Sample records for 53bp1 focus formation

  1. Differences in quantification of DNA double-strand breaks assessed by 53BP1/γH2AX focus formation assays and the comet assay in mammalian cells treated with irradiation and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. (United States)

    Kurashige, Tomomi; Shimamura, Mika; Nagayama, Yuji


    The biological effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on genomic DNA is thought to be either direct or indirect; the latter is mediated by IR induction of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a well-known ROS-scavenging antioxidant, on IR induction of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and ROS production in mammalian cells, and aimed to clarify the conflicting data in previous publications. Although we clearly demonstrate the beneficial effect of NAC on IR-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity (determined using the micronucleus assay and cell viability/clonogenic assays), the data on NAC's effect on DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation were inconsistent in different assays. Specifically, mitigation of IR-induced DSBs by NAC was readily detected by the neutral comet assay, but not by the γH2AX or 53BP1 focus assays. NAC is a glutathione precursor and exerts its effect after conversion to glutathione, and presumably it has its own biological activity. Assuming that the focus assay reflects the biological responses to DSBs (detection and repair), while the comet assay reflects the physical status of genomic DNA, our results indicate that the comet assay could readily detect the antioxidant effect of NAC on DSB formation. However, NAC's biological effect might affect the detection of DSB repair by the focus assays. Our data illustrate that multiple parameters should be carefully used to analyze DNA damage when studying potential candidates for radioprotective compounds.

  2. Plk1-mediated stabilization of 53BP1 through USP7 regulates centrosome positioning to maintain bipolarity. (United States)

    Yim, H; Shin, S-B; Woo, S U; Lee, P C-W; Erikson, R L


    Although 53BP1 has been established well as a mediator in DNA damage response, its function in mitosis is not clearly understood. We found that 53BP1 is a mitotic-binding partner of the kinases Plk1 and AuroraA, and that the binding with Plk1 increases the stability of 53BP1 by accelerating its interaction with the deubiquitinase USP7. Depletion of 53BP1 induces mitotic defects such as chromosomal missegregation, misorientation of spindle poles and the generation of extra centrosomes, which is similar phenotype to USP7-knockdown cells. In addition, 53BP1 depletion reduces the levels of p53 and centromere protein F (CENPF), interacting proteins of 53BP1. These phenotypes induced by 53BP1 depletion were rescued by expression of wild-type or phosphomimic mutant 53BP1 but not by expression of a dephosphomimic mutant. We propose that phosphorylation of 53BP1 at S380 accelerates complex formation with USP7 and CENPF to regulate their stability, thus having a crucial role in proper centrosome positioning, chromosomal alignment, and centrosome number.

  3. Analysis of Lymphocytic DNA Damage in Early Multiple Sclerosis by Automated Gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 Foci Detection: A Case Control Study.

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    Ludwig Rasche

    Full Text Available In response to DNA double-strand breaks, the histone protein H2AX becomes phosphorylated at its C-terminal serine 139 residue, referred to as γ-H2AX. Formation of γ-H2AX foci is associated with recruitment of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1, a regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. γ-H2AX expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was recently proposed as a diagnostic and disease activity marker for multiple sclerosis (MS.To evaluate the significance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in PBMCs as diagnostic and disease activity markers in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS and early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS using automated γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci detection.Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs of patients with CIS/early RRMS (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 27 with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 specific antibodies. Nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci were determined using a fully automated reading system, assessing the numbers of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci per total number of cells and the percentage of cells with foci. Patients underwent contrast enhanced 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and clinical examination including expanded disability status scale (EDSS score. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 were also compared in previously frozen PBMCs of each 10 CIS/early RRMS patients with and without contrast enhancing lesions (CEL and 10 healthy controls.The median (range number of γ-H2AX (0.04 [0-0.5] and 53BP1 (0.005 [0-0.2] foci per cell in freshly isolated PBMCs across all study participants was low and similar to previously reported values of healthy individuals. For both, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, the cellular focus number as well as the percentage of positive cells did not differ between patients with CIS/RRMS and healthy controls. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 levels neither correlated with number nor volume of T2-weighted lesions on MRI, nor with the EDSS. Although γ-H2AX, but not 53BP1, levels were higher in

  4. MOF phosphorylation by ATM regulates 53BP1-mediated DSB repair pathway choice (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Hunt, Clayton R.; Hegdec, Muralidhar L.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Singh1, Mayank; Ramnarain, Deepti B.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Namjoshi, Sarita; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Hazra, Tapas K.; Ludwig, Thomas; Pandita, Raj K.; Tyler, Jessica K.; Pandita, Tej K.


    Cell cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that DSBs induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase) phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF) and that phosphorylated MOF co-localizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A) impedes DNA repair in S- and G2-phase but not G1-phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also reverses the reduction in DSB associated 53BP1 seen in wild type S/G2-phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2-phase. PMID:24953651

  5. MOF Phosphorylation by ATM Regulates 53BP1-Mediated Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice

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    Arun Gupta


    Full Text Available Cell-cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ or homologous recombination (HR. Here, we report that double-strand breaks (DSBs induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF and that phosphorylated MOF colocalizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A impedes DNA repair in S and G2 phase but not G1 phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also blocks the reduction in DSB-associated 53BP1 seen in wild-type S/G2 phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair, and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM-mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2 phase.

  6. MOF phosphorylation by ATM regulates 53BP1-mediated double-strand break repair pathway choice. (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Hunt, Clayton R; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Singh, Mayank; Ramnarain, Deepti B; Hittelman, Walter N; Namjoshi, Sarita; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Hazra, Tapas K; Ludwig, Thomas; Pandita, Raj K; Tyler, Jessica K; Pandita, Tej K


    Cell-cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here, we report that double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase) phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF) and that phosphorylated MOF colocalizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A) impedes DNA repair in S and G2 phase but not G1 phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also blocks the reduction in DSB-associated 53BP1 seen in wild-type S/G2 phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair, and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM-mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2 phase.

  7. A Damage-Independent Role for 53BP1 that Impacts Break Order and Igh Architecture during Class Switch Recombination

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    Pedro P. Rocha


    Full Text Available During class switch recombination (CSR, B cells replace the Igh Cμ or δ exons with another downstream constant region exon (CH, altering the antibody isotype. CSR occurs through the introduction of AID-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs in switch regions and subsequent ligation of broken ends. Here, we developed an assay to investigate the dynamics of DSB formation in individual cells. We demonstrate that the upstream switch region Sμ is first targeted during recombination and that the mechanism underlying this control relies on 53BP1. Surprisingly, regulation of break order occurs through residual binding of 53BP1 to chromatin before the introduction of damage and independent of its established role in DNA repair. Using chromosome conformation capture, we show that 53BP1 mediates changes in chromatin architecture that affect break order. Finally, our results explain how changes in Igh architecture in the absence of 53BP1 could promote inversional rearrangements that compromise CSR.

  8. 53BP1 mediates productive and mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphoprotein interactions

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    Callen, E.; Wong, N.; Chen, H.-T.;


    deficiency by restoring genome stability in BRCA1-deficient cells yet behaves like wild-type 53BP1 with respect to immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). 53BP1 recruits RIF1 but fails to recruit the DDR protein PTIP to DSBs, and disruption of PTIP phenocopies 53BP1. We conclude that 53BP1 promotes...... productive CSR and suppresses mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphodependent interactions with RIF1 and PTIP. © 2013 Elsevier Inc....

  9. 53BP1 mediates productive and mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphoprotein interactions. (United States)

    Callen, Elsa; Di Virgilio, Michela; Kruhlak, Michael J; Nieto-Soler, Maria; Wong, Nancy; Chen, Hua-Tang; Faryabi, Robert B; Polato, Federica; Santos, Margarida; Starnes, Linda M; Wesemann, Duane R; Lee, Ji-Eun; Tubbs, Anthony; Sleckman, Barry P; Daniel, Jeremy A; Ge, Kai; Alt, Frederick W; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Nussenzweig, André


    The DNA damage response (DDR) protein 53BP1 protects DNA ends from excessive resection in G1, and thereby favors repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) as opposed to homologous recombination (HR). During S phase, BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 to promote HR. The pro-NHEJ and antirecombinase functions of 53BP1 are mediated in part by RIF1, the only known factor that requires 53BP1 phosphorylation for its recruitment to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that a 53BP1 phosphomutant, 53BP18A, comprising alanine substitutions of the eight most N-terminal S/TQ phosphorylation sites, mimics 53BP1 deficiency by restoring genome stability in BRCA1-deficient cells yet behaves like wild-type 53BP1 with respect to immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). 53BP18A recruits RIF1 but fails to recruit the DDR protein PTIP to DSBs, and disruption of PTIP phenocopies 53BP18A. We conclude that 53BP1 promotes productive CSR and suppresses mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphodependent interactions with RIF1 and PTIP.

  10. 53BP1 fosters fidelity of homology-directed DNA repair

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    Ochs, Fena; Somyajit, Kumar; Altmeyer, Matthias;


    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals is coordinated by the ubiquitin-dependent accumulation of 53BP1 at DSB-flanking chromatin. Owing to its ability to limit DNA-end processing, 53BP1 is thought to promote nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and to suppress homology-directed repair...... (HDR). Here, we show that silencing 53BP1 or exhausting its capacity to bind damaged chromatin changes limited DSB resection to hyper-resection and results in a switch from error-free gene conversion by RAD51 to mutagenic single-strand annealing by RAD52. Thus, rather than suppressing HDR, 53BP1...... fosters its fidelity. These findings illuminate causes and consequences of synthetic viability acquired through 53BP1 silencing in cells lacking the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. We show that such cells survive DSB assaults at the cost of increasing reliance on RAD52-mediated HDR, which may fuel genome...

  11. 53BP1 regulates DSB repair using Rif1 to control 5' end resection. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michal; Lottersberger, Francisca; Buonomo, Sara B; Sfeir, Agnel; de Lange, Titia


    The choice between double-strand break (DSB) repair by either homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is tightly regulated. Defects in this regulation can induce genome instability and cancer. 53BP1 is critical for the control of DSB repair, promoting NHEJ, and inhibiting the 5' end resection needed for HDR. Using dysfunctional telomeres and genome-wide DSBs, we identify Rif1 as the main factor used by 53BP1 to impair 5' end resection. Rif1 inhibits resection involving CtIP, BLM, and Exo1; limits accumulation of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes at sites of DNA damage; and defines one of the mechanisms by which 53BP1 causes chromosomal abnormalities in Brca1-deficient cells. These data establish Rif1 as an important contributor to the control of DSB repair by 53BP1.

  12. Structural plasticity of methyllysine recognition by the tandem Tudor domain of 53BP1 (United States)

    Tong, Qiong; Cui, Gaofeng; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Rothbart, Scott B.; Hayashi, Ryo; Musselman, Catherine A.; Singh, Namit; Appella, Ettore; Strahl, Brian D.; Mer, Georges; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.


    SUMMARY p53 is dynamically regulated through various posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which differentially modulate its function and stability. The dimethylated marks p53K370me2 and p53K382me2 are associated with p53 activation or stabilization and both are recognized by the tandem Tudor domain (TTD) of 53BP1, a p53 co-factor. Here we detail the molecular mechanisms for the recognition of p53K370me2 and p53K382me2 by 53BP1. The solution structures of TTD in complex with the p53K370me2 and p53K382me2 peptides show a remarkable plasticity of 53BP1 in accommodating these diverse dimethyllysine-containing sequences. We demonstrate that dimeric TTDs are capable of interacting with the two PTMs on a single p53K370me2K382me2 peptide, greatly strengthening the 53BP1-p53 interaction. Analysis of binding affinities of TTD toward methylated p53 and histones reveals strong preference of 53BP1 for p53K382me2, H4K20me2, and H3K36me2 and suggests a possible role of multivalent contacts of 53BP1 in p53 targeting to and accumulation at the sites of DNA damage. PMID:25579814

  13. Lysine methylation-dependent binding of 53BP1 to the pRb tumor suppressor. (United States)

    Carr, Simon M; Munro, Shonagh; Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Fedorov, Oleg; Johansson, Catrine; Krojer, Tobias; Sagum, Cari A; Bedford, Mark T; Oppermann, Udo; La Thangue, Nicholas B


    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb is a key regulator of cell cycle progression and mediator of the DNA damage response. Lysine methylation at K810, which occurs within a critical Cdk phosphorylation motif, holds pRb in the hypophosphorylated growth-suppressing state. We show here that methyl K810 is read by the tandem tudor domain containing tumor protein p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1). Structural elucidation of 53BP1 in complex with a methylated K810 pRb peptide emphasized the role of the 53BP1 tandem tudor domain in recognition of the methylated lysine and surrounding residues. Significantly, binding of 53BP1 to methyl K810 occurs on E2 promoter binding factor target genes and allows pRb activity to be effectively integrated with the DNA damage response. Our results widen the repertoire of cellular targets for 53BP1 and suggest a previously unidentified role for 53BP1 in regulating pRb tumor suppressor activity.

  14. Chromosome thripsis by DNA double strand break clusters causes enhanced cell lethality, chromosomal translocations and 53BP1-recruitment. (United States)

    Schipler, Agnes; Mladenova, Veronika; Soni, Aashish; Nikolov, Vladimir; Saha, Janapriya; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George


    Chromosome translocations are hallmark of cancer and of radiation-induced cell killing, reflecting joining of incongruent DNA-ends that alter the genome. Translocation-formation requires DNA end-joining mechanisms and incompletely characterized, permissive chromatin conditions. We show that chromatin destabilization by clusters of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) generated by the I-SceI meganuclease at multiple, appropriately engineered genomic sites, compromises c-NHEJ and markedly increases cell killing and translocation-formation compared to single-DSBs. Translocation-formation from DSB-clusters utilizes Parp1 activity, implicating alt-EJ in their formation. Immunofluorescence experiments show that single-DSBs and DSB-clusters uniformly provoke the formation of single γ-H2AX foci, suggesting similar activation of early DNA damage response (DDR). Live-cell imaging also shows similar single-focus recruitment of the early-response protein MDC1, to single-DSBs and DSB-clusters. Notably, the late DDR protein, 53BP1 shows in live-cell imaging strikingly stronger recruitment to DSB-clusters as compared to single-DSBs. This is the first report that chromatin thripsis, in the form of engineered DSB-clusters, compromises first-line DSB-repair pathways, allowing alt-EJ to function as rescuing-backup. DSB-cluster-formation is indirectly linked to the increased biological effectiveness of high ionization-density radiations, such as the alpha-particles emitted by radon gas or the heavy-ions utilized in cancer therapy. Our observations provide the first direct mechanistic explanation for this long-known effect.

  15. UbcH7 regulates 53BP1 stability and DSB repair. (United States)

    Han, Xiangzi; Zhang, Lei; Chung, Jinsil; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Tran, Amanda; Seachrist, Darcie D; Jacobberger, James W; Keri, Ruth A; Gilmore, Hannah; Zhang, Youwei


    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is not only key to genome stability but is also an important anticancer target. Through an shRNA library-based screening, we identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme H7 (UbcH7, also known as Ube2L3), a ubiquitin E2 enzyme, as a critical player in DSB repair. UbcH7 regulates both the steady-state and replicative stress-induced ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of the tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1). Phosphorylation of 53BP1 at the N terminus is involved in the replicative stress-induced 53BP1 degradation. Depletion of UbcH7 stabilizes 53BP1, leading to inhibition of DSB end resection. Therefore, UbcH7-depleted cells display increased nonhomologous end-joining and reduced homologous recombination for DSB repair. Accordingly, UbcH7-depleted cells are sensitive to DNA damage likely because they mainly used the error-prone nonhomologous end-joining pathway to repair DSBs. Our studies reveal a novel layer of regulation of the DSB repair choice and propose an innovative approach to enhance the effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy through stabilizing 53BP1.

  16. The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1. (United States)

    Wilson, Marcus D; Benlekbir, Samir; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Sherker, Alana; Julien, Jean-Philippe; McEwan, Andrea; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; Sicheri, Frank; Rubinstein, John L; Durocher, Daniel


    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit a histone modification cascade that controls DNA repair. This pathway involves the sequential ubiquitination of histones H1 and H2A by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, respectively. RNF168 ubiquitinates H2A on lysine 13 and lysine 15 (refs 7, 8) (yielding H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub, respectively), an event that triggers the recruitment of 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) to chromatin flanking DSBs. 53BP1 binds specifically to H2AK15ub-containing nucleosomes through a peptide segment termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment motif (UDR), which requires the simultaneous engagement of histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation (H4K20me2) by its tandem Tudor domain. How 53BP1 interacts with these two histone marks in the nucleosomal context, how it recognizes ubiquitin, and how it discriminates between H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub is unknown. Here we present the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a dimerized human 53BP1 fragment bound to a H4K20me2-containing and H2AK15ub-containing nucleosome core particle (NCP-ubme) at 4.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals that H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub recognition involves intimate contacts with multiple nucleosomal elements including the acidic patch. Ubiquitin recognition by 53BP1 is unusual and involves the sandwiching of the UDR segment between ubiquitin and the NCP surface. The selectivity for H2AK15ub is imparted by two arginine fingers in the H2A amino-terminal tail, which straddle the nucleosomal DNA and serve to position ubiquitin over the NCP-bound UDR segment. The structure of the complex between NCP-ubme and 53BP1 reveals the basis of 53BP1 recruitment to DSB sites and illuminates how combinations of histone marks and nucleosomal elements cooperate to produce highly specific chromatin responses, such as those elicited following chromosome breaks.

  17. Impact of histone H4 lysine 20 methylation on 53BP1 responses to chromosomal double strand breaks.

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    Andrea J Hartlerode

    Full Text Available Recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin flanking double strand breaks (DSBs requires γH2AX/MDC1/RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of chromatin and interaction of 53BP1 with histone H4 methylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me. Several histone methyltransferases have been implicated in 53BP1 recruitment, but their quantitative contributions to the 53BP1 response are unclear. We have developed a multi-photon laser (MPL system to target DSBs to subfemtoliter nuclear volumes and used this to mathematically model DSB response kinetics of MDC1 and of 53BP1. In contrast to MDC1, which revealed first order kinetics, the 53BP1 MPL-DSB response is best fitted by a Gompertz growth function. The 53BP1 MPL response shows the expected dependency on MDC1 and RNF8. We determined the impact of altered H4K20 methylation on 53BP1 MPL response kinetics in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs lacking key H4K20 histone methyltransferases. This revealed no major requirement for the known H4K20 dimethylases Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 in 53BP1 recruitment or DSB repair function, but a key role for the H4K20 monomethylase, PR-SET7. The histone methyltransferase MMSET/WHSC1 has recently been implicated in 53BP1 DSB recruitment. We found that WHSC1 homozygous mutant MEFs reveal an alteration in balance of H4K20 methylation patterns; however, 53BP1 DSB responses in these cells appear normal.

  18. Ectopic expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 increases mutagenic but not physiological non-homologous end joining. (United States)

    Zong, Dali; Callén, Elsa; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Lukas, Claudia; Lukas, Jiri; Nussenzweig, André


    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) formed during S phase are preferentially repaired by homologous recombination (HR), whereas G1 DSBs, such as those occurring during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR), are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The DNA damage response proteins 53BP1 and BRCA1 regulate the balance between NHEJ and HR. 53BP1 promotes CSR in part by mediating synapsis of distal DNA ends, and in addition, inhibits 5' end resection. BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 dependent DNA end-blocking activity during S phase, which would otherwise promote mutagenic NHEJ and genome instability. Recently, it was shown that supra-physiological levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF168 results in the hyper-accumulation of 53BP1/BRCA1 which accelerates DSB repair. Here, we ask whether increased expression of RNF168 or 53BP1 impacts physiological versus mutagenic NHEJ. We find that the anti-resection activities of 53BP1 are rate-limiting for mutagenic NHEJ but not for physiological CSR. As heterogeneity in the expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 is found in human tumors, our results suggest that deregulation of the RNF168/53BP1 pathway could alter the chemosensitivity of BRCA1 deficient tumors.

  19. Ectopic expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 increases mutagenic but not physiological non-homologous end joining

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    Zong, Dali; Callén, Elsa; Pegoraro, Gianluca;


    BP1 and BRCA1 regulate the balance between NHEJ and HR. 53BP1 promotes CSR in part by mediating synapsis of distal DNA ends, and in addition, inhibits 5' end resection. BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 dependent DNA end-blocking activity during S phase, which would otherwise promote mutagenic NHEJ and genome...

  20. Tying the loose ends together in DNA double strand break repair with 53BP1

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    Carpenter Phillip B


    Full Text Available Abstract To maintain genomic stability and ensure the fidelity of chromosomal transmission, cells respond to various forms of genotoxic stress, including DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs, through the activation of DNA damage response signaling networks. In response to DSBs as induced by ionizing radiation (IR, during DNA replication, or through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH rearrangements in B cells of lymphoid origin, the phosphatidyl inositol-like kinase (PIK kinases ATM (mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, ATR (ATM and Rad3-related kinase, and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK activate signaling pathways that lead to DSB repair. DSBs are repaired by either of two major, non-mutually exclusive pathways: homologous recombination (HR that utilizes an undamaged sister chromatid template (or homologous chromosome and non- homologous end joining (NHEJ, an error prone mechanism that processes and joins broken DNA ends through the coordinated effort of a small set of ubiquitous factors (DNA-PKcs, Ku70, Ku80, artemis, Xrcc4/DNA lig IV, and XLF/Cernunnos. The PIK kinases phosphorylate a variety of effector substrates that propagate the DNA damage signal, ultimately resulting in various biological outputs that influence cell cycle arrest, transcription, DNA repair, and apoptosis. A variety of data has revealed a critical role for p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1 in the cellular response to DSBs including various aspects of p53 function. Importantly, 53BP1 plays a major role in suppressing translocations, particularly in B and T cells. This report will review past experiments and current knowledge regarding the role of 53BP1 in the DNA damage response.

