speed in jumping mantises depends on body size and a power-limited mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, G P; Doroshenko, M; Cullen, D A; Burrows, M

    2016-07-15

    Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults. Older and heavier mantises have longer hind and middle legs and higher take-off velocities than younger and lighter mantises. The length of the propulsive hind and middle legs scaled approximately isometrically with body mass (exponent=0.29 and 0.32, respectively). The front legs, which do not contribute to propulsion, scaled with an exponent of 0.37. Take-off velocity increased with increasing body mass (exponent=0.12). Time to accelerate increased and maximum acceleration decreased, but the measured power that a given mass of jumping muscle produced remained constant throughout all stages. Mathematical models were used to distinguish between three possible limitations to the scaling relationships: first, an energy-limited model (which explains catapult jumpers); second, a power-limited model; and third, an acceleration -: limited model. Only the model limited by muscle power explained the experimental data. Therefore, the two biomechanical mechanisms impose different limitations on jumping: those involving direct muscle contractions (mantises) are constrained by muscle power, whereas those involving catapult mechanisms are constrained by muscle energy.

  2. Take-off speed in jumping mantises depends on body size and a power-limited mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, M.; Cullen, D. A.; Burrows, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults. Older and heavier mantises have longer hind and middle legs and higher take-off velocities than younger and lighter mantises. The length of the propulsive hind and middle legs scaled approximately isometrically with body mass (exponent=0.29 and 0.32, respectively). The front legs, which do not contribute to propulsion, scaled with an exponent of 0.37. Take-off velocity increased with increasing body mass (exponent=0.12). Time to accelerate increased and maximum acceleration decreased, but the measured power that a given mass of jumping muscle produced remained constant throughout all stages. Mathematical models were used to distinguish between three possible limitations to the scaling relationships: first, an energy-limited model (which explains catapult jumpers); second, a power-limited model; and third, an acceleration-limited model. Only the model limited by muscle power explained the experimental data. Therefore, the two biomechanical mechanisms impose different limitations on jumping: those involving direct muscle contractions (mantises) are constrained by muscle power, whereas those involving catapult mechanisms are constrained by muscle energy. PMID:27284067

  3. Relação dos peixes coletados nos limites da plataforma continental e nas montanhas submarinas Vitória, Trindade e Martin Vaz, durante a campanha oceanográfica MD-55 Brasil List of fishes collected at the continental shelf limits Vitória, Trinidade and Martin Vaz seamounts during the MD-55 Brazil oceanographic campaign

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The result of an agreement between Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro and the Museum of Natural History of Paris, was the oceanographic campaign MD-55 Brasil which took place between May 6th and June 2nd of 1987, aboard the R/V "Marion Dufresne" of the Terres Australes et Antartique Françaises (TAAF). Samples were collected between latitudes 23º36'40"S and 18º49'S. Ichthyofauna sampled was relatively low, and comprised of just one family of Chondrichthyes (three species) and 50 familie...

  4. Quantifying the causal effects of 20mph zones on road casualties in London via doubly robust estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of 20mph zones on road casualties in London. Potential confounders in the key relationship of interest are included within outcome regression and propensity score models, and the models are then combined to form a doubly robust estimator. A total of 234 treated zones and 2844 potential control zones are included in the data sample. The propensity score model is used to select a viable control group which has common support in the covariate distributions. We compare the doubly robust estimates with those obtained using three other methods: inverse probability weighting, regression adjustment, and propensity score matching. The results indicate that 20mph zones have had a significant causal impact on road casualty reduction in both absolute and proportional terms.

  5. Innovating in health care management education: development of an accelerated MBA and MPH degree program at Yale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Forman, Howard P; Pistell, Anne F; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    2015-03-01

    Increasingly, there is recognition of the need for individuals with expertise in both management and public health to help health care organizations deliver high-quality and cost-effective care. The Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Management began offering an accelerated Master of Business Administration (MBA) and Master of Public Health (MPH) joint degree program in the summer of 2014. This new program enables students to earn MBA and MPH degrees simultaneously from 2 fully accredited schools in 22 months. Students will graduate with the knowledge and skills needed to become innovative leaders of health care organizations. We discuss the rationale for the program, the developmental process, the curriculum, benefits of the program, and potential challenges.

  6. Emergence of macrolide resistance gene mph(B) in Streptococcus uberis and cooperative effects with rdmC-like gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Adeline; Guérin-Faublée, Véronique; Pichereau, Vianney; Villers, Corinne; Leclercq, Roland

    2008-08-01

    Streptococcus uberis UCN60 was resistant to spiramycin (MIC = 8 microg/ml) but susceptible to erythromycin (MIC = 0.06 microg/ml), azithromycin (MIC = 0.12 microg/ml), josamycin (MIC = 0.25 microg/ml), and tylosin (MIC = 0.5 microg/ml). A 2.5-kb HindIII fragment was cloned from S. uberis UCN60 DNA on plasmid pUC18 and introduced into Escherichia coli AG100A, where it conferred resistance to spiramycin by inactivation. The sequence analysis of the fragment showed the presence of an rdmC-like gene that putatively encoded a protein belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase family and of the first 196 nucleotides of the mph(B) gene putatively encoding a phosphotransferase known to inactivate 14-, 15-, and 16-membered macrolides in E. coli. The entire mph(B) gene was then identified in S. uberis UCN60. The two genes were expressed alone or in combination in E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Analysis of MICs revealed that rdmC-like alone did not confer resistance to erythromycin, tylosin, and josamycin in those three hosts. It conferred resistance to spiramycin in E. coli and E. faecalis but not in S. aureus. mph(B) conferred resistance in E. coli to erythromycin, tylosin, josamycin, and spiramycin but only low levels of resistance in E. faecalis and S. aureus to spiramycin (MIC = 8 microg/ml). The combination of mph(B) and rdmC-like genes resulted in a resistance to spiramycin and tylosin in the three hosts that significantly exceeded the mere addition of the resistance levels conferred by each resistance mechanism alone.

  7. Coupling of water and carbon transport in trees: -Could water limitations of phloem transport speed up carbon starvation and tree mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevanto, S.; McDowell, N. G.; Dickman, L. T.; Pangle, R.; Pockman, W.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind tree mortality is increasingly important because climate change appears to be increasing drought severity and duration worldwide, with concomitant increases in mortality. Carbon starvation is one of the mechanisms suggested to be responsible for mortality, especially for species that close stomata at low xylem water tensions. Such plants would be under negative carbon balance during drought. Carbohydrate transport in plants relies on the availability of apoplastic water and therefore, shortage of water could lead to inability to distribute sugars and speed up carbon starvation even if carbohydrate reserves existed. To test these ideas we conducted a greenhouse study where pinon pine (Pinus edulis) trees were killed using two treatments: water limitation (complete drought) and carbon limitation (complete darkness). We collected tissue samples for non-structural carbohydrate content analysis weekly and monitored changes in xylem and phloem water potentials using stem diameter variation measurements. To follow changes in the physiological status of the trees we measured shoot gas exchange, leaf water potential and sap flow rate. Carbon-limited trees continued respiring at relatively high rates and maintained both xylem and phloem transport despite rapidly diminishing carbohydrate pools. Water-limited trees, on the other hand, exhibited reduced respiration and xylem and phloem transport rates as soon as drought inhibited stomatal opening; even before any significant drop in leaf water potential. This suggests that respirationmetabolic rate is strongly controlled by soil water availability, and instead of speeding up mortality, reduced carbohydrate transport and utilization rate may be a valuable strategy to enhance tree survival during long droughts.

  8. 横风作用下高速列车安全运行速度限值的研究%Research on the Limited Safe Speed of a High-speed Train under Cross Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗艳红; 毛军; 高亮; 杨国伟; 曲文强

    2012-01-01

    横风作用下的列车安全运行速度限值应通过列车气动特性和车辆轨道动力学特性的分析得到.以我国CRH3型高速列车实车为原型,考虑真实受电弓、转向架等列车的细部特征,假定列车在平地上行驶,对列车速度分别为200、250、300、350和380 km/h,横风速度分别为10、15、20、25和30 m/s,风向角为90°的25个工况进行气动特性的数值模拟,并采用国内实测轨道谱和德国轨道谱分别对这25个工况的车辆轨道动力学性能进行仿真计算和对比分析.结合国家标准和技术规范,给出CRH3型列车在平地上运行时,横风风速与列车最大安全运行速度之间的对应关系,为横风作用下的列车运行安全控制提供参考.%The limited safe speed of a high-speed train under crosswind should be obtained by analyzing the aerodynamic and vehicle-track dynamic characteristics. A real high-speed train of Type CRH3 was taken for case study. The train was assumed to run on a plane area under 25 numerically simulated operating conditions when the train speeds were chosen as 200,250,300,350 and 380 km/h,the crosswind velocities as 10,15,20,25 and 30m/s and the wind direction angle as 90° The detailed characteristics of real bogies and pantographs and so on were taken into account. The dynamic vehicle-track charateristics corresponding to the above 25 operating conditions were calculated respectively and compared in line with the domestic measured track spectra and the German track spectra. In accordance with the National standards and technical specifications concerned, the relationship between the crosswind velocity and the maximum safe operating speed of the CRH3 train running on a plane area was found. The results will play a guiding role in control of safe operation of a train under cross-wind.

  9. Cognitive Functioning and Walking Speed in Older Adults as Predictors of Limitations in Self-Reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living: Prospective Findings from the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuma Makizako

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine whether baseline measures of cognitive functioning, walking speed, and depressive status are independent predictors of limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL in older adults. The cross-sectional study involved 1329 community-dwelling adults, aged 75 years or older. At baseline, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST, Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS, and a word list memory task were completed, and self-reported IADLs and walking speed were recorded. The longitudinal study involved 948 participants without baseline IADL limitation, which was assessed at baseline and 15-month follow up, using the three Kihon Checklist subitems. In cross-sectional analyses, participants with IADL limitation demonstrated greater GDS scores, slower walking speeds, and lower MMSE, word list memory task, and SDST (only for women scores relative to those without IADL limitation. In the longitudinal analyses, baseline walking speed (men: OR 0.98; women: OR 0.97, p < 0.05 and word list memory task scores (men: OR 0.84; women: OR 0.83, p < 0.05 in both sexes and SDST scores in women (OR 0.96, p = 0.04 were independent predictors of subsequent IADL limitation. Walking speed, memory, and processing speed may be independent predictors of IADL limitation in older adults.

  10. Education for health: case studies of two multidisciplinary MPH/MSc public health programmes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, W; Russell, J; Wills, J

    2003-09-01

    Amidst the winds of change that are blowing across the UK public health (PH) landscape in relation to the essential abilities and national standards that are required for the 'art and science' of PH, the preparation for a new cadre of 'PH professionals' is already underway. Several postgraduate masters programmes in public health (MPH) have taken on board the challenge of addressing the requisite sets of skills and expertise as a guide to their content and delivery. Although there are recommendations regarding teaching PH to undergraduate medical students, little consensus seems to exist on teaching postgraduate PH to non-medically qualified professionals, health managers and administrators. Employing a case study approach, this article analyses the methods used, philosophies and processes, structure and organization, outcomes to date, and lessons learnt from MPH programmes implemented at two institutions in the UK. The programmes have been initiated recently, and have had the opportunity to take on board the recent national guidelines about training standards. The findings indicate that preparatory work of the programmes, and the challenges and strengths in meeting the recent policy developments in PH training are pertinent points. The MPH programmes highlight key issues in interprofessional education and its purpose, its process and its outcomes in relation to multidisciplinary specialist practice. These programmes provide a variety of models for others wishing to develop or restructure their postgraduate PH teaching programmes. The finalization of the national standards for specialist practice in PH in the UK is encouraged, along with clearer working definitions of the domains of expertise required. Collectively, attention to these measures can ensure that the processes which teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with PH knowledge and skills.

  11. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  12. The pulsed linear induction motor concept for high-speed trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Marder, B.M.; Rohwein, G.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Kelley, J.B.; Cowan, M.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The SERAPBIM (SEgmented RAil PHased Induction Motor) concept is a linear induction motor concept which uses rapidly-pulsed magnetic fields and a segmented reaction rail, as opposed to low-frequency fields and continuous reaction rails found in conventional linear induction motors. These improvements give a high-traction, compact, and efficient linear motor that has potential for advanced high speed rail propulsion. In the SERAPBIM concept, coils on the vehicle push against a segmented aluminum rail, which is mounted on the road bed. Current is pulsed as the coils cross an edge of the segmented rail, inducing surface currents which repel the coil. The coils must be pulsed in synchronization with the movement by reaction rail segments. This is provided by a sense-and-fire circuit that controls the pulsing of the power modulators. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the pulsed induction motor and to collect data that could be used for scaling calculations. A 14.4 kg aluminum plate was accelerated down a 4 m track to speeds of over 15 m/sec with peak thrust up to 18 kN per coilset. For a trainset capable of 200 mph speed, the SERAPHIM concept design is based on coils which are each capable of producing up to 3.5 kN thrust, and 30 coil pairs are mounted on each power car. Two power cars, one at each end of the train, provide 6 MW from two gas turbine prime power units. The thrust is about 210.000 N and is essentially constant up to 200 km/hr since wheel slippage does not limit thrust as with conventional wheeled propulsion. A key component of the SERAPHIM concept is the use of passive wheel-on-rah support for the high speed vehicle. Standard steel wheels are capable of handling over 200 mph. The SERAPHIM cost is comparable to that for steel-wheel high-speed rail, and about 10% to 25% of the projected costs for a comparable Maglev system.

  13. DAC 22 High Speed Civil Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Between tests, NASA research engineer Dave Hahne inspects a tenth-scale model of a supersonic transport model in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The model is being used in support of NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program. Langley researchers are applying advance aerodynamic design methods to develop a wing leading-edge flap system which significantly improves low-speed fuel efficiency and reduces noise generated during takeoff operation. Langley is NASA's lead center for the agency's HSR program, aimed at developing technology to help U.S. industry compete in the rapidly expanding trans-oceanic transport market. A U.S. high-speed civil transport is expected to fly in about the year 2010. As envisioned, it would fly 300 passengers across the Pacific in about four hours at Mach 2.4 (approximately 1,600 mph/1950 kph) for a modest increase over business class fares.

  14. 高速公路不同路况下的安全限速%Safely-Limited Speeds on High Way in Different Road Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯涛; 李迅; 丁德平; 谢庄

    2012-01-01

    不同气象条件导致道面状况差异很大,为了提高不同道面状况条件下高速公路行车的安全性,从气象条件出发分析了干、湿、积雪、积冰道面条件对道路交通安全的影响,采用数学方法,以制动反应时间内行驶距离与制动距离之和小于能见距离为条件,推导了不同道面条件下的基于安全距离的高速公路最高车速限制值计算公式.利用双指数模型的纵向附着系数计算模型计算了附着系数,得出了不同道面条件下对应不同能见距离、附着系数的安全车速,为高影响天气条件下交通管理部门管理高速公路安全运行提供科学依据.%Different meteorological conditions lead to different road surface conditions. In order to increase the safety level of driving on the different road conditions on high way, from the view of meteorological conditions, the influences of different road conditions, such as dry, wet, snow and ice on road traffic safety are analyzed. Using the method of the mathematical method, under the condition that the sum of running distance and braking distance is less than the visible distance, the calculation formulas of the maximum speed limits on the different road conditions on the high way are derived based on the safe distance. The dual-exponential model is used to evaluate the longitudinal road friction coefficient, and the values of the corresponding safely-limited speeds are computed according to different visible distance and road fiction coefficients.

  15. A flexible approach to training veterinarians in public health: an overview and early assessment of the DVM/MPH dual-degree program at the University of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicucci, Larissa A; Hanson, Kate A; Olson, Debra K; Hueston, William D

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the growing need for public-health veterinarians, novel educational programs are essential to train future public-health professionals. The University of Minnesota School of Public Health, in collaboration with the College of Veterinary Medicine, initiated a dual DVM/MPH program in 2002. This program provides flexibility by combining distance learning and on-campus courses offered through a summer public-health institute. MPH requirements are completed through core courses, elective courses in a focus area, and an MPH project and field experience. Currently, more than 100 students representing 13 veterinary schools are enrolled in the program. The majority of initial program graduates have pursued public-practice careers upon completion of the program. Strengths of the Minnesota program design include accessibility and an environment to support multidisciplinary training. Continued assessment of program graduates will allow for evaluation and adjustment of the program in the coming years.

  16. Binding of the Fkh1 Forkhead Associated Domain to a Phosphopeptide within the Mph1 DNA Helicase Regulates Mating-Type Switching in Budding Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette M Dummer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fkh1 protein has roles in cell-cycle regulated transcription as well as a transcription-independent role in recombination donor preference during mating-type switching. The conserved FHA domain of Fkh1 regulates donor preference by juxtaposing two distant regions on chromosome III to promote their recombination. A model posits that this Fkh1-mediated long-range chromosomal juxtaposition requires an interaction between the FHA domain and a partner protein(s, but to date no relevant partner has been described. In this study, we used structural modeling, 2-hybrid assays, and mutational analyses to show that the predicted phosphothreonine-binding FHA domain of Fkh1 interacted with multiple partner proteins. The Fkh1 FHA domain was important for its role in cell-cycle regulation, but no single interaction partner could account for this role. In contrast, Fkh1's interaction with the Mph1 DNA repair helicase regulated donor preference during mating-type switching. Using 2-hybrid assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and fluorescence anisotropy, we mapped a discrete peptide within the regulatory Mph1 C-terminus required for this interaction and identified two threonines that were particularly important. In vitro binding experiments indicated that at least one of these threonines had to be phosphorylated for efficient Fkh1 binding. Substitution of these two threonines with alanines (mph1-2TA specifically abolished the Fkh1-Mph1 interaction in vivo and altered donor preference during mating-type switching to the same degree as mph1Δ. Notably, the mph1-2TA allele maintained other functions of Mph1 in genome stability. Deletion of a second Fkh1-interacting protein encoded by YMR144W also resulted in a change in Fkh1-FHA-dependent donor preference. We have named this gene FDO1 for Forkhead one interacting protein involved in donor preference. We conclude that a phosphothreonine-mediated protein-protein interface between Fkh1-FHA and

  17. The Preparation and Characterization of MPH%MPH止血微球的制备及其结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟庆; 夏尧远

    2015-01-01

    微孔多聚糖止血微球(Microporous polysaccharide hemispheres,MPH)是一种新型止血材料,具有良好的生物兼容性,无毒副作用,能直接作用于手术创面,迅速止血,值得在临床上广泛推广使用.以马铃薯淀粉为原料,通过反相微乳化技术以及交联改性技术制备了具有空间立体网状结构的MPH止血微球,并且通过红外光谱仪、场发射扫描电子显微镜、激光粒度分析仪等对其结构进行了表征.

  18. Do speed cameras reduce speeding in urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daniele Falci de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This observational study aimed to estimate the prevalence of speeding on urban roadways and to analyze associated factors. The sample consisted of 8,565 vehicles circulating in areas with and without fixed speed cameras in operation. We found that 40% of vehicles 200 meters after the fixed cameras and 33.6% of vehicles observed on roadways without speed cameras were moving over the speed limit (p cameras, more women drivers were talking on their cell phones and wearing seatbelts when compared to men (p < 0.05 for both comparisons), independently of speed limits. The results suggest that compliance with speed limits requires more than structural interventions.

  19. 长大坡道货物列车下坡限速检算分析%Calculation and Analysis on Limiting Speed of Freight Train Running Downhill on Long and Steep Slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包维民; 闫海峰; 习子文

    2016-01-01

    Reasonable downhill speed limit can not only guarantee the safety of the train,but also make full use of the capacity of the railways.In this paper,the variation of the braking material and the brake shoe pressure in the current TG/01 -2014 Railway Technical Management Rules is analyzed,and by considering the influences of common braking speed and emergency braking speed,the methods of resultant force analysis and piecewise accumulation are adopted,so that the downhill speed limit of a freight train running on the slopes of 2 1‰~33‰is worked out.The results show that when the service brake factor of the train is taken as 0.6:1 .downhill speed limit is determined by the emergency braking speed for ramps from 21‰ to 29‰,and the downhill speed limit decrease with the increase of slope,and the downhill speed limit reduces 1 km/h for each additional 1‰;2.when the slope is from 30‰to 33‰,the downhill speed limit is determined by the common braking speed,and the downhill speed limit decrease sharply with the increase of the slope,and the downhill speed limit reduces 10km/h for each additional 1‰.The research conclusions are of use for reference for the design of long and steep slopes on railway.%合理的下坡限速可以保证列车在长大下坡道上安全运行,并能充分发挥铁路的运输能力。文章分析了现行TG/01-2014《铁路技术管理规程》中制动摩擦材料及闸瓦压力的变化情况,综合考虑列车常用制动限速和紧急制动限速的影响,采用合力分析法和分段累加法,计算得出列车在21‰~33‰坡度下的下坡限速。研究发现当列车常用制动系数取为0.6时:(1)21‰~29‰坡道下的下坡限速由紧急制动限速决定,下坡限速值随坡度值的增加而递减,坡度每增加1‰,限速值减少1 km/h;(2)30‰~33‰坡度下的下坡限速由列车常用制动限速决定,下坡限速值随坡度值的增加而

  20. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  1. Speeding Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the global financial crisis, China has amazed the world with the speed of its economic recovery. But what has been even more surprising is the speed of its railway evolution. The unveiling of the 1,069-km Wuhan-Guangzhou High-speed Railway on December 26, 2009 pushed China's high-speed rail sys-tem-the total mileage, the average speed and the technology-to rank first in the world almost overnight.

  2. Neurotrophin 3 genotype and emotional adverse effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Son, Jung-Woo; Shin, Yun-Mi; Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Neurotrophin 3 (NTF3) has been studied in relation to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders as well as psychostimulant action. We hypothesized that the risk of an emotional side effect to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment may be associated with NTF3 genotypes. Ninety-six medication-naïve children with ADHD (mean age 8.70, standard deviation 1.41 years, 79 males) were genotyped and treated with MPH. At baseline, which was prior to MPH treatment, and after two weeks of medication, investigators asked children and their parents or caregivers about adverse events using a symptom rating scale. ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Emotionality' and 'Over-focus/euphoria' factor scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.042 and p=0.045, respectively). ADHD subjects with the A/A genotype at the NTF3 rs6332 polymorphism showed the highest 'Proneness to crying' and 'Nail biting' item scores, followed by those with the G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype (p=0.047 and p=0.017, respectively). These data provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in the NTF3 gene is related to susceptibility to emotional side effects in response to MPH treatment in Korean children with ADHD.

  3. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schagen, Ingrid; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Goldenbeld, Charles; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small road-side radars, mounted in light poles, were used and registered the speeds on 20 locations in built-up areas. Speeds of over 10 million vehicles were measured. Ten locations had a posted speed limit of 50km/h; the other ten had a posted speed limit of 30km/h. Posters were placed at half of each group of locations to remind drivers of the speed limit. The average speed on the 50km/h roads was 46.2km/h, and 36.1km/h on the 30km/h roads. The average proportions of vehicles exceeding the speed limit were 33.3% and 70.1% respectively. For the 30km/h roads, the data shows differences in speed and speeding behaviour between the six distinguished observation periods, but overall these differences cannot be logically linked to the contents of the phases and, hence, cannot be explained as an effect of the campaign. The only exception was an effect of local speed limit reminders on the 30km/h roads. This effect, however, was temporary and had disappeared within a week.

  4. 既有线临时限速预警控制技术研究与试验%Research and Test on Early Warning and Control Techniques for Temporary Speed Limit of Existing Railway Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玮; 王廷昌

    2013-01-01

    为确保列车安全通过既有线临时限速区段,综合应用射频识别、信息处理与控制、无线数据通信、地理信息系统(GIS)等技术,研发铁路既有线临时限速预警控制系统.在既有线临时限速区段前设置带有临时限速信息的射频标签,在机车上安装射频标签车底识别器和临时限速信息预警控制装置等车载设备.当列车接近临时限速区段时,车载设备自动读取和显示射频标签内的临时限速信息,并向列车司机发出临时限速的语音提示;当列车超速时,车载设备自动输出制动控制信号.为临时限速区段设置的限速信息可利用手持机读取和编辑,并通过其内置的无线通信模块传送到临时限速信息管理服务器,在基于GIS的地图上实时显示临时限速区段的设置情况.经实车试验表明,该系统实现了列车接近和通过既有线临时限速区段时地一车之问临时限速信息的实时自动传递和列车限速预警控制,满足设计和应用要求.%Early warning and control techniques on temporary speed limit setting for existing lines are developed with radio frequency identification,information processing and control,wireless data communication and GIS technique to insure train running safely through the temporary speed limit section of existing lines.RFID labels with the information of temporary speed limits are set before the temporary speed limit section of railway existing lines.Locomotives are furnished with RFID labels car identifiers,temporary speed limit control devices and other on-board devices.When trains approach temporary speed limit section,on-board devices will automatically read and display the information of temporary speed limits in RFID labels,also broadcast voice prompt to driver.On-board devices automatically send brake control signal as the train runs over speed.RFID information can be read and edited by hand-held reader,and transferred to RFID information

  5. Pitching Speed and Glenohumeral Adaptation in High School Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-08-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation are common findings in baseball pitchers. To the authors' knowledge, no study has focused on the adaptation of glenohumeral internal rotational deficit and increased glenohumeral external rotation in relation to pitching speed. This study evaluated changes in range of motion in the throwing shoulder in high school pitchers to determine whether changes in internal and external rotation directly correlate with pitch velocity. The shoulders of 22 high school varsity pitchers were evaluated. Standard goniometric technique was used to measure passive external and internal glenohumeral range of motion in both arms. Measurements were evaluated for statistically significant differences in range of motion. Demographic features, including height, weight, and age, were assessed. Fifteen consecutive in-game pitch speeds were recorded, and the fastest pitch was used for evaluation. Pitch speeds were correlated to the player's glenohumeral internal rotational deficit, increased glenohumeral external rotation, and physical demographics. Average age was 16.9 years. Average external rotation of the throwing arm was significantly greater than that of the nonthrowing arm (143.00° vs 130.32°, P=.005). Average internal rotation of the throwing arm was significantly less than that of the nonthrowing arm (49.50° vs 65.90°, P=.006). Both shoulders had similar total arc of motion (throwing shoulder, 192.54; nonthrowing shoulder, 196.23; P=.822). Average maximum velocity was 77.7 mph (maximum, 88 mph; minimum, 66 mph). Maximum pitch velocity did not correlate with changes in glenohumeral internal rotational deficit (P=.683) or increased glenohumeral external rotation (P=.241). There was also no evidence of correlation between pitch velocity and player age, height, weight, or dominant hand. The stress of pitching creates adaptations to the throwing shoulder, even in young athletes. There appears to be

  6. Brake Rating Selection and Running-speed Limit Investigation of Freight Train%货物列车制车率的选取与运行限速的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兴贵

    2011-01-01

    通过计算分析,阐述了车轮保持制动过程中不产生滑行的条件,货物列车制动率的选取以及列车最高运行速度、紧急制动距离限值、制动率和轴重间的关系.阐明了轴重提高到25~30t后,制动距离限值不延长,必须降低列车最高运行速度;要保证货物列车最高运行速度,必须延长制动距离限值.%Based on calculation and analysis, the conditions of wheel keeping from sliding in brake, selection of freight train brake rating, and relations between train axle, the highest running speed, distance limit of emergency brake, and brake rating were expounded. It was pointed that the train highest running speed must be reduced when the axle load was increased to 25-301 without extending brake distance limit, on the other hand, the train brake distance limit must be extending to keep the highest running speed.

  7. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Commandeur, J.J.F. Goldenbeld, C. & Stipdonk, H.

    2016-01-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small road

  8. Public-health instruction necessary to supplement the veterinary professional curriculum: the DVM/MPH coordinated-degree program at Auburn University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, James G W; Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Wright, James C; Hall, Dugald C A

    2008-01-01

    To meet long-term needs, many veterinary colleges and schools are participating in dual-degree DVM/MPH programs. Auburn University's College of Veterinary Medicine and the School of Public Health at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have developed a coordinated-degree curriculum in which the DVM and the MPH are not necessarily awarded simultaneously. Other opportunities at Auburn include Public Health Careers Day, trips to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, several elective courses related to veterinary epidemiology, and online access to the Emerging and Exotic Diseases of Animals course available from the Veterinary Information Network. We have been able to increase our students' exposure to the role of the veterinarian in public health and to develop a program to augment their training in public practice.

  9. Potential of Offshore Wind Energy and Extreme Wind Speed Forecasting on the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance and urgency for Taiwan to develop offshore wind power. However, relevant data on offshore wind energy resources are limited. This study imported wind speeds measured by a tidal station and a buoy into the software WAsP to estimate the high-altitude wind speeds in the two areas. A light detection and ranging (Lidar system was set up near the tidal station and buoy. High-altitude wind speeds measured by the Lidar system were compared with the WAsP-estimated values, and it was discovered that the two data sets were consistent. Then, long-term wind speed data observed by buoys and tidal stations at various locations were imported into WAsP to forecast wind speeds at heights of 55–200 m on the west coast of Taiwan. The software WAsP Engineering was used to analyze the extreme wind speeds in the same areas. The results show that wind speeds at 100 m are approximately 9.32–11.24 m/s, which means that the coastal areas of west Taiwan are rich in wind energy resources. When a long-term 10-min average wind speed is used, the extreme wind speed on the west coast is estimated to be between 36.4 and 55.3 m/s.

  10. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  11. Dexmethylphenidate--Novartis/Celgene. Focalin, D-MPH, D-methylphenidate hydrochloride, D-methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Celgene has developed a chirally pure form of methylphenidate (Ritalin), called dexmethylphenidate [d-methylphenidate, d-methylphenidate hydrochloride, d-MPH; Focalin]. The drug has been launched in the USA and is undergoing registration in Canada for the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dexmethylphenidate is the single isomer version of racemic methylphenidate (Ritalin), which contains the active d isomer of Ritalin. Dexmethylphenidate acts via the inhibition of reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. Research is ongoing to further clarify the mode of therapeutic action in ADHD. Dexmethylphenidate was developed with the aim of reducing drug load, adverse events and drug interactions. Dexmethylphenidate provides effective management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at half the dose of Ritalin. In April 2000, worldwide rights (excluding Canada) to dexmethylphenidate were granted to Novartis. Celgene has also granted Novartis rights to all related intellectual properties and patents. Novartis will fund all remaining development and marketing expenses required for regulatory approval and commercialisation of dexmethylphenidate. Crystaal Corporation, the marketing division of Biovail Corporation International, has exclusive Canadian marketing rights for all formulations of dexmethylphenidate. Novartis launched dexmethylphenidate (Focalin) in the USA during Q1 2002. It is available as a D-shaped tablet (2.5, 5 and 10 mg doses). Novartis had planned to use the tradename Ritadex, however the FDA recommended an alternative name due to potential prescribing errors with Ritalin. The finalized tradename to be used is Focalin. In July 2001, a new drug submission was filed with Canada's Therapeutic Products Programme for dexmethylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Novartis is also developing an extended-release version of chirally pure dexmethylphenidate

  12. Variable speed limits control for freeway based on cell transmission model%基于元胞传输模型的高速公路可变限速控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明辉; 杨庆芳; 梁士栋

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve congestion problem on freeway during peak period ,which leads to increase of vehicle delays ,and drop of service level ,an optimization method was proposed for bottleneck re‐gion on freeway mainline based on cell transmission model .Variable speed limits control factors and cell transmission model were combined to describe real‐time traffic flow on freeway .Further ,the op‐timization variable speed limits control model at bottleneck region of freeway was formulated with the objective of improving traffic efficiency and decreasing vehicle delays .T he test results show that opti‐mization variable speed limits control method proposed could improve traffic operation efficiency and traffic order ,especially during congestion hours .%针对高速公路交通拥挤、整体服务水平降低、车辆延误增加等问题,提出了一种基于元胞传输模型的高速公路瓶颈区域可变限速控制方法。将可变限速控制方法同元胞传输模型进行融合,使其对限速条件下高速公路交通流变化进行描述,并以提高通行效率和缩短车辆平均延误为控制目标,建立了高速公路瓶颈区域可变限速最优控制模型。实验证明:在高流量条件下,基于元胞传输模型的高速公路可变限速控制方法具有良好的控制效果,能够有效地提升高速公路整体服务水平。

  13. 灾变事件下高速公路限速标准的可靠性分析%RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT FOR EXPRESSWAY OPERATION AGAINST DISASTROUS EVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈富坚; 黄世斌; 包惠明

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problems in the current deterministic method for determining a maximum speed limit for expressway operation against disastrous events, a reliability method was presented. The dynamic analysis was made for vehicle traveling at a horizontal curve of expressway, and respective maximum allowable speeds were deduced for vehicle in horizontal circular motion without sliding and that in emergency stopping without hitting an obstacle in the visual range. Based on Reliability engineering, the reliability of a maximum speed limit was defined. With safety of horizontal circular motion and emergency stopping as constraints, the performance function of the maximum speed limit was established and the model for calculation of its reliability and reliable indicator were deduced. For solution of the reliability model, Monte Carlo method was recommended due to multi-parameter high complexity of the non-linear performance function. With a self-developed program, a case study was conducted to illustrate the reliability analysis of the maximum speed limit for expressway safety management under a detrimental event. The reliability method for determining a maximum speed limit of expressway operation is helpful for improving traffic safety.%针对灾变事件下高速公路安全管理中采用定值型限速标准存在的问题,对基于可靠性的限速标准进行了探讨.通过对高速公路平曲线路段车辆行驶的动力学分析,推导了车辆作圆周运动而不发生横向滑移的最大允许车速,以及司机在弯道内发现障碍物而紧急安全停车的最大允许速度.以可靠性工程理论为依据,对高速公路限速标准的可靠度进行了定义,并以圆周运动安全和紧急刹车安全为约束条件建立了高速公路限速标准的功能函数,推导了相应的可靠性计算模型.针对限速标准功能函数的多参数复杂非线性特征,提出采用Monte Carlo法对限速标准可靠性计算模型进行求解.以所

  14. Calculating Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  15. Design Optimization and the Limits of Steady-State Heating Efficiency for Conventional Single-Speed Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.

    2001-06-06

    The ORNL Heat Pump Model and an optimizing program were used to explore the limits of steady-state heating efficiency for conventional air-source heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of ten selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. Designs were optimized for a fixed heating capacity, but the results may be scaled to other capacities. Substantial performance improvement is predicted compared to today's state of the art heat pump. With increased component efficiencies that are expected in the near future and with modest increases in heat exchanger area, a 28% increase in heating efficiency is predicted; for long-term improvements with considerably larger heat exchangers, a 56% increase is possible. The improved efficiencies are accompanied by substantial reductions in the requirements for compressor and motor size. The predicted performance improvements are attributed not only to improved components and larger heat exchangers but also to the use of an optimizing design procedure. Deviations from the optimized design may be necessary to make use of available component sizes and to maintain good cooling-mode performance while improving the heating efficiency. Sensitivity plots (i.e., COP as a function of one or more design parameters) were developed to explore design flexibilities and to evaluate their consequences. The performance of the optimized designs was compared to that of modified ideal cycles to assess the factors that limit further improvement. It is hoped that the design methods developed will be useful to designers in the heat pump industry.

  16. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  17. Variable Speed Limit on Freeway Based on the Cost of Traffic Delay and Crash Damage%基于延误和事故损失的高速公路可变限速控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 林永杰

    2016-01-01

    以交通检测系统获取的车道流量和速度为模型输入,分别提出基于延误损失、事故损失和综合损失等3类步进式可变限速控制。综合现有基于流量和基于车速离散性算法估计了高速公路事故发生率,提出了基于延误和事故发生率的路段综合损失计算方法。以青兰高速莱芜区约20 km的路段为实例,模拟了8组可变限速牌,通过微观仿真验证了提出的3种算法。结果证明,相比于静态控制,建立的3种模型均显著降低了主线车流的停车次数、停车延误和综合延误,改善了车辆行驶的平稳性,但主线车辆旅行时间略有增加。根据敏感性分析发现,随着驾驶员对限速值服从率的下降,可变限速控制的效益也逐渐降低,尤其低于80%时,下降显著;当低于60%时,基本保持不变。%Taking traffic volume and speed collected by traffic detection system as input variables, this paper proposes three kinds of step-by-step variable speed limit control models to minimize estimated delay cost, crash cost and comprehensive cost, respectively. The freeway crash rate is estimated based on volume-over-capacity and speed deviation by the existing model, and then the comprehensive cost is computed in terms of estimated delay and crash rate. In tests that used field freeway from about 20km segment of Qing-lan freeway with eight variable speed limit signs, these developed three controls show promise in reducing the numbers of vehicle stops, stopped delay and equivalent travel delay based on micro simulation results, smoothing traffic speed and improving traffic safety. Nevertheless, travel time of freeway vehicles is increased a little. Additionally, sensitivity analysis of driver compliance rate indicates that benefits of variable speed limit are gradually reduced as compliance rate decreased. When the compliance rate is below 80%, benefits are significantly decreased;and benefits are

  18. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  19. 大容量高速限流开关的设计与试验研究%Design and Test Study of Large Capacity High Speed Current Limit Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 朱峰

    2011-01-01

    针对现有保护设备难以满足大容量电力系统短路保护要求的问题,研制了一种基于爆炸活塞式高速开断器和灭弧熔断器的混合型限流保护装置,设计了额定640V/2500A的工程样机,并进行了高速开断器的分断试验和整机的限流试验。试验结果表明,该保护装置限流效果显著,全分断时fHJ仪为2.5ms,大大提高了电力系统的安全性。%Aiming at the problem that the existing protection equipment is difficult to meet large capacity power system short circuit protective requirements problem, this paper researched a kind of high speed break-off device based on explosive piston type and arc blow-out fuse mixed type, current limit protection device, designing rated voltage 640 V/2 500 A engineering sample machine. The break-off test and whole machine current limit test were carried out for high speed breaker. Test result shows that the protective device current limit effect is obvious and the total break-offtime is only 2.5 ms, which greatly raises safety of the power system.

  20. 风力发电机大风限速保护方法的研究%A Study of Wind Speed Limit-related Protection Methods for Wind Turbine Generators During a Gale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国英; 包道日娜; 刘志璋; 范源

    2009-01-01

    The most difficult problem faced by a small-sized wind turbine generator is the assurance of reliability,i.e.speed limit-related protection problem when a gale takes place.From the standpoint of energy conservation,the authors have analyzed the feasibility of employing the power matching characteristics of a wind wheel and an electric generator to fulfil the speed limit protection of a wind turbine generator.In addition,the authors have designed two sets of 300 W/26 V wind turbine generator,of which the wind wheels and generators have different matching characteristics.To enable them to share an identical base for comparison,electric generators of the same model were used.Through tests,measured were the mechanical output characteristics of the wind wheels,power characteristics of the generators and power output of the whole machine at different output voltages.The test results show that when the wind speed is below 12 m/s,the two wind turbine generators have a basically same power output.When the wind speed is over 12 m/s,one of the two wind turbine generators will increase its power output continuously with an increase of the wind speed,while another will no longer increase its power output with a wind speed increase,but even slightly decrease its power output,similar to the characteristics of a large-sized wind turbine generator.%小型风力发电机面临的最大难题是其可靠性问题,即大风时的限速保护问题.从能量守恒的角度分析了利用风轮与发电机的功率匹配特性实现风力发电机限速保护的可行性.另外,设计了2台风轮与发电机具有不同匹配特性的300 W/26 V风力发电机,为了使其具有可比性,使用了同样型号的发电机.通过实验测试了风轮的机械输出特性、发电机在输出电压不同时的功率特性和整机的功率输出,实验结果表明,风速12 m/s以下时2台风力机输出功率基本相同,风速12 m/s以上时其中1台随着风速的增

  1. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  2. 40 CFR 434.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 434.55 Section 434.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW...

  3. 受结构限制的运输类飞机最小离地速度试飞技术%Flight test technology of minimum unstick speed for geometry limited airplanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 屈飞舟; 刘静

    2012-01-01

    以ARJ21-700飞机最小离地速度试飞为背景,结合民用航空规章相关适航条款要求,研究了受结构限制的运输类飞机最小离地速度的试飞技术和数据处理技术,积累了丰富的最小离地速度试飞经验.该项研究为国内其它运输类飞机的最小离地速度试飞和制定我国自己的民机审定试飞指南具有重要意义.%On the basis of ARJ21 -700 minimum unstick speed flight testing, this paper analysed the flight test technique and data processing method of Vmu test for geometry limited airplanes. The technique and method can be used for minimum unstick speed flight test of other transport airplanes.

  4. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept...... consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments...

  5. Behavioural effects of fixed speed cameras on motorways: overall improved speed compliance or kangaroo jumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ellen; Daniels, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Hermans, Elke; Wets, Geert

    2014-12-01

    The present study evaluates the speed effects of fixed speed cameras on motorways. Two locations with speed cameras were extensively examined in a quasi-experiment: (1) a two-lane motorway and (2) a three-lane motorway, each with a posted speed limit of 120 km/h and sited in Flanders, Belgium. The effect is analysed through a before-and-after comparison of travel speeds. General time trends and fluctuations were controlled through the analysis of the speeds at comparison locations. At each of the two roads, data were gathered at five measurement points from 3 km upstream to 3.8 km downstream of the camera. Three outcomes were analysed: (1) average speed, (2) the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit and (3) the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit by more than 10%. Speeds decreased on average by 6.4 km/h at the camera locations. Both the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit (-80%) and the odds of drivers exceeding the speed limit by more than 10% (-86%) decreased considerably. However, before and beyond the cameras the speeds hardly, if at all, reduced. Moreover, the analyses of the speed profiles before and beyond the cameras show that drivers do slow down quite abruptly before the camera and speed up again after passing the camera. It is concluded that a V-profile is found in the spatial speed distribution for both locations.

  6. 76 FR 8917 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include a high speed protection system. These proposed special conditions contain the... Design Features The GVI is equipped with a high speed protection system that limits nose down...

  7. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Berthelsen, Kasper K; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.

  8. Chaos Control of Freeway Mainline Using Variable Speed Limits with FNN Based on Subtractive Clustering%基于减法聚类的高速公路主线可变速度FNN混沌控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任沙沙; 庞明宝; 王彦虎; 陈培

    2012-01-01

    研究基于减法聚类的高速公路混沌系统主线可变速度模糊神经网络控制方法.针对交通系统的不确定性和非线性,提出了通过数据挖掘技术建立高速公路主线混沌控制器知识库的思想,简介了高速公路主线可变速度混沌控制原理,设计了以密度、上游车流量和最大李雅普诺夫指数作为输入,主线速度上限值作为输出的T-S模糊神经网络混沌控制器.采用减法聚类方法确定了控制器结构,包括提取模糊规则、产生控制器初始参数.使用遗传算法对聚类半径进行了优化,并采用模糊神经网络方法对控制器参数进行了优化.仿真结果表明:采用该方法设计的高速公路主线智能混沌控制器,可保持高速公路上的有序运动,从而达到抑制交通堵塞、提高道路通行能力的目的.%The chaos control of freeway mainline was studied by using variable speed limits and fuzzy-neural networks (FNN) based on subtractive clustering. Based on the uncertainty and nonlinearity of traffic system, the thought of establishing the knowledge base of mainline chaos controller for freeway by using data mining technology was proposed. Trie chaos control principle of mainline variable speed limits in freeway was briefly introduced. The T-S FNN chaos controller was designed, where traffic density, upstream traffic volume and maximal Lyapunov exponent were selected as the input variables and the mainline speed upper limit was selected as the output variable of the controller. Subtractive clustering was used to determine the controller structure, including the extracting of fuzzy rules and generating initial parameters. The radius of the clustering centers was optimized by genetic algorithm, and the parameters of the fuzzy controller were optimized by using fuzzy neural network. The simulation result indicates that order motion on freeway can be realized by using the mainline intelligent chaos controller designed by the

  9. Traction electrification system planning for California high-speed train project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmedes, Richard [Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States). Transit and Railway Div.