  1. 53BP1 and the LINC Complex Promote Microtubule-Dependent DSB Mobility and DNA Repair. (United States)

    Lottersberger, Francisca; Karssemeijer, Roos Anna; Dimitrova, Nadya; de Lange, Titia


    Increased mobility of chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs) has been noted in yeast and mammalian cells but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to DSB repair remain unclear. Here, we use a telomere-based system to track DNA damage foci with high resolution in living cells. We find that the greater mobility of damaged chromatin requires 53BP1, SUN1/2 in the linker of the nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and dynamic microtubules. The data further demonstrate that the excursions promote non-homologous end joining of dysfunctional telomeres and implicated Nesprin-4 and kinesins in telomere fusion. 53BP1/LINC/microtubule-dependent mobility is also evident at irradiation-induced DSBs and contributes to the mis-rejoining of drug-induced DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells showing that DSB mobility can be detrimental in cells with numerous DSBs. In contrast, under physiological conditions where cells have only one or a few lesions, DSB mobility is proposed to prevent errors in DNA repair.

  2. Impaired 53BP1/RIF1 DSB mediated end-protection stimulates CtIP-dependent end resection and switches the repair to PARP1-dependent end joining in G1. (United States)

    Bakr, Ali; Köcher, Sabrina; Volquardsen, Jennifer; Petersen, Cordula; Borgmann, Kerstin; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Rothkamm, Kai; Mansour, Wael Y


    End processing at DNA double strand breaks (DSB) is a decisive step in repair pathway selection. Here, we investigated the role of 53BP1/RIF1 in limiting BRCA1/CtIP-mediated end resection to control DSB repair pathway choice. ATM orchestrates this process through 53BP1 phosphorylation to promote RIF1 recruitment. As cells enter S/G2-phase, end resection is activated, which displaces pATM from DSB sites and diminishes 53BP1 phosphorylation and RIF1 recruitment. Consistently, the kinetics of ATM and 53BP1 phosphorylation in S/G2-phase concur. We show that defective 53BP1/RIF1-mediated DSB end-protection in G1-phase stimulates CtIP/MRE11-dependent end-resection, which requires Polo-like kinase 3. This end resection activity in G1 was shown to produce only short tracks of ssDNA overhangs, as evidenced by the findings that in 53BP1 depleted cells, (i) RPA focus intensity was significantly lower in G1 compared to that in S/G2 phase, and (ii) EXO1 knockdown did not alter either number or intensity of RPA foci in G1 but significantly decreased the RPA focus intensity in S/G2 phase. Importantly, we report that the observed DSB end resection in G1 phase inhibits DNA-PK-dependent nonhomologous end joining but is not sufficient to stimulate HR. Instead, it switches the repair to the alternative PARP1-dependent end joining pathway.

  3. Nanoscopic exclusion between Rad51 and 53BP1 after ion irradiation in human HeLa cells (United States)

    Reindl, Judith; Drexler, Guido A.; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E.; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A.


    Many proteins involved in detection, signalling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) accumulate in large number in the vicinity of DSB sites, forming so called foci. Emerging evidence suggests that these foci are sub-divided in structural or functional domains. We use stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to investigate localization of mediator protein 53BP1 and recombination factor Rad51 after irradiation of cells with low linear energy transfer (LET) protons or high LET carbon ions. With a resolution better than 100 nm, STED microscopy and image analysis using a newly developed analyzing algorithm, the reduced product of the differences from the mean, allowed us to demonstrate that with both irradiation types Rad51 occupies spherical regions of about 200 nm diameter. These foci locate within larger 53BP1 accumulations in regions of local 53BP1 depletion, similar to what has been described for the localization of Brca1, CtIP and RPA. Furthermore, localization relative to 53BP1 and size of Rad51 foci was not different after irradiation with low and high LET radiation. As expected, 53BP1 foci induced by low LET irradiation mostly contained one Rad51 focal structure, while after high LET irradiation, most foci contained >1 Rad51 accumulation.

  4. 53BP1 regulates DNA resection and the choice between classical and alternative end joining during class switch recombination. (United States)

    Bothmer, Anne; Robbiani, Davide F; Feldhahn, Niklas; Gazumyan, Anna; Nussenzweig, Andre; Nussenzweig, Michel C


    Class switch recombination (CSR) diversifies antibodies by joining highly repetitive DNA elements, which are separated by 60-200 kbp. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase, an enzyme that produces multiple DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions. Switch regions are joined by a mechanism that requires an intact DNA damage response and classical or alternative nonhomologous end joining (A-NHEJ). Among the DNA damage response factors, 53BP1 has the most profound effect on CSR. We explore the role of 53BP1 in intrachromosomal DNA repair using I-SceI to introduce paired DSBs in the IgH locus. We find that the absence of 53BP1 results in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated-dependent increase in DNA end resection and that resected DNA is preferentially repaired by microhomology-mediated A-NHEJ. We propose that 53BP1 favors long-range CSR in part by protecting DNA ends against resection, which prevents A-NHEJ-dependent short-range rejoining of intra-switch region DSBs.

  5. 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Claudia; Savic, Velibor; Bekker-Jensen, Simon;


    Completion of genome duplication is challenged by structural and topological barriers that impede progression of replication forks. Although this can seriously undermine genome integrity, the fate of DNA with unresolved replication intermediates is not known. Here, we show that mild replication...... bodies shield chromosomal fragile sites sequestered in these compartments against erosion. Together, these data indicate that restoration of DNA or chromatin integrity at loci prone to replication problems requires mitotic transmission to the next cell generations....... increases after genetic ablation of BLM, a DNA helicase associated with dissolution of entangled DNA. Conversely, 53BP1 nuclear bodies are partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear...

  6. Relationship between loss of 53BP1 expression and clinical pathology in prostate adenocarcinoma%53BP1蛋白表达缺失与前列腺腺癌临床病理的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜然; 张惠箴; 陈杰; 蒋智铭


    目的 探讨p53结合蛋白1(53BP1)在前列腺腺癌及癌旁良性前列腺组织、前列腺高级别上皮内瘤变、良性前列腺增生中的表达及其与临床病理的关系和意义.方法 对50例前列腺腺癌根治标本的癌及癌旁良性前列腺组织、20例前列腺高级别上皮内瘤变、20例良性前列腺增生标本应用免疫组织化学EnVision两步法检测53BP1在以上病变组织中的表达,并探讨其与前列腺腺癌发生及临床病理的相关性.结果 53BP1蛋白在良性前列腺增生上皮、高级别上皮内瘤变、癌旁良性前列腺上皮、前列腺腺癌细胞中阳性表达呈递减趋势,且在良性前列腺增生上皮、高级别上皮内瘤变、癌旁良性前列腺上皮的表达显著高于前列腺腺癌细胞 (P=0,0.015,0),在癌旁良性前列腺上皮及高级别上皮内瘤变中的表达显著低于良性前列腺增生上皮(P=0,0.035),而癌旁良性前列腺上皮与高级别上皮内瘤变的差异无统计学意义(P=0.658).53BP1在低年龄组中表达明显低于高年龄组(P=0.001),而与其他病理参数无关.结论 53BP1作为抑癌基因,其表达的缺失与前列腺腺癌发生有关,它有可能成为前列腺腺癌的早期指示因子,预示前列腺腺癌的发生可能.%Purpose To study the expression of tumor protein p53 binding protein 1 ( 53BP1 ) in prostate adenocarcinoma, adjacent benign prostate tissue , high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia ( HGPIN ) , benign prostatic hyperplasia( BPH ) and its clinicopathologic significance. Methods Immunohistochemical study for 53BP1 was performed on paraffin sections of 50 cases of prostate adeno carcinoma and adjacent benign prostate tissue,20 cases of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,20 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and its value was discussed for tumorigenesis of prostate adenocarcmoma. Results Immounohistochemical study showed the epithelial cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia, high

  7. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor Y; Markovà, Eva; Hillert, Lena; Malmgren, Lars O G; Persson, Bertil R R


    We have recently described frequency-dependent effects of mobile phone microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) on human lymphocytes from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields and healthy persons. Contrary to GSM, universal global telecommunications system (UMTS) mobile phones emit wide-band MW signals. Hypothetically, UMTS MWs may result in higher biological effects compared to GSM signal because of eventual "effective" frequencies within the wideband. Here, we report for the first time that UMTS MWs affect chromatin and inhibit formation of DNA double-strand breaks co-localizing 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons and confirm that effects of GSM MWs depend on carrier frequency. Remarkably, the effects of MWs on 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci persisted up to 72 h following exposure of cells, even longer than the stress response following heat shock. The data are in line with the hypothesis that the type of signal, UMTS MWs, may have higher biological efficiency and possibly larger health risk effects compared to GSM radiation emissions. No significant differences in effects between groups of healthy and hypersensitive subjects were observed, except for the effects of UMTS MWs and GSM-915 MHz MWs on the formation of the DNA repair foci, which were different for hypersensitive (P 0.05). The non-parametric statistics used here did not indicate specificity of the differences revealed between the effects of GSM and UMTS MWs on cells from hypersensitive subjects and more data are needed to study the nature of these differences.

  8. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn


    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  9. A mitotic phosphorylation feedback network connects Cdk1, Plk1, 53BP1, and Chk2 to inactivate the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Gardino, Alexandra K; Linding, Rune;


    the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that the non-enzymatic checkpoint adaptor protein 53BP1 is an in vivo target of the cell cycle kinases Cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1). We show that Plk1 binds 53BP1 during mitosis and that this interaction is required for proper inactivation......DNA damage checkpoints arrest cell cycle progression to facilitate DNA repair. The ability to survive genotoxic insults depends not only on the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints but also on checkpoint maintenance. While activation of DNA damage checkpoints has been studied extensively, molecular...... of the DNA damage checkpoint. 53BP1 mutants that are unable to bind Plk1 fail to restart the cell cycle after ionizing radiation-mediated cell cycle arrest. Importantly, we show that Plk1 also phosphorylates the 53BP1-binding checkpoint kinase Chk2 to inactivate its FHA domain and inhibit its kinase activity...

  10. Involvement of 53BP1, a p53 Binding Protein, in Chk2 Phosphyorylation of p53 and DNA Damage Cell Cycle Checkpoints (United States)


    cancer postdoctoral fellowship. S.J.E. is an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Report 53BP1 Oligomerization is Independent of its...Charier G, Couprie J, Alpha-Bazin B, Meyer V, Quemeneur E, Guerois R, Callebaut I, Gilquin B, Zinn -Justin S. The Tudor tandem of 53BP1: a new...Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Supporting Online Material Materials and Methods Fig

  11. ATM Localization and Heterochromatin Repair Depend on Direct Interaction of the 53BP1-BRCT2 Domain with γH2AX. (United States)

    Baldock, Robert A; Day, Matthew; Wilkinson, Oliver J; Cloney, Ross; Jeggo, Penelope A; Oliver, Antony W; Watts, Felicity Z; Pearl, Laurence H


    53BP1 plays multiple roles in mammalian DNA damage repair, mediating pathway choice and facilitating DNA double-strand break repair in heterochromatin. Although it possesses a C-terminal BRCT2 domain, commonly involved in phospho-peptide binding in other proteins, initial recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage depends on interaction with histone post-translational modifications--H4K20me2 and H2AK13/K15ub--downstream of the early γH2AX phosphorylation mark of DNA damage. We now show that, contrary to current models, the 53BP1-BRCT2 domain binds γH2AX directly, providing a third post-translational mark regulating 53BP1 function. We find that the interaction of 53BP1 with γH2AX is required for sustaining the 53BP1-dependent focal concentration of activated ATM that facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin in G1.

  12. ATM Localization and Heterochromatin Repair Depend on Direct Interaction of the 53BP1-BRCT2 Domain with γH2AX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Baldock


    Full Text Available 53BP1 plays multiple roles in mammalian DNA damage repair, mediating pathway choice and facilitating DNA double-strand break repair in heterochromatin. Although it possesses a C-terminal BRCT2 domain, commonly involved in phospho-peptide binding in other proteins, initial recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage depends on interaction with histone post-translational modifications—H4K20me2 and H2AK13/K15ub—downstream of the early γH2AX phosphorylation mark of DNA damage. We now show that, contrary to current models, the 53BP1-BRCT2 domain binds γH2AX directly, providing a third post-translational mark regulating 53BP1 function. We find that the interaction of 53BP1 with γH2AX is required for sustaining the 53BP1-dependent focal concentration of activated ATM that facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin in G1.

  13. Regulation of pairing between broken DNA-containing chromatin regions by Ku80, DNA-PKcs, ATM, and 53BP1 (United States)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Miwa; Hirakawa, Miyako; Tsujita, Keiko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Matsuda, Naoki


    Chromosome rearrangement is clinically and physiologically important because it can produce oncogenic fusion genes. Chromosome rearrangement requires DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at two genomic locations and misrejoining between the DSBs. Before DSB misrejoining, two DSB-containing chromatin regions move and pair with each other; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of ionizing radiation-induced foci of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a marker for DSB-containing chromatin. We found that some 53BP1 foci were paired, indicating that the two damaged chromatin regions neighboured one another. We searched for factors regulating the foci pairing and found that the number of paired foci increased when Ku80, DNA-PKcs, or ATM was absent. In contrast, 53BP1 depletion reduced the number of paired foci and dicentric chromosomes—an interchromosomal rearrangement. Foci were paired more frequently in heterochromatin than in euchromatin in control cells. Additionally, the reduced foci pairing in 53BP1-depleted cells was rescued by concomitant depletion of a heterochromatin building factor such as Krüppel-associated box-associated protein 1 or chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 3. These findings indicate that pairing between DSB-containing chromatin regions was suppressed by Ku80, DNA-PKcs, and ATM, and this pairing was promoted by 53BP1 through chromatin relaxation. PMID:28155885

  14. Low p53 Binding Protein 1 (53BP1) Expression Is Associated With Increased Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neboori, Hanmanth J.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Wu Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Aly, Amal [Division of Medical Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Schiff, Devora [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Golhar, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Chen Chunxia; Moore, Dirk [Department of Biostatistics, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); and others


    Purpose: To investigate whether the expression of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) has prognostic significance in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray of early-stage breast cancer treated with BCS+RT from a cohort of 514 women was assayed for 53BP1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Through log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate models, the staining profile of each tumor was correlated with clinical endpoints, including ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival (IBRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 477 (93%) evaluable tumors, 63 (13%) were scored as low. Low expression of 53BP1 was associated with worse outcomes for all endpoints studied, including 10-year IBRFS (76.8% vs. 90.5%; P=.01), OS (66.4% vs. 81.7%; P=.02), CSS (66.0% vs. 87.4%; P<.01), DMFS (55.9% vs. 87.0%; P<.01), and RFS (45.2% vs. 80.6%; P<.01). Multivariate analysis incorporating various clinico-pathologic markers and 53BP1 expression found that 53BP1 expression was again an independent predictor of all endpoints (IBRFS: P=.0254; OS: P=.0094; CSS: P=.0033; DMFS: P=.0006; RFS: P=.0002). Low 53BP1 expression was also found to correlate with triple-negative (TN) phenotype (P<.01). Furthermore, in subset analysis of all TN breast cancer, negative 53BP1 expression trended for lower IBRFS (72.3% vs. 93.9%; P=.0361) and was significant for worse DMFS (48.2% vs. 86.8%; P=.0035) and RFS (37.8% vs. 83.7%; P=.0014). Conclusion: Our data indicate that low 53BP1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for local relapse among other endpoints in early-stage breast cancer and TN breast cancer patients treated with BCS+RT. These results should be verified in larger cohorts of patients to validate their clinical

  15. The TIP60 complex regulates bivalent chromatin recognition by 53BP1 through direct H4K20me binding and H2AK15 acetylation (United States)

    Jacquet, Karine; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Avvakumov, Nikita; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Roques, Céline; Pandita, Raj K.; Paquet, Eric; Herst, Pauline; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Pandita, Tej K.; Legube, Gaëlle; Doyon, Yannick; Durocher, Daniel; Côté, Jacques


    SUMMARY The NuA4/TIP60 acetyltransferase complex is a key regulator of genome expression and stability. Here, we identified MBTD1 as a new stable subunit of the complex and gleaned intriguing insights into TIP60’s function. Harboring a histone reader domain for H4K20me1/2, MBTD1 allows TIP60 to associate with specific gene promoters and to promote the repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination. Interestingly, the non-homologous end joining factor 53BP1 engages chromatin through simultaneous binding of H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub, and it was postulated that Tip60-dependent acetylation of H4 regulates this binding. Our findings now indicate that the TIP60 complex is a potent regulator of DNA damage repair pathways in part by targeting the same histone mark as 53BP1. In addition, deposition of H2AK15ub by RNF168 inhibits chromatin acetylation by TIP60, while this residue can be acetylated by TIP60 in vivo, blocking its ubiquitylation. Altogether, these results uncover an intricate mechanism orchestrated by the TIP60 complex which regulates 53BP1-dependent repair pathway selection through incompatible bivalent binding and modification of chromatin. PMID:27153538

  16. 抑癌基因p53结合蛋白1基因突变与前列腺腺癌的关系%Correlation of 53BP1 gene mutation with prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜然; 郑莉; 黄文涛; 张惠箴; 蒋智铭


    Objective To study the incidence of 53BP1 gene mutations in prostatic adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hypertrophy, and to analyze the relationship between 53BP1 mutations and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods Genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and gene sequencing were used to detect the occurrence of 53BP1 gene mutations in 50 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Ten cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy were included as controls. Results Amongst the 50 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma studied, 15 showed genetic alterations of 53BP1, including 4 cases with single nucleotide polymorphism. The mutation rate was 24.0%(12/50). Seven of the 53BP1 mutations detected represented missense mutations and none of them were situated in functionally important domains. The other 4 were synonymous mutations, in which c.4760G>T was situated in Tudor domain. There was no obvious correlation between 53BP1 gene mutations and the various clinicopathologic parameters of prostate adenocarcinoma(P>0.05).ConclusionCertain percentage of prostatic adenocarcinoma harbors 53BP1 mutations which may be involved in the carcinogenesis.%目的 检测抑癌基因p53结合蛋白1(53BP1)基因突变在前列腺腺癌和良性前列腺增生组织中的发生率,分析53BP1基因突变与前列腺腺癌的相关性.方法 采用基因组DNA抽提、聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增及基因测序的方法 检测50例前列腺腺癌与10例良性前列腺增生组织中53BP1基因的突变情况.结果 50例前列腺腺癌组织中共检测到15种不同类型的53BP1基因异常,其中4种为正常组织中也检测到的单核苷酸多态性,11种不同类型的突变发生在12例前列腺腺癌组织中,总突变率达24.0%(12/50).11种53BP1基因突变中,7种为错义突变,但均未发生在重要结构域上,另外4种为同义突变,其中c.4760G>T突变位于53BP1 Tudor结构域.53BP1基因突变与前列腺腺癌患者多种临床病理参数均无明显相关性(P>0.05).结论

  17. Focus on the post-DVD formats (United States)

    He, Hong; Wei, Jingsong


    As the digital TV(DTV) technologies are developing rapidly on its standard system, hardware desktop, software model, and interfaces between DTV and the home net, High Definition TV (HDTV) program worldwide broadcasting is scheduled. Enjoying high quality TV program at home is not a far-off dream for people. As for the main recording media, what would the main stream be for the optical storage technology to meet the HDTV requirements is becoming a great concern. At present, there are a few kinds of Post-DVD formats which are competing on technology, standard and market. Here we give a review on the co-existing Post-DVD formats in the world. We will discuss on the basic parameters for optical disk, video /audio coding strategy and system performance for HDTV program.

  18. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.L. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.


    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive i

  19. Formation of bubbles in a multisection flow-focusing junction. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michinao; Whitesides, George M


    The formation of bubbles in a flow-focusing (FF) junction comprising multiple rectangular sections is described. The simplest junctions comprise two sections (throat and orifice). Systematic investigation of the influence on the formation of bubbles of the flow of liquid and the geometry of the junction identifies regimes that generate monodisperse, bidisperse, and tridisperse trains of bubbles. The mechanisms by which these junctions form monodisperse and bidisperse bubbles are inferred from the shapes of the gas thread during breakup: these mechanisms differ primarily by the process in which the gas thread collapses in the throat and/or orifice. The dynamic self-assembly of bidisperse bubbles leads to unexpected groupings of bubbles during their flow along the outlet channel.

  20. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C


    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  1. Thermally controlled droplet formation in flow focusing geometry: formation regimes and effect of nanoparticle suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Say-Hwa; Murshed, S M Sohel; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Wong, Teck Neng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yobas, Levent [Institute of Microelectronics, Science Park II, Singapore 117685l (Singapore)], E-mail:


    This paper reports experimental investigations on the droplet formation of deionized water and a nanofluid in a heat-induced microfluidic flow focusing device. Besides the effect of temperature, the effects of nanoparticle suspension (nanofluid) and the flow rate of aqueous fluid on the droplet formation and size manipulation were studied. At constant flow rates of the two liquids, three different droplet breakup regimes were observed and their transition capillary numbers as well as temperatures were identified. The heat generated by an integrated microheater changes the droplet formation process. Increasing the temperature enlarges the size of the droplets significantly. These results also demonstrate that the titanium oxide (15 nm)/deionized water-based nanofluid exhibits similar characteristics in droplet formation at different temperatures and any small change in the flow rate of this nanofluid has little impact on the size of the droplets formed in a flow focusing geometry.

  2. Real-time fluorescence imaging of the DNA damage repair response during mitosis. (United States)

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Yamamoto, Mako; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Toneri, Makoto; Murakami, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Efimova, Elena V; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M


    The response to DNA damage during mitosis was visualized using real-time fluorescence imaging of focus formation by the DNA-damage repair (DDR) response protein 53BP1 linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (53BP1-GFP) in the MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) pancreatic cancer cell line. To observe 53BP1-GFP foci during mitosis, MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells were imaged every 30 min by confocal microscopy. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated that 11.4 ± 2.1% of the mitotic MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells had increased focus formation over time. Non-mitotic cells did not have an increase in 53BP1-GFP focus formation over time. Some of the mitotic MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells with focus formation became apoptotic. The results of the present report suggest that DNA strand breaks occur during mitosis and undergo repair, which may cause some of the mitotic cells to enter apoptosis in a phenomenon possibly related to mitotic catastrophe.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Latynin


    Full Text Available Summary. The perspective scheme of infrastructure of the modern grain market is directed on perfection merchandising grains by means of liquidation of is material disproportions between its participants for decrease in logistical costs counting upon 1 t grains, and creations of the alternative organized channel merchandising, providing a direct output on the wholesale market of direct commodity producers of grain and their participation in distribution of profit received from export. Elimination of is material disproportions on all circuit passage of grain from the supplier of production up to the end user is necessary for connecting with the organization merchandising on principles of logistics. It will allow to ensure the general synergistic effect exceeding total effect at separate participants of a circuit. The structure of Association participants of the grain market, is directed on creation mutual interest by a deepening specialization of each participant merchandising, consolidations of their investment resources to development of this circuit, to decrease in logistical costs. Feature of the modern period functioning of the grain market is necessity acceleration of scientific and technical progress on the basis of innovative processes. Innovative activity causes necessity of faster development of an infrastructure of the grain market. One directions promotion of innovations is development in region techno park formations. Their advantage consists in an opportunity initiators of new technologies independently to carry out their scientific and design development and to advance a grain husbandry through commercialization and a transfer. With a view modernization of a regional infrastructure of the grain market in modern conditions creation electronic trading platform, introduction system of electronic commerce is extremely actual. By means of electronic technologies economic attitudes in the market essentially change, giving to them scale

  4. Focusing on the Formative: Building an Assessment System Aimed at Student Growth and Development. (United States)

    Konopasek, Lyuba; Norcini, John; Krupat, Edward


    This Perspective addresses the need for an integrated system of formative and summative assessment in undergraduate medical education with a focus on the formative. While acknowledging the importance of summative assessment, which asks whether trainees have met criteria for progression, the authors propose that a formatively focused assessment system can best accomplish a central task of competency-based medical education: transmitting feedback to learners in a format and a manner that will help them to improve, develop, and grow. Formative assessment should not be seen as a set of singular events but, rather, as a process that is organized and integrated over time, much like the cycle of quality improvement in medicine. To justify this position, the authors discuss its conceptual underpinnings and rationale, including the need to prepare learners for the formatively focused assessment system of graduate medical education. Next, the authors identify assessment strategies that could be employed, as well as the characteristics of an institutional culture and the learner-teacher relationship necessary for a learner-centered, improvement-focused assessment system to succeed. Finally, an infrastructure for such a system is proposed. This consists of a foundation of well-articulated and disseminated milestones for achievement and four pillars: faculty development, learner development, longitudinal academic advising and coaching, and documentation of developing competence. The authors conclude by suggesting that the guidelines proposed are analogous to the principles of continuity and coordination of care, so much valued in the world of medicine yet often overlooked in the world of education.

  5. Formation of brand-focused communication management system of industrial enterprise



    The aim of the article. The importance of communication in formation brand industrial enterprise is defined in the article. The essence of the concept of “brand-focused communications management system” and the purpose of such an approach to the management of marketing communications company are investigated. The mechanism of brand-focused communications management system is proposed and it is explored its components. Peculiarities management functions arising from the implementation of an in...

  6. Microbubble formation and pinch-off scaling exponent in flow-focusing devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, van Wim; Dollet, Benjamin; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef


    We investigate the gas jet breakup and the resulting microbubble formation in a microfluidic flow-focusing device using ultra high-speed imaging at 1 × 106 frames/s. In recent experiments [Dollet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 034504 (2008)], it was found that in the final stage of the collapse the r

  7. Bragging on Facebook: The Interaction of Content Source and Focus in Online Impression Formation. (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; Ravenscroft, Kirsty


    Warranting Theory proposes that third-party testimonials are more influential in online impression formation than target-authored statements. Individuals posting content on social media accurately convey their offline personality while endeavoring to present themselves in a positive light. In doing so, they may misjudge the psychological distance of the majority of viewers, who could view this positive self-presentation as bragging and form resultant negative impressions. In this study, we asked 136 participants to view the Facebook timelines of four female targets. Timeline content varied by source (owner- vs. friend-authored) and focus (generally positive vs. personally positive). Participants were tasked with forming impressions of targets and rating them based on attractiveness, confidence, modesty, and popularity. We found that source and focus played distinct roles in impression formation. More positive impressions were formed when owner-authored content was general, and when friend-authored content was personal. This highlights the role played by content focus in impression formation, and the potentially damaging effect of perceived bragging. These results are discussed in relation to the application of the Warranting Theory of impression formation online, and discrepancies between these results and those from related articles are examined.

  8. Focus on Formative Feedback communication and self-regulated learning – a study in compulsory schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund


    qualitative data from video recorded teaching sessions and student group interviews. Methodologically we are inspired by the ethnographical classroom research method. The empirical basis for studying these aspects is data from two compulsory schools in Denmark. This study is a work in progress. Our findings...... suggest that students can develop self-regulation skill by focusing on three key aspects: 1) Maintain focus on meta-reflection, 2) maintain focus on the construction of meaning and 3) rubrics can support self-regulated learning in group work.......This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students in compulsory schools with good quality formative feedback to enhance self-regulated learning in social interactions. Resent educational research indicates that social communicative interactions in the classroom, with a focus...

  9. Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Group Format. (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon


    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed.

  10. Wave energy focusing to subsurface poroelastic formations to promote oil mobilization

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, P. M.


    We discuss an inverse source formulation aimed at focusing wave energy produced by ground surface sources to target subsurface poroelastic formations. The intent of the focusing is to facilitate or enhance the mobility of oil entrapped within the target formation. The underlying forward wave propagation problem is cast in two spatial dimensions for a heterogeneous poroelastic target embedded within a heterogeneous elastic semi-infinite host. The semi-infiniteness of the elastic host is simulated by augmenting the (finite) computational domain with a buffer of perfectly matched layers. The inverse source algorithm is based on a systematic framework of partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization. It is demonstrated, via numerical experiments, that the algorithm is capable of converging to the spatial and temporal characteristics of surface loads that maximize energy delivery to the target formation. Consequently, the methodology is well-suited for designing field implementations that could meet a desired oil mobility threshold. Even though the methodology, and the results presented herein are in two dimensions, extensions to three dimensions are straightforward.

  11. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radicalmediated activation of multiple signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Pens GELAIN; Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt PASQUALI; Fernanda Freitas CAREGNATO; Mauro Antonio Alves CASTRO; José Claudio Fonseca MOREIRA


    Aim:Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A)has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation.Thus,we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation,deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats.Methods:Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured.The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol.Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed.The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580(10 μmol/L),the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L),the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L),the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L)the pan-PKC inhibitor G(O)6983 (10 μmol/L)and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L)on morphological and proliferative/transformationassociated modifications were studied.Results:Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L)significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells,inhibition of p38,JNK,ERK1/2,Akt,and PKA suppressed retinol-induced[3H]dT incorporation into the cells,while PKC inhibition had no effect.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells,while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells,while other treatments had no effect.Conclusion:Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level.

  12. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav


    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains.

  13. Fluid displacement during droplet formation at microfluidic flow-focusing junctions. (United States)

    Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming


    Microdroplets and microcapsules have been widely produced using microfluidic flow-focusing junctions for biomedical and chemical applications. However, the multiphase microfluidic flow at the flow-focusing junction has not been well investigated. In this study, the displacement of two (core and shell) aqueous fluids that disperse into droplets altogether in a carrier oil emulsion was investigated both numerically and experimentally. It was found that extensive displacement of the two aqueous fluids within the droplet during its formation could occur as a result of the shear effect of the carrier fluid and the capillary effect of interfacial tension. We further identified that the two mechanisms of fluid displacement can be evaluated by two dimensionless parameters. The quantitative relationship between the degree of fluid displacement and these two dimensionless parameters was determined experimentally. Finally, we demonstrated that the degree of fluid displacement could be controlled to generate hydrogel microparticles of different morphologies using planar or nonplanar flow-focusing junctions. These findings should provide useful guidance to the microfluidic production of microscale droplets or capsules for various biomedical and chemical applications.

  14. Membrane Thickness Dependence of Nanopore Formation with a Focused Helium Ion Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Sawafta


    Full Text Available Solid-state nanopores are emerging as a valuable tool for the detection and characterization of individual biomolecules. Central to their success is the realization of fabrication strategies that are both rapid and flexible in their ability to achieve diverse device dimensions. In this paper, we demonstrate the membrane thickness dependence of solid-state nanopore formation with a focused helium ion beam. We vary membrane thickness in situ and show that the rate of pore expansion follows a reproducible trend under all investigated membrane conditions. We show that this trend shifts to lower ion dose for thin membranes in a manner that can be described quantitatively, allowing devices of arbitrary dimension to be realized. Finally, we demonstrate that thin, small-diameter nanopores formed with our approach can be utilized for high signal-to-noise ratio resistive pulse sensing of DNA.

  15. Mechanisms of material removal and mass transport in focused ion beam nanopore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kallol, E-mail:; Johnson, Harley T., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Laboratory, MC-236, 104 South Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    Despite the widespread use of focused ion beam (FIB) processing as a material removal method for applications ranging from electron microscope sample preparation to nanopore processing for DNA sequencing, the basic material removal mechanisms of FIB processing are not well understood. We present the first complete atomistic simulation of high-flux FIB using large-scale parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanopore fabrication in freestanding thin films. We focus on the root mechanisms of material removal and rearrangement and describe the role of explosive boiling in forming nanopores. FIB nanopore fabrication is typically understood to occur via sputter erosion. This can be shown to be the case in low flux systems, where individual ion impacts are sufficiently separated in time that they may be considered as independent events. But our detailed MD simulations show that in high flux FIB processing, above a threshold level at which thermal effects become significant, the primary mechanism of material removal changes to a significantly accelerated, thermally dominated process. Under these conditions, the target is heated by the ion beam faster than heat is conducted away by the material, leading quickly to melting, and then continued heating to nearly the material critical temperature. This leads to explosive boiling of the target material with spontaneous bubble formation and coalescence. Mass is rapidly rearranged at the atomistic scale, and material removal occurs orders of magnitude faster than would occur by simple sputtering. While the phenomenology is demonstrated computationally in silicon, it can be expected to occur at lower beam fluxes in other cases where thermal conduction is suppressed due to material properties, geometry, or ambient thermal conditions.

  16. Microbubble formation and pinch-off scaling exponent in flow-focusing devices

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoeve, Wim; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef


    We investigate the gas jet breakup and the resulting microbubble formation in a microfluidic flow-focusing device using ultra high-speed imaging at 1 million frames/s. In recent experiments [Dollet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 034504 (2008)] it was found that in the final stage of the collapse the radius of the neck scales with time with a 1/3 power-law exponent, which suggested that gas inertia and the Bernoulli suction effect become important. Here, ultra high-speed imaging was used to capture the complete bubble contour and quantify the gas flow through the neck. It revealed that the resulting decrease in pressure, due to Bernoulli suction, is too low to account for an accelerated pinch-off. The high temporal resolution images enable us to approach the final moment of pinch-off to within 1 {\\mu}s. We observe that the final moment of bubble pinch-off is characterized by a scaling exponent of 0.41 +/- 0.01. This exponent is approximately 2/5, which can be derived, based on the observation that during the co...

  17. Bumetanide, an NKCC1 antagonist, does not prevent formation of epileptogenic focus but blocks epileptic focus seizures in immature rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Nardou, Romain; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khalilov, Ilgam


    Excitatory GABA action induced by high [Cl(-)](i) is thought to contribute to seizure generation in neonatal neurons although the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. We report that bumetanide, a NKCC1 antagonist, reduces driving force of GABA-mediated currents (DF(GABA)) in neonatal hippocampal neurons and blocks the giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs), a spontaneous pattern of network activity. In the preparation composed of two intact interconnected hippocampi, bumetanide did not prevent generation of kainate-induced seizures, their propagation to the contralateral hippocampus, and formation of an epileptogenic mirror focus. However, in the isolated mirror focus, bumetanide effectively blocked spontaneous epileptiform activity transforming it to the GDP-like activity pattern. Bumetanide partially reduced DF(GABA) and therefore the excitatory action of GABA in epileptic neurons. Therefore bumetanide is a potent anticonvulsive agent although it cannot prevent formation of the epileptogenic mirror focus. We suggest that an additional mechanism other than NKCC1-mediated contributes to the persistent increase of DF(GABA) in epileptic neurons.

  18. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  19. Advanced nanopattern formation by a subtractive self-organization process with focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugstein, A. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Basner, B. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Brezna, W. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Weil, M. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Golka, S. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Bertagnolli, E. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria)


    We have studied the evolution of the GaAs, InAs and GaSb surfaces due to FIB exposure. In contrast to conventional bottom up or top down processes the observed nanopattern formation is discussed, based on a subtractive self-organization process relying on material decomposition induced by FIB exposure.

  20. In vitro formation of a secondary epileptogenic mirror focus by interhippocampal propagation of seizures. (United States)

    Khalilov, Ilgam; Holmes, Gregory L; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel


    We have determined whether seizures generate an epileptogenic focus in distal structures using an in vitro preparation composed of three independent chambers that accommodate two intact hippocampi and their connecting commissures. This enabled us to apply a convulsive agent to one hippocampus, allow the propagation of a given number of seizures to the other side and block the connections reversibly by applying tetrodotoxin (TTX) to the commissural chamber. The propagation of seizures from the kainate-treated side to the naive side transformed the latter into an independent epileptogenic focus that was capable of generating spontaneous and evoked seizures. The induction mechanism required activation of NMDA receptors and the epileptogenic transformation was associated with long-term alterations in GABAergic synapses, which became excitatory because of a shift in the chloride reversal potential, E(Cl). These data indicate that the excitatory actions of GABA may be a fundamental property of epileptogenic structures.

  1. Dynamics of plasma formation and permanent structural transformation in ZBLAN excited by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Hong, Jong Wook


    Time-resolved dynamics of plasma formation and bulk refractive-index modification in fluoride glass (ZBLAN) excited by a tightly focused femtosecond (130 fs) Ti:sapphire laser ( λp=790 nm) was observed in situ. The femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe measurement with perpendicularly linear polarized beams was used to study the dynamics of both plasma formation and induced permanent structural transformation with refractive-index change. In the refractive-index domain, the lifetime of induced plasma formation is ˜35 ps and structural transition time for forming the refractive-index change is ˜80 ps. In the optical damage domain, however, the lifetime of induced plasma formation is ˜40 ps and structural transition time for forming the optical damage is ˜140 ps. We found that the process of refractive-index bulk modification is significantly different from that of optical cracks. From the diffraction efficiency of Kogelnik's coupled mode theory, the maximum value of refractive-index change (Δ n) was estimated to be 1.3×10 -2. By the scanning of fluoride glass on the optical X-Y-Z stages, the fabrication of internal grating with refractive-index modification was demonstrated in fluoride glass using tightly focused femtosecond laser.

  2. Variations of bubble cavitation and temperature elevation during lesion formation by high-intensity focused ultrasound. (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson


    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in both thermal ablations for solid tumor/cancer and soft-tissue fragmentation. Mechanical and thermal effects, which play an important role in the HIFU treatment simultaneously, are dependent on the operating parameters and may vary with the progress of therapy. Mechanical erosion in the shape of a "squid," a "dumbbell" lesion with both mechanical and thermal lesions, or a "tadpole" lesion with mechanical erosion at the center and thermal necrosis on the boundary in the transparent gel phantom could be produced correspondingly with the pulse duration of 5-30 ms, which is much longer than histotripsy burst but shorter than the time for tissue boiling, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.2-5 Hz. Meanwhile, variations of bubble cavitation (both inertial and stable cavitation) and temperature elevation in the focal region (i.e., z = -2.5, 0, and 2.5 mm) were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) and thermocouples during the therapeutic procedure, respectively. Stable cavitation increased with the pulse duration, PRF, and the number of pulses delivered. However, inertial cavitation was found to increase initially and then decrease with long pulse duration and high PRF. Temperature in the pre-focal region is always higher than those at the focal and post-focal position in all tests. Great variations of PCD signals and temperature elevation are due to the generation and persistence of large bubble, which is resistant to collapse and occurs with the increase of pulse duration and PRF. Similar lesion pattern and variations were also observed in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Hyperechoes in the B-mode ultrasound image were comparable to the shape and size of lesions in the dissected tissue. Thermal lesion volume increased with the increase of pulse duration and PRF, but mechanical erosion reached its maximum volume with the pulse duration of 20 ms and PRF of 1

  3. Calibration of the γ-H2AX DNA double strand break focus assay for internal radiation exposure of blood lymphocytes. (United States)

    Eberlein, Uta; Peper, Michel; Fernández, Maria; Lassmann, Michael; Scherthan, Harry


    DNA double strand break (DSB) formation induced by ionizing radiation exposure is indicated by the DSB biomarkers γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Knowledge about DSB foci formation in-vitro after internal irradiation of whole blood samples with radionuclides in solution will help us to gain detailed insights about dose-response relationships in patients after molecular radiotherapy (MRT). Therefore, we studied the induction of radiation-induced co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci as surrogate markers for DSBs in-vitro, and correlated the obtained foci per cell values with the in-vitro absorbed doses to the blood for the two most frequently used radionuclides in MRT (I-131 and Lu-177). This approach led to an in-vitro calibration curve. Overall, 55 blood samples of three healthy volunteers were analyzed. For each experiment several vials containing a mixture of whole blood and radioactive solutions with different concentrations of isotonic NaCl-diluted radionuclides with known activities were prepared. Leukocytes were recovered by density centrifugation after incubation and constant blending for 1 h at 37°C. After ethanol fixation they were subjected to two-color immunofluorescence staining and the average frequencies of the co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci/nucleus were determined using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a red/green double band pass filter. The exact activity was determined in parallel in each blood sample by calibrated germanium detector measurements. The absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegrations occurring in 1 ml of blood were calculated for both isotopes by a Monte Carlo simulation. The measured blood doses in our samples ranged from 6 to 95 mGy. A linear relationship was found between the number of DSB-marking foci/nucleus and the absorbed dose to the blood for both radionuclides studied. There were only minor nuclide-specific intra- and inter-subject deviations.

  4. Calibration of the γ-H2AX DNA double strand break focus assay for internal radiation exposure of blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Eberlein

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB formation induced by ionizing radiation exposure is indicated by the DSB biomarkers γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Knowledge about DSB foci formation in-vitro after internal irradiation of whole blood samples with radionuclides in solution will help us to gain detailed insights about dose-response relationships in patients after molecular radiotherapy (MRT. Therefore, we studied the induction of radiation-induced co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci as surrogate markers for DSBs in-vitro, and correlated the obtained foci per cell values with the in-vitro absorbed doses to the blood for the two most frequently used radionuclides in MRT (I-131 and Lu-177. This approach led to an in-vitro calibration curve. Overall, 55 blood samples of three healthy volunteers were analyzed. For each experiment several vials containing a mixture of whole blood and radioactive solutions with different concentrations of isotonic NaCl-diluted radionuclides with known activities were prepared. Leukocytes were recovered by density centrifugation after incubation and constant blending for 1 h at 37°C. After ethanol fixation they were subjected to two-color immunofluorescence staining and the average frequencies of the co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci/nucleus were determined using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a red/green double band pass filter. The exact activity was determined in parallel in each blood sample by calibrated germanium detector measurements. The absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegrations occurring in 1 ml of blood were calculated for both isotopes by a Monte Carlo simulation. The measured blood doses in our samples ranged from 6 to 95 mGy. A linear relationship was found between the number of DSB-marking foci/nucleus and the absorbed dose to the blood for both radionuclides studied. There were only minor nuclide-specific intra- and inter-subject deviations.