    2011-04-15

    The California High-Speed Train Project will be a $ 43 Billion dedicated 1 300 km (800 miles) system and will connect California's major metropolitan centers with completely new dedicated tracks and infrastructure which will support train operations at up to 400 km/h (250 mph). It will be electrified with a 2 AC 25 kV autotransformer configuration with 50 km (30 miles) spacing between utility connections. The planning of 115 kV and 230 kV connections involves coordination with four utility companies and completion of five-year permitting and planning processes by 2016. (orig.)

  10. A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial to Evaluate the Quality of Life in Adults with ADHD Treated with Long-Acting Methylphenidate (OROS MPH): Concerta Quality of Life (CONQoL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Paulo; Rodrigues Louza, Mario; Fernandes Palmini, Andre Luis; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Lopes Rocha, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The available literature provides few studies on the effectiveness of methylphenidate in improving quality of life in individuals with ADHD. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Methyphenidate OROS formulation (OROS MPH) through QoL in adults with ADHD. Method: A 12-week, multicenter, open-label trial involving 60 patients was used. The…

  11. 14 CFR 25.1515 - Landing gear speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear speeds. 25.1515 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1515 Landing gear speeds. (a) The established landing gear operating speed or speeds, V LO, may not exceed the speed at which it is safe both to extend and to retract the landing gear,...

  12. Automatic speed management systems : great safety potential ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of speed management experiments carried out in The Netherlands on four 2-lane rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The experiment involved an information campaign, warning signs and a radar camera system. Fixed signs advised a speed of between 60 and 80 km/h and an automati

  13. 14 CFR 23.1507 - Operating maneuvering speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating maneuvering speed. 23.1507... Limitations and Information § 23.1507 Operating maneuvering speed. The maximum operating maneuvering speed, VO, must be established as an operating limitation. VO is a selected speed that is not greater than...

  14. Intelligent Speed Adaptation in Company Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Waagepetersen, Rasmus;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent speed adaptation project for company vehicles. The intelligent speed adaptation function in the project is both information and incentive, which means that the intelligent speed adaptation equipment gives a warning as well as penalty points if the driver...... is speeding. Each month the driver with that monthpsilas fewest points wins an award. The paper presents results concerning speed attitude on the first three of a planned 12 months test period. In all 26 vehicles and 51 drivers from six companies participate in the project. The key result is that speeding...... is reduced from 18.7% to 7.4% on urban roads with a speed limit of 50 km/h while it is reduced from 18.9% to 4.7% on rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h....

  15. TA-55 and Sigma Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearing, Dane Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group (NEN-1)

    2016-11-29

    These are slides from a facility overview presentation for visiting agencies to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The TA-55 Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is discussed in detail. PF-4 is a unique resource for US plutonium programs. The basic design is flexible and has adapted to changing national needs. It is a robust facility with strong safety and security implementation. It supports a variety of national programs. It will continue for many years into the future. Sigma is then discussed in detail, which handles everything from hydrogen to uranium. It has been in long term service to the Nation (nearly 60 years). It has a flexible authorization basis to handle almost the entire periodic table. It has a wide breadth of prototyping and characterization capabilities. It has integrated program and line management.

  16. Speed Control of Induction Motor by Using Variable Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Drive Pooja Shinde; Rupali Burungale

    2014-01-01

    The variable speed drive is focused on voltage amplitude control. However, its only control speed in constraint limits. The load on Induction Motor is not constant & vary as per load requirement. so speed must be change as per load. If the supply voltage decreased motor torque also decreases, for maintaining same torque, slip decreases hence speed falls and motor speed is directly proportional to supply frequency, hence to maintain a speed, the supply V/F ratio must be vary ac...

  17. Development of a 55 μm pitch 8 inch CMOS image sensor for the high resolution NDT application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Kim, G.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.

    2016-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor (CIS) with a large area for the high resolution X-ray imaging was designed. The sensor has an active area of 125 × 125 mm2 comprised with 2304 × 2304 pixels and a pixel size of 55 × 55 μm2. First batch samples were fabricated by using an 8 inch silicon CMOS image sensor process with a stitching method. In order to evaluate the performance of the first batch samples, the electro-optical test and the X-ray test after coupling with an image intensifier screen were performed. The primary results showed that the performance of the manufactured sensors was limited by a large stray capacitance from the long path length between the analog multiplexer on the chip and the bank ADC on the data acquisition board. The measured speed and dynamic range were limited up to 12 frame per sec and 55 dB respectively, but other parameters such as the MTF, NNPS and DQE showed a good result as designed. Based on this study, the new X-ray CIS with ~ 50 μm pitch and ~ 150 cm2 active area are going to be designed for the high resolution X-ray NDT equipment for semiconductor and PCB inspections etc.

  18. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  19. New MOST Photometry of the 55 Cancri System

    CERN Document Server

    Dragomir, Diana; Winn, Joshua N; Rowe, Jason F

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of its transiting nature, the super-Earth 55 Cnc e has become one of the most enthusiastically studied exoplanets, having been observed spectroscopically and photometrically, in the ultraviolet, optical and infrared regimes. To this rapidly growing data set, we contribute 42 days of new, nearly continuous MOST photometry of the 55 Cnc system. Our analysis of these observations together with the discovery photometry obtained in 2011 allows us to determine the planetary radius (1.990$^{+0.084}_{-0.080}$ R_Earth) and orbital period (0.7365417$^{+0.0000025}_{-0.0000028}$ days) of 55 Cnc e with unprecedented precision. We also followed up on the out-of-transit phase variation first observed in the 2011 photometry, and set an upper limit on the depth of the planet's secondary eclipse, leading to an upper limit on its geometric albedo of 0.6.

  20. 10 CFR 55.23 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification. 55.23 Section 55.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Medical Requirements § 55.23 Certification. To certify... complete and sign NRC Form 396, “Certification of Medical Examination by Facility Licensee,” which can...

  1. 34 CFR 668.55 - Updating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Updating information. 668.55 Section 668.55 Education... Information § 668.55 Updating information. (a)(1) Unless the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this... applicant to verify the information contained in his or her application for assistance in an award year...

  2. 14 CFR 65.55 - Knowledge requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge requirements. 65.55 Section 65.55... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.55 Knowledge requirements. (a) A person who applies for an aircraft dispatcher certificate must pass a knowledge test on the...

  3. 40 CFR 279.55 - Analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis plan. 279.55 Section 279.55... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.55 Analysis plan... analysis plan describing the procedures that will be used to comply with the analysis requirements of §...

  4. 33 CFR 5.55 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.55 Section 5.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.55 Compensation. No member of the Auxiliary shall receive any compensation for his services as...

  5. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  6. 40 CFR 96.55 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 96.55 Section 96.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET... Tracking System § 96.55 Banking. (a) NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in...

  7. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation. 55.40 Section 55.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Written Examinations and Operating Tests § 55.40 Implementation. (a) The Commission shall use the criteria in NUREG-1021, “Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors,” 1 in effect...

  8. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  9. 10 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation. 55.27 Section 55.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Medical Requirements § 55.27 Documentation. The... documentation to the Commission upon request. The facility licensee shall retain this documentation while...

  10. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation. 55.27 Section 55.27... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation. (a... part 58) who would approve the proposed action shall require documentation of compliance with...

  11. 22 CFR 228.55 - Delivery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery services. 228.55 Section 228.55... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.55 Delivery services. (a) Ocean transportation. A... case of bulk cargoes and large cargoes carried by liners; (2) Eligible vessels provide liner...

  12. 27 CFR 71.55 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 71.55 Section 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Citations § 71.55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit shall...

  13. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste classification. 61.55 Section 61.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for near surface disposal—(1) Considerations. Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves...

  14. 10 CFR 55.3 - License requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License requirements. 55.3 Section 55.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.3 License requirements. A person must be authorized by a license issued by the Commission to perform the function of an operator...

  15. 39 CFR 3020.55 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review. 3020.55 Section 3020.55 Postal Service... the Product Lists Described Within the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.55 Review. The Commission shall review the request, the Postal Service reply, and any public comment to determine whether...

  16. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements....

  17. 24 CFR 55.2 - Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT General § 55.2 Terminology. (a) With the exception of those terms defined in paragraph... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terminology. 55.2 Section 55.2... of Executive Order 11988 and in the Floodplain Management Guidelines for Implementing Executive...

  18. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee...

  19. 7 CFR 1700.55 - Telecommunications Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telecommunications Program. 1700.55 Section 1700.55... AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.55 Telecommunications Program. (a..., Telecommunications Program, has the authority to approve the following loans, loan guarantees, and...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1517 - Rough air speed, VRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rough air speed, VRA. 25.1517 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1517 Rough air speed, VRA. A rough air speed, VRA, for use as the recommended turbulence... specified in § 25.335(d); and (3) Is sufficiently less than VMO to ensure that likely speed variation...

  1. 28 CFR 55.6 - Coverage under section 203(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.6 Coverage under... citizens are members of a single language minority group and are limited-English proficient; and (ii) The illiteracy rate of such language minority citizens in the political subdivision is higher than the...

  2. High speed data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed MA

    2016-01-01

    This book covers high speed data converters from the perspective of a leading high speed ADC designer and architect, with a strong emphasis on high speed Nyquist A/D converters. For our purposes, the term 'high speed' is defined as sampling rates that are greater than 10 MS/s.

  3. Can anti-speeding messages based on protection motivation theory influence reported speeding intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, A Ian; Walker, Britta L

    2013-08-01

    The study investigated the effects of anti-speeding messages based on protection motivation theory (PMT) components: severity, vulnerability, rewards, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and response cost, on reported speeding intentions. Eighty-three participants aged 18-25 years holding a current Australian driver's license completed a questionnaire measuring their reported typical and recent speeding behaviors. Comparisons were made between 18 anti-speeding messages used on Australian roads and 18 new anti-speeding messages developed from the PMT model. Participants reported their reactions to the 36 messages on the perceived effectiveness of the message for themselves and for the general population of drivers, and also the likelihood of themselves and other drivers driving within the speed limit after viewing each message. Overall the PMT model-derived anti-speeding messages were better than jurisdiction-use anti-speeding messages in influencing participants' reported intention to drive within the speed limit. Severity and vulnerability were the most effective PMT components for developing anti-speeding messages. Male participants reported significantly lower intention to drive within the speed limit than did female participants. However, males reported significantly higher intention to drive within the speed limit for PMT-derived messages compared with jurisdiction-based messages. Third-person effects were that males reported anti-speeding messages to be more effective for the general driving population than for themselves. Females reported the opposite effect - that all messages would be more effective for themselves than for the general driving population. Findings provided support for using a sound conceptual basis as an effective foundation for anti-speeding message development as well as for evaluating proposed anti-speeding messages on the target driver population.

  4. Speed checks on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  5. High-speed photonics interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic increases in processing power have rapidly scaled on-chip aggregate bandwidths into the Tb/s range. This necessitates a corresponding increase in the amount of data communicated between chips, so as not to limit overall system performance. To meet the increasing demand for interchip communication bandwidth, researchers are investigating the use of high-speed optical interconnect architectures. Unlike their electrical counterparts, optical interconnects offer high bandwidth and negligible frequency-dependent loss, making possible per-channel data rates of more than 10 Gb/s. High-Speed

  6. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, A M; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, K

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate (t to the power -1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, (t to the power -1).

  7. Causality and the speed of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, G; MacCallum, M; Callum, Malcolm Mac; Ellis, George; Maartens, Roy

    2007-01-01

    A usual causal requirement on a viable theory of matter is that the speed of sound be at most the speed of light. In view of various recent papers querying this limit, the question is revisited here. We point to various issues confronting theories that violate the usual constraint.

  8. 28 CFR 55.21 - Record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.21 Record keeping. The Attorney General's implementation of the Act's provisions concerning language minority...

  9. Measurement of Metal Cutting Forces at High Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princehouse, David W.

    1996-03-01

    Proposed numerically-controlled milling machines will cut aluminum alloys with cutter tip speeds of up to 130 m/s (300 MPH). There are a variety of challenging technical problems to be solved--high power density motors, inverters, cutter/machine dynamics, servo control systems--and compelling reasons to do so. We measured time-varying cutting forces at these tip speeds with a 25.4-cm (10-in) diameter cutter turning at rates up to 167 Hz (10,000 RPM.) We took special care to measure and compensate for the dynamic response of the force transducer (a three-axis quartz-crystal milling dynamometer), extending the useful bandwidth of the measurements well into the mechanical resonances of the dynamometer. We instrumented a production milling machine on the factory floor and processed megabytes of data, obtaining results minutes after a cut was made. This case study shows how a physicist's background in mechanics, instrumentation, signal processing, and computing hardware and software can help advance the state of the art in aerospace manufacturing.

  10. Comparison of High Speed Congestion Control Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ben Abed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion control limits the quantity of information input at a rate less important than that of thetransmission one to ensure good performance as well as protect against overload and blocking of thenetwork. Researchers have done a great deal of work on improving congestion control protocols,especially on high speed networks.In this paper, we will be studying the congestion control alongside low and high speed congestion controlprotocols. We will be also simulating, evaluating, and comparing eight of high speed congestion controlprotocols : Bic TCP, Cubic TCP, Hamilton TCP, HighSpeed TCP, Illinois TCP, Scalable TCP,Compound TCP and YeAH TCP, with multiple flows.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1583 - Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or pilot training. (2) If an airspeed limitation is based upon compressibility effects, a statement... engine powers. (5) The landing gear operating speed or speeds, and a statement explaining the speeds as defined in § 25.1515(a). (6) The landing gear extended speed V LE, if greater than V LO, and a...

  12. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  13. 10 CFR 55.46 - Simulation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simulation facilities. 55.46 Section 55.46 Energy NUCLEAR... Simulation facilities. (a) General. This section addresses the use of a simulation facility for the... applicants for operator and senior operator licenses. (b) Commission-approved simulation facilities...

  14. 40 CFR 97.55 - Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 97.55 Section 97.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX... Banking. NOX allowances may be banked for future use or transfer in a compliance account, an...

  15. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... sublegal halibut at 15 percent of the Area 2A constant exploitation yield (CEY) for legal size halibut,...

  16. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., except for reactor components measuring at least one meter in length and weighing in excess of 30... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL...

  17. 28 CFR 0.55 - General functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General functions. 0.55 Section 0.55 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division... Administration Act, the Federal Seed Act, the Gold Reserve Act of 1934, the Hours of Service Act, the...

  18. 9 CFR 3.55 - Watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watering. 3.55 Section 3.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  19. Design of GPS-based speed-limiting and bus station announcement system for bus%基于GPS公交车限速报站系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁卫

    2012-01-01

    A vehicle-mounted system with C8051F040 MCU as the control core is designed based on GPS and used to realize automatic bus station announcement. Firstly, voice information of each station is recorded by a sound recording interface. The system automatically indentifies next station and reports the station name,while the bus is driving. At the same time, maximum of driving speed is set. Once the bus exceeds the set speed, the system completes the function of voice warning. In addition, the system has the function of accurate positioning and can operate day and night.%为实现公交车的自动报站功能,提出一种以C8051F040单片机和GPS卫星定位系统的设计方案.首先设置通过录音接口预存各站点具体位置的语音信息,当公交车在行驶时,能自动识别站点并完成语音报站功能,同时可设置公交车行驶的上限速度,当超过该速度值时,系统将完成语音报警提示.该系统定位准确,并可实现全天侯工作.

  20. Torque- and Speed Control of a Pitch Regulated Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasila, Mika

    2003-07-01

    Variable speed operated wind turbines has the potential to reduce fatigue loads, compared to fixed speed wind turbines. With pitch controllable rotor blades limitation of the power at high wind speeds is obtained. The thesis describes different controlling aspects concerning wind turbines and how these together can be used to optimize the system's performance. Torque control is used in order to achieve reduction on the mechanical loads on the drive-train for low wind speeds and limitation of power output for high wind speeds. In the high wind speed interval torque control is effective in order to limit the output power if a sufficiently fast pitch actuator is used. In the middle wind speed interval filter utilization can be used to give a reference signal to the controller in order to reduce speed and torque variations.

  1. [Reflections in our 55th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Investigación Clínica has been published uninterruptedly for 55 years and for this reason, the University of Zulia has recognized the work of its editorial team with the imposition of the Order "Jesus Enrique Lossada". Despite some financial and structural problems we are optimistic because our journal has been included in new international indices and it is connected to the scientific world through the contributions from all continents; by the selfless collaboration of hundreds of domestic and foreign referees who respond with great professionalism; and through the visits to our website, from virtually around the world. Reviewing the SCImago statistical analysis, we found that among the Venezuelan medical journals, Investigación Clínica is first in cites per document (2 years) and second in the H index, and compares favorably with prestigious Latin-American journals. It is noteworthy that both in Venezuela and beyond our borders, the submission of topic reviews has increased in detriment of original papers or contributions. It seems that the lack of financial support to research institutes and universities, has led to a decline in experimental projects, at least in the medical field that occupies this journal, so researchers resort to reviews in their respective fields, as a compensation to maintain their productivity. This has caused that the Editorial Board has limited the reception of reviews to keep intact the percentage of published original contributions. Finally, we would like to think that there are no obstacles that can not be overcome to maintain our excellence in publishing Investigación Clínica.

  2. Kuidas tähistame 55ndat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rahvatantsuansambli Kuljus 55. juubeli tähistamisest kontserdiseeriaga Narva kultuurikeskuses Geneva 22. apr., Pärnu Endla teatrimajas 23. apr. ja Tallinna Linnahallis 24. aprillil

  3. 29 CFR 2200.55 - Interrogatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prehearing Procedures and Discovery § 2200.55 Interrogatories. (a) General. At any time after the filing of... obtainable information. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as an answer or as...

  4. 28 CFR 55.15 - Affected activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.15 Affected... of applicable language minority groups to be effectively informed of and participate effectively...

  5. Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 55

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Jõgevamaa ettevõtete TOP 55 aastal 2003. Käibe TOP 40. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Jõgevamaa firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  6. 7 CFR 932.55 - Exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Regulations § 932.55 Exemption. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall not be... such types of shipments, or for such specified purposes (including shipments to facilitate the...

  7. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.55 Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1864 - Vessel speed within speed reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel speed within speed reduction. 154.1864 Section... Vessel speed within speed reduction. The master shall ensure that the speed of the vessel is not greater than the posted speed reduction....

  9. 14 CFR 25.1513 - Minimum control speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum control speed. 25.1513 Section 25.1513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1513 Minimum control speed. The minimum control speed V MC determined under § 25.149 must...

  10. Development of a speeding-related crash typology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Council, F.M. Reurings, M. Srinivasan, R. Masten, S. & Carter, C.

    2010-01-01

    Speeding, the driver behaviour of exceeding the posted speed limit or driving too fast for conditions, has consistently been estimated to be a contributing factor to a significant percentage of fatal and nonfatal crashes. The U.S. Department of Transportation has instituted the Speed Management Stra

  11. The Speed of Galileon Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the speed of gravitational waves in coupled Galileon models with an equation of state $\\omega_\\phi=-1$ now and a ghost-free Minkowski limit. We find that the gravitational waves propagate much faster than the speed of light unless these models are small perturbations of cubic Galileons and the Galileon energy density is sub-dominant to a dominant cosmological constant. In this case, the binary pulsar bounds on the speed of gravitational waves can be satisfied and the equation of state can be close to -1 when the coupling to matter and the coefficient of the cubic term of the Galileon Lagrangian are related. This severely restricts the allowed cosmological behaviour of Galileon models and we are forced to conclude that Galileons with a stable Minkowski limit cannot account for the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe on their own. Moreover any sub-dominant Galileon component of our universe must be dominated by the cubic term. For such models with gravitons propagating faster than ...

  12. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  13. More Than Just Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 1,318-km Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway will finally come into operation at the end of June.Since construction began three years ago,the speedy railway has grabbed worldwide attention because of its design as the world’s longest and fastesthigh-speed rail line utilizing the most advanced technology.

  14. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...

  15. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  16. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...

  17. OVER SPEED VIOLATION MANAGEMENT OF A VEHICLE THROUGH ZIGBEE

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Makeswari.A; Rubini.R

    2013-01-01

    In the present day scenario traffic rules are frequently violated by the drivers and over speeding occur due to bad driving behavior. So, a driver assistance system is provided to prevent over speeding,violation of road rules and also to display alert messages. The proposed system has an alerting, recording and reporting system for over speed violation management. The Zigbee transmitter sends the speed limit of the particular lane entered by the vehicle and also gives alerts like “road works”...

  18. INTELLIGENT SPEED ADAPTATION (ISA AND ROAD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. OEI, M.Sc.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver. Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver to a resisting force exerted by the accelerator pedal that can be countered by the driver. In the Netherlands the system intervenes so the limit cannot be exceeded. Experiments in Sweden have recently been concluded and an evaluation is in progress. In the Netherlands the project was concluded early 2001. The field experiments so far mainly concern the measure of acceptance of the system(s by the public. Several simulation studies have also been conducted. Little is known as yet from practical research of the effects of ISA on road safety, though a large safety potential is assumed. For the Dutch situation, based on the assumption that all passenger cars are fitted with ISA and an assumed speed distribution as the result of ISA, a theoretical calculation is made of the effects of ISA on speed and safety. The result is an estimated reduction of road casualties of 25 to 30%. Further, the assumed speed distribution is validated with field measurements of the experiment in the city of Tilburg. The result is that the measured average speed of the speed distribution fits quite well with the calculated average speed.