  5. COX-2 inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for celecoxib to suppress tumor cell proliferation and focus formation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petasis Nicos A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of reports is challenging the notion that the antitumor potential of the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex® is mediated primarily via the inhibition of COX-2. We have investigated this issue by applying two different analogs of celecoxib that differentially display COX-2-inhibitory activity: the first analog, called unmethylated celecoxib (UMC, inhibits COX-2 slightly more potently than its parental compound, whereas the second analog, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC, has lost the ability to inhibit COX-2. Results With the use of glioblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, we comparatively analyzed the effects of celecoxib, UMC, and DMC in various short-term (≤48 hours cellular and molecular studies, as well as in long-term (≤3 months focus formation assays. We found that DMC exhibited the most potent antitumor activity; celecoxib was somewhat less effective, and UMC clearly displayed the overall weakest antitumor potential in all aspects. The differential growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-stimulatory potency of these compounds in short-term assays did not at all correlate with their capacity to inhibit COX-2, but was closely aligned with their ability to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS, as indicated by the induction of the ERS marker CHOP/GADD153 and activation of the ERS-associated caspase 7. In addition, we found that these compounds were able to restore contact inhibition and block focus formation during long-term, chronic drug exposure of tumor cells, and this was achieved at sub-toxic concentrations in the absence of ERS or inhibition of COX-2. Conclusion The antitumor activity of celecoxib in vitro did not involve the inhibition of COX-2. Rather, the drug's ability to trigger ERS, a known effector of cell death, might provide an alternative explanation for its acute cytotoxicity. In addition, the newly discovered ability of this drug to restore contact inhibition and

  6. Effects of Dynamic Changes in Ultrasound Attenuation and Blood Perfusion on Lesion Formation of Multiple focus Pattern during Ultrasound Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen-xi; BAI Jing-feng; CHEN Ya-zhu


    A nonlinear finite-element program was developed to simulate the dynamic evolution of coagulation in tissue considering temperature and thermal-dose dependence of the ultrasound attenuation and blood perfusion rate.The effects of these dynamic parameters on the lesion formation were investigated in the particular case of ultrasound hepatic ablation with bi-focus intensity pattern.The results of simulations were compared that incorporate dynamic changes of ultrasound attenuation and perfusion and results that neglect these effects.The result shows that thermal-dose-dependent ultrasound attenuation is the dominating factor in the full dynamic model.If the dynamic ultrasound attenuation is ignored, a relatively significant underestimation of the temperature rise appears in the focal plane and the region next to the focal plane, resulting in an underestimation in predicting diameter of coagulation.Higher heating intensity leads to greater underestimation.

  7. Differential roles of XRCC2 in S-phase RAD51 focus formation induced by DNA replication inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, C; Liu, N


    RAD51 proteins accumulate in discrete nuclear foci in response to DNA damage. Previous studies demonstrated that human RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3) are essential for the assembly of RAD51 foci induced by ionizing radiation and cross-linking agents. Here we report that XRCC2 also plays important roles in RAD51 focus formation induced by replication arrest during S-phase of cell cycle. In wild-type hamster V79 cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU), RAD51 protein form punctuate nuclear foci, accompanied by increased RAD51 protein level in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, and increased association of RAD51 with chromatin. In contrast, xrcc2 hamster mutant irs1 cells are deficient in the formation of RAD51 foci after HU treatment, suggesting that the function of XRCC2 is required for the assembly of RAD51 at HU-induced stalled replication forks. Interestingly, we found that irs1 cells are able to form intact RAD51 foci in S-phase cells treated with thymidine (TR) or aphidicolin, although irs1 cells are hypersensitive to both HU and TR. Our findings suggest that there may be two distinct pathways (XRCC2-dependent or XRCC2-independent) involved in loading of RAD51 onto stalled replication forks, probably depending upon the structure of DNA lesions.

  8. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia;


    The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp) generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ). BLM...... represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role...... for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1) protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2) promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid...

  9. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazja Grabarz


    Full Text Available The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ. BLM represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1 protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2 promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid unscheduled resection that might jeopardize genome integrity.

  10. Sex And Gender Roles In Gentle And Noble Families, c.1575-1660, With A Particular Focus On Marriage Formation



    The thesis examines thinking about, and experiences of, gender roles and family relationships for the gentry and nobility, particularly through the process of marriage formation. The study draws on a range of sources, including collections of family letters, personal memoirs and prescriptive literature. Some chapters pursue a case study approach to correspondence. Others consider the relationship between published advice and personal attitudes and experience.\\ud \\ud The study explores whether...

  11. Insights into Focused Fluid Conduit Formation from Comparing Seismic Chimneys and Pipes with Field Observations of Fluid Flow Manifestations in the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Karstens, J.; Berndt, C.


    The understanding of focused fluid flow in sedimentary basins builds on field geological observations and the interpretation of reflection seismic data, where fluid conduits manifest as anomalous amplitude patterns known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic data is the most effective method for the analysis of entire fluid flow systems by constraining subsurface geometries, fluid accumulations and permeability barriers, but seismic data cannot provide information about the internal architecture, interaction with the bedrock and flow processes due to its coarse resolution. Field geological investigations of fluid conduit outcrops are capable of filling observation gaps on a sub-seismic scale and help constrain formation dynamics as well as hydraulic properties of fluid conduits and the bedrock. Here, we show that it is possible to correlate specific amplitude patterns of seismic chimneys with field observation of focused fluid conduits from the Colorado Plateau. The migrating fluids (gas, water, fluidized sediment) and their formation dynamics, which can be associated with different types of conduits (fractures, fluidizations, injections), result in distinguishable seismic signatures. These constrains improve the qualitative interpretation of seismic chimneys by adding information about migration and formation characteristics. A further integration of field geological and seismic investigation of focused fluid flow structures may help to quantify their hydraulic properties and how these evolve with time, which has important implications for the hydrocarbon prospection and the subsurface storage of wastewater and CO2.

  12. A tunable microflow focusing device utilizing controllable moving walls and its applications for formation of micro-droplets in liquids (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Hong; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Lee, Gwo-Bin


    This study reports a new microfluidic device capable of fine-tuned sample-flow focusing and generation of micro-droplets in liquids by controlling moving wall structures. Two microfluidic components including an 'active microchannel width controller' and a 'micro chopper' can be used to fine-tune the width of the hydrodynamically pre-focused stream and subsequently generate micro-droplets. In this study, a basic concept of a 'controllable moving wall' structure was addressed and applied as the active microchannel width controller and the micro chopper to generate the proposed function. Pneumatic side chambers were placed next to a main flow channel to construct the controllable moving wall structures. The deformation of the controllable moving wall structure can be generated by the pressurized air injected into the pneumatic side chambers. The proposed chip device was fabricated utilizing polymer material such as PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) to provide the flexibility of the controllable moving wall deformation. The microfluidic chip device with dimensions of 2.5 cm in width and 3.0 cm in length can be fabricated using a simple fabrication process. Experimental data showed that the deformation of the controllable moving wall structure can be adjusted by applying different air pressures, so that the width of the main flow channel can be controlled accordingly. By utilizing the proposed mechanism, the pre-focused dispersed phase stream could be actively focused into a narrower stream, and well-controlled micro-droplets with smaller diameters could be generated. The stream width can be reduced from 30 µm to 9 µm and micro-droplets with a diameter of 76 µm could be generated by utilizing the proposed device. In addition, to generate micro-droplets within smaller diameters, uniform size distribution of the micro-droplets can be obtained. According to the experimental results, development of the microfluidic device could be promising for a variety of applications such

  13. Formation of Tunable, Emulsion Micro-Droplets Utilizing Flow-Focusing Channels and a Normally-Closed Micro-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Bin Lee


    Full Text Available A mono-dispersed emulsion is of great significance in many chemical, biomedical and industrial applications. The current study reports a new microfluidic chip capable of forming tunable micro-droplets in liquids for emulsification applications. It can precisely generate size-tunable, uniform droplets using flow-focusing channels and a normally-closed valve, which is opened by a pneumatic suction force. Experimental data showed that micro-droplets with a diameter ranging from several to tens of micrometers could be precisely generated with a high uniformity. The droplet size is experimentally found to be dependent on the velocity of the dispersed-phase liquid, which is controlled by the deflection of the suction membrane. Emulsions with droplet sizes ranging from 5.5 to 55 μm are successfully observed. The variation in droplet sizes is from 3.8% to 2.5%. The micro-droplets have a uniform size and droplets smaller than those reported in previous studies are possible with this approach. This new microfluidic device can be promising for emulsification and other related applications.

  14. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich


    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  15. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob


    mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise...... temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin...

  16. KAP1 Deacetylation by SIRT1 Promotes Non-Homologous End-Joining Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hui Lin

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining are two major DNA double-strand-break repair pathways. While HR-mediated repair requires a homologous sequence as the guiding template to restore the damage site precisely, NHEJ-mediated repair ligates the DNA lesion directly and increases the risk of losing nucleotides. Therefore, how a cell regulates the balance between HR and NHEJ has become an important issue for maintaining genomic integrity over time. Here we report that SIRT1-dependent KAP1 deacetylation positively regulates NHEJ. We show that up-regulation of KAP1 attenuates HR efficiency while promoting NHEJ repair. Moreover, SIRT1-mediated KAP1 deacetylation further enhances the effect of NHEJ by stabilizing its interaction with 53BP1, which leads to increased 53BP1 focus formation in response to DNA damage. Taken together, our study suggests a SIRT1-KAP1 regulatory mechanism for HR-NHEJ repair pathway choice.

  17. Investigation of standing wave formation in a human skull for a clinical prototype of a large-aperture, transcranial MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) phased array: An experimental and simulation study


    Song, Junho; Pulkkinen, Aki; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo


    Standing wave formation in an ex vivo human skull was investigated using a clinical prototype of a 30 cm diameter with 15 cm radius of curvature, low frequency (230 kHz), hemispherical transcranial Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) phased-array. Experimental and simulation studies were conducted with changing aperture size and f-number configurations of the phased array, and qualitatively and quantitatively examined the acoustic pressure variation at the focus due to stand...

  18. Formation flying as an innovative air transportation system for long-haul commercial flight: A focus on operational feasibility and potential gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herinckx, L.E.; Gutleb, T.L.M.; Van Nunen, R.; Van Rompuy, E.; Bos, D.A.; Dijkers, H.P.A.; De Wit, J.; Radfar, H.; Sahin, S.E.; Beelarts van Blokland, W.W.A.


    Formation flying is introduced as a new and innovative air transportation system for long-haul commercial flight. With this paper the operational feasibility of formation flying is addressed, both from a market demand and economic, as well as an air traffic control perspective. Preliminary results o

  19. Ion focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping


    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  20. Circumferential lesion formation around the pulmonary veins in the left atrium with focused ultrasound using a 2D-array endoesophageal device: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room C713, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting humans. The electrical isolation by ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in the left atrium (LA) of the heart has been proven as an effective cure of AF. The ablation consists mainly in the formation of a localized circumferential thermal coagulation of the cardiac tissue surrounding the PVs. In the present numerical study, the feasibility of producing the required circumferential lesion with an endoesophageal ultrasound probe is investigated. The probe operates at 1 MHz and consists of a 2D array with enough elements (114 x 20) to steer the acoustic field electronically in a volume comparable to the LA. Realistic anatomical conditions of the thorax were considered from the segmentation of histological images of the thorax. The cardiac muscle and the blood-filled cavities in the heart were identified and considered in the sound propagation and thermal models. The influence of different conditions of the thermal sinking in the LA chamber was also studied. The circumferential ablation of the PVs was achieved by the sum of individual lesions induced with the proposed device. Different scenarios of lesion formation were considered where ultrasound exposures (1, 2, 5 and 10 s) were combined with maximal peak temperatures (60, 70 and 80 {sup 0}C). The results of this numerical study allowed identifying the limits and best conditions for controlled lesion formation in the LA using the proposed device. A controlled situation for the lesion formation surrounding the PVs was obtained when the targets were located within a distance from the device in the range of 26 {+-} 7 mm. When combined with a maximal temperature of 70 {sup 0}C and an exposure time between 5 and 10 s, this distance ensured preservation of the esophageal structures, controlled lesion formation and delivery of an acoustic intensity at the transducer surface that is compatible with existing materials. With a peak

  1. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  2. A Comparison of national CCS strategies for Northwest Europe, with a focus on the potential of common CO2 storage at the Utsira formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Andrea; Hoefnagels, Ric; van den Broek, Machteld


    2 storage. However, this will not only depend on their potential available capacity to store CO2 flows but also on the cost effectiveness of such an option within national portfolios of mitigation measures. This article shows key results of a research project aiming to assess the potentials...... in the national portfolio of measures. Within the CCS portfolio, storage of CO2 in the Utsira formation can indeed be a cost effective option for North Europe and it represents a valuable CO2 storage option at the regional level. For instance, the United Kingdom will profit from the comparably short transport...

  3. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH


    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  4. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi


    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76., M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.üring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  5. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  6. Physical mechanism of beam halo-chaos formation for high-current proton beam in a periodic-focusing channels and a nonlinear control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The physical mechanism of the halo-chaos formation for a high intensity proton beam in a periodic-fo cusing channel is analyzed using the transfer mahix theory and a qualiative analysis method.Particles-in-cell simula tims are further used to explore the mechanism of the beam halo-chaos fomation, which concerns not only with thc non linear effect of the beam space charge but also with the lransverse energy exchange belween the particles and the particle core. as well as the chaos generated by the nonlinear resonance ovcrlap. A nonlinear control method is proposed for con trolling tie haho-chaos. Simulation results show lhal the melhod is efhclivc. Somc potemlial applications of the halo chaos conlrol in experimenls are discussed.

  7. The social formation and cultural identity of Southeast Asian frontier society: Focused on the concept of maritime Zomia as frontier in connection with the ocean and the inland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Seok-Joon


    Full Text Available This paper examines the applicability of the Zomia concept for social scientific studies of the Malaysian region, with a focus on the Malaysian port cities, including Melaka. While for both empirical and socio-cultural reasons the term Zomia itself may not be entirely appropriate to the Malaysian Melaka region, the analytical implications that are based on James C. Scott’s usage of it, particularly the emphasis on the cultural dynamics of inter-ethnic, inter-national, and inter-religious relations of port areas, can be of great utility to those working in the Malaysian region. Zomia is a neologism gaining popularity with the publication of James C. Scott’s provocative book, The art of not being governed: an anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. The term of Zomia is designed to indicate the people who has not been governed by the nation-state and national regime.

  8. Partial Melt Systems in Plate-Driven Corner Flow: Evaluating the Formation of Porosity Bands as a Mechanism for Magma Focusing at Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Gebhardt, D.; Butler, S. L.


    The imposition of an external shear on a system of partial melt will result in compaction of the solid matrix and concentration of the interstitial liquid melt leading to the formation of regions of contrasting high and low porosity. In experiments, direct and torsional shear geometries have demonstrated that these regions of varying porosity form in bands orientated at low angles relative to the shear plane. A variety of numerical models have been employed to recreate these experimental results. Simple shear, pure shear and torsional shear geometries have been used in both linear and nonlinear numerical settings to model the formation of the porosity bands. In this contribution the numerical models utilize a shear geometry derived from the velocity field of the plate-driven corner flow of a mid-ocean ridge. Motivation for using the velocity field of a mid-ocean ridge comes from evidence that suggests the existence of lateral melt channeling from either side of the ridge axis. Imposing the shear from a mid-ocean ridge corner flow allows for the evaluation of the resulting porosity bands in terms of suitability for channeling melt laterally toward the ridge axis. This is done using both slow and fast spreading ridge geometries. The degree of similarity between previous numerical and experimental results has been found to be greatly influenced by the imposed viscosity law of the solid matrix phase. In order to keep this in mind, the numerical models in this contribution use three different matrix viscosity laws: strain-rate independent, strain-rate dependent and anisotropic. Of these rheologies, strain-rate independence results in the poorest orientation for channeling melt directly to the ridge axis. The strain-rate dependent and anisotropic viscosities present more favorable direct-channeling orientations for the fastest growing porosity bands, but in both cases the background flow will rotate bands to less ideal orientations over time. However, these less

  9. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  10. Investigation of standing-wave formation in a human skull for a clinical prototype of a large-aperture, transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) phased array: an experimental and simulation study. (United States)

    Song, Junho; Pulkkinen, Aki; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo


    Standing-wave formation in an ex vivo human skull was investigated using a clinical prototype of a 30-cm diameter with 15-cm radius of curvature, low-frequency (230 kHz), hemispherical transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound phased array. Experimental and simulation studies were conducted with changing aperture size and f -number configurations of the phased array and qualitatively and quantitatively examined the acoustic pressure variation at the focus due to standing waves. The results demonstrated that the nodes and antinodes of standing wave produced by the small-aperture array were clearly seen at approximately every 3 mm. The effect of the standing wave became more pronounced as the focus was moved closer to skull base. However, a sharp focus was seen for the full array, and there was no such standing-wave pattern in the acoustic plane or near the skull base. This study showed that the fluctuation pressure amplitude would be greatly reduced by using a large-scale, hemispherical phased array with a low f-number.

  11. Characterizing the DNA Damage Response by Cell Tracking Algorithms and Cell Features Classification Using High-Content Time-Lapse Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Georgescu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the kinetics of DNA repair have been estimated using immunocytochemistry by labeling proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR with fluorescent markers in a fixed cell assay. However, detailed knowledge of DDR dynamics across multiple cell generations cannot be obtained using a limited number of fixed cell time-points. Here we report on the dynamics of 53BP1 radiation induced foci (RIF across multiple cell generations using live cell imaging of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A expressing histone H2B-GFP and the DNA repair protein 53BP1-mCherry. Using automatic extraction of RIF imaging features and linear programming techniques, we were able to characterize detailed RIF kinetics for 24 hours before and 24 hours after exposure to low and high doses of ionizing radiation. High-content-analysis at the single cell level over hundreds of cells allows us to quantify precisely the dose dependence of 53BP1 protein production, RIF nuclear localization and RIF movement after exposure to X-ray. Using elastic registration techniques based on the nuclear pattern of individual cells, we could describe the motion of individual RIF precisely within the nucleus. We show that DNA repair occurs in a limited number of large domains, within which multiple small RIFs form, merge and/or resolve with random motion following normal diffusion law. Large foci formation is shown to be mainly happening through the merging of smaller RIF rather than through growth of an individual focus. We estimate repair domain sizes of 7.5 to 11 µm2 with a maximum number of ~15 domains per MCF10A cell. This work also highlights DDR which are specific to doses larger than 1 Gy such as rapid 53BP1 protein increase in the nucleus and foci diffusion rates that are significantly faster than for spontaneous foci movement. We hypothesize that RIF merging reflects a "stressed" DNA repair process that has been taken outside physiological conditions when

  12. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob; Oestergaard, Vibe H; Lisby, Michael


    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  13. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.


    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  14. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)


    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  15. Peptide separations by on-line MudPIT compared to isoelectric focusing in an off-gel format: application to a membrane-enriched fraction from C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. (United States)

    Elschenbroich, Sarah; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Sharma, Parveen; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Gramolini, Anthony O; Kislinger, Thomas


    High-resolution peptide separation is pivotal for successful shotgun proteomics. The need for capable techniques propels invention and improvement of ever more sophisticated approaches. Recently, Agilent Technologies has introduced the OFFGEL fractionator, which conducts peptide separation by isoelectric focusing in an off-gel setup. This platform has been shown to accomplish high resolution of peptides for diverse sample types, yielding valuable advantages over comparable separation techniques. In this study, we deliver the first comparison of the newly emerging OFFGEL approach to the well-established on-line MudPIT platform. Samples from a membrane-enriched fraction isolated from murine C2C12 cells were subjected to replicate analysis by OFFGEL (12 fractions, pH 3-10) followed by RP-LC-MS/MS or 12-step on-line MudPIT. OFFGEL analyses yielded 1398 proteins (identified by 10,269 peptides), while 1428 proteins (11,078 peptides) were detected with the MudPIT approach. Thus, our data shows that both platforms produce highly comparable results in terms of protein/peptide identifications and reproducibility for the sample type analyzed. We achieve more accurate peptide focusing after OFFGEL fractionation with 88% of all peptides binned to a single fraction, as compared to 61% of peptides detected in only one step in MudPIT analyses. Our study suggests that both platforms are equally capable of high quality peptide separation of a sample with medium complexity, rendering them comparably valuable for comprehensive proteomic analyses.

  16. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes (United States)

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.


    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  17. Planar-Focusing Cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Lewellen, J W


    Conventional pi-mode rf photoinjectors typically use magnetic solenoids for emittance compensation. This provides independent focusing strength, but can complicate rf power feed placement, introduce asymmetries (due to coil crossovers), and greatly increase the cost of the photoinjector. Cathode-region focusing can also provide for a form of emittance compensation. Typically this method strongly couples focusing strength to the field gradient on the cathode, however, and also requires altering the longitudinal position of the cathode to change the focusing. We propose a new method for achieving cathode-region variable-strength focusing for emittance compensation. The new method reduces the coupling to the gradient on the cathode, and does not require a change in the longitudinal position of the cathode. Expected performance for an S-band system is similar to conventional solenoid-based designs. This paper presents the results of rf cavity and beam dynamics simulations of the new design.

  18. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping


    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  19. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  20. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.


    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  1. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M


    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  2. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  3. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank


    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  4. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.


    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  5. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco


    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  7. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  8. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  9. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang


    , not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  10. Focusing Vacuum Fluctuations, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, L H


    The quantization of the scalar and electromagnetic fields in the presence of a parabolic mirror is further developed in the context of a geometric optics approximation. We calculate the mean squared scalar and electric fields near the focal line of a parabolic cylindrical mirror. These quantities are found to grow as inverse powers of the distance from the focus. We give a combination of analytic and numerical results for the mean squared fields. In particular, we find that the mean squared electric field can be either negative or positive, depending upon the choice of parameters. The case of a negative mean squared electric field corresponds to a repulsive Van der Waals force on an atom near the focus, and to a region of negative energy density. Similarly, a positive value corresponds to an attractive force and a possibility of atom trapping in the vicinity of the focus.

  11. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber


    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  12. [Focused musculoskeletal sonography]. (United States)

    Horn, Rudolf


    Even in emergent situations, focused musculoskeletal sonography must not be overlooked. It has a place in traumatology no less valuable than its place in internal medicine. It can be used to identify traumatic joint effusions, occult fractures and fissures, joint inflammation, muscle and tendon rupture; it can differentiate soft tissue swelling, locate a foreign body, or identify the location of fractures. Focused ultrasound should be performed by the attending physician directly at the patient’s bedside, in order to answer these specific questions.

  13. Youth Leadership. IDRA Focus. (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1995


    This theme issue focuses on motivating young people to learn by providing leadership opportunities in school. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program: Assessing Progress" (Josie Danini Supik) examines the program's success. This program, which trains high-risk middle and high school students as tutors of younger children, has dramatically…

  14. Neocortical focus: experimental view. (United States)

    Timofeev, Igor; Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara


    All brain normal or pathological activities occur in one of the states of vigilance: wake, slow-wave sleep, or REM sleep. Neocortical seizures preferentially occur during slow-wave sleep. We provide a description of neuronal behavior and mechanisms mediating such a behavior within neocortex taking place in natural states of vigilance as well as during seizures pointing to similarities and differences exhibited during sleep and seizures. A concept of epileptic focus is described using a model of cortical undercut, because in that model, the borders of the focus are well defined. In this model, as in other models of acquired epilepsy, the main factor altering excitability is deafferentation, which upregulates neuronal excitability that promotes generation of seizures. Periods of disfacilitation recorded during slow-wave sleep further upregulate neuronal excitability. It appears that the state of neurons and neuronal network in the epileptic focus produced by deafferentation are such that seizures cannot be generated there. Instead, seizures always start around the perimeter of the undercut cortex. Therefore, we define these areas as the seizure focus. In this zone, neuronal connectivity and excitability are moderately enhanced, lowering the threshold for seizure generation.

  15. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas


    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...

  16. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca


    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  17. Curriculum Mapping. Focus On (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca


    This "Focus On" discusses curriculum mapping, a process that allows educators to align the curriculum both within and across grades and to ensure that the curriculum is in line with school, local, and state standards. It outlines the steps of the curriculum mapping process from planning the mapping initiative to creating and editing curriculum…

  18. An Environmentally Focused General Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Mihok, Morgan; Keiser, Joseph T.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Mallouk, Thomas E.


    The environmentally focused general chemistry laboratory provides a format for teaching the concepts of the mainstream laboratory within an environmental context. The capstone integrated exercise emerged as the overwhelming favorite part of this laboratory and the experiment gave students an opportunity to do a self-directed project, using the…

  19. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber


    is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  20. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhayalan, V.


    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs.

  1. Focus on Succes


    Ivan Slimák; Kristina Zgodavova


    The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physi...

  2. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  3. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  4. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable


    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  5. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard


    In this paper, I argue—with an example—that under certain conditions replacement of audio transcriptions with a combination of simultaneously taken and jointly produced notes can be done without affecting reliability, validity, and transparency. These conditions are: (1) professional or otherwise...... relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...

  6. antiproton focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia


    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  7. Antiproton Focus Horn

    CERN Multimedia


    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  8. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV


    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  9. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi


    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  10. CERN In Focus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service


    First edition 2008 of Cern in Focus. On behalf of the audiovisual team, a selection of the latest videos filmed at CERN. Every six weeks, we will bring you the latest in CERN's activities, from LHC start up to the Computing Grid, featuring the experiments and many other goings-on at CERN. The agenda of this first edition of CERN in Focus features the visit of the prime minister of Malta, Lawrence Gonzi... CMS and the final descent of the YE-1 end cap... The departure of UA1 magnets to Japan... The start up of sectors 4 and 5... And finally, in our sports round up... We'll talk about football. New in brief this month... The final bolt is in place : On 7th November, in the bowels of the LHC tunnel, CERN's Director General Robert Aymar tightened a gold-plated bolt for the last arc interconnection of sector 1-2. This symbolic gesture marks the completion of all the arc interconnections of the LHC. Last welding work: it was never going to be an easy task. On this day last year just one sector had been completed,...

  11. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák


    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  12. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne


    to prevent severe perineal injury. This paper describes midwives’ and students’ experiences of performing a structured reflection on clinical skills together. Method: During a six week period in October 2015 midwives and students at Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen) used a Reflection Assessment Tool after having...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...

  13. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse


    trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...... functioning, psychosis-like symptoms, negative symptomatology, and depressive symptomatology as measured with the Personal and Social Performance Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded Version, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. DISCUSSION......: This is the first trial to evaluate the effects of neurocognitive and social cognitive remediation in UHR patients. The FOCUS trial results will provide evidence on the effect of targeted and comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation on cognition, daily living, and symptomatology as well as long-term outcome...

  14. Alliance-focused training. (United States)

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D


    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  15. White Light Focusing Mirror (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven


    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  16. Pattern Formation (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca


    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  17. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL


    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  18. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben


    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  19. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina


    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  20. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD


    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  1. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.


    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  2. Focusators for laser-branding (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  3. Focusing Electron Beams at SLAC. (United States)

    Taylor, Richard L.


    Describes the development of a set of magnets that focus high-energy electron and positron beams causing them to collide, annihilate each other, and generate new particles. Explains how dipoles bend the beam, how quadrupoles focus the beam, how the focal length is calculated, and the superconducting final focus. (MDH)

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS (United States)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.


    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  5. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI)has emerged,intending to bring language forms instructionback to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types of application.The tentative conclusion is FFI does show some explicit and reliable effects on accuracy and error elimination in language teaching;however,the investigation into its application is not simply either Focus on Form Or Focus on FormS,but focuses on the optimal combination of the two in teaching.

  6. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Personal Information Protection Law Under Legislative Procedure;China's Most Populous Province;New Marriage Law Brings New Trends;Beijing Repeals Regulations Governing Migrant Workers;A New Law to Regulate Electrical Junk in China;Highly-educated Jobless;Growing Up Alone;Internet Gambling Invades the Chinese Mainland;Dreams of Stardom;Chinese Smokers Consume1/3 of the World's Cigarettes.

  7. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China's Police Force Understaffed;Newlyweds Pledge Lifelong Fidelity Before Confucius;Government Officials to Forgo "No Comment" Line;Fewer Chinese Students Study Engineering;60 Percent of Middle School Students Study-Weary;Tipping Still Not Done in China;

  8. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China has launched a crackdown on Internet pornography. Of China's Netizens, 70 percent are students and 20 percent are juveniles. According to conservative estimates, 46 percent of juvenile Netizens visit porn websites.

  9. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ninth Congress of CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee has 880 formal delegates. This is the first timefor people representing private entrepreneurs to attend the provincial congress. In addition to eight such del-egates, there are also three representing Sino--foreign joint ventures in the province, seven from share-holding

  10. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese railway department has decided to make significant adjustments to its railway network.It is tobuild a second Beijing-Guangzhou Railway line exclusively for passenger transport.The new railway,over2.000kilometers long,will take only 10hours to cover the distance between Beijing and Guangzhou.The

  11. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    400 Million People Shake off PovertyUN World Food Program (WFP) Executive Director James Morris recently praised the Chinese government, saying, "China has lifted several hundred million people out of poverty in less than a generation. That is an extraordinary achievement." Morris congratulated the Chinese government on its "remarkable success," adding that

  12. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to a joint investigation by a group of top world companies, China has for the first time surpassed the U.S. to become the most favored destination for direct foreign investment. The Financial Times reports that the September 11th incident has provoked worries about security in the U.S among foreign investors. According to UN statistics, nearly US $50 billion of direct foreign investment was channeled into China in 2001, and still more is on its way. Foreign investment in the United States, on the other hand, dropped from its 2000 level of US $301 billion to US $125 biinon.

  13. FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    More than 600 Posionous Trees Found in Hainan;Cyber Counseling Service for Prisoners;""Super"" Maize Bred in China;English Level Improves as Proficiency in Mother Tongue Declines;Greater Proportion oF Chinese Leaders Graduates in Liberal Arts.

  14. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Non-public Owned Enterprises Burgeon Recently the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce published the results of its member enterprise 2001 survey. According to survey statistics, the total business income of

  15. The Use of Online Focus Groups to Design an Online Food Safety Education Intervention (United States)

    Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.


    In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…

  16. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho


    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  17. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...

  18. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney


    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  19. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes


    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the g

  20. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  1. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  2. Developing a focused scald-prevention program. (United States)

    Cagle, Kathleen M; Davis, James W; Dominic, William; Ebright, Steffanie; Gonzales, Wendy


    Scalds account for a high percentage of burn injuries in young children. The purpose of this project was to use a formative evaluation process to design a pilot scald-prevention program for a high-risk population. The burn registry and U.S. Census were used to define a high-risk population. A total of 53 children younger than age 6 were admitted to a local burn center with scalds during a 4-year period. Cooking or food accounted for 84% of these injuries. A total of 21% of the patients resided in one zip code, representing an incidence rate of 23 per 100,000, which was statistically significant. Focus group meetings were conducted with parents in this zip code. They were queried about scald injury knowledge, prevention practices, and attitudes toward interventions. A prevention program was designed based on the findings. Workshops are conducted with high-risk groups in the zip code. Attendees consent to a home visit where prevention practices are assessed and taught. A pre/post test and home risk assessment survey is used to measure change. The Burn Registry, U.S. Census, and focus groups were complimentary formative evaluation measures that assisted in developing a targeted scald prevention project.

  3. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani


    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  4. Focusing of bistatic SAR data (United States)

    Bia, Pietro; Ricci, Nicola; Zonno, Mariantonietta; Nico, Giovanni; Catalao, Joao; Tesauro, Manlio


    The problems of simulation of bistatic SAR raw data and focusing are studied. A discrete target simulator is described. The simulator introduces the scene topography and compute the integration time of general bistatic configurations providing a means to derived maps of the range and azimuth spatial resolutions. The problem of focusing of bistatic SAR data acquired in a translational-invariant bistatic configuration is studied by deriving the bistatic Point Target Reference spectrum and presenting an analytical solution for its stationary points.

  5. Focusing Mirror with Tunable Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike


    We present a new kind of varifocal mirror with independently adjustable curvatures in the major directions. For actuation we use two stacked piezo bending actuators with crossed in-plane polarization. This mirror can be used for example as an off-axis focusing device with tunable focal length and compensation for a variable angle of incidence or for coma correction. We demonstrate the prototype of such a mirror and characterize the mechanical deflection, as well as the focusing capabilities.

  6. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.


    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the…

  7. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  8. Effects of aberrations in spatiotemporal focusing of ultrashort laser pulses. (United States)

    Sun, Bangshan; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J


    Spatiotemporal focusing, or simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF), has already been adopted for various applications in microscopy, photoactivation for biological studies, and laser fabrication. We investigate the effects of aberrations on focus formation in SSTF, in particular, the effects of phase aberrations related to low-order Zernike modes and a refractive index mismatch between the immersion medium and sample. By considering a line focus, we are able to draw direct comparison between the performance of SSTF and conventional spatial focusing (SF). Wide-field SSTF is also investigated and is found to be much more robust to aberrations than either line SSTF or SF. These results show the sensitivity of certain focusing methods to specific aberrations, and can inform on the necessity and benefit of aberration correction.

  9. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.


    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  10. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, A M; Sancho, J M; Lindenberg, K


    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate (t to the power -1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, (t to the power -1).

  11. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland


    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...

  12. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus. (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998


    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  13. Photographer Puts Family in Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    WITH the rise in the standard of living, the camera—like the television set, the video cassette recorder and the cassette player—has become another essential entertainment tool for families. If you ask young parents who is photographed most in the family, chances are they will readily tell you that the child is the focus.

  14. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups (United States)


    and the rounds in the boxes weigh 35 lb, which is lighter than equipment handled in the other physically demanding job tasks already identified...and standards. Ergonomics . 53: 858-871. 40 Appendix A: Questionnaires Completed by Volunteers prior to each Focus Group Interview 1 2 3 4a 4b 5

  15. Focused ion beams in biology. (United States)

    Narayan, Kedar; Subramaniam, Sriram


    A quiet revolution is under way in technologies used for nanoscale cellular imaging. Focused ion beams, previously restricted to the materials sciences and semiconductor fields, are rapidly becoming powerful tools for ultrastructural imaging of biological samples. Cell and tissue architecture, as preserved in plastic-embedded resin or in plunge-frozen form, can be investigated in three dimensions by scanning electron microscopy imaging of freshly created surfaces that result from the progressive removal of material using a focused ion beam. The focused ion beam can also be used as a sculpting tool to create specific specimen shapes such as lamellae or needles that can be analyzed further by transmission electron microscopy or by methods that probe chemical composition. Here we provide an in-depth primer to the application of focused ion beams in biology, including a guide to the practical aspects of using the technology, as well as selected examples of its contribution to the generation of new insights into subcellular architecture and mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions.

  16. Brief therapy: focused solution development. (United States)

    De Shazer, S; Berg, I K; Lipchik, E; Nunnally, E; Molnar, A; Gingerich, W; Weiner-Davis, M


    This article describes the form of brief therapy developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center. We have chosen a title similar to Weakland, Fisch, Watzlawick, and Bodin's classic paper, "Brief Therapy: Focused Problem Resolution" (20) to emphasize our view that there is a conceptual relationship and a developmental connection between the points of view expressed in the two papers.

  17. Focus on "only" and "not"

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, A


    Krifka [1993] has suggested that focus should be seen as a means of providing material for a range of semantic and pragmatic functions to work on, rather than as a specific semantic or pragmatic function itself. The current paper describes an implementation of this general idea, and applies it to the interpretation of {\\em only} and {\\em not}.

  18. Evaluating Pragmatics-Focused Materials (United States)

    Crandall, Elizabeth; Basturkmen, Helen


    Learners often find the area of pragmatics (that is, using speech acts such as requesting, inviting, and complimenting) problematic. Teachers are urged to teach pragmatic aspects of language, and make use of authentic samples of spoken discourse to do so. However, information about the effectiveness of pragmatics-focused instruction of this nature…

  19. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer


    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  20. The Road to Focused Logistics (United States)


    The Revolution in Military Logistics (RML) and Focused Logistics requires us to view sustainment needs and requirements in a new perspective. Gone...has taken the tenets of Force XXI, Battlefield Distribution, Velocity Management, Army After Next, and the Revolution In Military Logistics and fused

  1. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.


    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  2. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions. (United States)

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A


    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  3. Focus on stochastic flows and climate statistics (United States)

    Marston, JB; Williams, Paul D.


    The atmosphere and ocean are examples of dynamical systems that evolve in accordance with the laws of physics. Therefore, climate science is a branch of physics that is just as valid and important as the more traditional branches, which include particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and statistical mechanics. This ‘focus on’ collection of New Journal of Physics brings together original research articles from leading groups that advance our understanding of the physics of climate. Areas of climate science that can particularly benefit from input by physicists are emphasised. The collection brings together articles on stochastic models, turbulence, quasi-linear approximations, climate statistics, statistical mechanics of atmospheres and oceans, jet formation, and reduced-form climate models. The hope is that the issue will encourage more physicists to think about the climate problem.

  4. Galaxy formation. (United States)

    Peebles, P J


    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  5. Cloud Formation (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage


    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  6. Focus: Simon Steen-Andersen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013), the prize for the best orchestral work at the recently held Doneueschinger Musiktage and The Nordic Council Music Prize in 2014. Seismograf/DMT wishes to celebrate the composer Simon Steen-Andersen. We present and reflect on parts of his comprehensive career, in a Danish and an international...... Rasmus Holmboe; a reflection on the importance of the unrepeatable in Steen-Andersen’s music by composer and PhD Rune Søchting, and a contextualisation of central works by Norwegian editor and writer Ida Habbestad. Our Swedish colleague Andreas Engström writes about the new piano concerto (english....... Watch the trailer. The idea for this Focus comes from Jens Voigt-Lund. It has been realised and edited by Sanne Krogh Groth and Rasmus Holmboe, and published with financial support from Carl Nielsen Fonden. English translations by Helen Clara Hemsley. The Focus is also published in a Danish version....

  7. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter


    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  8. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui


    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  9. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von


    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  10. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Alimonti, G; Anjos, J C; Arena, V; Bediaga, I; Bianco, S; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Boschini, M; Butler, J N; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cawlfield, C; Cheung, H W K; Cho, K; Chung, Y S; Cinquini, L; Cuautle, E; Cumalat, J P; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Engh, D; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Gardner, R; Garren, L A; Giammarchi, M; Gianini, G; Gottschalk, E; Göbel, C; Handler, T; Hernández, H; Hosack, M; Inzani, P; Johns, W E; Kang, J S; Kasper, P H; Kim, D Y; Ko, B R; Kreymer, A E; Kryemadhi, A; Kutschke, R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Leveraro, F; Liguori, G; Magnin, J; Malvezzi, S; Massafferri, A; Menasce, D; Merlo, M M; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Miranda, J M D; Mitchell, R; Montiel, E; Moroni, L; Méndez, H; Méndez, L; Nehring, M S; O'Reilly, B; Olaya, D; Pantea, D; Paris, A; Park, H; Park, K S; Pedrini, D; Pepe, I M; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Quinones, J; Rahimi, A; Ramírez, J E; Ratti, S P; Reis, A C D; Reyes, M; Riccardi, C; Rivera, C; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Sarwar, S; Segoni, I; Sheaff, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vaandering, E W; Vitulo, P; Vázquez, F; Webster, M; Wilson, J R; Wiss, J; Xiong, W; Yager, P M; Zallo, A; Zhang, Y


    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  11. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Goebel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; Miranda, J.M. de; Pepe, I.M.; Reis, A.C. dos; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J.E.; Vaandering, E.W.; Butler, J.N.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P.H.; Kreymer, A.E.; Kutschke, R.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D.Y.; Park, K.S.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J. E-mail:; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y.S.; Kang, J.S.; Ko, B.R.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, K.B.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Boschini, M.; D' Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Milazzo, L.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport III, T.F.; Agostino, L.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M.M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Segoni, I.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A.M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J.R.; Cho, K.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Johns, W.E.; Hosack, M.; Nehring, M.S.; Sheldon, P.D.; Stenson, K.; Webster, M.S.; Sheaff, M


    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  12. World Focus on the Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Chinese people would never for-get the moment-14:28, on May 12, 2008, as the 8.0-magnitude earthquake shook the whole of Sichuan; at that moment the world's at-tention was focused on the southwest of China - the homeland of the Giant Panda. This rare yet catastrophic natural disaster has resulted in the heavy loss of lives and property throughout the region.

  13. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David


    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  14. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A. [Universidad Nacional del Centro, Pladema-CNEA-Conicet, Tandil (Argentina)


    As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 3} neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)

  15. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd


    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  16. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions......Purpose: Researchers in several different academic disciplines (such as marketing, information systems, and organization) have focused on investigating service and business ecosystems (e.g. Lusch and Nambisan, 2015; Gawer and Cusumano, 2014; Kude et al. 2012). We reviewed 69 papers in service...... science, operations management, marketing, and organization journals. The majority of these papers focus on describing established service ecosystems,often on a more abstract “meso-level” (Akaka et al., 2015). Key notions are “…self-contained, self-adjusting system[s] of resource integrating actors...

  17. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten


    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  18. The quest for customer focus. (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B


    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  19. Bayesian Query-Focused Summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal


    We present BayeSum (for ``Bayesian summarization''), a model for sentence extraction in query-focused summarization. BayeSum leverages the common case in which multiple documents are relevant to a single query. Using these documents as reinforcement for query terms, BayeSum is not afflicted by the paucity of information in short queries. We show that approximate inference in BayeSum is possible on large data sets and results in a state-of-the-art summarization system. Furthermore, we show how BayeSum can be understood as a justified query expansion technique in the language modeling for IR framework.

  20. Final focus system for TLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oide, K.


    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal US function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Focusing properties of mushroom microlenses

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskin, A V; Benson, T; Sewell, P; Nosich, A I


    Focusing properties of a novel type photoresist microlens are studied. A specific character of the microlens is its mushroom shape. Recently it was predicted and experimentally revealed that such a lens integrated with a light-emitting diode is capable of enhancing its output efficiency and directivity. In our paper we describe the true electromagnetic performance of a mushroom lens by applying a mathematically rigorous method of boundary integral equations. Numerical results are presented for the mushroom lens illuminated with a plane E-polarized wave and include figures describing the evolution of the lens focal spot and near field maps.