  19. Map Matching for Intelligent Speed Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Lahrmann, Harry;

    2007-01-01

    The availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems enables sophisticated vehicle guidance and advisory systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems. In ISA systems, it is essential to be able to position vehicles within a road network. Because digital road networks as well as GPS...... positioning are often inaccurate, a technique known as map matching is needed that aims to use this inaccurate data for determining a vehicle's real road-network position. Then, knowing this position, an ISA system can compare the vehicle's speed with the speed limit in effect and react appropriately...

  20. Emission Spectroscopy of the Super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Diana; Bean, Jacob; Kreidberg, Laura; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent surveys have revealed an extraordinary and unexplained diversity of low-mass exoplanets. The main frontier for constraining the nature and origins of these planets is atmospheric characterization to reveal their detailed physical properties. Previous spectroscopic observations of small exoplanets have been focused on transmission measurements, but these studies are often limited by clouds. We are turning small exoplanet characterization in a new direction with multi-wavelength observations (Warm Spitzer and HST WFC3) of the dayside of 55 Cnc e, a quintessential super-Earth in a tight orbit and transiting a nearby star. We will present the first dayside emission spectrum of a super-Earth, which we use to distinguish between different atmospheric compositions and constrain the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere. Our results for 55 Cnc e will guide JWST emission spectroscopy of a much larger sample of small close-in transiting exoplanets.

  1. An atmosphere around the super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaras, Angelos; Rocchetto, Marco; Waldmann, Ingo; Venot, Olivia; Varley, Rayan; Morello, Giuseppe; Damiano, Mario; Tinetti, Giovanna; Barton, Emma; Yurchenko, Sergey; Tennyson, Jonathan; ExoLights, ExoMol

    2016-10-01

    One of the most successful instruments for observing exoplanetary atmospheres is the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In particular, the use of the spatial scanning technique has given us the opportunity for even more efficient observations of the brightest targets, achieving the necessary precision of 10 – 100 ppm. With such data and new advanced reduction and statistical techniques, we were able to detect modulations in the spectrum of the hot super-Earth 55 Cancri e, which suggest the existence of a light-weight atmosphere around this planet. Given the brightness of 55 Cancri, the observers adopted a very long scanning length and a very high scanning speed. We took these effects into account, as they can introduce systematics when coupled with the geometrical distortions of the instrument. Our fully Bayesian spectral retrieval code, T-REx, has identified HCN to be the most likely molecular candidate able to explain the features at 1.42 and 1.54 μm. While additional spectroscopic observations in a broader wavelength range in the infrared will be needed to confirm the HCN detection, we used a chemical model, developed with combustion specialists, to explain its pressence. This model indicates that relatively high mixing ratios of HCN may be caused by a high C/O ratio, suggesting this super-Earth is a carbon-rich environment even more exotic than previously thought.

  2. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63% had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA, speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.

  3. Gas speed flow transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godovaniouk V. N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of a gas speed flow transducer using the coupling of gas speed and heat streams within the transducer itself is proposed. To maintain the heat balance between two thermoresistors under gas stream at different temperatures, it provides energy consumption monitoring. The detailed combined planar technology for the transducer production is presented. The worked-out measurement procedure allows to make measurements in the temperature range. Information enough to organize production of cheap, reliable and precise gas speed flow transducers is given.

  4. 27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of...

  5. 7 CFR 900.55 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... matter as a part of the record and decision in the proceeding, after making such investigation or holding... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.55 Judges....

  6. 28 CFR 55.14 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.14 General. (a) This...) and section 203(c) concerning the provision of minority language materials and assistance and some...

  7. 28 CFR 55.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS General Provisions § 55.1 Definitions. As used in this part— Act means the Voting Rights Act of 1965, 79 Stat. 437, as amended by the Civil Rights Act of 1968, 82 Stat....

  8. 28 CFR 55.11 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.11 General. The requirements of section 4(f)(4) or section 203(c) apply with respect to the languages of language minority groups....

  9. 28 CFR 55.19 - Written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.19 Written... provided in a minority language. A jurisdiction required to provide minority language materials is only required to publish in the language of the applicable language minority group materials distributed to...

  10. 28 CFR 55.24 - Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Comment on This Part § 55.24 Procedure. These guidelines may be modified... General, Civil Rights Division, Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20530....

  11. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... markings prescribed by 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23 and shall otherwise conform to the requirements of 32 CFR 2001.20 through 2001.23. ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section...

  12. 28 CFR 55.17 - Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.17 Targeting. The term...). “Targeting” refers to a system in which the minority language materials or assistance required by the Act are... targeting system will normally fulfill the Act's minority language requirements if it is designed...

  13. 33 CFR 151.55 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE... Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.55 Recordkeeping...) Plastic material. (ii) Floating dunnage, lining, or packing material. (iii) Ground paper products,...

  14. 28 CFR 91.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or other areas sensitive to the visual impacts resulting from height or lighting changes. (e... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.55... within or potentially affect any of the following: a 100-year flood plain, a wetland, important...

  15. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  16. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  17. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  18. Speeding up Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an excellent year for the transportation industry, marked by high speed railway transportation, development of the national expressway network and launch of the Chang'e lunar probe satellite.

  19. Episodic and semantic memory functioning in very old age: Explanations from executive functioning and processing speed theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E.J. Spaan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether age-related episodic and semantic memory impairments are better explained by decline in processing speed or executive functioning (or both, rather than directly in terms of memory components. The models tested were based on an extensive review of the literature on cognitive decline in normal aging, up to very old age. A computerized test battery, measuring episodic memory (free and cued recall; recognition, semantic memory (fluency; naming accuracy and latencies, processing speed and executive functioning, was administered to 234 elderly persons ranging from young-old to very old age (55–96 years. To avoid large variance in response times due to physical instead of cognitive limitations, no motor responses were required from participants. Age-related decline in episodic and semantic memory performance was found to be the consequence of declines in processing speed and executive functioning. Processing speed mainly mediated decline of semantic memory, whereas executive functioning mainly mediated episodic memory decline. The most parsimonious model showed that both processing speed and executive functioning attributed to memory decline but independent from one another. The results suggest that at very old age, the impact of executive dysfunctions on episodic memory performance exceeds the influence of cognitive slowing.

  20. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Lynne; Hijnen, Marcel; Velkov, Tony; McKinstry, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔGenthalpy (ΔH) widens sequentially from: (1) Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2) Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU)-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3) Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A)-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly. PMID:28222188

  1. THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER BERKELEY 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Marco, Amparo, E-mail: ignacio.negueruela@ua.es, E-mail: amparo.marco@ua.es [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    We present UBV photometry of the highly reddened and poorly studied open cluster Berkeley 55, revealing an important population of B-type stars and several evolved stars of high luminosity. Intermediate-resolution far-red spectra of several candidate members confirm the presence of one F-type supergiant and six late supergiants or bright giants. The brightest blue stars are mid-B giants. Spectroscopic and photometric analyses indicate an age 50 {+-} 10 Myr. The cluster is located at a distance d Almost-Equal-To 4 kpc, consistent with other tracers of the Perseus Arm in this direction. Berkeley 55 is thus a moderately young open cluster with a sizable population of candidate red (super)giant members, which can provide valuable information about the evolution of intermediate-mass stars.

  2. Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Transmission Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology is a key technology for increasing the communication capacity. In optical fibre networks, the number of wavelength channels and the bit rate per wavelength channel, i.e. the TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) bit rate, determine the transmission capacity. Currently, TDM bit rates of more than 40 Gbit/s require optical signal processing (Optical Time Division Multiplexing, OTDM). OTDM bit rates of up to 1.2 Tbit/s have already been reported. The devices developed for ultrahigh-speed optical transmission are not limited to communication applications only. They are key devices for high-speed optical signal processing, i.e. monitoring, measurement and control, and will thus give a wide technological basis for innovative science and technology. All these aspects of ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology are described in detail in this book.

  3. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley ``turbine`` (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the ``turbine`` corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the ``turbine`` belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  4. Variable Speed Rotor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  5. PERSONALITY AND SPEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.

  6. Advances Towards The Discovery of GPR55 Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Paula; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was identified in 1999. It was proposed as a novel member of the endocannabinoid system due to the fact that some endogenous, plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoid ligands act on GPR55. However, the complexity of the cellular downstream signaling pathways related to GPR55 activation delayed the discovery of selective GPR55 ligands. It was only a few years ago that the high throughput screening of libraries of pharmaceutical companies and governmental organizations allowed to identify selective GPR55 agonists and antagonists. Since then, several GPR55 modulator scaffolds have been reported. The relevance of GPR55 has been explored in diverse physiological and pathological processes revealing its role in inflammation, neuropathic pain, bone physiology, diabetes and cancer. Considering GPR55 as a new promising therapeutic target, there is a clear need for new selective and potent GPR55 modulators. This review will address a current structural update of GPR55 ligands.

  7. Limits and Signatures of Relativistic Spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2015-01-01

    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave phtotons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  8. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Road Safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting

  9. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... speed not greater than— (i) 12 statute miles per hour (10.4 knots) between Fort Gratiot Light and St... to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit...

  10. Dreamweaver CS55 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    McFarland, David

    2011-01-01

    Dreamweaver is the tool most widely used for designing and managing professional-looking websites, but it's a complex program. That's where Dreamweaver CS5.5: The Missing Manual comes in. With its jargon-free explanations, 13 hands-on tutorials, and savvy advice from Dreamweaver expert Dave McFarland, you'll master this versatile program with ease. Get A to Z guidance. Go from building your first web page to creating interactive, database-driven sites.Build skills as you learn. Apply your knowledge through tutorials and downloadable practice files.Create a state-of-the-art website. Use powerf

  11. Standardization of (55)Fe by tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, M F; Pires, C A; Yamazaki, I M; Silva, E A; Dias, M S

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the procedure followed by the Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear (LMN) for the standardization of (55)Fe by the tracing method. This technique was applied using two radionuclides, which decay by the electron capture process followed by a prompt gamma-ray, namely (51)Cr and (54)Mn, as tracers. The calibration was performed in a 4pibeta-gamma coincidence system. The efficiency was obtained by selecting a gamma-ray window set at the 320keV total absorption peak for (51)Cr and at 834keV for (54)Mn.

  12. Soldagem TIG de elevada produtividade: influência dos gases de proteção na velocidade limite para formação de defeitos High productivity TIG welding: influence of shielding gases on the limit speed for defect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Barancelli Schwedersky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo TIG, em configurações tradicionais, apresenta problemas quando utilizado de maneira autógena com elevadas corrente e velocidade de soldagem. Nessa condição, normalmente ocorrem defeitos no cordão, principalmente descontinuidades denominadas humping. Em estudo realizado no LABSOLDA, foram obtidas soldas de excelente qualidade com o processo TIG atingindo velocidades de 1,5 m/min. Este procedimento, utilizando na proteção misturas argônio-hidrogênio, possibilitou velocidade semelhante ao processo MIG/MAG convencional, com a vantagem de ser realizada sem material de adição. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de fornecer subsídios para uma nova análise da formação dos defeitos na soldagem TIG de elevada produtividade, já que a teoria baseada na pressão do arco não contempla totalmente o que tem sido observado na prática. Foram realizados ensaios com diferentes correntes utilizando argônio, hélio e misturas argônio-hidrogênio no gás de proteção. Os resultados mostram que para a mesma corrente média, à medida que o teor de H2 foi aumentado, ocorreram também gradativos aumentos da área fundida e eficiência de fusão. Foi possível mostrar indícios de que o mecanismo de formação de defeitos não depende somente da pressão do arco, mas sim do balanço entre pressão do arco e quantidade de metal fundido, que é dependente da eficiência de fusão proporcionada pelo gás utilizado.Under usual configurations, the TIG process presents problems when used autogenously with high current and welding speed. In this condition defects in the weld bead usually occur, especially discontinuities called humping. In a study conducted at LABSOLDA, welds with excellent quality were obtained using the TIG process reaching speeds of 1.5 m/min. Under argon-hydrogen shielding gas mixtures welding speed similar to the conventional MIG/MAG process was allowed, with the advantage of being performed without filler material. The

  13. Cloud speed sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short term solar irradiance forecasts is presented. The Cloud Speed Sensor (CSS is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and high-speed data acquisition to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground measured irradiance (Linear Cloud Edge, LCE, and a UC San Diego Sky Imager (USI. The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15 and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real cloud directions and speeds without average bias and with average weighted root mean square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s−1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s−1 when compared to LCE results.

  14. More Than Just Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Following more than 10 years of deliberation and planning,construc- tion of the 1,320-km Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway began in mid- April.Following the world’s most elevated Qinghai-Tibet Railway,which

  15. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  16. Speed mathematics simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Stoddard, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Entertaining, easy-to-follow suggestions for developing greater speed and accuracy in doing mathematical calculations. Surefire methods for multiplying without carrying, dividing with half the pencil work of long division, plus advice on how to add and subtract rapidly, master fractions, work quickly with decimals, handle percentages, and much more.

  17. Speed estimator for induction motor drive based on synchronous speed tracking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S B Bodkhe; M V Aware; J G Chaudhari; J G Agrawal

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a new open-loop speed estimation method for a three-phase induction motor drive. The open-loop speed estimators available in literature have the advantage of reduced computational stress over the observers but they share a common limitation of being largely dependent on flux and machine parameters. They involve integrations and differentiation in the algorithm that leads to serious error in estimation when subject to different operating conditions. The proposed estimator is based on synchronous speed tracking and is cost-effective. It is immune to any variation in machine parameters and noise. The synchronous speed is computed from stator frequency which is estimated on-line using the stator current signals. A unique, non-adaptive method for estimation of stator frequency within one-sixteenth of time period is also proposed to enhance the speed of estimation. Computer simulation and experimentation on a 2.2 kW Field oriented controlled induction motor drive is carried out to verify the performance of proposed speed estimator. The results show excellent response over a wide range of rotor speed in both directions including low speed and under different operating conditions. This confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Spindle picker harvest speed effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gear drive of a modern John Deere Pro 16 picker unit was modified so that spindle speed was reduced without changing the drum speed. Three 1-row picking units were used in the study, one with the standard drive speeds, one with 25% reduction in spindle drive speed, and one with 50% reduction in...

  19. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  20. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  1. 41 CFR 105-55.011 - Collection by administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative offset. 105-55.011 Section 105-55.011 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.011 Collection by administrative offset. (a) Scope. (1) The term “administrative offset” has the meaning provided in 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(1)....

  2. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  3. Wind speed vertical distribution at Mt. Graham

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelin, S; Lascaux, F

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the wind speed vertical distribution V(h) is fundamental for an astronomical site for many different reasons: (1) the wind speed shear contributes to trigger optical turbulence in the whole troposphere, (2) a few of the astroclimatic parameters such as the wavefront coherence time (tau_0) depends directly on V(h), (3) the equivalent velocity V_0, controlling the frequency at which the adaptive optics systems have to run to work properly, depends on the vertical distribution of the wind speed and optical turbulence. Also, a too strong wind speed near the ground can introduce vibrations in the telescope structures. The wind speed at a precise pressure (200 hPa) has frequently been used to retrieve indications concerning the tau_0 and the frequency limits imposed to all instrumentation based on adaptive optics systems, but more recently it has been proved that V_200 (wind speed at 200 hPa) alone is not sufficient to provide exhaustive elements concerning this topic and that the vertical d...

  4. Exploring the Quantum Speed Limit with Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Jakob Winther Hedemann; Pedersen, Mads Kock; Munch, Michael Kulmback

    2016-01-01

    Humans routinely solve problems of immense computational complexity by intuitively forming simple, low-dimensional heuristic strategies. Citizen science exploits this intuition by presenting scientific research problems to non-experts. Gamification is an effective tool for attracting citizen...... scientists and allowing them to provide novel solutions to the research problems. Citizen science games have been used successfully in Foldit, EteRNA and EyeWire to study protein and RNA folding and neuron mapping. However, gamification has never been applied in quantum physics. Everyday experiences of non...

  5. Speed limits for acid-base chemistry in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donten, Mateusz L; Vandevondele, Joost; Hamm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reactions, including acid-base recombination, are commonly considered to occur 'nearly instantaneously'. However, their actual time scales may stretch far into the microsecond range, as acid-base reactions are diffusion controlled and the concentrations are low near neutral pH. The interplay of competing bases in the pH relaxation is illustrated using a model acid-base system consisting of o-nitrobenzaldehyde (oNBA) as a proton cage and acetate ions and hydroxyl ions as bases. The kinetically controlled behavior leads to highly counterintuitive states, i.e. acetate ions are transiently protonated for hundreds of nanoseconds despite the presence of a much stronger base OH-.

  6. Speed limit of the insulator-metal transition in magnetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.; Kukreja, R.; Trabant, C.; Pontius, N.; Chang, C.F.; Kachel, T.; Beye, M.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Back, C.H.; Bräuer, B..; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.J.; Krupin, O.; Doehler, M.; Zhu, D.; Hossain, M.A.; Scherz, A.O.; Fausti, D.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Lu, D.H.; Moore, R.G.; Yi, M.; Trigo, M.; Kirchmann, P.; Pathey, L.; Golden, M.; Bucholtz, M.; Metcalf, P.; Parmigiani, F.; Wurth, W.; Föhlisch, A.; Schüßler-Langeheine, C.; Dürr, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    As the oldest known magnetic material, magnetite (Fe3O4) has fascinated mankind for millennia. As the first oxide in which a relationship between electrical conductivity and fluctuating/localized electronic order was shown1, magnetite represents a model system for understanding correlated oxides in

  7. Speed control system for an access gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  8. High speed multiplier design using Decomposition Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Palaniappan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiplier forms the core of a Digital Signal Processor and is a major source of power dissipation. Often, the multiplier forms the limiting factor for the maximum speed of operation of a Digital Signal Processor. Due to continuing integrating intensity and the growing needs of portable devices, low-power, high-performance design is of prime importance. A new technique of implementing a multiplier circuit using Decomposition Logic is proposed here which improves speed with very little increase in power dissipation when compared to tree structured Dadda multipliers. Tanner EDA was used for simulation in the TSMC 180nm technology.

  9. Effects of Walking Speed and Visual-Target Distance on Toe Trajectory During Swing Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Brady, Rachel; Warren, Liz; Richards, Jason; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Sung, Hsi-Guang; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    After spaceflight, astronauts experience disturbances in their ability to walk and maintain postural stability (Bloomberg, et al., 1997). One of the post-flight neurovestibular assessments requires that the astronaut walk on a treadmill at 1.8 m/sec (4.0 mph), while performing a visual acuity test, set at two different distances ( far and near ). For the first few days after landing, some crewmembers can not maintain the required pace, so a lower speed may be used. The slower velocity must be considered in the kinematic analysis, because Andriacchi, et al. (1977) showed that in clinical populations, changes in gait parameters may be attributable more to slower gait speed than pathology. Studying toe trajectory gives a global view of control of the leg, since it involves coordination of muscles and joints in both the swing and stance legs (Karst, et al., 1999). Winter (1992) and Murray, et al. (1984) reported that toe clearance during overground walking increased slightly as speed increased, but not significantly. Also, toe vertical peaks in both early and late swing phase did increase significantly with increasing speed. During conventional testing of overground locomotion, subjects are usually asked to fix their gaze on the end of the walkway a far target. But target (i.e., visual fixation) distance has been shown to affect head and trunk motion during treadmill walking (Bloomberg, et al., 1992; Peters, et al., in review). Since the head and trunk can not maintain stable gaze without proper coordination with the lower body (Mulavara & Bloomberg, 2003), it would stand to reason that lower body kinematics may be altered as well when target distance is modified. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in toe vertical trajectory during treadmill walking due to changes in walking speed and target distance.

  10. Inproved grade length limitation of freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long

    2006-01-01

    A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.

  11. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, T K

    2006-01-01

    By explicitly taking into account effects of Alfven waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation which predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of the earth from physical properties on the sun. Kojima et al. recently found from their observations that a ratio of surface magnetic field strength to an expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is an evidence of the Alfven wave which accelerates SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface should be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested by future observations.

  12. Dust in the 55 Cancri planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, R; Greaves, J S; Dent, W R F; Marcy, G W; Hartmann, L W; Fazio, G G; Jayawardhana, Ray; Holland, Wayne S.; Greaves, Jane S.; Dent, William R. F.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Hartmann, Lee W.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of debris disks around $\\sim$ 1-Gyr-old main sequence stars suggests that an appreciable amount of dust may persist even in mature planetary systems. Here we report the detection of dust emission from 55 Cancri, a star with one, or possibly two, planetary companions detected through radial velocity measurements. Our observations at 850$\\mu$m and 450$\\mu$m imply a dust mass of 0.0008-0.005 Earth masses, somewhat higher than that in the the Kuiper Belt of our solar system. The estimated temperature of the dust grains and a simple model fit both indicate a central disk hole of at least 10 AU in radius. Thus, the region where the planets are detected is likely to be significantly depleted of dust. Our results suggest that far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations are powerful tools for probing the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems.

  13. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  14. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed...., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in which stations are constructed in accordance with...

  15. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Lobier

    Full Text Available A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span, predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  16. Study on Engine Speed Controling System of Industrial Bulldozer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯开林; 陶明; 杨为民; 王世明; 陈康宁

    2003-01-01

    The functional range of actiyator of diesel engine used in bulldozer was limited when the load of bulldozer was heavy, inconstancy and in the condition of fine working. For this reason the engine rotary speed controlling system consisted of digital controller and proportional actuator was applied; to meet the needs of high controlling precision requirement the online system identification for the engine rotary speed controlling system was carry out;Based on the result of system identification the control parameter PID was optimized. Test study proved that this engine speed controlling method have an excellent speed controlling performance.