  2. A focused bibliography on robotics (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.


    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  3. On highly focused supersonic microjets

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Willem, Claas; Peters, Ivo R; van der Meer, Deveraj; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef


    By focusing a laser pulse in a liquid-filled glass-microcapillary open at one end, a small mass of liquid is instantaneously vapourised. This leads to a shock wave which travels towards the concave free surface where it generates a high-speed microjet. The initial shape of the meniscus plays a dominant role in the process. The velocity of the jet can reach supersonic speeds up to 850\\,m/s while maintaining a very sharp geometry. The entire evolution of the jet is observed by high-speed recordings of up to $10^6\\,$fps. A parametric study of the jet velocity as a function of the contact angle of the liquid-glass interface, the energy absorbed by the liquid, the diameter of the capillary tube, and the distance between the laser focus and the free surface is performed, and the results are rationalised. The method could be used for needle-free injection of vaccines or drugs.

  4. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S


    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  5. Focus on Nivolumab in NSCLC (United States)

    Cortinovis, Diego L.; Canova, Stefania; Abbate, Marida; Colonese, Francesca; Bidoli, Paolo


    Immunotherapy is changing the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab has demonstrated meaningful results in terms of efficacy with a good safety profile. The novel approach to treating NSCLC using immunotherapy still has unsolved questions and challenging issues. The main doubts regarding the optimal selection of the patient are the role of this drug in first line of treatment, the individualization of the correct methodology of radiologic assessment and efficacy analysis, the best management of immune-mediated adverse events, and how to overcome the immunoresistance. The aim of this review is to analyze literature data on nivolumab in lung cancer with a focus on critical aspects related to the drug in terms of safety, the use in clinical practice, and possible placement in the treatment algorithm. PMID:28018902

  6. Micron-focused ion beamlets (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep


    A multiple beam electrode system (MBES) is used to provide focused ion beamlets of elements from a compact microwave plasma. In this study, a honeycomb patterned plasma electrode with micron size apertures for extracting ion beamlets is investigated. The performance of the MBES is evaluated with the help of two widely adopted and commercially available beam simulation tools, AXCEL-INP and SIMION, where the input parameters are obtained from our experiments. A simple theoretical model based upon electrostatic ray optics is employed to compare the results of the simulations. It is found that the results for the beam focal length agree reasonably well. Different geometries are used to optimize the beam spot size and a beam spot ˜5-10 μm is obtained. The multiple ion beamlets will be used to produce microfunctional surfaces on soft matter like polymers. Additionally, the experimental set-up and plans are presented in the light of above applications.

  7. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William


    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  8. Non-imaging, focusing heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.T.; Chong, K.K.; Bligh, T.P. [Univ. of Technology Malaysia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Johor (MY)] [and others


    A non-imaging focusing heliostat for effective use of thermal solar energy is proposed. The heliostat consists of a number of grouped slave mirrors, which are able to move according to a proposed formula to eliminate the first order aberration. The master tracks the sun by a proposed rotation-elevation mode to project solar rays together with the rest of slave mirrors into a fixed target. The merit of this design is that if may benefit the use of solar energy in high temperature applications by allowing a single stage collector to replace a conventional double stage structure; it may also benefit high concentration applications, e.g., solar powered Stirling engines, solar pumped lasers, etc. The feasibility and a reliability test of the proposed method by a prototype heliostat in the University of Technology, Malaysia is reported. (Author)

  9. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J


    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  10. Airy beam self-focusing in a photorefractive medium (United States)

    Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine


    The unique bending and shape-preserving properties of optical Airy beams offer a large range of applications in for example beam routing, optical waveguiding, particle manipulation and plasmonics. In these applications and others, the Airy beam may experience nonlinear light-matter interactions which in turn modify the Airy beam properties and propagation. A well-known example is light self-focusing that leads to the formation of spatial soliton. Here, we unveil experimentally the self-focusing properties of a 1D-Airy beam in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. The transient evolution involves both self-bending and acceleration of the initially launched Airy beam due to the onset of an off-shooting soliton and the resulting nonlocal refractive index perturbation. Both the transient and stationary self-focusing properties can be tuned by varying the bias electric field, the injected Airy beam power and the background illumination.

  11. MDF: Magnetic Particle Imaging Data Format

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Tobias; Bringout, Gael; Ahlborg, Mandy; Rahmer, Jürgen; Hofmann, Martin


    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a tomographic method to determine the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. In this document a file format for the standardized storage of MPI data is introduced. The aim of the Magnetic Particle Imaging Data Format (MDF) is to provide a coherent way of exchanging MPI data acquired with different MPI scanners worldwide. The focus of the file format is on sequence parameters, raw measurement data, calibration data, and reconstruction data. The format is based on the hierarchical document format (HDF) in version 5 (HDF5).

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.


    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  13. Understanding Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V


    The old dream of integrating into one the study of micro and macrocosmos is now a reality. Cosmology, astrophysics, and particle physics intersect in a scenario (but still not a theory) of cosmic structure formation and evolution called Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model. This scenario emerged mainly to explain the origin of galaxies. In these lecture notes, I first present a review of the main galaxy properties, highlighting the questions that any theory of galaxy formation should explain. Then, the cosmological framework and the main aspects of primordial perturbation generation and evolution are pedagogically detached. Next, I focus on the ``dark side'' of galaxy formation, presenting a review on LCDM halo assembling and properties, and on the main candidates for non-baryonic dark matter. It is shown how the nature of elemental particles can influence on the features of galaxies and their systems. Finally, the complex processes of baryon dissipation inside the non-linearly evolving CDM halos, formation o...

  14. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.


    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  15. SIAM Workshop: Focus on Diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Fourth SlAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held on July 12, 2000 at the Westin Rio Mar Hotel in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. The Department of Energy provided partial support for this event. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities. The meeting opened with a discussion of some data collected by the American Mathematical Society on Ph.D.'s awarded in the U.S. to citizens and non-citizens, further classified as blacks, latinos, asians and native americans. The activity continued with nine technical talks by underrepresented minority graduate students, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum chaired by Dr. Richard Tapia (Rice University) in which issues related to the participation of minorities in national meetings and proposal writing where discussed. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants. The students attended as well the three SlAM plenary talks during the day and the community lecture in the evening. The activity had a lively participation of students and representatives from various academic institutions and sponsoring agencies. In particular, we had the participation of 24 undergraduate students from the Mathematics REU program of the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

  16. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent". (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne


    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  17. Prime Focus Spectrograph - Subaru's future -

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, Hajime; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Shimono, Atsushi; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Ling, Hung-Hsu; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H; Bennett, Charles L; Bickerton, Steve; Braun, David F; Bruno, Robin J; Carr, Michael A; Oliveira, João Batista de Carvalho; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Dekany, Richard G; Dominici, Tania Pereira; Ellis, Richard S; Fisher, Charles D; Gunn, James E; Heckman, Timothy M; Ho, Paul T P; Hu, Yen-Shan; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer; Kimura, Masahiko; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Madec, Fabrice; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Martin, Laurent; Murayama, Hitoshi; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Macanhan, Vanessa Bawden de Paula; Prieto, Eric; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Seiffert, Michael D; Smee, Stephen A; Smith, Roger M; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N; Surace, Christian; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yan, Chi-Hung


    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project has been endorsed by Japanese community as one of the main future instruments of the Subaru 8.2-meter telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph targets cosmology with galaxy surveys, Galactic archaeology, and studies of galaxy/AGN evolution. Taking advantage of Subaru's wide field of view, which is further extended with the recently completed Wide Field Corrector, PFS will enable us to carry out multi-fiber spectroscopy of 2400 targets within 1.3 degree diameter. A microlens is attached at each fiber entrance for F-ratio transformation into a larger one so that difficulties of spectrograph design are eased. Fibers are accurately placed onto target positions by positioners, each of which consists of two stages of piezo-electric rotary motors, through iterations by using back-illuminated fiber position measurements with a wide-field metrology camera. Fibers then carry l...

  18. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics. (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten


    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  19. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.


    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection



    Kinderis, Remigijus; Jucevičius, Giedrius


    The article presents analysis of the definition of strategic alliances, the analysis of alliance and the research of a strategic alliance concept; furthermore, it focuses on the contingent hierarchy of alliances. The motives of strategic alliances formation, their categories, groups and benefit for business have been revealed in this article. Special attention is paid to the process of strategic alliance formation and the analysis of factors that influence the formation of strategic alliances...

  1. Fredholm's equations for subwavelength focusing (United States)

    Velázquez-Arcos, J. M.


    Subwavelength focusing (SF) is a very useful tool that can be carried out with the use of left hand materials for optics that involve the range of the microwaves. Many recent works have described a successful alternative procedure using time reversal methods. The advantage is that we do not need devices which require the complicated manufacture of left-hand materials; nevertheless, the theoretical mathematical bases are far from complete because before now we lacked an adequate easy-to-apply frame. In this work we give, for a broad class of discrete systems, a solid support for the theory of electromagnetic SF that can be applied to communications and nanotechnology. The very central procedure is the development of vector-matrix formalism (VMF) based on exploiting both the inhomogeneous and homogeneous Fredholm's integral equations in cases where the last two kinds of integral equations are applied to some selected discrete systems. To this end, we first establish a generalized Newmann series for the Fourier transform of the Green's function in the inhomogeneous Fredholm's equation of the problem. Then we go from an integral operator equation to a vector-matrix algebraic one. In this way we explore the inhomogeneous case and later on also the very interesting one about the homogeneous equation. Thus, on the one hand we can relate in a simple manner the arriving electromagnetic signals with those at their sources and we can use them to perform a SF. On the other hand, we analyze the homogeneous version of the equations, finding resonant solutions that have analogous properties to their counterparts in quantum mechanical scattering, that can be used in a proposed very powerful way in communications. Also we recover quantum mechanical operator relations that are identical for classical electromagnetics. Finally, we prove two theorems that formalize the relation between the theory of Fredholm's integral equations and the VMF we present here.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Control (United States)

    Rabitz, Herschel


    Control of quantum phenomena has grown from a dream to a burgeoning field encompassing wide-ranging experimental and theoretical activities. Theoretical research in this area primarily concerns identification of the principles for controlling quantum phenomena, the exploration of new experimental applications and the development of associated operational algorithms to guide such experiments. Recent experiments with adaptive feedback control span many applications including selective excitation, wave packet engineering and control in the presence of complex environments. Practical procedures are also being developed to execute real-time feedback control considering the resultant back action on the quantum system. This focus issue includes papers covering many of the latest advances in the field. Focus on Quantum Control Contents Control of quantum phenomena: past, present and future Constantin Brif, Raj Chakrabarti and Herschel Rabitz Biologically inspired molecular machines driven by light. Optimal control of a unidirectional rotor Guillermo Pérez-Hernández, Adam Pelzer, Leticia González and Tamar Seideman Simulating quantum search algorithm using vibronic states of I2 manipulated by optimally designed gate pulses Yukiyoshi Ohtsuki Efficient coherent control by sequences of pulses of finite duration Götz S Uhrig and Stefano Pasini Control by decoherence: weak field control of an excited state objective Gil Katz, Mark A Ratner and Ronnie Kosloff Multi-qubit compensation sequences Y Tomita, J T Merrill and K R Brown Environment-invariant measure of distance between evolutions of an open quantum system Matthew D Grace, Jason Dominy, Robert L Kosut, Constantin Brif and Herschel Rabitz Simplified quantum process tomography M P A Branderhorst, J Nunn, I A Walmsley and R L Kosut Achieving 'perfect' molecular discrimination via coherent control and stimulated emission Stephen D Clow, Uvo C Holscher and Thomas C Weinacht A convenient method to simulate and visually

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter (United States)

    Reineker, Peter; Schülz, Michael


    Nanostructures in general are playing a more and more important role in the physics and chemistry of condensed matter systems including both hard and soft materials. This Focus Issue concentrates particularly on recent developments in Nanostructured Soft Matter Systems. Many interesting questions related to both fundamental and applied research in this field have arisen. Some of them are connected to the chemical reactions that take place during the irreversible formation of soft matter systems. Others refer to the theoretical and experimental investigations of structures and topologies of `nanostructured soft matter', e.g. heterogeneous polymers and polymer networks, or soft matter at low dimensions or in constrained geometries. Additional research has also been devoted to the dynamics of other complex nanostructured systems, such as the structure formation on the basis of polymer systems and polyelectrolytes, and several kinds of phase transitions on nano- and microscales. The contributions collected here present the most up-to-date research results on all of these topics. New Journal of Physics, as an electronic journal, is perfectly suited for the presentation of the complex results that the experimental and theoretical investigations reported here yield. The articles that will follow provide a number of excellent examples of the use of animations, movies and colour features for the added benefit of the reader. Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter Contents Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages Peter Virnau, Marcus Müller, Luis González MacDowell and Kurt Binder Spectral dynamics in the B800 band of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum: a single-molecule study Clemens Hofmann, Thijs J Aartsma, Hartmut Michel and Jürgen Köhler Adsorption of polyacrylic acid on self-assembled monolayers investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy Claudia Friedsam, Aránzazu Del Campo Bécares, Ulrich Jonas

  4. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  5. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence. (United States)


    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  6. Processing advantages for focused words in Korean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kember, H.; Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.


    In Korean, focus is expressed in accentual phrasing. To ascertain whether words focused in this manner enjoy a processing advantage analogous to that conferred by focus as expressed in, e.g, English and Dutch, we devised sentences with target words in one of four conditions: prosodic focus, syntacti

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.


    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  8. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh


    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  9. Cosmological models of galaxy formation (United States)

    Menci, N.

    I review the present status of galaxy formation models within a cosmological framework. I focus on semi-analytic models based on the Cold Dark Matter scenario, discussing the role of the different physical process involving dark matter and baryons in determining the observed statistical properties of galaxies and their dependence on cosmic time and on environment evolution. I will highlight some present problems and briefly present the main effects of assuming a Warm Dark Matter scenario.

  10. Possibilities for focusing ultrasonic fields - A survey (United States)

    Schlengermann, U.


    Focusing techniques for ultrasound devices used in NDE are examined in a review of recent experimental investigations and application reports. The advantages of focused sound fields are outlined (including increased sensitivity, lateral resolution, and S/N and improved reflector scanning); the characteristics of the focused field are reviewed; the fundamental principles of curved-crystal, lens, curved-reflector, zone-plate, and phase-plate focusing are explained; and their practical adaptation in NDE problems (by changing delay path, changing lenses, or switching annular arrays) is described. Consideration is given to geometric and technical limitations on focusing applicability and to the optimization of focusing. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  11. Focus takes time: structural effects on reading. (United States)

    Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C


    Previous eye-tracking work has yielded inconsistent evidence regarding whether readers spend more or less time encoding focused information compared with information that is not focused. We report the results of an eye-tracking experiment that used syntactic structure to manipulate whether a target word was linguistically defocused, neutral, or focused, while controlling for possible oculomotor differences across conditions. As the structure of the sentence made the target word increasingly more focused, reading times systematically increased. We propose that the longer reading times for linguistically focused words reflect deeper encoding, which explains previous findings showing that readers have better subsequent memory for focused versus defocused information.

  12. Formation of porous gas hydrates

    CERN Document Server

    Salamatin, Andrey N


    Gas hydrates grown at gas-ice interfaces are examined by electron microscopy and found to have a submicron porous texture. Permeability of the intervening hydrate layers provides the connection between the two counterparts (gas and water molecules) of the clathration reaction and makes further hydrate formation possible. The study is focused on phenomenological description of principal stages and rate-limiting processes that control the kinetics of the porous gas hydrate crystal growth from ice powders. Although the detailed physical mechanisms involved in the porous hydrate formation still are not fully understood, the initial stage of hydrate film spreading over the ice surface should be distinguished from the subsequent stage which is presumably limited by the clathration reaction at the ice-hydrate interface and develops after the ice grain coating is finished. The model reveals a time dependence of the reaction degree essentially different from that when the rate-limiting step of the hydrate formation at...

  13. Historical Investigation of the Japanese Traditional Venture Capital Model Formation:Focusing on the “VC Charter”%日本传统风险投资模式形成的历史考察:以“VC宪章”为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      在发展主义的政策范式下,为了能使民间风险投资公司的成立合法化,且又要遵守垄断禁止法禁止成立持股公司的原则,并防止与中小企业政策产生矛盾,日本公平委员会采取了折中的方案,出台了“VC宪章”。“VC宪章”使日本大金融机构、大企业出资成立风险投资公司成为可能,并为风险投资三方主体间的交易提供了治理框架,约束了风险投资机构的投资行为,成为了日本传统风险投资模式的制度起点。%In the development of policy paradigm, in order to establish the folk venture capital company get the support of law, and abide by the principle of Antitrust Law prohibiting the formation of holding companies ,and to prevent the contradictions with the Small and Medium Enterprise Policy ,Japan Fair Trade Commission take the folding of the scheme , formulated the “VC Charter”. “VC Charter” provides a governance framework for the three main trading of venture capital , constraint investment behaviors of the venture capital mechanism , became the institutional starting of the Japanese traditional venture capital model.

  14. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  15. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis (United States)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.


    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  16. Collective action : a regulatory focus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Maarten Pieter


    In this dissertation I investigate how individuals respond to collective disadvantage from the perspective of regulatory focus theory. Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between two motivational systems: promotion focus, the system in charge of the approach of positive end-states, and prevention

  17. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok


    or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...... of these utterances given focus information....

  18. Inspire: The Quest for a Coherent Curriculum through a Performing Arts-Focused Curriculum Integration Project (United States)

    Carlisle, Katie


    The author reports on the formation of a performing arts-focused curriculum integration project, in which key components of curriculum integration were employed within a project-focus involving the performing arts of music, theater, and dance. The project occurred within a curricular community partnership between a public school and nearby…

  19. DNA DSB repair pathway choice: an orchestrated handover mechanism. (United States)

    Kakarougkas, A; Jeggo, P A


    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are potential lethal lesions but can also lead to chromosome rearrangements, a step promoting carcinogenesis. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DSB rejoining process and occurs in all cell cycle stages. Homologous recombination (HR) can additionally function to repair irradiation-induced two-ended DSBs in G2 phase. In mammalian cells, HR predominantly uses a sister chromatid as a template for DSB repair; thus HR functions only in late S/G2 phase. Here, we review current insight into the interplay between HR and NHEJ in G2 phase. We argue that NHEJ represents the first choice pathway, repairing approximately 80% of X-ray-induced DSBs with rapid kinetics. However, a subset of DSBs undergoes end resection and repair by HR. 53BP1 restricts resection, thereby promoting NHEJ. During the switch from NHEJ to HR, 53BP1 is repositioned to the periphery of enlarged irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) via a BRCA1-dependent process. K63-linked ubiquitin chains, which also form at IRIF, are also repositioned as well as receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80), a ubiquitin binding protein. RAP80 repositioning requires POH1, a proteasome component. Thus, the interfacing barriers to HR, 53BP1 and RAP80 are relieved by POH1 and BRCA1, respectively. Removal of RAP80 from the IRIF core is required for loss of the ubiquitin chains and 53BP1, and for efficient replication protein A foci formation. We propose that NHEJ is used preferentially to HR because it is a compact process that does not necessitate extensive chromatin changes in the DSB vicinity.

  20. Telomerase antagonist imetelstat inhibits esophageal cancer cell growth and increases radiation-induced DNA breaks. (United States)

    Wu, Xuping; Smavadati, Shirin; Nordfjäll, Katarina; Karlsson, Krister; Qvarnström, Fredrik; Simonsson, Martin; Bergqvist, Michael; Gryaznov, Sergei; Ekman, Simon; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva


    Telomerase is mainly active in human tumor cells, which provides an opportunity for a therapeutic window on telomerase targeting. We sought to evaluate the potential of the thio-phosphoramidate oligonucleotide inhibitor of telomerase, imetelstat, as a drug candidate for treatment of esophageal cancer. Our results showed that imetelstat inhibited telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner in esophageal cancer cells. After only 1 week of imetelstat treatment, a reduction of colony formation ability of esophageal cancer cells was observed. Furthermore, long-term treatment with imetelstat decreased cell growth of esophageal cancer cells with different kinetics regarding telomere lengths. Short-term imetelstat treatment also increased γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci staining in the esophageal cancer cell lines indicating a possible induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We also found that pre-treatment with imetelstat led to increased number and size of 53BP1 foci after ionizing radiation. The increase of 53BP1 foci number was especially pronounced during the first 1h of repair whereas the increase of foci size was prominent later on. This study supports the potential of imetelstat as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  1. Acoustic focusing by metal circular ring structure (United States)

    Xia, Jian-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang


    We report an exotic acoustic focusing effect through a simple brass circular ring structure immersed in water. The acoustic waves can be focused on a prefect point at the centre of the ring structure. This exotic acoustic focusing phenomenon arises from the intrinsic modes in the ring structure at some special eigenfrequencies, which is essentially distinct from the previous studies originating from the negative refraction. The focusing effect is closely related to the size and shape of the ring structure. Interesting applications of the focusing mechanism in black box detectors in the sea and medical ultrasound treatment are further discussed.

  2. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter


    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  3. Teaching focus in psychotherapy: a training essential. (United States)

    Summers, Richard F; Xuan, Yan; Tavakoli, Donald N


    Practical application of psychodynamic therapy technique requires that the therapist focus the treatment. The authors review the current evidence about focus in psychotherapy, which suggests that it has a beneficial impact on outcome and patient satisfaction. The core psychodynamic problem is proposed as a valuable conceptual model for providing focus for patient, psychotherapist, and supervisor. The authors narrate a case history from the perspective of both the psychotherapist and the supervisor to demonstrate the opportunities and challenges in using this concept. Finally, the authors suggest that a focus on focus is desirable in residency psychotherapy training programs, and they make suggestions for educational methods that enhance resident training in this area.

  4. Optimal ultrasonic array focusing in attenuative media. (United States)

    Ganguli, A; Gao, R X; Liang, K; Jundt, J


    This paper presents a parametric study on the efficiency of ultrasound focusing in an attenuative medium, using phased arrays. Specifically, an analytical model of ultrasound wave focusing in a homogeneous, isotropic and attenuative fluid with point sources is presented. Calculations based on the model have shown that in an attenuative medium, an optimum frequency exists for the best focusing performance for a particular size of aperture and focal distance. The effect of different f numbers on the focusing performance in the attenuative medium is further investigated. The information obtained from the analytical model provides insights into the design and installation of a phased transducer array for energy efficient wave focusing.

  5. Student Perceptions of Formative Assessment in the Chemistry Classroom (United States)

    Haroldson, Rachelle Ann


    Research on formative assessment has focused on the ways teachers implement and use formative assessment to check student understanding in order to guide their instruction. This study shifted emphasis away from teachers to look at how students use and perceive formative assessment in the science classroom. Four key strategies of formative…

  6. Formative Assessment of Writing in English as a Foreign Language (United States)

    Burner, Tony


    Recognizing the importance of formative assessment, this mixed-methods study investigates how four teachers and 100 students respond to the new emphasis on formative assessment in English as a foreign language (EFL) writing classes in Norway. While previous studies have examined formative assessment in oral classroom interactions and focused on…

  7. Radiation Reaction in a Bent Focusing System (United States)

    Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, Ronald D.


    We have shown that in a straight, continuous focusing channel the radiation reaction is different from that in a bending magnet. Quantum excitation to the transverse action is absent in this focusing system, and the radiation damping is faster in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal one. In this talk we study the effect of radiation in a combined-function system, where both focusing and bending fields are present. In one case where the bending dominates over the focusing, we recover the result of standard synchrotron radiation damping in storage rings. In the other case where the focusing dominates over the bending, we find that the lack of quantum excitation and the asymmetric damping found in a straight focusing channel still hold. In addition, the possibility of designing a focusing-dominated damping ring to demonstrate and apply this effect is discussed.

  8. Stimulated Raman Scattering and Nonlinear Focusing of High-Power Laser Beams Propagating in Water

    CERN Document Server

    Hafizi, B; Penano, J R; Gordon, D F; Jones, T G; Helle, M H; Kaganovich, D


    The physical processes associated with propagation of a high-power (power > critical power for self-focusing) laser beam in water include nonlinear focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), optical breakdown and plasma formation. The interplay between nonlinear focusing and SRS is analyzed for cases where a significant portion of the pump power is channeled into the Stokes wave. Propagation simulations and an analytical model demonstrate that the Stokes wave can re-focus the pump wave after the power in the latter falls below the critical power. It is shown that this novel focusing mechanism is distinct from cross-phase focusing. While discussed here in the context of propagation in water, the gain-focusing phenomenon is general to any medium supporting nonlinear focusing and stimulated forward Raman scattering.

  9. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M., E-mail: [IBA Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Mrad, O. [Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)


    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  10. Partial focusing by indefinite complementary metamaterials (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Liu, Ruopeng; Mock, Jack J.; Cui, Tie Jun; Smith, David R.


    We have experimentally realized a two-dimensional partial focusing within a planar waveguide using complementary indefinite metamaterials. When the electric fields emitted from the dipole are TE polarized, the focusing condition requires negative magnetic response in the propagation direction of the waveguide, which can be achieved by the complementary electric resonator (CELC) structures. We have carefully designed the experimental configurations and the dimensions for the CELC structures. The experimental result is consistent with the theoretical prediction, which validates the partial focusing phenomenon.

  11. Common File Formats. (United States)

    Mills, Lauren


    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  12. Low voltage operation of plasma focus. (United States)

    Shukla, Rohit; Sharma, S K; Banerjee, P; Das, R; Deb, P; Prabahar, T; Das, B K; Adhikary, B; Shyam, A


    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 muF capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.

  13. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance. (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G


    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  14. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian


    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  15. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  16. Status of the STIS Instrument Focus (United States)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Monroe, TalaWanda; Dressel, Linda


    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph needs to bring images to a good focus at its aperture plane and three detectors, for each of several optical paths. We discuss various ways of measuring the evolution of the focus over time for both the aperture plane and for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic modes. Evidence suggests that between 2013 and 2015 the best focus of STIS relative to the HST best focus, based on WFC3/UVIS and ACS/WFC monitoring, shifted by the equivalent of 3 microns of HST secondary motion, resulting in a decrease in the average small aperture throughput. We discuss the implications of this change for STIS observations.

  17. Dense plasma focus-assisted nitriding of AISI-304 (United States)

    Shafiq, M.; Asghar, M.; Ahmad, S.; Sadiq, M.; Qayyum, A.; Zakaullah, M.

    Nitrogen ion implantation into AISI-304 stainless steel is carried out using a dense plasma focus device, operated at a charging voltage of 18 kV (discharge energyD1.45 kJ) with nitrogen filling at optimum pressure of 0.75 mbar. AISI-304 stainless steel samples placed axially above the anode tip are exposed to the ions for 10, 20 and 30 focus shots. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers's micro hardness tester, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used to explore the ion induced changes in the crystallographic structures, surface morphology, elemental composition and surface hardness of the ion irradiated samples. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of an expanded austenite phase, owing to nitrogen incorporated into the existing iron lattice. The results of micro hardness tester show that the hardness is increased about three times at an axial distance of 5 cm for 20 shots.

  18. Image Analysis of Plasma Induced by Focused IR Pulsed Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hadi Ali


    Full Text Available Plasma induced by focused laser beam is very essential especially in laser material interaction. Preliminary study leading to this research has been carried out. A Q-switch Nd:YAG laser was employed as a source of energy. The laser was focused using a wide-angle camera lens. The formation of plasma at the focal region was visualized perpendicularly using a CCD video camera interfaced to an image processing system. The dynamic expansion of the laser plasma was grabbed in conjunction with a high-speed photographic system. The observation results show that the plasma was formed in an ellipsoidal shape. The lateral width and the length of the plasma were found gradually increased

  19. The Format Registry Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary McGath


    Full Text Available File format identification is an important issue in digital preservation. Several noteworthy attempts, including PRONOM, GDFR, and UDFR, have been made at creating a comprehensive repository of format information. The sheer amount of information to cover and the constant introduction of new formats and format versions has limited their success. Alternative approaches, such as Linked Data and offering limited per-format information with identifiers that can be used elsewhere, may lead to greater success.

  20. Law-Focused Education: A Statewide Program (United States)

    Black, Watt L.


    Law Focused Education, Inc., a Texas nonprofit educational organization, has developed innovative programs designed (1) to promote law-related education among inservice social studies teachers and (2) to promote the incorporation of law-focused concepts into the graduate and undergraduate curriculum of those institutions with teacher education…

  1. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan


    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  2. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eWulf


    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100% rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100% or every third (33% practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related or external focus (movement-effect related. The results demonstrated that learning of the movement form was enhanced by external-focus feedback after every trial (100% relative to external-focus feedback after every third trial (33% or internal-focus feedback (100%, 33%, as demonstrated by immediate and delayed transfer tests without feedback. There was no difference between the two internal-focus feedback groups. These findings indicate that the attentional focus induced by feedback is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of different feedback frequencies. We argue that the informational properties of feedback cannot sufficiently account for these and related findings, and suggest that the attentional role of feedback be given greater consideration in future studies.

  3. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele


    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  4. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers (United States)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin


    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  5. Free-format RPG IV the express guide to learning free format

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim


    Focusing strictly on teaching free-format RPG programming methods, this book will help programmers wishing to upgrade their skills   This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything you need to know to write RPG IV in the free-format

  6. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.A.


    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs. (LEW)

  7. Happy mood decreases self-focused attention. (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey D; Sedikides, Constantine; Saltzberg, Judith A; Wood, Joanne V; Forzano, Lori-Ann B


    Research addressing the influence of happy mood on self-focused attention has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies found that happy mood decreased self-focus relative to sad mood. Other studies did not detect a significant difference between happy and neutral mood, and still other studies found that happy mood, relative to neutral mood, increased self-focus. These investigations have potential shortcomings, such as an insufficiently powerful happy mood induction and a confound between visualization mood inductions and self-focus itself. The present experiment addressed these shortcomings by inducing mood via musical selections, equalizing the approximate potency between happy and sad moods, and using a within-participants design. Relative to neutral mood, happy mood decreased self-focused attention.

  8. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant


    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  9. Optimum annular focusing by a phase plate

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel


    Conventional light focusing, i. e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into an annular field with topological charge of arbitrary integer order q. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the focal field with the maximum possible peak intensity. In particular, we discuss and implement experimentally the optimum annular focusing of a Gaussian beam. The attributes of optimum annular focal fields, namely the high peak intensity, intensity gradient and narrow annular section, are advantageous for different applications of such structured fields.

  10. Restucturing the Project Work Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren


    The chapter is based on an evaluation of a pedagogical experiment at Roskilde University, the Antology Experiment. The objective of the experiment was to develop and expand the framework for project work through the production of anthologies compiled collectively by a number of project groups....... The novel aspects of the Anthology Experiment were most notably its magnitude and complexity. In this experiment the groups were totalling some 50 students who were working together. The experiment used a well-known publishing format from research, namely the anthology form, which usually focuses....... The organization was complex, the written product changed from project to article format, the students had to concentrate on working in their own project group as well as in the so-called clusters, and the form of exam was radically changed...

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children: Focusing on abscess formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Hee; Kang, Byung Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To analyze the US findings of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children and define the US features of drainable abscess. We retrospectively evaluated the US findings od suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in 22 children (age: 40 days-14 years). Among them, eighteen were confirmed by drainage or needle aspiration, and four diagnosed on the basis of typical findings of abscess on enhanced CT. Echogenicity, shape (ratio of long/short diameter) of suppurative lymph nodes, and the changes of adjacent soft tissues on US were assessed, and color signal patterns of 17 suppurative lymph nodes on color Doppler imaging were also recorded. We compared the US with CT findings (n=14). Eight of 22 were abscess of typical US pattern, showing the characteristic anechoic central cores. Fourteen demonstrated low echogenicity with mottled anechoic portions, atypical US pattern. Ratio of long/short diameter measured more than 2 in 16 of 22 and less than 2 in 6. Adjacent subcutaneous tissue was the thickened and increased in echogenicity with hypoechoic irregular lines in all lines. On color Doppler imaging, only peripheral pattern was seen in four of 5 suppurative lymph of typical pattern. In 12 suppurative lymph nodes of atypical pattern, there were 4 peripheral pattern, 2 central patterns and 6 mixed patterns. Compared the US findings with CT, all three suppurative lymph nodes of typical US pattern showed peripheral rim enhancement. Peripheral rim enhancement containing low attenuated internal portion (n=8) and inhomogeneous enhancement (n=3) were observed in 11 suppurative lymph nodes of atypical pattern. Any lymph node with complex echogenicity containing mottled anechoic portions with adjacent edematous subcutaneous tissue as well as central anechoic core could be regarded as the findings of drainable abscess in US diagnosis of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children.

  12. Wide-Angle Multistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar: Focused Image Formation and Aliasing Artifact Mitigation (United States)


    stream, allowing me to purchase the required computer hardware and to attend numerous conferences. Drs. Havrilla , Temple, and Oxley have also provided...Sensing, GE-24:492–498, 1986. 43. Dwyer, D., J. Luminati, M. Havrilla , and E. Rothwell. “Bistatic Scattering from a Resistive Sheet Using a Modified PO...159–169, December 2003. 76. Lee, J., M. Havrilla , E. Rothwell, and J. Luminati. “Bistatic Scattering from a Curved Resistive Sheet Using a Modified

  13. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley


    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  14. Focusing of light beyond the diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K R


    Diffraction limits the behaviour of light in optical systems and sets the smallest achievable line width at half the wavelength. With a novel subwavelength plasmonic lens to reduce the diffraction via an asymmetry and to generate and squeeze the wave functions, an incident light is focused by the aperture to a single-line with its width beyond the limit outside the near zone. The fields focused are radiative and capable of propagating to the far zone. The light focusing process, besides being of academic interest, is expected to open up a wide range of application possibilities.

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred


    Among the organs of our body, the function of heart and brain are unique in that their operation emerges from the collective dynamics of millions of strongly interacting cells well organized in their geometrical structure and connectivity. In the heart muscle the propagation of a nonlinear wave pulse, the cardiac action potential, controls the contraction. Usually the propagation is well-organized both in space and time and the heart functions as an efficient biological pump. Instabilities triggered by diseased tissue but also by dynamical heterogeneities, may, however, induce cardiac arrhythmia and fibrillation, where the pacemaker looses control to dynamically generated, high-frequency self-excitation of the muscle. In this state the coherence of contraction is lost and may lead within minutes to death. The appearance of arrhythmias can be associated with topological singularities, the so called spiral or scroll waves, and how the occurrence of this malfunctioning pattern-formation process can be understood is a dominant subject of current research. This is all the more important as cardiac arrhythmias and fibrillation are the main cause of premature death in the developed world. Similarly, in the brain the propagation of a nonlinear wave pulse, namely the neural action potential, is at the basis of the computational and memory power of the brain, i.e. what determines the workings of our 'minds'. Here, however, due to the high degree of interconnectivity and topological complexity of the neuronal network, the coordinated activity of millions of interacting nerve cells is more complex, although the basic principles of action potential generation at the level of each cell are quite similar. The currently emerging field of network dynamical systems is largely driven by the mathematical challenge and the steady stream of novel dynamical phenomena that results from the interplay of local nonlinear dynamics and complex network structure in models of biological neuronal

  16. Architecture and Energy. Towards a broader Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    temperatures rise, the need for room heating will go down, while the need for cooling will go up. The strategies for low energy buildings therefore cannot focus only on heating, but must have a much wider scope. Architects cannot focus only on the building envelope, but must consider also the spatial...... the paper demonstrates correlations between the dimensioning and organization of rooms, the amount and quality of daylight, of solar heat, the choice of materials and the inclusion of building integrated energy sources, all of which are key elements of both architecture and low energy strategies....... By insisting on a broader focus, the points of the paper do not conflict with the passive house criteria. The points may conflict with some of the typical passive house strategies, and they certainly conflict with strategies that exclusively focus on the minimization of room heating.   [1] Marsh, Larsen...

  17. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  18. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions (United States)


    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  19. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  20. A New Framework for Focused Web Crawling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Tao; HE Fengling; ZUO Wanli


    Focused crawlers are important tools to support applications such as specialized Web portals, online searching, and Web search engines.A topic driven crawler chooses the best URLs and relevant pages to pursue during Web crawling.It is difficult to deal with irrelevant pages.This paper presents a novel focused crawler framework.In our focused crawler, we propose a method to overcome some of the limitations of dealing with the irrelevant pages.We also introduce the implementation of our focused crawler and present some important metrics and an evaluation function for ranking pages relevance.The experimental result shows that our crawler can obtain more "important" pages and has a high precision and recall value.

  1. CRISIS FOCUS Fundamentals,Confidence and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Entering the third year of the most serious economic crisis since the Great Depression, the world economy is still bogged down on the muddy road to recovery. The latest edition of Standard Chartered Bank’s monthly report, Global Focus,

  2. Focus and Higher-Order Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Gardent, C; Gardent, Claire; Kohlhase, Michael


    Pulman has shown that Higher--Order Unification (HOU) can be used to model the interpretation of focus. In this paper, we extend the unification--based approach to cases which are often seen as a test--bed for focus theory: utterances with multiple focus operators and second occurrence expressions. We then show that the resulting analysis favourably compares with two prominent theories of focus (namely, Rooth's Alternative Semantics and Krifka's Structured Meanings theory) in that it correctly generates interpretations which these alternative theories cannot yield. Finally, we discuss the formal properties of the approach and argue that even though HOU need not terminate, for the class of unification--problems dealt with in this paper, HOU avoids this shortcoming and is in fact computationally tractable.

  3. Suppression of Space Charge Induced Beam Halo in Nonlinear Focusing Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Batygin, Yuri K; Kurennoy, Sergey; Li, Chao


    An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. A new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry is discussed. The resulting solution is applied to the problem of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.

  4. Suppression of space charge induced beam halo in nonlinear focusing channel (United States)

    Batygin, Yuri K.; Scheinker, Alexander; Kurennoy, Sergey; Li, Chao


    An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. A new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry is discussed. The resulting solution is applied to the problem of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.

  5. Molecular focusing and alignment with plasmon fields. (United States)

    Artamonov, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar


    We show the possibility of simultaneously aligning molecules and focusing their center-of-mass motion near a metal nanoparticle in the field intensity gradient created by the surface plasmon enhancement of incident light. The rotational motion is described quantum mechanically while the translation is treated classically. The effects of the nanoparticle shape on the alignment and focusing are explored. Our results carry interesting implications to the field of molecular nanoplasmonics and suggest several potential applications in nanochemistry.

  6. Utilization-focused evaluation for agricultural innovation


    Patton, Michael Quinn; Horton, Douglas


    Utilization-focused evaluation (UFE) is based on the principle that an evaluation should be judged by its utility. So no matter how technically sound and methodologically elegant, an evaluation is not truly a good evaluation unless the findings are used. UFE is a framework for enhancing the likelihood that evaluation findings will be used and lessons will be learnt from the evaluation process. This Brief, based on the book Utilization-focused evaluation, introduces this approach to evaluation...

  7. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  8. Regulatory focus and the assignment of punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Carmichael


    Full Text Available Regulatory Focus has been demonstrated to influence human behavior in a number of domains, such as object valuation and readiness to commit time or money to social projects. It has also been demonstrated to influence an individual’s approach to mistakes; and a person’s preference for global or local processing of information. The present work seeks to consider how regulatory focus might interact with punitive behaviors, specifically, the assignment of legal punishment. In this study, 240 undergraduates completed a series of written instruments that assessed their regulatory focus. They read a vignette that described a target that commits a crime, is detected by the police, and is arrested due to a careless mistake. Participants were asked what level of legal punishment they deemed appropriate. Participants’ punitive evaluations show that there are significant interactions a between the regulatory focus of the participant and the regulatory focus of the target and b between the regulatory focus of the participant and the level of detail used to describe the target and her behavior. In each case, when the regulatory foci matched, causing ‘fit,’ the participant was more lenient than in the non-fit condition.

  9. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  10. Skills and Regional Entrepreneurship Capital Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mendonça, Joana


    - and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...

  11. Amadori products formation in emulsified systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.; Fogliano, Vincenzo


    The formation of Amadori products (APs) is the key step determining the development of the Maillard reaction (MR). The information on the chemical behaviour of the reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars in emulsions during thermal treatments is scanty and mainly focused on volatile comp

  12. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng


    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  13. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  14. Water-in-Water Droplets by Passive Microfluidic Flow Focusing. (United States)

    Moon, Byeong-Ui; Abbasi, Niki; Jones, Steven G; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S H


    We present a simple microfluidic system that generates water-in-water, aqueous two phase system (ATPS) droplets, by passive flow focusing. ATPS droplet formation is achieved by applying weak hydrostatic pressures, with liquid-filled pipette tips as fluid columns at the inlets, to introduce low speed flows to the flow focusing junction. To control the size of the droplets, we systematically vary the interfacial tension and viscosity of the ATPS fluids and adjust the fluid column height at the fluid inlets. The size of the droplets scales with a power law of the ratio of viscous stresses in the two ATPS phases. Overall, we find a drop size coefficient of variation (CV; i.e., polydispersity) of about 10%. We also find that when drops form very close to the flow focusing junction, the drops have a CV of less than 1%. Our droplet generation method is easily scalable: we demonstrate a parallel system that generates droplets simultaneously and improves the droplet production rate by up to one order of magnitude. Finally, we show the potential application of our system for encapsulating cells in water-in-water emulsions by encapsulating microparticles and cells. To the best of our knowledge, our microfluidic technique is the first that forms low interfacial tension ATPS droplets without applying external perturbations. We anticipate that this simple approach will find utility in drug and cell delivery applications because of the all-biocompatible nature of the water-in-water ATPS environment.

  15. Preliminary Results Of A 600 Joules Small Plasma Focus Device (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.


    Preliminary results of a 600 J (3.7 μF, 18 kV) Mather type plasma focus device operated at low pressure will be presented. The discharge is formed between a solid anode with length of 6 cm and six symmetrically and coaxially arranged cathode rods of same lengths. The cathode base is profiled in a knife-edge design and a set of coaxial plasma gun are attached to it in order to initiate the breakdown and enhance the current sheath formation. The experiments have been performed in argon gas under a low pressure condition of several microbars. The discharge current and the voltage across the electrodes during the discharge are measured with high voltage probe and current coil. The current and voltage characteristics are used to determine the possible range of operating pressure that gives good focusing action. At a narrow pressure regime of 9.0±0.5 μbar, focusing action is observed with good reproducibility. Preliminary result of ion beam energy is presented. More work will be carried out to investigate the radiation output.