  17. The speed of a cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennekam, Wim

    1990-05-01

    The author illustrates an interesting application of physics teaching. The effect of a few laws of mechanics on bicycle speed are examined, and some improvements to increase bicycle speed are considered.

  18. Brewer-Dobson circulation diagnosed from JRA-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    We examine the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis (JRA-55) data set and compare it with the BDCs diagnosed from the other reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim and JRA-25), and JRA-55-related data sets (i.e., JRA-55C, created by assimilating only in situ observations, and JRA-55AMIP, a simulation by a prediction model). The climatological mean seasonal change of the BDC in JRA-55 is similar to that in ERA-Interim but considerably different from that in JRA-25. Dynamical and thermodynamical consistencies among the variables are greatly improved in the JRA-55 data set. The interannual variations of the annual mean tropical upwellings in JRA-55 are almost coincident with those in JRA-55C. It suggests that the weakly increasing trend of the BDC found in JRA-55 does not have anything to do with changes in the satellite observing system. The climatological mean tropical upwelling diagnosed from JRA-55 is stronger than that from JRA-55AMIP. This difference is presumed to partly link to the model's inability to simulate the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The JRA-55AMIP data set, a simple simulation performed without data assimilation, does not simulate the QBO, whereas the JRA-55 data set represents the QBO with the aid of data assimilation. The climatological mean zonal mean states of JRA-55AMIP considerably deviate from those of JRA-55 in the lower stratosphere. The deviation of JRA-55AMIP is similar to the modulation pattern by the QBO in specific phase regions in which the BDC is rather weak. The simulated QBO might enhance the BDC and reduce the model biases in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  19. Speeding Up Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations...... in parallel innovation processes and in this way sustain speedy innovation processes. A case study of an innovation network is carried out by analysing communication structures and the information contents of emails related to a particular innovation process. The analysis shows how certain characteristics...

  20. High speed flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Stephen V.

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  1. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  2. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4~5 μm due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps.

  3. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).

  4. 50 CFR 32.55 - Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... squirrel. We allow only special archery hunts by refuge Special Use Permit. 3. Raccoon hunting only: Hunt... refuge-controlled deer hunts (archery, primitive, youth primitive). For information concerning these hunts, contact the refuge office or the State. 3. We will offer a limited archery season deer...

  5. Main: 1.00E+55 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.00E+55 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1;...AYASQEVNGPDGKPIGPPMGNPWIYMYPEGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E55.jpg ...

  6. Research of high speed optical switch based on compound semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG MingHua; QI Wei; YU Hui; JIANG XiaoQing; YANG JianYi

    2009-01-01

    High-speed optical switch and its array are the crucial components of all-optical switching system. This paper presents the analytical model of a total-internal-reflection (TIR) optical switch. By employing the carrier injection effect in GaAs and the GaAs/AlGaAs double heterojunction structure, the X-junction TIR switch and the Mach-Zehnder interference (MZI) switch are demonstrated at 1.55 IJm. The measured results show that the extinction ratio of both switches exceeds 20 dB. The switching speed reaches the scale of 10 ns.

  7. Further development of an improved altimeter wind speed algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Wentz, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    A previous altimeter wind speed retrieval algorithm was developed on the basis of wind speeds in the limited range from about 4 to 14 m/s. In this paper, a new approach which gives a wind speed model function applicable over the range 0 to 21 m/s is used. The method is based on comparing 50 km along-track averages of the altimeter normalized radar cross section measurements with neighboring off-nadir scatterometer wind speed measurements. The scatterometer winds are constructed from 100 km binned measurements of radar cross section and are located approximately 200 km from the satellite subtrack. The new model function agrees very well with earlier versions up to wind speeds of 14 m/s, but differs significantly at higher wind speeds. The relevance of these results to the Geosat altimeter launched in March 1985 is discussed.

  8. Determining the approach speed envelope of carrier aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jianzhong; Yao Hailin; Duan Zhuoyi

    2013-01-01

    Many factors,such as deck motion and air wave,influence the determination of the approach speed which has an important effect on landing safety. Until recently,there are no design criteria about approach speed of carrier aircraft in the current standards and available publications. Therefore,the requirements of stall margin, longitudinal acceleration ability,altitude correction and field-of-view on approach speed were researched. Based on the flight dynamics model,the flight simulations were conducted to study the effect of the response time of en-gine,wave off requirements,elevator efficiency and deflection rate on the approach speed. The results presented that the approach longitudinal acceleration and altitude correction ability had crucial influence on the approach speed envelope of the aircraft. The limitations of the control requirements,field-of-view requirements and gear were also given through the simulation and analysis. Based on the above results,the approach speed envelope were determined.

  9. Hygienization of sludge through anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; la Cour Jansen, J; De Vrieze, J; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, A

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in Sweden and the European Union concerning the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is under revision and future concentration limits for pathogens in treated sludge are likely to be expected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienization of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens through continuous anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 or 60 °C, as well as to investigate process stability and methane production at 60 °C. The results indicated that digestion at 55 or 60 °C with a minimum exposure time of 2 h resulted in good reduction of Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus and that anaerobic digestion could thus be used to reach the concentration limits suggested for the EU, as well as Sweden. Furthermore, stable continuous anaerobic digestion of sludge was achieved at 60 °C, albeit with 10% less methane production compared to digestion at 35 and 55 °C.

  10. 4 CFR 28.55 - Scheduling the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling the hearing. 28.55 Section 28.55 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD... Procedures Hearings § 28.55 Scheduling the hearing. The notice of initial hearing shall fix the date,...

  11. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  12. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being...

  13. 31 CFR 103.55 - Exceptions, exemptions, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions, exemptions, and reports. 103.55 Section 103.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.55...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.55 - Gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas welding and cutting. 1915.55 Section 1915.55 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.55 Gas welding and cutting. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

  15. 9 CFR 55.5 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 55.5 Section 55.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.5 Presentation of claims...

  16. 11 CFR 100.55 - Extension of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially similar to extensions of credit to nonpolitical debtors that are of similar risk and size of... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of credit. 100.55 Section 100.55... Contribution (2 U.S.C. 431(8)) § 100.55 Extension of credit. The extension of credit by any person is...

  17. 34 CFR 200.55 - Qualifications of teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications of teachers. 200.55 Section 200.55... Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Qualifications of Teachers and Paraprofessionals § 200.55 Qualifications of teachers. (a) Newly hired teachers in Title I programs. (1) An LEA...

  18. 46 CFR 92.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 92.20-55 Section 92.20-55 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  19. 46 CFR 190.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 190.20-55 Section 190.20-55 Shipping... ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  20. 46 CFR 72.20-55 - Insect screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 72.20-55 Section 72.20-55 Shipping COAST... Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-55 Insect screens. Provisions must be made to protect the crew quarters against the admission of insects....

  1. 28 CFR 55.23 - Enforcement by the Attorney General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement by the Attorney General. 55.23 Section 55.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Sanctions § 55.23 Enforcement by...

  2. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parking brake and turn the ignition to start to verify that the brake system failure indicator lamp is... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles...

  3. 9 CFR 55.6 - Mortgage against animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against animals. 55.6 Section 55.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.6 Mortgage against animals. When cervids...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-55 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 56.50-55 Section 56.50-55 Shipping COAST... Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-55 Bilge pumps. (a) Self-propelled vessels. (1) Each self-propelled vessel must be provided with a power-driven pump or pumps connected to the...

  5. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5...

  6. 40 CFR 205.55-4 - Labeling-compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-compliance. 205.55-4 Section 205.55-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-4...

  7. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with standards. 205.55-2 Section 205.55-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-2...

  8. 40 CFR 205.55-3 - Configuration identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Configuration identification. 205.55-3 Section 205.55-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-3...

  9. 40 CFR 205.55-1 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 205.55-1 Section 205.55-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-1...

  10. 46 CFR 112.55-10 - Storage battery charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage battery charging. 112.55-10 Section 112.55-10... AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-10 Storage battery charging. (a) Each storage battery installation for emergency lighting and power, and starting batteries for an emergency diesel...

  11. 14-3-3/HIP-55 complex increases the stability of HIP-55%14-3-3/HIP-55复合体增强HIP-55蛋白稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田爱炬; 李子健

    2015-01-01

    目的:用双分子荧光互补及免疫共沉淀技术验证HIP-55与14-3-3在HEK293细胞中存在相互作用,并进一步研究其生物学意义. 方法:利用GATEWAY系统构建PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55WT(野生型),PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55AA(突变体S269A/T291A),PDEST-GST-HIP-55WT及PDEST-C-Venus-14-3-3τ重组质粒,利用双分子荧光互补及免疫共沉淀技术检测两者的相互作用,同时应用14-3-3蛋白相互作用抑制肽R18和HIP-55蛋白突变体( HIP-55AA突变体S269A/T291A不能与14-3-3相互作用)作为工具研究两者结合后对嘌呤霉素诱导的HIP-55蛋白表达的影响. 结果:外源转入的Venus-HIP-55WT、Venus-HIP-55AA及Venus-14-3-3蛋白能够在HEK293细胞中表达;双分子荧光互补实验结果表明HIP-55与14-3-3存在相互作用,HIP-55蛋白的S269/T291位点介导HIP-55与14-3-3的相互作用;免疫共沉淀技术表明内源性HIP-55与14-3-3存在相互作用;进一步研究发现HIP-55与14-3-3复合体增强HIP-55蛋白的稳定性,保护HIP-55不被降解. 结论:14-3-3与HIP-55存在相互作用,14-3-3/HIP-55复合体可以促进HIP-55蛋白的稳定性.%Objective:To further demonstrate the interaction of a new 14-3-3 interaction protein hema-topoietic progenitor kinase 1 [ HPK1 ]-interacting protein ( HIP-55 ) and 14-3-3 proteins and its potential biological function in HEK293 cells. Methods:PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55WT (wild type),PDEST-N-Ve-nus-HIP-55AA (mutants, S269A/T291A, abolishing the binding of HIP-55 to 14-3-3),PDEST-GST-HIP-55WT and PDEST-C-Venus-14-3-3τplasmids were constructed by gateway system. Their expressions were demonstrated by Western blotting method. Then we used Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation ( BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation ( co-IP) methods to demonstrate the interaction of HIP-55 and 14-3-3 in HEK293 cells. Moreover, the 14-3-3 antagonist peptide, R18 and HIP-55 protein mutant plasmid HIP-55 AA were used to detect the protein synthesis of HIP-55 at different time points

  12. Low Speed Automation, a French Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Sébastien; Cour, Maurice; NOUVELIERE, Lydie; LAMBERT, Alain; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Popieul, Jean-Christophe; Mourllion, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Nowadays, vehicle safety is constantly increasing thanks to the improvement of vehicle passive and active safety. However, on a daily usage of the car, traffic jams remains a problem. With limited space for road infrastructure, automation of the driving task on specific situation seems to be a possible solution. The French project ABV, which stands for low speed automation, tries to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to prove the benefits. In this article, ...

  13. Speed and position sensors for electric motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyyjynen, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of speed and position measuring instruments for electric motors. The emphasis is on sensors that are designed to operate at industrial environment. In addition to that, some other, mostly magnetic sensors which are used, e.g., in automotive applications, are presented. Some of them are already applied in induction motors and some might be worth a try remembering the limitations. Automotive sensors are very cost-effective due to high production volumes. (orig.) 22 refs.

  14. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  15. Limiting Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John

    2011-01-01

    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...

  16. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  17. In situ local shock speed and transit shock speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watari

    Full Text Available A useful index for estimating the transit speeds was derived by analyzing interplanetary shock observations. This index is the ratio of the in situ local shock speed and the transit speed; it is 0.6–0.9 for most observed shocks. The local shock speed and the transit speed calculated for the results of the magnetohydrodynamic simulation show good agreement with the observations. The relation expressed by the index is well explained by a simplified propagation model assuming a blast wave. For several shocks the ratio is approximately 1.2, implying that these shocks accelerated during propagation in slow-speed solar wind. This ratio is similar to that for the background solar wind acceleration.

    Keywords. Interplanetary physics (Flare and stream dynamics; Interplanetary shocks; Solar wind plasma

  18. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2017-01-01

    Speeding increases the risk and severity of accidents, especially for vulnerable road users. Hence, minimisation of speeding in built-up areas is vital. Some countries widely use speed-calming measures (SCs). Documentation shows that SCs reduce speeding considerably although various types...... and designs of SCs affect this reduction. This paper includes studies of the effects from establishment of sinus speed humps of height 10 cm and length 950 cm and chicanes (with a free carriageway width of 5,30 cm and a length between the 0.5 m wide obstacles of 18 m) as a before/after study where the speed...... pattern after establishing SCs is compared with the one before. Floating Car Data used for analyses includes 3,216 trips passing one/more SCs. The main results are that the effect from SCs decreases with the distance from the SCs and that a clear pattern is hard to establish above 75 m from the SC...

  19. Planetpol polarimetry of the exoplanet systems 55 Cnc and tau Boo

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, P W; Bailey, J A; Tamura, M; Hirst, E; Harrison, D

    2008-01-01

    We present very sensitive polarimetry of 55 Cnc and tau Boo in an attempt to detect the partially polarised reflected light from the planets orbiting these two stars. 55 Cnc is orbited by a hot Neptune planet (55 Cnc e) at 0.038 AU, a hot Jupiter planet (55 Cnc b) at 0.11 AU, and at least 3 more distant planets. The fractional polarisation of this star is very stable, with a standard deviation in the nightly averaged Stokes Q/I and U/I parameters of 2.2x10^{-6}. We derive upper limits on the geometric albedo, A_G and planetary radius using Monte Carlo multiple scattering simulations of a simple model atmosphere. We assume Rayleigh-like scattering and polarisation behaviour (scaled by the maximum polarisation, p_m at 90 degrees) and pressure insensitive extinction. Atmospheres in which multiple scattering plays only a small role have an almost linear relation between polarisation and A_G. In this case, the 4 sigma upper limits are A_G<0.13(R/1.2 R_{Jup})^{-2}p_m^{-1} for 55 Cnc e and A_G<1.21(R/1.2 R_{Ju...

  20. The Role of Visual Processing Speed in Reading Speed Development

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Lobier; Matthieu Dubois; Sylviane Valdois

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading s...

  1. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  2. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL{sub size}) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL{sub contrast} model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  3. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL[sub size]) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL[sub contrast] model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  4. The Acceptability of In-vehicle Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) Systems: from Trial Support to Public Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlassenroot, S.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Speed management is a set of measures to limit negative effects of speed in a transport system. One of the solutions to solve speeding is making the road transport system more intelligent by implementing intelligent speed assistance (ISA). This thesis provides more insight in the factors that can de

  5. Speed trends in male distance running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N Kruse

    Full Text Available The major cycling "Grand Tours" have shown an attenuation of performance over the last decade. This has been interpreted as circumstantial evidence that newer anti-doping strategies have reduced the use of performance-enhancing drugs. To examine this idea under more controlled conditions, speed trends for world class 5000 m, 10000 m, and marathon performances by men from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed. We obtained comprehensive records from the International Association of Athletics Federations, Association of Road Racing Statisticians, and the Track and Field All-time Performances database webpages. The top 40 performances for each event and year were selected for regression analysis. For the three distances, we noted cumulative performance improvements in the 1990s thru the mid-2000s. After the peak speed years of the mid 2000 s, there has been limited improvement in the 5000 m and 10,000 m and world records set during that time remain in place today, marking the longest period of time between new records since the early 1940s. By contrast marathon speed continues to increase and the world record has been lowered four times since 2007, including in 2013. While the speed trends for 5000 m and 10000 m track results parallel those seen in elite cycling, the marathon trends do not. We discuss a number of explanations other than improved anti-doping strategies that might account for these divergent findings.

  6. High Speed Viterbi Decoder Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The fastest commercially available Viterbi decoders for the (171,133) standard rate 1/2 code operate with a decoding speed of 40-50 Mbit/s (net data rate). In this paper we present a suitable architecture for decoders operating with decoding speeds of 150-300 Mbit/s.......The fastest commercially available Viterbi decoders for the (171,133) standard rate 1/2 code operate with a decoding speed of 40-50 Mbit/s (net data rate). In this paper we present a suitable architecture for decoders operating with decoding speeds of 150-300 Mbit/s....

  7. The uptake of iron-55 by marine sediment, macroalgae, and biota following discharge from a nuclear power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P E; Cundy, A B; Croudace, I W; Bains, M E; Dale, A A

    2001-06-01

    Significant quantities of 55Fe, an activation product of stable iron, have been released into the environment following the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons (mainly in the 1950s and 1960s) as well as through authorized discharges of radioactivity from nuclear power and reprocessing sites. Although some studies have been performed on the behavior of weapons' fallout-derived 55Fe in the environment and subsequent impact on humans, little has been published on the behavior of 55Fe released as a point source discharge from nuclear sites. This study presents data on the concentration and temporal variation of 55Fe in fucoid seaweeds, shellfish, crab, and lobster collected from Weymouth Bay and adjacent coastal areas, southern England. These areas have received authorized discharges of radionuclides originating from the operation of a now-decommissioned steam-generating, heavy water-type reactor at AEE Winfrith. The highest activities of 55Fe are found associated with marine sediments collected near the discharge pipeline and a rapid decline occurs away from the pipeline. This is consistent with rapid sorption of 55Fe by the sediment, and the data show there is only limited reworking and remobilization. Activities of 55Fe in biota generally decreased over time, due to a reduction in the amount of 55Fe discharged. The variation of 55Fe activity, revealed from the monthly sampling of seaweed, does not reflect the short-term fluctuations seen in the patterns of discharged 55Fe activity. Although discharges of 55Fe from AEE Winfrith exceeded other radionuclides, the radiological impact on local seafood consumers is considerably less than for other key radionuclides such as 60Co and 65Zn but of comparable magnitude to the global average population dose arising from fallout-derived 55Fe.

  8. Planetpol polarimetry of the exoplanet systems 55Cnc and τBoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, P. W.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J. A.; Tamura, M.; Hirst, E.; Harrison, D.

    2009-02-01

    We present very sensitive polarimetry of 55Cnc and τBoo in an attempt to detect the partially polarized reflected light from the planets orbiting these two stars. 55Cnc is orbited by a hot Neptune planet (55Cnce) at 0.038au, a hot Jupiter planet (55Cncb) at 0.11au and at least three more distant planets. The polarization of this system is very stable, showing no sign of the periodic variations that would be expected if a short-period planet were detected. The measured standard deviation of the nightly averaged Stokes Q/I and U/I parameters is 2.2 × 10-6. We derive upper limits on the geometric albedo, AG, and planetary radius using Monte Carlo multiple scattering simulations of a simple model atmosphere. We assume Rayleigh-like scattering and polarization behaviour (scaled by the maximum polarization, pm, at 90°) and pressure insensitive extinction. Atmospheres in which multiple scattering plays only a small role have an almost linear relation between polarization and AG. In this case, the 4σ upper limit is AG < 0.13(R/1.2RJup)-2p-1m for 55Cnce. This is most easily explained if 55Cnce is relatively small, like GJ436b, and therefore not a pure H-He planet. The data do not provide a useful upper limit for 55Cncb. τBoo is orbited by an unusually massive hot Jupiter planet. The data show a standard deviation in the night-to-night average Stokes Q/I and U/I polarization parameters of 5.1 × 10-6. The 4σ upper limit is AG < 0.37(R/1.2RJup)-2p-1m for τBoob, adopting the fairly well established orbital inclination i ~ 40°. This extends the similar upper limits reported previously for this planet to longer wavelengths. The fact that the τBoo data show more scatter, despite the smaller photon noise for this bright star, may be due to the spot activity detected photometrically by the Microvariability & Oscillations of Stars (MOST) satellite. These results contrast markedly with the recent claim of a 3σ detection of a periodic polarization signal from HD189733 with

  9. GPR55: a new member of the cannabinoid receptor clan?

    OpenAIRE

    Pertwee, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Ryberg et al. present convincing in vitro evidence that the orphan GPCR, GPR55, is a cannabinoid receptor. GPR55 was activated by a range of plant, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids and blocked by the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol. Their experiments have revealed several differences between the pharmacology of GPR55 and the established cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. For example, the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, ...

  10. 46 CFR 97.15-55 - Requirements for fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for fuel oil. 97.15-55 Section 97.15-55... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-55 Requirements for fuel oil. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer to cause an entry in the log to be made of each supply of fuel oil received...

  11. Smooth torque speed characteristic of switched reluctance motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Hui; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    of the constraints of the supply voltage and peak current. Based on previous work that sought to expand the STO range, a scheme is developed in this study to determine the maximum smooth torque range at each speed. The relationship between the maximum smooth torque and speed is defined as the smooth torque speed......The torque ripple of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) is the main disadvantage that limits the industrial application of these motors. Although several methods for smooth-toque operation (STO) have been proposed, STO works well only within a certain torque and speed range because...... characteristics (STSC), a concept similar to torque speed characteristics (TSC). STSC can be utilized to evaluate torque utilization by comparing it with TSC. Thus, the concept benefits the special design of SRMs, especially for the generation of smooth torque. Furthermore, the torque sharing function (TSF...

  12. 24 CFR 55.20 - Decision making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.20... technological alternatives, hazard reduction methods and related mitigation costs, and environmental impacts....

  13. Structural requirements for inducible shedding of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Varfolomeev, E E; Batkin, M

    1994-01-01

    Induced shedding of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor (p55-R) was previously shown to be independent of the amino acid sequence properties of the intracellular domain of this receptor. We now find it also independent of the sequence properties of the transmembrane domain and of the cysteine......-rich region that constitutes most of the extracellular domain of the receptor. The shedding is shown to depend solely on the sequence properties of a small region within the spacer that links the cysteine-rich region in the extracellular domain to the transmembrane domain. Detailed tests of effects......, however, by some mutations that seem to change the conformation of the spacer region. These findings suggest that a short amino acid sequence in the p55-R is essential and sufficient for its shedding and that the shedding is mediated either by a protease with limited sequence specificity or by several...

  14. Use of Botulinum toxin in 55 children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BTA inhibits presynaptic release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and has reportedly been successful in the treatment of spastic disorders.To evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin on cerebral palsied children with spastic or mixed type of the disease, especially those patiens having spasticity as a cardinal symptom without joint contracture, we designed the following study. Ninety-one cases (55 of referred patients to pediatic Neurology outpatient clinics of children’s Medical Center were given BTA injections in affected muscles of the lower limb. They were reevaluating 3 to 5 weeks and 3 months later for type of walking and range of affected joints’ movement. The study showed a clinically significant gait improvement in 71.2% of patients (P<0.0005 and also an overall increased range of motion in affected limbs after BTA injection (P<0.04. Side effects occurred only in two cases as transient generalized weakness, gent recurvatum and ptosis. Drug effectiveness was time-limited, lasting abot 3 months in all patients ( a golden time for rehabilitation therapists to improve the patients’ condition. Overall, BTA has improved both the type of walking as well as the range of joints motion in our patients. So its’ administration is suggested in cerebral palsied children if the spasticity is a major and disabling sign

  15. Ultimate physical limits to computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, S

    1999-01-01

    Computers are physical systems: what they can and cannot do is dictated by the laws of physics. In particular, the speed with which a physical device can process information is limited by its energy, and the amount of information that it can process is limited by the number of degrees of freedom it possesses. The way in which it processes information is determined by the forces of nature that the computer has at its disposal. This paper explores the fundamental physical limits of computation as determined by the speed of light c, the quantum scale as given by Planck's constant h, and the gravitational constant G. As an example, quantitative bounds are put to the computational power of an `ultimate laptop' with a mass of one kilogram confined to a volume of one liter.

  16. Development of a Revolutionary High Speed Spindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agba, Emmanuel I.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the development of a hydraulic motor driven spindle system to be employed for high speed machining of composite materials and metals. The spindle system is conceived to be easily retrofitted into conventional milling machines. The need for the hydraulic spindle arises because of the limitations placed on conventional electric motor driven spindles by the low cutting power and the presence of vibrational phenomena associated with voltage frequency at high rotational speeds. Also, the electric motors are usually large and expensive when power requirements are moderately high. In contrast, hydraulic motor driven spindles promise a distinct increase in spindle life over the conventional electric motor driven spindles. In this report, existing technologies applicable to spindle holder for severe operating conditions were reviewed, conceptual designs of spindle holder system were developed and evaluated, and a detailed design of an acceptable concept was conducted. Finally, a rapid prototype of the design was produced for design evaluation.

  17. High-speed massively parallel scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Derek E.

    2010-07-06

    A new technique for recording a series of images of a high-speed event (such as, but not limited to: ballistics, explosives, laser induced changes in materials, etc.) is presented. Such technique(s) makes use of a lenslet array to take image picture elements (pixels) and concentrate light from each pixel into a spot that is much smaller than the pixel. This array of spots illuminates a detector region (e.g., film, as one embodiment) which is scanned transverse to the light, creating tracks of exposed regions. Each track is a time history of the light intensity for a single pixel. By appropriately configuring the array of concentrated spots with respect to the scanning direction of the detection material, different tracks fit between pixels and sufficient lengths are possible which can be of interest in several high-speed imaging applications.

  18. NTF – wind speed comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the met mast and Nacelle Wind speed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are the data that are same as used for the power curve report...

  19. Optimal Speed Control for Cruising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1994-01-01

    With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability......With small profit margins in merchant shipping and more than eighty percent of sailing time being cross ocean voyages, speed control is crucial for vessel profitability...

  20. How to Improve Reading Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲亮

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is well known that reading plays an important role not only in our daily life but also in learning a foreign language.And,of course,reading depends on reading speed to some degree.So it is natural that it is important to improve reading speed.

  1. Crash and burn? Vehicle, collision, and driver factors that influence motor vehicle collision fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, T L; Slavova, S; Robertson, M

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective population-based case-control study was performed to determine the association between vehicle fires, and vehicle, collision, and driver factors on highways with a posted speed limit of at least 55mph. Data were obtained from the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic files for 2000-2009 from the Kentucky State Police Records Sections. The results from the final multiple logistic regression show that large trucks were at a higher risk for a collision involving a fire than passenger vehicles and pickup trucks. When controlling for all other variables in the model, vehicles 6 years old and older, driving straight down the highway, and single vehicle collisions were also identified as factors that increase the risk of motor vehicle collision fires on roadways with a posted speed limit of ≥55mph. Of the 2096 vehicles that caught fire, there were 632 (30%) non-fatally injured drivers and 224 (11%) fatally injured drivers. The results of this study have the potential to inform public health messages directed to the transportation industry, particularly semi truck drivers, in regard to fire risk.

  2. Measuring cognitive determinants of speeding: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Helmut; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes. the development and validation of a self-report questionnaire to measure the determinants of speeding behaviour in road traffic, based on the theory of planned behaviour. A provisional questionnaire measuring self-reported speeding behaviour as well as its determinants as predicted by the TPB model (attitudes towards speeding and towards respecting speed limits, social norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions) was completed by 116 drivers. Separate principa...

  3. Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Using a robotic telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, astronomers have for the first time measured the velocity of the explosions known as gamma-ray bursts. The material is travelling at the extraordinary speed of more than 99.999% of the velocity of light, the maximum speed limit in the Universe. ESO PR Photo 26a/07 ESO PR Photo 26a/07 The REM Telescope "With the development of fast-slewing ground-based telescopes such as the 0.6-m REM telescope at ESO La Silla, we can now study in great detail the very first moments following these cosmic catastrophes," says Emilio Molinari, leader of the team that made the discovery. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful explosions occurring in distant galaxies, that often signal the death of stars. They are so bright that, for a brief moment, they almost rival the whole Universe in luminosity. They last, however, for only a very short time, from less than a second to a few minutes. Astronomers have long known that, in order to emit such incredible power in so little time, the exploding material must be moving at a speed comparable with that of light, namely 300 000 km per second. By studying the temporal evolution of the burst luminosity, it has now been possible for the first time to precisely measure this velocity. Gamma-ray bursts, which are unseen by our eyes, are discovered by artificial satellites. The collision of the gamma-ray burst jets into the surrounding gas generates an afterglow visible in the optical and near-infrared that can radiate for several weeks. An array of robotic telescopes were built on the ground, ready to catch this vanishing emission (see e.g. ESO 17/07). On 18 April and 7 June 2006, the NASA/PPARC/ASI Swift satellite detected two bright gamma-ray bursts. In a matter of a few seconds, their position was transmitted to the ground, and the REM telescope began automatically to observe the two GRB fields, detecting the near-infrared afterglows, and monitored the evolution of their luminosity as a

  4. Urban Traffic Eco-Driving: Speed Advisory Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio, Giovanni; Canudas De Wit, Carlos; Moulin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The evaluation of the benefits of an Eco-Driving assistance system is carried out in the urban environment in presence of traffic lights. The traffic evolution is modeled macroscopically with the Urban Variable-Length Model in a variable speed limits framework. Under the assumption of equal boundary flows, the vehicles in a road section dispose themselves according to well defined equilibrium conditions which are dependent on the traveling speed in the free-flow part o...

  5. The role of decision speed in the construct of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bucik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A theory of general intelligence in Spearman's sense has been frequently verified via two complementary approaches, the one using psychometric and the other using experimental methodology. The results led to the conclusion that both, psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks in different experimental paradigms measure the same thing in substantial extent. The rapid, error free information processing, reflecting the efficiency of a nervous system with limited capacity, was supposed to be the essential component of the intellect. This view is often criticised by the authors who claim that high correlation between speed of information processing and psychometric intelligence is simply the consequence of the fact that some intelligence tests themselves are "speeded" and that mental speed is merely a marginal variable in both psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tasks. In our study we tested 88 subjects with three psychometric tests, measuring general intelligence in Spearman's sense. Parallel versions of those tests were created by splitting each of them into two equivalent halves by "odd-even" principle. One version was applied under strict time constraints and the other one without time pressure. In addition five speed-of-information-processing paradigms were applied. The relationship between the mental speed and general intelligence measured in timed and untimed conditions was examined. Results suggest that the role of speed of information processing is significant in determining general intelligence. Mental speed also seems to be relatively independent with regarding to time limitations in testing intelligence. The results are discussed in terms of the neural efficiency presumptions.

  6. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    the body's aerodynamic drag, the top speed is predicted at 226 mph. Further design considerations are also addressed, including the development of the component level layout of the motorcycle, weighing factors such as safety and ease of fabrication with that of performance and accessibility. At the time of composition, the Comet had started the fabrication process, and it is the intent of the author that the finished product competes in the 2016 Bonneville Motorcycle Speed Trials to set the first world record for a single track electric motorcycle streamliner.

  7. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...

  8. 45 CFR 86.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 86.55 Section 86.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON... classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for males or for females;...

  9. 32 CFR 643.55 - Mandatory revocation clause in lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory revocation clause in lease. 643.55... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.55 Mandatory revocation clause in lease. Each lease will contain a provision permitting the SA to revoke the lease at any time, unless it is determined that the omission...

  10. 20 CFR 617.55 - Overpayments; penalties for fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overpayments; penalties for fraud. 617.55... § 617.55 Overpayments; penalties for fraud. (a) Determination and repayment. (1) If a State agency or a... of fraud under paragraph (b) of this section or section 243 of the Act. (B) An affirmative finding...

  11. 6 CFR 37.55 - State certification documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State certification documentation. 37.55 Section 37.55 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S... documentation. (a) States seeking DHS's determination that its program for issuing REAL ID driver's licenses...

  12. 42 CFR 424.55 - Payment to the supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to the supplier. 424.55 Section 424.55... Payment to the supplier. (a) Medicare pays the supplier for covered services if the beneficiary (or the person authorized to request payment on the beneficiary's behalf) assigns the claim to the supplier...

  13. 31 CFR 353.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 353.55 Section 353.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp....

  14. 31 CFR 360.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 360.55 Section 360.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp....

  15. 31 CFR 315.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 315.55 Section 315.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... authenticated by a legible imprint either of a corporate stamp of the institution or of the issuing or...

  16. 12 CFR 229.55 - Expedited recredit for banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited recredit for banks. 229.55 Section 229.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... Expedited recredit for banks. (a) Circumstances giving rise to a claim. A bank that has an indemnity...

  17. 33 CFR 55.9 - Child development centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child development centers. 55.9... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES General § 55.9 Child development centers. (a) The Commandant may make child development services available at child development centers located at Coast Guard installations. (b) Regular...

  18. 40 CFR 60.55c - Waste management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incinerators for Which Construction is Commenced After June 20, 1996 § 60.55c Waste management plan. The owner or operator of an affected facility shall prepare a waste management plan. The waste... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste management plan. 60.55c...

  19. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  20. 47 CFR 78.55 - Time of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time of operation. 78.55 Section 78.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY... to any prescribed schedule of operation. Continous radiation of the carrier without modulation...

  1. 10 CFR 430.55 - Evaluation of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of application. 430.55 Section 430.55 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business... General, that a failure to allow an exemption would likely result in a lessening of competition....

  2. 45 CFR 702.55 - Public announcement of meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public announcement of meetings. 702.55 Section... RULES ON HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION Meetings § 702.55 Public announcement of meetings. (a) Agenda. The Staff Director shall set as early as possible but in any event at least...

  3. 7 CFR 915.55 - Avocados not subject to regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avocados not subject to regulations. 915.55 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 915.55 Avocados not subject...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.55 - Investment of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1216.55 Section 1216.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... financial institutions that are members of the Federal Reserve system; or obligations that are...

  5. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. The piping shall be of not less than Schedule 40...

  6. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; stationary test. 325.55... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Stationary Test § 325.55 Ambient conditions; stationary test. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone...

  7. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.55-2 Section 301.55-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living..., Nopalea, and Opuntia. (c) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance not listed in paragraphs...

  8. Speed Control of Induction Motor by Using Variable Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drive Pooja Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variable speed drive is focused on voltage amplitude control. However, its only control speed in constraint limits. The load on Induction Motor is not constant & vary as per load requirement. so speed must be change as per load. If the supply voltage decreased motor torque also decreases, for maintaining same torque, slip decreases hence speed falls and motor speed is directly proportional to supply frequency, hence to maintain a speed, the supply V/F ratio must be vary accordingly. But the speed is not vary proportion to application so it consume the rated power and it becomes economically disadvantages. To overcome above problem a new concept of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD is introduced. Adding a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD to a motor driven system can offer potential energy saving in a system in which the load vary with time. The primary function of VFD in application is to provide energy saving, speed reduction of 20% can save energy upto 50%.

  9. Is Speed Reserve Related to Critical Speed and Anaerobic Distance Capacity in Swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Toubekis, Argyris G; Manou, Vasiliki; Loupos, Dimitrios; Kellis, Spiridon

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between speed reserve (SRes), critical swimming speed (CSS), and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC) and their efficacy in determining training adaptations. Swimmers with previous competitive experience participated in an 8-week aerobic training program (experimental group: E; n = 15, age: 22.29 ± 0.95 years) and a control group refrained from training during the same period (C; n = 6, age: 22.25 ± 2.22 years). Speed reserve was determined before and after training from the speed difference between the 50 and 400 m maximum tests. Both CSS and ADC were calculated using 2 different combinations of distances (50 and 400 m: CSS2/ADC2; 50, 100, and 400 m: CSS3/ADC3) by applying the distance-time linear regression model. CSS2 and CSS3 of the E group showed a negative correlation, whereas ADC2 and ADC3 showed a positive correlation, with SRes before and after the training period (r ≥ -0.66, r ≥ 0.88, p ≤ 0.05). CSS2 and CSS3 increased by 5.5 ± 3.2 and 6.0 ± 3.2%, whereas ADC2, ADC3, and SRes decreased by 12.0 ± 9.4, 9.0 ± 11.2, and 8.1 ± 8.4% with the training program (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that SRes, as calculated from distances of 50 and 400 m, shows strong relationships with CSS and ADC and may be used as an indicator of training-induced changes. This information is expected to facilitate training control and evaluation in a day-to-day basis.

  10. Preparation of Mg55Ni35Si10 Amorphous Powders by Mechanical Alloying and Consolidation by Vacuum Hot Pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Deng-Ke; WEN Cui-E; HAN Fu-Sheng; WANG Qing-Zhou; LI Hai-Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Amorphous Mg55Ni35Si10 powders are fabricated by using a mechanical alloying technique. The amorphous powders are found to exhibit a relatively high crystallization temperature of 380℃. The as-milled amorphous Mg55Ni35Si10 powders are consolidated successfully into bulk body by vacuum hot pressing technique. Limited nanocrystallization is noticed. The Vickers microhardness range of the Mg55Ni35Si10 bulk sample is 7834 to 8048 Mpa. Its bending strength and compressive strength are 529 Mpa and 1466 Mpa, respectively.

  11. Ultrahigh-Speed Electrically Injected 1.55 micrometer Quantum Dot Microtube and Nanowire Lasers on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Hadi Tavakoli Dastjerdi, Zetian Mi, David V. Plant . Thermally controlled coupling of a rolled-up microtube integrated with a waveguide on a silicon ...In0.81Ga0.19As0.41P0.59 with silicon doping. There exists a lattice mismatch between layers of In0.81Ga0.19As0.41P0.59 and In0.68Ga0.32As0.41P0.59...avoid side-rolling of the mesas during the sacrificial etching step and also to protect the metallic contacts during etching. The sample was then put in

  12. Limits on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, D L

    2002-01-01

    A limit on the tau neutrino mass is obtained using all the $Z^{0} \\to \\tau^{+} \\tau^{-}$ data collected at LEP by the DELPHI detector between 1992 and 1995. In this analysis events in which one of the taus decays into one charged particle, while the second $\\tau$ decays into f{}ive charged pions (1-5 topology) have been used. The neutrino mass is determined from a bidimensional \\fit ~on the invariant mass $m^{*}_{5 \\pi}$ and on the energy $E_{5 \\pi}$ of the f{}ive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ system. The result found is $m_{\

  13. Measurements of 55Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, A.; Dinar, N.; La Torre, F. P.; Leidner, J.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the 55Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the 55Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  14. Giga bit per second Differential Scheme for High Speed Interconnect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh Narula

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of many digital systems today is limited by the interconnection bandwidth between chips. Although the processing performance of a single chip has increased dramatically since the inception of the integrated circuit technology, the communication bandwidth between chips has not enjoyed as much benefit. Most CMOS chips, when communicating off-chip, drive un terminated lines with full-swing CMOS drivers. Such full-swing CMOS interconnect ring-up the line, and hence has a bandwidth that is limited by the length of the line rather than the performance of the semiconductor technology. Thus, as VLSI technology scales, the pin bandwidth does not improve with the technology, but rather remains limited by board and cable geometry, making off-chip bandwidth an even more critical bottleneck. In order to increase the I/O Bandwidth, some efficient high speed signaling standard must be used which considers the line termination, signal integrity, power dissipation, noise immunity etc In this work, a transmitter has been developed for high speed off chip communication. It consists of low speed input buffer, serializer which converts parallel input data into serial data and a current mode driver which converts the voltage mode input signals into current over the transmission line. Output of 32 low speed input buffers is fed to two serializer, each serializer converting 16 bit parallel data into serial data stream. Output of two serializers is fed to LVDS current mode driver. The serial link technique used in this work is the time division multiplex (TDM and point-to-point technique. It means that the low-speed parallel signals are transferred to the high-speed serial signal at the transmitter end and the high-speed serial signal is transferred to the low-speed parallel signals at the receiver end. Serial link is the design of choice in any application where the cost of the communication channel is high and duplicating the links in large numbers is

  15. Giga bit per second Differential Scheme for High Speed Interconnect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh Narula

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of many digital systems today is limited by the interconnection bandwidth between chips. Although the processing performance of a single chip has increased dramatically since the inception of the integrated circuit technology, the communication bandwidth between chips has not enjoyed as much benefit. Most CMOS chips, when communicating off-chip, drive unterminated lines with full-swing CMOS drivers. Such full-swing CMOS interconnect ring-up the line, and hence has a bandwidth that is limited by the length of the line rather than the performance of the semiconductor technology. Thus, as VLSI technology scales, the pin bandwidth does not improve with the technology, but rather remains limited by board and cable geometry, making off-chip bandwidth an even more critical bottleneck. In order to increase the I/O Bandwidth, some efficient high speed signaling standard must be used which considers the line termination, signal integrity, power dissipation, noise immunity etc In this work, a transmitter has been developed for high speed offchip communication. It consists of low speed input buffer, serializer which converts parallel input data into serial data and a current mode driver which converts the voltage mode input signals into current over the transmission line. Output of 32 low speed input buffers is fed to two serializer, each serializer converting 16 bit parallel data into serial data stream. Output of two serializers is fed to LVDS current mode driver. The serial link technique used in this work is the time division multiplex (TDM and point-to-point technique. It means that the low-speed parallel signals are transferred to the high-speed serial signal at the transmitter end and the high-speed serial signal is transferred to the low-speed parallel signals at the receiver end. Serial link is the design of choice in any application where the cost of the communication channel is high and duplicating the links in large numbers is

  16. Controlling speed and direction during interception: an affordance-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Julien; Fajen, Brett R; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-04-01

    The coordination of direction and speed of self-motion when intercepting a target moving parallel to the ground plane was examined. Subjects viewed a computer-generated environment comprised of a textured ground plane and a moving target. Turning rate was controlled using a steering wheel and speed was controlled using a foot pedal. It was hypothesized that these two degrees of freedom would be coordinated such that the speed required to intercept the target (i.e., the ideal speed) would be maintained below the subject's maximum possible speed. As predicted, subjects turned toward the target when ideal speed was less than maximum speed and ahead of the target when ideal speed was greater than maximum speed. When behavior was compared across groups with different maximum speed capabilities, it was found that the ratio of ideal to maximum speed was invariant across groups at critical points of both steering and speed adjustments. Finally, subjects rapidly recalibrated to a sudden increase or decrease in maximum speed. The results suggest that actors coordinate steering and speed during interception in a way that takes into account the limits on their action capabilities. Discussion focuses on the role of calibration and the implications of the present findings for existing models of visually guided interception.

  17. The effect of sanctions and police enforcement on drivers' choice of speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2012-03-01

    A Stated Preference survey of speed choice on Norwegian rural roads with 80 km/h speed limit was made by the roadside in order to determine which factors most strongly influence this choice. The aim was to study deliberate speeding to identify any correlations between speed choice and (1) the drivers' perception of the level of police enforcement, (2) penalties for speeding and (3) the speed choice of the other drivers on the road. Drivers were asked about their perception of these variables before being presented to nine hypothetical situations for which they were asked about the most likely speed to choose. Speed measurements were conducted before the interview, but without informing respondents of it. A total of 408 interviews were made. Drivers made bad guesses when estimating the level of enforcement, but had more realistic views of the sanctions given for speeding, as well as the general speed levels. The largest speed reducing effects on individual speed choice were found by either making most other drivers on the road reduce their speed, or by substantially increasing enforcement. Stricter sanctions seem to affect the speed choice only marginally.

  18. TEX14 Interacts with CEP55 To Block Cell Abscission▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamori, Tokuko; Iwamori, Naoki; Ma, Lang; Edson, Mark A.; Greenbaum, Michael P.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    In somatic cells, abscission, the physical separation of daughter cells at the completion of cytokinesis, requires CEP55, ALIX, and TSG101. In contrast, cytokinesis is arrested prior to abscission in differentiating male germ cells that are interconnected by TEX14-positive intercellular bridges. We have previously shown that targeted deletion of TEX14 disrupts intercellular bridges in all germ cells and causes male sterility. Although these findings demonstrate that intercellular bridges are essential for spermatogenesis, it remains to be shown how TEX14 and other proteins come together to prevent abscission and form stable intercellular bridges. Using a biochemical enrichment of male germ cell intercellular bridges, we identified additional bridge proteins, including CEP55. Although CEP55 is highly expressed in testes at the RNA level, there is no report of the presence of CEP55 in germ cells. We show here that CEP55 becomes a stable component of the intercellular bridge and that an evolutionarily conserved GPPX3Y motif of TEX14 binds strongly to CEP55 to block similar GPPX3Y motifs of ALIX and TSG101 from interacting and localizing to the midbody. Thus, TEX14 prevents the completion of cytokinesis by altering the destiny of CEP55 from a nidus for abscission to an integral component of the intercellular bridge. PMID:20176808

  19. Division C Commission 55: Communicating Astronomy with the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Russo, Pedro; Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Cheung, Sze-Leung; Robson, Ian; Ödman-Govender, Carolina; Arcand, Kimberly Kowal; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Zhu, Jin; Wheeler, Pete

    2016-04-01

    The IAU Division C Commission 55, Communicating Astronomy with the Public, played an active role in Union affairs within Division C, Education, Outreach and Heritage. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) vested considerable responsibility for its public outreach efforts in Commission 55 (C55), Communicating Astronomy with the Public. This article briefly recounts the origin and history of C55 over the past decade, and describes the work of C55 until it became Division C Commission C.C2 in 2015. As stated on our website, http://www.communicatingastronomy.org, C55 was founded on the principle that ``it is the responsibility of every practising astronomer to play some role in explaining the interest and value of science to our real employers, the taxpayers of the world.'' While this was true a decade ago, when the Working Group that eventually became C55 first took shape, it is even more true today, when funding for the astronomical sciences (and science more generally) is under threat on nearly every continent.

  20. Predictors of Social Mobilization Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization across social networks is becoming increasingly influential, but little is known about what traits of individuals and their relationships affect their speed of mobilization between them. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they mobilized. We examined how those traits influenced the speed of mobilization. Individuals mobilized faster when they heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). Mobilization was faster when the mobilizer and the mobilized heard about the contest through the same source type, and slower when both individuals were in different countries. Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Mobilization was faster with young recruiters and old recruits, and slower with old recruiters and young recruits. These findings suggest ways to optimize the speed of social mobilization.

  1. Dynamic Dazzle Distorts Speed Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna R Hall

    Full Text Available Static high contrast ('dazzle' patterns, such as zigzags, have been shown to reduce the perceived speed of an object. It has not escaped our notice that this effect has possible military applications and here we report a series of experiments on humans, designed to establish whether dynamic dazzle patterns can cause distortions of perceived speed sufficient to provide effective defence in the field, and the extent to which these effects are robust to a battery of manipulations. Dynamic stripe patterns moving in the same direction as the target are found to increase the perceived speed of that target, whilst dynamic stripes moving in the opposite direction to the target reduce the perceived speed. We establish the optimum position for such dazzle patches; confirm that reduced contrast and the addition of colour do not affect the performance of the dynamic dazzle, and finally, using the CO2 challenge, show that the effect is robust to stressful conditions.

  2. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  3. Do Speed Cameras Reduce Collisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Skubic, Jeffrey; Johnson, Steven B.; Salvino, Chris; Vanhoy, Steven; Hu, Chengcheng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of speed cameras along a 26 mile segment in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Motor vehicle collisions were retrospectively identified according to three time periods – before cameras were placed, while cameras were in place and after cameras were removed. A 14 mile segment in the same area without cameras was used for control purposes. Five cofounding variables were eliminated. In this study, the placement or removal of interstate highway speed cameras did not indepe...

  4. Do speed cameras reduce collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubic, Jeffrey; Johnson, Steven B; Salvino, Chris; Vanhoy, Steven; Hu, Chengcheng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of speed cameras along a 26 mile segment in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Motor vehicle collisions were retrospectively identified according to three time periods - before cameras were placed, while cameras were in place and after cameras were removed. A 14 mile segment in the same area without cameras was used for control purposes. Five cofounding variables were eliminated. In this study, the placement or removal of interstate highway speed cameras did not independently affect the incidence of motor vehicle collisions.

  5. Speed management : enforcement and new technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Goldenbeld, C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the massive character of speeding and inappropriate travel speeds, speed management continues to be an important and challenging policy area. Estimates are that in about a quarter to one third of fatal crashes excessive speeds are involved, making speed one of the crucial factors in road safe

  6. Experimental Study of 1.55-μm EML-Based Optical IM/DD PAM-4/8 Short Reach Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars; Gaiarin, Simone

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate high-speed intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) transmissions with a 1.55-μm broadband electro-absorption modulated laser and pulse amplitude modulations (PAM). We demonstrate 80 Gb/s/λ PAM-4 and 96 Gb/s/λ PAM-8 transmissions with low-complexity digital...

  7. Quantum speed limits—primer, perspectives, and potential future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Michael R.

    2016-10-01

    Fundamental physical limits on the speed of state evolution in quantum systems exist in the form of the Mandelstam-Tamm and the Margolus-Levitin inequalities. We give an expository review of the development of these quantum speed limit (QSL) inequalities, including extensions to different energy statistics and generalizations to mixed system states and open and multipartite systems. The QSLs expressed by these various inequalities have implications for quantum computation, quantum metrology, and control of quantum systems. These connections are surveyed, and some important open questions are noted.

  8. Are running speeds maximized with simple-spring stance mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth P; Weyand, Peter G

    2014-09-15

    Are the fastest running speeds achieved using the simple-spring stance mechanics predicted by the classic spring-mass model? We hypothesized that a passive, linear-spring model would not account for the running mechanics that maximize ground force application and speed. We tested this hypothesis by comparing patterns of ground force application across athletic specialization (competitive sprinters vs. athlete nonsprinters, n = 7 each) and running speed (top speeds vs. slower ones). Vertical ground reaction forces at 5.0 and 7.0 m/s, and individual top speeds (n = 797 total footfalls) were acquired while subjects ran on a custom, high-speed force treadmill. The goodness of fit between measured vertical force vs. time waveform patterns and the patterns predicted by the spring-mass model were assessed using the R(2) statistic (where an R(2) of 1.00 = perfect fit). As hypothesized, the force application patterns of the competitive sprinters deviated significantly more from the simple-spring pattern than those of the athlete, nonsprinters across the three test speeds (R(2) <0.85 vs. R(2) ≥ 0.91, respectively), and deviated most at top speed (R(2) = 0.78 ± 0.02). Sprinters attained faster top speeds than nonsprinters (10.4 ± 0.3 vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 m/s) by applying greater vertical forces during the first half (2.65 ± 0.05 vs. 2.21 ± 0.05 body wt), but not the second half (1.71 ± 0.04 vs. 1.73 ± 0.04 body wt) of the stance phase. We conclude that a passive, simple-spring model has limited application to sprint running performance because the swiftest runners use an asymmetrical pattern of force application to maximize ground reaction forces and attain faster speeds.

  9. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2010-03-24

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  10. Seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.

  11. Sample Set (SE): SE55 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE55 AtMetExpress development: a phytochemical atlas of arabidopsis development We ...or elucidation of metabolite structure. These are part of the AtMetExpress metabolite accumulation atlas. Ba

  12. Sample Preparation (SS): SE55_SS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 80℃ until analysis. The frozen tissues were homogenized in five volumes of 80% aqueous methanol containing 0...SE55_SS01 Metabolic profiling Collected sample tissues were weighed and stored at -

  13. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage... the applicable language minority group is equal to or less than the national illiteracy rate....

  14. 40 CFR 204.55-3 - Configuration identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.55-3..., water cooled. (7) Fan: (i) Diameter; (ii) Maximum fan rpm. (8) The compressor enclosure: (i)...

  15. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  16. 33 CFR 1.07-55 - Hearing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-55 Hearing procedures. (a... the Hearing Officer is presented. The party has the right to examine, and to respond to or rebut,...

  17. Tchaikovsky, P.: Orchestral Suite no. 3 op. 55 / Terry Williams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Williams, Terry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tchaikovsky, P.: Orchestral Suite no. 3 op. 55. Francesca di Rimini op. 32. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos CHAN 9 419, distribution Media 7 (CD: 160F). TT: 1h 09'20"

  18. Overt vs. covert speed cameras in combination with delayed vs. immediate feedback to the offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Hadas; Setter, Pe'erly; Norman, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Speeding is a major problem in road safety because it increases both the probability of accidents and the severity of injuries if an accident occurs. Speed cameras are one of the most common speed enforcement tools. Most of the speed cameras around the world are overt, but there is evidence that this can cause a "kangaroo effect" in driving patterns. One suggested alternative to prevent this kangaroo effect is the use of covert cameras. Another issue relevant to the effect of enforcement countermeasures on speeding is the timing of the fine. There is general agreement on the importance of the immediacy of the punishment, however, in the context of speed limit enforcement, implementing such immediate punishment is difficult. An immediate feedback that mediates the delay between the speed violation and getting a ticket is one possible solution. This study examines combinations of concealment and the timing of the fine in operating speed cameras in order to evaluate the most effective one in terms of enforcing speed limits. Using a driving simulator, the driving performance of the following four experimental groups was tested: (1) overt cameras with delayed feedback, (2) overt cameras with immediate feedback, (3) covert cameras with delayed feedback, and (4) covert cameras with immediate feedback. Each of the 58 participants drove in the same scenario on three different days. The results showed that both median speed and speed variance were higher with overt than with covert cameras. Moreover, implementing a covert camera system along with immediate feedback was more conducive to drivers maintaining steady speeds at the permitted levels from the very beginning. Finally, both 'overt cameras' groups exhibit a kangaroo effect throughout the entire experiment. It can be concluded that an implementation strategy consisting of covert speed cameras combined with immediate feedback to the offender is potentially an optimal way to motivate drivers to maintain speeds at the

  19. An analysis of a QND speed-meter interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Purdue, P

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a {\\it speed meter interferometer} that accomplishes this -- a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show (in accord with the speed being a Quantum Nondemolition [QND] observable) that {\\it in principle} the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filt...

  20. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  1. Performance evaluation of high speed compressors for high speed multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes high speed compressors for high speed parallel multipliers like Booth Multiplier, Wallace Tree Multiplier in Digital Signal Processing (DSP. This paper presents 4-3, 5-3, 6-3 and 7-3 compressors for high speed multiplication. These compressors reduce vertical critical path more rapidly than conventional compressors. A 5-3 conventional compressor can take four steps to reduce bits from 5 to 3, but the proposed 5-3 takes only 2 steps. These compressors are simulated with H-Spice at a temperature of 25°C at a supply voltage 2.0V using 90nm MOSIS technology. The Power, Delay, Power Delay Product (PDP and Energy Delay Product (EDP of the compressors are calculated to analyze the total propagation delay and energy consumption. All the compressors are designed with half adder and full Adders only.

  2. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  3. Hint of a transiting extended atmosphere on 55 Cancri b

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, David; Bonfils, Xavier; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Hébrard, Guillaume; Sing, David K; Wheatley, Peter J; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Delfosse, Xavier; Udry, Stéphane; Forveille, Thierry; Moutou, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The naked-eye star 55 Cancri hosts a planetary system with five known planets, including a hot super-Earth (55 Cnc e) extremely close to its star and a farther out giant planet (55 Cnc b), found in milder irradiation conditions with respect to other known hot Jupiters. This system raises important questions on the evolution of atmospheres for close-in exoplanets, and the dependence with planetary mass and irradiation. These questions can be addressed by Lyman-alpha transit observations of the extended hydrogen planetary atmospheres, complemented by contemporaneous measurements of the stellar X-ray flux. In fact, planet `e' has been detected in transit, suggesting the system is seen nearly edge-on. Yet, planet `b' has not been observed in transit so far. Here, we report on Hubble Space Telescope STIS Lyman-alpha and Chandra ACIS-S X-ray observations of 55 Cnc. These simultaneous observations cover two transits of 55 Cnc e and two inferior conjunctions of 55 Cnc b. They reveal the star as a bright Lyman-alpha t...

  4. Parallelism and pipelining in high-speed digital simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The attainment of high computing speed as measured by the computational throughput is seen as one of the most challenging requirements. It is noted that high speed is cardinal in several distinct classes of applications. These classes are then discussed; they comprise (1) the real-time simulation of dynamic systems , (2) distributed parameter systems, and (3) mixed lumped and distributed systems. From the 1950s on, the quest for high speed in digital simulators concentrated on overcoming the limitations imposed by the so-called von Neumann bottleneck. Two major architectural approaches have made ig possible to circumvent this bottleneck and attain high speeds. These are pipelining and parallelism. Supercomputers, peripheral array processors, and microcomputer networks are then discussed.

  5. Assessing the Quality of Steady-state Visual-evoked Potentials for Moving Humans Using a Mobile Electroencephalogram Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pin eLin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in mobile electroencephalogram (EEG systems, featuring non-prep dry electrodes and wireless telemetry, have urged the needs of mobile brain-computer interfaces (BCIs for applications in our daily life. Since the brain may behave differently while people are actively situated in ecologically-valid environments versus highly-controlled laboratory environments, it remains unclear how well the current laboratory-oriented BCI demonstrations can be translated into operational BCIs for users with naturalistic movements. Understanding inherent links between natural human behaviors and brain activities is the key to ensuring the applicability and stability of mobile BCIs. This study aims to assess the quality of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs, which is one of promising channels for functioning BCI systems, recorded using a mobile EEG system under challenging recording conditions, e.g., walking. To systemati-cally explore the effects of walking locomotion on the SSVEPs, this study instructed subjects to stand or walk on a treadmill running at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 mile (s per hour (MPH while con-currently perceiving visual flickers (11 and 12 Hz. Empirical results of this study showed that the SSVEP amplitude tended to deteriorate when subjects switched from standing to walking. Such SSVEP suppression could be attributed to the walking locomotion, leading to distinctly deteriorated SSVEP detectability from standing (84.87±13.55% to walking (1 MPH: 83.03±13.24%, 2 MPH: 79.47±13.53%, and 3 MPH: 75.26±17.89%. These findings not only demonstrated the applicability and limitations of SSVEPs recorded from freely behaving humans in realistic environments, but also provide useful methods and techniques for boosting the translation of the BCI technology from laboratory demonstrations to practical applications.

  6. ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hude; Yu, Lijuan; Han, Ran; Li, Zhanjie; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT-PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops.

  7. GPR55 regulates cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated responses in human neutrophils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nariman A B Balenga; Maria Waldhoer; Elma Aflaki; Julia Kargl; Wolfgang Platzer; Ralf Schr(o)der; Stefanie Bl(a)ttermann; Evi Kostenis; Andrew J Brown; Akos Heinemann

    2011-01-01

    The directional migration of neutrophils towards inflammatory mediators,such as chemokines and cannabinoids,occurs via the activation of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) and is a highly organized process.A crucial role for controlling neutrophil migration has been ascribed to the cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R),but additional modulatory sites distinct from CB2R have recently been suggested to impact CB2R-mediated effector functions in neutrophils.Here,we provide evidence that the recently de-orphanized 7TM/GPCR GPR55potently modulates CB2R-mediated responses.We show that GPR55 is expressed in human blood neutrophils and its activation augments the migratory response towards the CB2R agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG),while inhibiting neutrophil degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.Using HEK293 and HL60 cell lines,along with primary neutrophils,we show that GPR55 and CB2R interfere with each other's signaling pathways at the level of small GTPases,such as Rac2 and Cdc42.This ultimately leads to cellular polarization and efficient migration as well as abrogation of degranulation and ROS formation in neutrophils.Therefore,GPR55 limits the tissueinjuring inflammatory responses mediated by CB2R,while it synergizes with CB2R in recruiting neutrophils to sites of inflammation.

  8. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  9. An effective BIST scheme for SRAM full speed test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Yue; Zheng, Jianbin; Song, Xiaoyu

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a novel built-in self-test (BIST) scheme at full speed test where access time test is performed. Based on normal BIST circuits, we harness an all digital phase locked loop to generate a high-frequency clock for static random access memory (SRAM) performance test at full speed. A delay chain is incorporated to achieve the four-phase clock. As inputs to SRAM, clock, address, data are generated in terms of the four-phase clock. Key performance parameters, such as access time, address setup and hold times, are measured. The test chip has been fabricated by United Microelectronics Corporation 55 nm CMOS logic standard process. According to test results, the maximum test frequency is about 1.3 GHz, and the test precision is about 35 ps at the typical process corner with supply voltage 1.0 V and temperature 25°C.

  10. The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test: Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Tulsky, David S.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed. While initial validation work provides preliminary support for this test in both children and adults, more work is needed to ensure dependability and generalizability. Thus, this replication study examines descriptive data (including age effects), test–retest reliability, and construct validity in n = 4,859 participants ages 3–85 years (matched to 2010 census data). Although the Pattern Comparison was not appropriate for all 3 and 4 years old, by ages 5 and 6, more meaningful scores were apparent. There was evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. There was also a moderate practice effect (i.e., increase of 5.5 points) over a 1-week time frame. Pattern Comparison exhibits a number of strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages 5–85), it is short and easy to administer, and there is support for construct validity. PMID:26025230

  11. Preparation and preliminary evaluation of [55Co](Ⅱ)vancomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Co-55 (t1/2=17.53 h) was produced by 150 μA irradiation of a natural nickel target using 15 MeV protons. It was separated from the irradiated target material by two ion exchange chromatography steps with a radiochemical yield of>95% and was used for the preparation of [55Co]vancomycin ([55Co]VAN). Optimization studies were per-formed using Co-57 due to its longer half-life. Cobalt-57 (t1/2=271.79 d) was produced by irradiation of a natural nickel target with 150 μA current of 22 MeV protons. The 57Co was separated from the irradiated target material using a no-carrier-added method with a radiochemical yield of>97%. Both products were controlled for radionuelide and chemical purity. The solutions of [55Co]VAN were prepared (radiochemical yield>80%) starting with 55Co acetate and vancomycin at room temperature after 30 min. A precise solid phrase extraction (SPE) method was developed using Si Sep-Pak in order to purify/reconstitute the final formulation for animal studies. [55Co]VAN showed a radiochemical purity of more than 99%. The resultant specific activity was about 1.15 TBq/mmol. It is proved that the tracer is stable in the final product and in presence of human serum at 37℃ up to 24 h. Biodistribution study of [55Co]VAN in normal rats was undertaken for up to 72 h.

  12. Enhanced speed in fluorescence imaging using beat frequency multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Wang, Yisen; Hamad, Syed; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence imaging using radiofrequency-tagged emission (FIRE) is an emerging technique that enables higher imaging speed (namely, temporal resolution) in fluorescence microscopy compared to conventional fluorescence imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy and wide-field microscopy. It works based on the principle that it uses multiple intensity-modulated fields in an interferometric setup as excitation fields and applies frequency-division multiplexing to fluorescence signals. Unfortunately, despite its high potential, FIRE has limited imaging speed due to two practical limitations: signal bandwidth and signal detection efficiency. The signal bandwidth is limited by that of an acousto-optic deflector (AOD) employed in the setup, which is typically 100-200 MHz for the spectral range of fluorescence excitation (400-600 nm). The signal detection efficiency is limited by poor spatial mode-matching between two interfering fields to produce a modulated excitation field. Here we present a method to overcome these limitations and thus to achieve higher imaging speed than the prior version of FIRE. Our method achieves an increase in signal bandwidth by a factor of two and nearly optimal mode matching, which enables the imaging speed limited by the lifetime of the target fluorophore rather than the imaging system itself. The higher bandwidth and better signal detection efficiency work synergistically because higher bandwidth requires higher signal levels to avoid the contribution of shot noise and amplifier noise to the fluorescence signal. Due to its unprecedentedly high-speed performance, our method has a wide variety of applications in cancer detection, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine.

  13. The Enhanced Speed Bag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    system for helicopter resupply is a crucial development in aerial sustainment .  By Capt. Jude G.B. Coe Three enhanced speed bag systems are rigged on...NI NG & ED UC AT IO N 47 Army Sustainment July–August 2015 multipurpose cargo bag with pad- ding, one speed line assembly with a cable grip that...understand- ing of how to set up and rig the ESBS inside a Black Hawk. Validation Exercise After two joint in-progress reviews , Task Force Talon and the Iron

  14. Instant PageSpeed optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant PageSpeed Optimization is a hands-on guide that provides a number of clear, step-by-step exercises for optimizing your websites for better performance and improving their efficiency.Instant PageSpeed Optimization is aimed at website developers and administrators who wish to make their websites load faster without any errors and consume less bandwidth. It's assumed that you will have some experience in basic web technologies like HTML, CSS3, JavaScript, and the basics of netw

  15. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  16. Estimation of Lightning Return Stroke Speed Using Elve Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, P.; Marshall, R. A.; Inan, U.

    2014-12-01

    Elves are optical emissions in the D-region ionosphere that are a result of collisional heating from the intense lightning electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The shape of elves is determined by the EMP radiation pattern at D-region altitudes, which is in turn controlled by the geometry and current propagation properties of the return stroke channel. In particular, numerical simulation of the EMP-ionosphere interaction shows a strong relationship between the elve "hole" radius and the current return stroke speed. During the summer of 2013, hundreds of elves were observed from Langmuir Laboratory, in New Mexico, with the PIPER high-speed photometer. Of these, 55 had an appropriate viewing geometry in which the elve hole is observable and is not corrupted by cloud flashes or sprites. An "emission profile", characterizing the elve emissions versus radius and time, is fit to each of these events using a constrained least squares reconstruction, allowing easy extraction of the elve hole radius. Using these measured radii in conjunction with the numerical EMP model, we perform Bayesian inference to estimate the distribution of return stroke speeds. The MTLL engineering model is assumed for the current propagation with reasonable priors for the parameters. The results show a maximum a posteriori probability return stroke speed estimate of 0.64c for elve producing lightning.

  17. High-Speed Smart Camera with High Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dubois

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the biomechanics analysis or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs has enabled the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility, and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper, we propose a high-speed smart camera based on a CMOS sensor with embedded processing. Two types of algorithms have been implemented. A compression algorithm, specific to high-speed imaging constraints, has been implemented. This implementation allows to reduce the large data flow (6.55 Gbps and to propose a transfer on a serial output link (USB 2.0. The second type of algorithm is dedicated to feature extraction such as edge detection, markers extraction, or image analysis, wavelet analysis, and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into an FPGA embedded inside the camera. These implementations are low-cost in terms of hardware resources. This FPGA technology allows us to process in real time 500 images per second with a 1280×1024 resolution. This camera system is a reconfigurable platform, other image processing algorithms can be implemented.

  18. High-Speed Smart Camera with High Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosqueron R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the biomechanics analysis or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs has enabled the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility, and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper, we propose a high-speed smart camera based on a CMOS sensor with embedded processing. Two types of algorithms have been implemented. A compression algorithm, specific to high-speed imaging constraints, has been implemented. This implementation allows to reduce the large data flow (6.55 Gbps and to propose a transfer on a serial output link (USB 2.0. The second type of algorithm is dedicated to feature extraction such as edge detection, markers extraction, or image analysis, wavelet analysis, and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into an FPGA embedded inside the camera. These implementations are low-cost in terms of hardware resources. This FPGA technology allows us to process in real time 500 images per second with a 1280×1024 resolution. This camera system is a reconfigurable platform, other image processing algorithms can be implemented.

  19. Impulsivity and Speed-Accuracy Strategies in Intelligence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Rabbitt, Patrick M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Whether relations between intelligence test performance and information processing measures depend on individual differences in speed-accuracy preferences rather than capacity limitations and whether the impact of strategic variables changes with increasing age or extraversion was studied with 83 adults ages 50 to 79 years. Results are discussed…

  20. Ping-Pong Robotics with High-Speed Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hailing; Wu, Haiyan; Lou, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The performance of vision-based control is usually limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback. We address Ping-Pong robotics as a widely studied example which requires high-speed vision for highly dynamic motion control. In order to detect a flying ball accurately and robustly, a mul...

  1. An orbital-free molecular dynamics study of melting in $K_{20}, K_{55}, K_{92}, K_{142}, Rb_{55}$ and $Cs_{55}$ clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A

    2001-01-01

    The melting-like transition in potasium clusters K_N, with N=20, 55, 92 and 142, is studied by using an orbital-free density-functional constant-energy molecular dynamics simulation method, and compared to previous theoretical results on the melting-like transition in sodium clusters of the same sizes. Melting in potasium and sodium clusters proceeds in a similar way: a surface melting stage develops upon heating before the homogeneous melting temperature is reached. Premelting effects are nevertheless more important and more easily established in potasium clusters, and the transition regions spread over temperature intervals which are wider than in the case of sodium. For all the sizes considered, the percentage melting temperature reduction when passing from Na to K clusters is substantially larger than in the bulk. Once those two materials have been compared for a number of different cluster sizes, we study the melting-like transition in Rb_55 and Cs_55 clusters and make a comparison with the melting behav...

  2. Speed of Gravity Measured for First Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Taking advantage of a rare cosmic alignment, scientists have made the first measurement of the speed at which the force of gravity propagates, giving a numerical value to one of the last unmeasured fundamental constants of physics. "Newton thought that gravity's force was instantaneous. Einstein assumed that it moved at the speed of light, but until now, no one had measured it," said Sergei Kopeikin, a physicist at the University of Missouri-Columbia. VLA Image of Jupiter VLA Image of Jupiter CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "We have determined that gravity's propagation speed is equal to the speed of light within an accuracy of 20 percent," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA. The landmark measurement is important to physicists working on unified field theories that attempt to combine particle physics with Einstein's general theory of relativity and electromagnetic theory. "Our measurement puts some strong limits on the theories that propose extra dimensions, such as superstring theory and brane theories," Kopeikin said. "Knowing the speed of gravity can provide an important test of the existence and compactness of these extra dimensions," he added. Superstring theory proposes that the fundamental particles of nature are not pointlike, but rather incredibly small loops or strings, whose properties are determined by different modes of vibration. Branes (a word derived from membranes) are multidimensional surfaces, and some current physical theories propose space-time branes embedded to five dimensions. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide radio-telescope system, along with the 100-meter radio telescope in Effelsberg, Germany, to make an extremely precise observation when the planet Jupiter passed nearly in front of a bright quasar on

  3. Algebra 1's Speed Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neil Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Students often look for real-life situations where they can apply the concepts they learn. A project of measuring the speed of moving cars demonstrates that they learn communication skills, teamwork skills, and develop patience specially when work in a group with a common purpose.

  4. High-speed OTDM switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Mikkelsen, Benny; Clausen, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Optical TDM (OTDM) continues to be of interest both for point-point transmission and as a networking technology for both LANs and long-distance fibre transmission. Recent research has demonstrated enabling techniques for OTDM networks at high speeds. In conclusion, OTDM is emerging as an attracti...

  5. Exploring of Chinese High-speed Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    liuYoumei

    2004-01-01

    Based ion experiences of high-speed railways in foreign countries,the speed-raise situation of the Chinese railways,the research & development and test of high-speed transportation carries,as well as the prospective of high-speed railway in China are introduced.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1507 - Maneuvering speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maneuvering speed. 25.1507 Section 25.1507....1507 Maneuvering speed. The maneuvering speed must be established so that it does not exceed the design maneuvering speed V A determined under § 25.335(c)....

  7. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  8. 14 CFR 27.1509 - Rotor speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 27.1509 Section 27.1509... Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be established... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1509 - Rotor speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 29.1509 Section 29.1509....1509 Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the...

  10. Development of low C and Cr-conta ined J55 steel hot rolled coil%低碳含铬 J55钢热轧卷板的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明浩; 黄国建; 孔祥磊

    2014-01-01

    介绍了鞍钢2150ASP中薄板坯连铸连轧机组开发的10.75 mm厚低C含铬J55钢热轧卷板设计的难点和特点。该钢采用低C、低Mn、添加适量Cr元素、纯净钢冶炼,使P、S保持在较低水平。提高Mn/S比,控制拉坯速度,保证了连铸坯表面质量;产品符合美国石油学会标准API Spec 5 CT的J55钢要求,且屈服强度低,波动范围窄,抗拉强度高,具有良好的耐低温冲击能力。%The difficulty and characteristic was introduced that low C and Cr-contained J55 steel hot rolled coil of 10.75 mm thickness were developed in Angang 2150ASP thin-slab continuous casting and rolling production line.Chemical composition of the J55steel was designed as low content of C and Mn and moderate content of Cr .The surface quality of slab continuous casting was guaranteed by making clean steel with low P and S, increasing Mn/S and controlling casting billet speed.Compared with the J55 steel in API SPEC 5CT specification, the yield strength of the tested J55 steel is low and has a narrow fluctuation range , the tensile strength is high and the low temperature toughness is preferable .

  11. Detection of an atmosphere around the super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiaras, A; Waldmann, I P; Venot, O; Varley, R; Morello, G; Tinetti, G; Barton, E J; Yurchenko, S N; Tennyson, J

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of extrasolar planets, super-Earths belonged in the realm of science fiction. However, they appear to constitute the most common planetary type in our galaxy. We know very little about these planets beyond very basic planetary and orbital parameters. The WFC3 camera onboard the HST has enabled the spectroscopic observations of the atmospheres of two super-Earths, GJ1214b and HD97658b, with unprecedented precision; but the published spectra of these two objects are featureless, suggesting an atmosphere covered by thick clouds or made of molecular species much heavier than hydrogen. We report here the analysis of the observations performed with the WFC3 of a third, very hot, super-Earth, 55 Cancri e. Given the brightness of 55 Cancri, the observations were obtained in scanning mode, adopting a very long scanning length and a very high scanning speed. These observational parameters are coupled with the geometrical distortions of the instrument, so we have developed a specialized pipeline to ...

  12. Dynamical Downscaling of Typhoon Vera (1959) and related Storm Surge based on JRA-55 Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, J.; Takemi, T.; Mori, N.; Shibutani, Y.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoon Vera in 1959 is historical extreme typhoon that caused severest typhoon damage mainly due to the storm surge up to 389 cm in Japan. Vera developed 895 hPa on offshore and landed with 929.2 hPa. There are many studies of the dynamical downscaling of Vera but it is difficult to simulate accurately because of the lack of the accuracy of global reanalysis data. This study carried out dynamical downscaling experiment of Vera using WRF downscaling forced by JRA-55 that are latest atmospheric model and reanalysis data. In this study, the reproducibility of five global reanalysis data for Typhoon Vera were compered. Comparison shows that reanalysis data doesn't have strong typhoon information except for JRA-55, so that downscaling with conventional reanalysis data goes wrong. The dynamical downscaling method for storm surge is studied very much (e.g. choice of physical model, nudging, 4D-VAR, bogus and so on). In this study, domain size and resolution of the coarse domain were considered. The coarse domain size influences the typhoon route and central pressure, and larger domain restrains the typhoon strength. The results of simulations with different domain size show that the threshold of developing restrain is whether the coarse domain fully includes the area of wind speed more than 15 m/s around the typhoon. The results of simulations with different resolution show that the resolution doesn't affect the typhoon route, and higher resolution gives stronger typhoon simulation.

  13. Examination of InSAR tropospheric delay correction with JRA-55 reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Furuya, M.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) phase signal contains not only surface deformations but also propagation delays due to Earth's atmosphere, which is the principal limiting factor for InSAR application of small deformation with amplitude of a few centimeters or less. Bevis et al. (1992) showed that the tropospheric delay consists of the hydrostatic delay due to dry gases and the wet delay due to water vapor. Previous studies proposed correction methods which used GNSS delay data or numerical weather model outputs. However, it is still insignificant for detecting small surface deformation. Jolivet et al. (2014) showed that reanalysis data like ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data is useful to mitigate topography-correlated tropospheric delay from InSAR data. However, previous studies used only one of the model data as a case study and didn't apply the correction to other areas. In this study we examined an effect of the tropospheric delay correction with Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55) data (Kobayashi et al., 2015). The horizontal resolution of JRA-55 is TL319 (approximately 60 km) and has 60 vertical layers. In addition, we estimated the tropospheric delay with ERA-Interim data for comparison. SAR data used were derived from ALOS/PALSAR around Nagoya prefecture (Path-Frame: 411-690). To avoid the spatial decorrelation, interferometric pairs with the perpendicular baseline of less 3000 m were generated. As a result, 309 interferograms were generated from 28 SAR single-look complex images. In consequence of the tropospheric delay correction with JRA-55 and ERA-Interim data, the averaged standard deviation of all interferograms slightly reduced from 1.26716 cm to 1.25231 cm by JRA-55 and slightly increased to 1.26797 cm by ERA-Interim. We further examined the correction effect when dividing the estimated delay into the hydrostatic component and the wet component. These results showed that JRA-55 corrected these delays rather than ERA

  14. New blood brothers: the GPR55 and CB2 partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy Irving

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are increasingly being recognized as key lipid-derived regulators of immune function [1].Although the peripheral cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) is thought to orchestrate many of these actions,additional non-CB1/CB2-mediated effects ofcannabinoids have been identified in immune cells [1,2],where several orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs),including the effusive GPR55,are implicated [3].Despite numerous studies addressing the cannabinoid sensitivity of GPR55,the area remains a pharmacological minefield,with much inconsistent and conflicting data.

  15. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  16. Rapid assessment of road safety policy change: relaxation of the national speed enforcement law in Russia leads to large increases in the prevalence of speeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Kavi; Paichadze, Nino; Gupta, Shivam; Kliavin, Vladimir; Gritsenko, Elena; Bishai, David; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-02-01

    Reducing vehicle speed is among the most effective road safety strategies. We assess how a new policy in Russia that eliminates fines for driving up to 20 km/h above the speed limit has affected the prevalence of speeding. We measured speeds periodically in 13 districts of two Russian regions during 2011-2013 and analysed the effect of the policy using difference-in-differences to control for seasonality. We find that the prevalence of speeding was declining steadily but half of the gains since mid-2011 were lost immediately after the new policy. Overall speeding increased significantly by 13 percentage points (pp, 95% CI 4 to 19). Speeding more than 10 km/h above the limit increased significantly by 10 pp (95% CI 2 to 12), and extreme speeding increased but not significantly (1.7 pp, 95% CI -1.1 to 4.5). Road traffic injuries will likely increase in Russia unless speeding fines are reinstated.

  17. Survey of variable speed operation of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Ola; Hylander, J.; Thorborg, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-01

    During the last five years the production and operation of variable-speed wind turbines have advanced from a few experimental machines to a serial production of at least 10 MW of installed capacity of variable speed machines per week. The rated power of serial wind turbines is today around 600 kW and for the prototypes up to 3000 kW. Variable speed operation of wind turbines can be obtained with several different types of electrical generating systems, such as synchronous generators with diode rectifiers and thyristor inverters or induction generators with IGBT-converters, for the wide speed range. For the narrow speed range the wound motor induction generator with a rotor cascade or a controlled rotor resistance is preferable. The development of permanent magnetic material and the reduction of costs of the power electronic components have opened a possibility of designing cost-effective wind turbines with a directly driven generator. Pitch control together with variable speed will make it possible to limit the power variation within a few percent, 2 to 5 %, of the rated power. 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. When real life wind speed exceeds design wind assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther-Jensen, M.; Joergensen, E.R. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Most modern wind turbines are designed according to a standard or a set of standards to withstand the design loads with a defined survival probability. Mainly the loads are given by the wind conditions on the site defining the `design wind speeds`, normally including extreme wind speeds given as an average and a peak value. The extreme wind speeds are normally (e.g. in the upcoming IEC standard for wind turbine safety) defined as having a 50-year recurrence period. But what happens when the 100 or 10,000 year wind situation hits a wind turbine? Results on wind turbines of wind speeds higher than the extreme design wind speeds are presented based on experiences especially from the State of Gujarat in India. A description of the normal approach of designing wind turbines in accordance with the standards in briefly given in this paper with special focus on limitations and built-in safety levels. Based on that, other possibilities than just accepting damages on wind turbines exposed for higher than design wind speeds are mentioned and discussed. The presentation does not intend to give the final answer to this problem but is meant as an input to further investigations and discussions. (au)

  19. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  20. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  1. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  2. Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motors with DTC Based on EKF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Sheikhan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide usage of induction motors in various industries and the limitation of applying speed sensors in some cases, sensorless drives have became very important and the challenge to increase the accuracy of estimation continues. This paper presents a novel method for sensorless speed control for IM's that not only improve the estimation and speed tracking in DTC but also eliminate the speed sensor in DTC. For this purpose all needed parameters for sensorless speed control such as stator flux, speed and load torque are estimated with the extended Kalman filter. In this method, noise due to system structure, voltage, and current sampling is eliminated in all the effective parameters. Simulation results show the increase in the precision of estimation and speed tracking.

  3. Development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis wind turbine, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekitsch, A.; Etzler, C. C.; Fritzsche, A.; Lorch, G.; Mueller, W.; Rogalla, K.; Schmelzle, J.; Schuhwerk, W.; Vollan, A.; Welte, D.

    1982-06-01

    In continuation of development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis windmill that consists in conception, building, and wind tunnel testing, a Darrieus rotor windpowered generator feeding an isolated network under different wind velocity conditions and with optimal energy conversion efficiency was designed built, and field tested. The three-bladed Darrieus rotor tested in the wind tunnel was equiped with two variable pitch Savonius rotors 2 m in diameter. By means of separate measures of the aerodynamic factors and the energy consumption, effect of revisions and optimizations on different elements was assessed. Pitch adjustement of the Savonius blades, lubrication of speed reducer, rotor speed at cut-in of generator field excitation, time constant of field excitation, stability conditions, switch points of ohmic resistors which combined with a small electric battery simulated a larger isolated network connected with a large storage battery, were investigated. Fundamentals for the economic series production of windpowered generators with Darrieus rotors for the control and the electric conversion system are presented.

  4. Unconscious local motion alters global image speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieu K Khuu

    Full Text Available Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed.

  5. (+)-WIN 55,212-2, a novel cannabinoid receptor agonist, exerts antidystonic effects in mutant dystonic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Löscher, W

    1994-11-03

    The effects of the novel high affinity cannabinoid receptor agonist (+)-WIN 55,212-2 ((R)-4,5-dihydro-2-methyl-4(4-morphoinylmethyl)-1-(1-naphthalen ylcarbonyl)-6H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinolin-6-one) on severity of dystonia were investigated in mutant Syrian hamsters with primary generalized dystonia. Following injections of (+)-WIN 55,212-2 (1.0-5.0 mg/kg i.p.) a dose-dependent reduction of the severity of dystonia was observed. At antidystonic doses (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg i.p.) (+)-WIN 55,212-2 caused a reduction of spontaneous motor activity and catalepsy. 1 mg/kg of (+)-WIN 55,212-2 exhibited neither antidystonic effects nor any side effects. However, the coadministration of 1.0 mg/kg (+)-WIN 55,212-2 with an ineffective dose of diazepam (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) exerted antidystonic effects in the absence of severe side effects. Although psychotropic effects of cannabinoids, such as (+)-WIN 55,212-2, limit the therapeutical utility of cannabinoids, the present data indicate that cannabinoids exert antidystonic effects and that low doses of cannabinoids may increase antidystonic efficacy of benzodiazepines.

  6. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 1, March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    illicit copies of Disney films in Moscow. Broker, Trader, Lawyer, Spy is well written and documented. The ubiquity of the corporate espi- onage...Studies in Intelligence Vol. 55, No. 1 (Extracts, March 2011) strated the ineffectiveness of Allied attacks on U-boat production facilities . Nesbit

  7. 7 CFR 989.55 - Regulation by the Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.55 Regulation by the Secretary... declared policy of the Act, the Secretary shall designate such percentages. In the event the...

  8. Phenotype-gene: 55 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 55 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1054i decreased efficiency...iol. 47(10):1437-41. http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16980702i decreased efficiency

  9. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this chapter may be cancelled: (1) Upon exportation. Upon the listing of the merchandise on the outward... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section...

  10. 42 CFR 482.55 - Condition of participation: Emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Emergency services. 482... Optional Hospital Services § 482.55 Condition of participation: Emergency services. The hospital must meet...: Organization and direction. If emergency services are provided at the hospital— (1) The services must...

  11. 28 CFR 55.2 - Purpose; standards for measuring compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS General Provisions § 55.2 Purpose... interpretation of the provisions of the Voting Rights Act which require certain States and political subdivisions to conduct elections in the language of certain “language minority groups” in addition to English....

  12. 49 CFR 260.55 - Lender's loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... annual financial statements within 120 days after the end of the Borrower's fiscal year and the due date of other reports as required by the loan documents. The Lender must analyze the financial statements... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lender's loan servicing. 260.55 Section...

  13. Cobalt-55 positron emission tomography in ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, HML; Paans, AMJ; Vliet, AMV; VeenmavanderDuin, L; BolwijnMeijer, CJW; Pruim, J; Willemsen, ATM; Franssen, EJF; Minderhoud, JM; Korf, J

    1997-01-01

    After acute cerebral stroke, the (peri-) infarct tissue is characterized by calcium (Ca)-mediated neuronal damage and inflammatory processes. Monitoring Ca-mediated damage using the isotope cobalt-55 (Go) as a Ga-tracer may enable PET-imaging of this tissue. Since the fate of (peri-) infarct tissue

  14. An automated 55 GHz cryogenic Josephson sampling oscilloscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, P.; Jacobsen, M. L.; Kyhle, Anders;

    1993-01-01

    A computer-automated superconductive 55 GHz sampling oscilloscope based on 4 kA/cm2, Nb/Nb2O5/Pb edge Josephson junctions is presented. The Josephson sampler chip was flip-chip bonded to a carrier chip with a coplanar transmission line by use of a novel flip-chip bonding machine. A 5.6 ps step...

  15. 77 FR 57495 - National Priorities List, Final Rule No. 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Contingency Plan (``NCP''), 40 CFR Part 300, on July 16, 1982 (47 FR 31180), pursuant to CERCLA section 105 and Executive Order 12316 (46 FR 42237, August 20, 1981). The NCP sets guidelines and procedures for... comprehensive revision was on March 8, 1990 (55 FR 8666). As required under section 105(a)(8)(A) of CERCLA,...

  16. 40 CFR 258.55 - Assessment monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... migration and sample this well in accordance with § 258.55(d)(2); (iii) Must notify all persons who own the... systemic toxicants, the level represents a concentration to which the human population (including sensitive... effects during a lifetime. For purposes of this subpart, systemic toxicants include toxic chemicals...

  17. Unusual Variabilities in the Atmosphere of the Star 55 CYG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharramov, Y. M.

    2010-09-01

    Some unusual spectral features of the star 55 Cyg are presented in the article. Observational data on the variability of hydrogen lines profiles, in particula, the unique observational fact of the disappearance of the Hα profile are presented. Profiles of the line and comparative analysis of the variables observed in the profiles of hydrogen lines of the star are adduced.

  18. 7 CFR 1219.55 - Exemption from assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.55 Exemption from assessment. (a) Any sale of Hass avocados for export from the...

  19. 31 CFR 50.55 - Determination of Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... occurrence of the act of terrorism that is the first act of terrorism in a Program Year to be certified by the Secretary for that Program Year. Provided, however, if such act of terrorism occurs after March...

  20. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...