  16. Low-voltage paper isotachophoresis device for DNA focusing. (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Long; Crooks, Richard M


    We present a new paper-based isotachophoresis (ITP) device design for focusing DNA samples having lengths ranging from 23 to at least 1517 bp. DNA is concentrated by more than two orders of magnitude within 4 min. The key component of this device is a 2 mm-long, 2 mm-wide circular paper channel formed by concertina folding a paper strip and aligning the circular paper zones on each layer. Due to the short channel length, a high electric field of ~16 kV m(-1) is easily generated in the paper channel using two 9 V batteries. The multilayer architecture also enables convenient reclamation and analysis of the sample after ITP focusing by simply opening the origami paper and cutting out the desired layers. We profiled the electric field in the origami paper channel during ITP experiments using a nonfocusing fluorescent tracer. The result showed that focusing relied on formation and subsequent movement of a sharp electric field boundary between the leading and trailing electrolyte.

  17. Followers feel valued : When leaders' regulatory focus makes leaders exhibit behavior that fits followers' regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn; Sassenberg, K.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara


    When do followers feel valued by their leader? We propose that leaders' regulatory focus can make followers feel valued when leaders' regulatory focus is the same as followers' regulatory focus, that is, when there is regulatory fit between leaders and followers. We further propose that the reason w

  18. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol


    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cold and Ultracold Molecules FOCUS ON COLD AND ULTRACOLD MOLECULES (United States)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Ye, Jun


    Cold and ultracold molecules are the next wave of ultracold physics, giving rise to an exciting array of scientific opportunities, including many body physics for novel quantum phase transitions, new states of matter, and quantum information processing. Precision tests of fundamental physical laws benefit from the existence of molecular internal structure with exquisite control. The study of novel collision and reaction dynamics will open a new chapter of quantum chemistry. Cold molecules bring together researchers from a variety of fields, including atomic, molecular, and optical physics, chemistry and chemical physics, quantum information science and quantum simulations, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics, a truly remarkable synergy of scientific explorations. For the past decade there have been steady advances in direct cooling techniques, from buffer-gas cooling to cold molecular beams to electro- and magneto-molecular decelerators. These techniques have allowed a large variety of molecules to be cooled for pioneering studies. Recent amazing advances in experimental techniques combining the ultracold and the ultraprecise have furthermore brought molecules to the point of quantum degeneracy. These latter indirect cooling techniques magnetically associate atoms from a Bose-Einstein condensate and/or a quantum degenerate Fermi gas, transferring at 90% efficiency highly excited Fano-Feshbach molecules, which are on the order of 10 000 Bohr radii in size, to absolute ground state molecules just a few Bohr across. It was this latter advance, together with significant breakthroughs in internal state manipulations, which inspired us to coordinate this focus issue now, and is the reason why we say the next wave of ultracold physics has now arrived. Whether directly or indirectly cooled, heteronuclear polar molecules offer distinct new features in comparison to cold atoms, while sharing all of their advantages (purity, high coherence

  20. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the focus of space system architectures changes from single, to multiple, and eventually to many spacecraft flying in formation, a greater demand on total...

  1. Formative Assessment Probes: Mountaintop Fossil: A Puzzling Phenomenon (United States)

    Keeley, Page


    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue describes using formative assessment probes to uncover several ways of thinking about the puzzling discovery of a marine fossil on top of a mountain.

  2. Formative Assessment Probes: Is It Erosion or Weathering? (United States)

    Keeley, Page


    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. The formative assessment probe in this month's issue can be used as an initial elicitation before students are introduced to the formal concepts of weathering and erosion.

  3. Tuning particle focusing in inertial microfluidic devices (United States)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Kahkeshani, Soroush; di Carlo, Dino; Roper, Marcus


    Particles in microfluidic devices at finite Reynolds number are subject to two forces: (i) inertial focusing and (ii) particle-particle interactions. Although microfluidic chips exploit these forces to manipulate particles for particle/cell sorting and high throughput flow cytometry, the forces are not understood well enough to allow rational design of devices that can tune and attenuate particle focusing. We present a mathematical model addressing both inertial focusing and particle interactions, and we apply our model to various channel geometries to determine the balance of forces. In addition, we present experimental data that illustrate the accuracy of our model. We will address the following questions: Why do high aspect ratio channels favor two equilibrium positions? Why do particle chains form?

  4. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack


    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  5. Optical illumination and critical dimension analysis using the through-focus focus metric method (United States)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Silver, Richard M.; Potzick, James


    In this paper we present recent developments in optical microscope image analysis using both, best focus optical image as well as those images conventionally considered out of focus for metrology applications. Depending on the type of analysis, considerable information can be deduced with the additional use of the out of focus optical images. One method for analyzing the complete set of images is to calculate the total "edge slope" from an image, as the target is moved through-focus. A plot of the sum of the mean square slope is defined as the through-focus focus metric. We present a unique method for evaluating the angular illumination homogeneity in an optical microscope (with Koehler illumination configuration), based on the through-focus focus metric approach. Both theoretical simulations and experimental results are presented to demonstrate this approach. We present a second application based on the through-focus focus metric method for evaluating critical dimensions (CD) with demonstrated nanometer sensitivity for both experimental and optical simulations. An additional approach to analyzing the complete set of images is to assemble or align the through focus image intensity profiles such that the x-axis represents the position on the target, the y-axis represents the focus (or defocus) position of the target with respect to the lens and the z-axis represents the image intensity. This two-dimensional image is referred to as the through focus image map. Using recent simulation results we apply the through focus image map to CD and overlay analysis and demonstrate nanometer sensitivity in the theoretical results.

  6. The Problem of Focusing and Real Images (United States)

    Mihas, Pavlos


    A historical discussion of the theories which deal with the formation of real images in mirrors and lenses is presented in this paper. Speculations on mirrors appeared as early as Plato. Euclid's, Hero's and Ptolemy's approaches to visual rays are described. The theory on burning mirrors starts with Diocles and later was continued by the Arabs. Al…

  7. Radiation Damping in a Focusing Channel (United States)

    Ruth, Ronald D.


    In electron storage rings synchrotron radiation leads to the damping of the three degrees of freedom of the particle trajectory towards a stable closed orbit transversely and a fixed stable phase longitudinally. At the same time, the emission of discrete quanta leads to diffusion in all three degrees of freedom. These two competing effects result in an equilibrium beam emittance that depends upon the parameters of the storage ring. In the case above, the radiation in the bending fields dominates, and the radiation due to the focusing fields is either neglected or taken into account perturbatively. In this talk we study the opposite case, a continuous focusing channel in which the radiation and its reaction are dominated by the strong focusing field. If there is a bending field, it is much weaker than the focusing field. In such focusing systems, we find that the radiation is synchrotron-like for larger betatron oscillation amplitudes and undulator-like for smaller amplitudes. However, quantum excitation is absent for any oscillation amplitude, and the damping exhibits asymmetry in favor of the transverse degree of freedom as the amplitude becomes smaller. In the undulator regime, the damping turns into exponential in the transverse direction, much faster than the total energy damping in this system. In principle, the particle could damp to the transverse ground state of the harmonic oscillator, reaching a minimum normalized emittance, γ ɛ_min = hbar/2mc, limited only by the uncertainty principle. In the case of a bent focusing system, we find that the lack of quantum excitation and asymmetric damping still hold provided that the bending field is sufficiently weak.

  8. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  9. Radiation Reaction in a Continuous Focusing Channel (United States)

    Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, Ronald D.


    We show that the radiation damping rate of the transverse action of a particle in a straight, continuous focusing system is independent of the particle energy, and that no quantum excitation is induced. This absolute damping effect leads to the existence of a transverse ground state to which the particle inevitably decays and yields the minimum beam emittance that one can ever attain, γɛmin = /2mc, limited only by the uncertainty principle. Because of adiabatic invariance, the particle can be accelerated along the focusing channel in its ground state without any radiation energy loss.

  10. Focusing America’s National Powers (United States)


    1 Frontline, “Osama Bin Laden v. The U.S.: Edicts and Statements,” 22 February 1998, U.S.: Edicts and Statements,” 22 February 1998, available from Focusing America’s National Powers Bibliography A-3 , accessed 11 Jan 06. Vego, Milan N., Operational Warfare, 2000. Focusing America’s National Powers Bibliography A-6 The

  11. Structured light for focusing surface plasmon polaritons. (United States)

    Hu, Z J; Tan, P S; Zhu, S W; Yuan, X-C


    We propose a structureless method for focusing surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a flat metal film under illumination of radially polarized cogwheel-like structured light beams. Without metal structures, the locally induced SPPs can further be propagated following the predefined patterns to form symmetric focal spots with dimensions beyond diffraction limit. Benefiting from the radial polarization, this method can be employed to pattern various center-symmetric evanescent distributions for generating SPPs reconfigurably. The SPPs will be propagating and focusing in radial directions.

  12. Magnetic focusing in triangular electron billiards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Kristensen, A.; Lindelof, Poul Erik


    focusing spectrum compared to the case of a perpendicular injection angle. From numerical and analytical analysis, we confirm that the quenching is a fundamental geometrical effect, and identify two mechanisms responsible for the anomaly. The focusing spectrum of the considered skewed geometry......The classical ballistic magnetotransport in triangular electron billiards fabricated in a high mobility GaAs heterostructure has been studied at 4.2 K. The sample geometry may be viewed as a double-slit structure with a skewed injection angle. We observe a striking cancellation of the magnetic...

  13. Focusing of branes in warped backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, S


    Branes are embedded surfaces in a given background (bulk) spacetime. Assuming a warped bulk, we investigate, in analogy with the case for geodesics, the notion of {\\em focusing} of families of such embedded, extremal 3--branes in a five dimensional background . The essential tool behind our analysis, is the well-known generalised Raychaudhuri equations for surface congruences. In particular, we find explicit solutions of these equations, which seem to show that families of 3--branes can focus along lower dimensional submanifolds depending on where the initial expansions are specified. We conclude with comments on the results obtained and possibilities about future work along similar lines.

  14. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P


    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  15. Optimal spatiotemporal focusing through complex scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Aulbach, Jochen; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël; Tourin, Arnaud; 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016605


    We present a new approach for spatiotemporal focusing through complex scattering media by wave front shaping. Using a nonlinear feedback signal to shape the incident pulsed wave front, we show that the limit of a spatiotemporal matched filter can be achieved, i.e., the wave amplitude at the intended time and focus position is maximized for a given input energy. It is exactly what is also achieved with time-reversal. Demonstrated with ultrasound experiments, our method is generally applicable to all types of waves.

  16. Dynamic focusing in the zebrafish beating heart (United States)

    Andrés-Delgado, L.; Peralta, M.; Mercader, N.; Ripoll, J.


    Of the large amount of the animal models available for cardiac research, the zebrafish is extremely valuable due to its transparency during early stages of development. In this work a dual illumination laser sheet microscope with simultaneous dual camera imaging is used to image the beating heart at 200 fps, dynamically and selectively focusing inside the beating heart through the use of a tunable lens. This dual color dynamic focusing enables imaging with cellular resolution at unprecedented high frame rates, allowing 3D imaging of the whole beating heart of embryonic zebrafish.

  17. Light focusing in the Anderson Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Leonetti, Marco; Mafi, Arash; Conti, Claudio


    Anderson localization is a regime in which diffusion is inhibited and waves (also electromagnetic waves) get localized. Here we exploit adaptive optics to achieve focusing in disordered optical fibers in the Anderson regime. By wavefront shaping and optimization, we observe the generation of a propagation invariant beam, where light is trapped transversally by disorder, and show that Anderson localizations can be also excited by extended speckled beams. We demonstrate that disordered fibers allow a more efficient focusing action with respect to standard fibers in a way independent of their length, because of the propagation invariant features and cooperative action of transverse localizations.

  18. CY15 Livermore Computing Focus Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Tom M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cupps, Kim C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); D' Hooge, Trent E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahey, Tim J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fox, Dave M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Futral, Scott W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gary, Mark R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstone, Robin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, Pam G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heer, Todd M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mark, Rich J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morrone, Chris J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoopman, Jerry D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slavec, Joe A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springmeyer, Becky R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stearman, Marc D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Watson, Py C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The LC team undertook a survey of primary Center drivers for CY15. Identified key drivers included enhancing user experience and productivity, pre-exascale platform preparation, process improvement, data-centric computing paradigms and business expansion. The team organized critical supporting efforts into three cross-cutting focus areas; Improving Service Quality; Monitoring, Automation, Delegation and Center Efficiency; and Next Generation Compute and Data Environments In each area the team detailed high level challenges and identified discrete actions to address these issues during the calendar year. Identifying the Center’s primary drivers, issues, and plans is intended to serve as a lens focusing LC personnel, resources, and priorities throughout the year.

  19. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ran [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITPC),Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,Chengdu 610054 (China); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zhu, Bin [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China)


    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural.

  20. Star Formation Beyond the Solar Circle: A Survey of Surveys (United States)

    Kerton, Charles R.


    This talk will review and distill the results of major radio, infrared, and combined radio/IR, surveys that have focused on the identification and characterization of active regions of star formation in the outer Galaxy. These surveys reveal that, in terms of star formation activity, the Milky Way beyond the solar circle is not a vast wasteland, but rather it is an area containing numerous regions of star formation well placed for detailed individual study, for large-scale studies of star formation within spiral arms, and for comparative studies with star formation occurring in different environments such as the inner Galaxy and Galactic center.

  1. Study on focusing performance of the twice reflecting laser focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Qiangcheng [Company of Postgraduate Management, Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Beijing 101416 (China); Zhi Guodou, E-mail: [Department of Basic Theories, Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, Beijing 101416 (China)


    Laser thrusters characterized by feasible application perspective all possess the twice reflecting laser focusing system. Nonetheless, studies on its focusing performance are imperative for the research of flight route of the thruster and haven't been developed yet. Under three different focusing design modes, assisted with optical design software ZEMAX which employing Monte Carlo ray tracing, performance of twice reflecting laser focusing system including focusing performance parameters, radiation intensity distribution and the details of ignition region on the focusing plane are studied comparatively, and the studied two main angular aberrations are beam out-coming aberration from laser source and flying aberration from thruster itself. Studies show even slight aberration will result in steep falling focusing performance and strong deviation of beam spot for any focusing design mode, while different aberrations bring in distinctive falling tendencies and the evolutions of ignition region. It strongly demands the directional precision of laser beam, and the attitude control of laser thruster is indispensable. And it's not recommended that one focusing design mode is superior to another. Which kind of aberration is dominant should be taken into account when choosing focusing mode.

  2. Attentional Focus Effects in Standing Long Jump Performance: Influence of a Broad and Narrow Internal Focus. (United States)

    Becker, Kevin A; Smith, Peter J K


    The content of instructions that strength coaches give can have a significant impact on how an athlete or client performs. Research on motor learning has shown an advantage of instructions focusing on the effects of movements (external focus) over those focusing on the movements themselves (internal focus) in the performance of motor skills. Internally focused cues are abundant in coaching, therefore the purpose of this study was to test whether some internally focused cues might be more helpful than others. Participants (68) were randomly assigned to either an external focus (EX), broad internal focus (B-IN), narrow internal focus (N-IN), or a control group (CON), and performed 5 standing long jumps. All groups were instructed that the goal was to jump as far as possible. In addition, the EX group was told to "jump as far past the start line as possible." The B-IN group was told to "use your legs." The N-IN group was told to "extend your knees as rapidly as possible," and the CON group received no additional instruction. An analysis of covariance showed that the EX group (198.09 ± 31.89 cm) jumped significantly farther than both the B-IN group (173.74 ± 35.36 cm), p = 0.010 and the N-IN group (178.53 ± 31.17 cm), p = 0.049, with no group different from the CON group. The results suggest that a broad internal focus is no more effective than a narrow internal focus, and that an external focus leads to the greatest jump distance. Strength and conditioning professionals should carefully word their instructions to induce an external focus of attention whenever possible.

  3. The Role of Emotions in Delusion Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smurzyńska Adrianna


    Full Text Available The text concerns the role of emotions in delusion formation. Provided are definitions from DSM-V and DSM-IV-R and the problems found in those definitions. One of them, the problem of delusion formation, is described when providing cognitive theories of delusions. The core of the paper is a presentation of the emotional and affective disorders in delusions, especially Capgras delusion and Cotard delusion. The author provides a comparison of the kinds of delusions and the conclusions taken from neuroimaging studies. As a result of the fact that an explanation of delusion formation focusing on emotional problems turns out to be insufficient, the author provides examples of the reasoning impairments which coexist with them. At the end of the article, some hypotheses are proposed concerning the role of emotions and reasoning in delusion formation and the relation between belief disorders and emotional disorders.

  4. Flexural waves focusing through shunted piezoelectric patches (United States)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Ichchou, M.; Li, L.


    In this paper, we designed and analyzed a piezo-lens to focus flexural waves in thin plates. The piezo-lens is comprised of a host plate and piezoelectric arrays bonded on the surfaces of the plate. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance circuits. The effective refractive indexes inside the piezo-lens are designed to fit a hyperbolic secant distribution by tuning the negative capacitance values. A homogenized model of a piezo-mechanical system is adopted in the designing process of the piezo-lens. The wave focusing effect is studied by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the piezo-lens can focus flexural waves by bending their trajectories, and is effective in a large frequency band. The piezo-lens has the ability to focus flexural waves at different locations by tuning the shunting negative capacitance values. The piezo-lens is shown to be effective for flexural waves generated by different types of sources.

  5. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.


    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  6. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development (United States)

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che


    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  7. Focused-ion-beam processing for photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de René M.; Hopman, Wico C.L.; Ay, Feridun


    Although focused ion beam (FIB) processing is a well-developed technology for many applications in electronics and physics, it has found limited application to photonics. Due to its very high spatial resolution in the order of 10 nm, and its ability to mill almost any material, it seems to have a go

  8. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.


    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  9. Prosodic focus marking in Dali Mandarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; van de Velde, H.; Chen, A.


    This study investigated prosodic marking of focus in Dali Mandarin, a variety of Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin) spoken in Dali city, the capital of Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, China. Dali Mandarin as a variety of Mandarin has had heavy contact with Bai, a Tibeto-Burman language, for a lon

  10. Content-Focused Coaching: Five Key Practices (United States)

    Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul


    Many districts are using content-focused coaching as a strategy to provide job-embedded support to teachers. However, the current coaching literature provides little guidance on what coaches need to know and be able to do to engage teachers in activities that will support their development of ambitious instructional practices. Furthermore, little…

  11. Power Evaluation of Focused Cluster Tests. (United States)

    Puett, Rc; Lawson, Ab; Clark, Ab; Hebert, Jr; Kulldorff, M


    Many statistical tests have been developed to assess the significance of clusters of disease located around known sources of environmental contaminants, also known as focused disease clusters. The majority of focused-cluster tests were designed to detect a particular spatial pattern of clustering, one in which the disease cluster centers around the pollution source and declines in a radial fashion with distance. However, other spatial patterns of environmentally related disease clusters are likely given that the spatial dispersion patterns of environmental contaminants, and thus human exposure, depend on a number of factors (i.e., meteorology and topography). For this study, data were simulated with five different spatial patterns of disease clusters, reflecting potential pollutant dispersion scenarios: 1) a radial effect decreasing with increasing distance, 2) a radial effect with a defined peak and decreasing with distance, 3) a simple angular effect, 4) an angular effect decreasing with increasing distance and 5) an angular effect with a defined peak and decreasing with distance. The power to detect each type of spatially distributed disease cluster was evaluated using Stone's Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test, Tango's Focused Test, Bithell's Linear Risk Score Test, and variations of the Lawson-Waller Score Test. Study findings underscore the importance of considering environmental contaminant dispersion patterns, particularly directional effects, with respect to focused-cluster test selection in cluster investigations. The effect of extra variation in risk also is considered, although its effect is not substantial in terms of the power of tests.

  12. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola


    . A new method for making spatial matched filter focusing of RF ultrasound data is proposed based on the spatial impulse response description of the imaging. The response from a scatterer at any given point in space relative to the transducer can be calculated, and this gives the spatial matched filter...

  13. Optimization of focused ion beam performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.


    The authors have analyzed how much current can be obtained in the probe of an optimized two-lens focused ion beam (FIB) system. This becomes relevant, as systems become available that have the potential to image and/or fabricate structures smaller than 10 nm. The probe current versus probe size curv

  14. High throughput-per-footprint inertial focusing. (United States)

    Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Ettori, Maxime; Gijs, Martin A M


    Matching the scale of microfluidic flow systems with that of microelectronic chips for realizing monolithically integrated systems still needs to be accomplished. However, this is appealing only if such re-scaling does not compromise the fluidic throughput. This is related to the fact that the cost of microelectronic circuits primarily depends on the layout footprint, while the performance of many microfluidic systems, like flow cytometers, is measured by the throughput. The simple operation of inertial particle focusing makes it a promising technique for use in such integrated flow cytometer applications, however, microfluidic footprints demonstrated so far preclude monolithic integration. Here, the scaling limits of throughput-per-footprint (TPFP) in using inertial focusing are explored by studying the interplay between theory, the effect of channel Reynolds numbers up to 1500 on focusing, the entry length for the laminar flow to develop, and pressure resistance of the microchannels. Inertial particle focusing is demonstrated with a TPFP up to 0.3 L/(min cm²) in high aspect-ratio rectangular microfluidic channels that are readily fabricated with a post-CMOS integratable process, suggesting at least a 100-fold improvement compared to previously demonstrated techniques. Not only can this be an enabling technology for realizing cost-effective monolithically integrated flow cytometry devices, but the methodology represented here can also open perspectives for miniaturization of many biomedical microfluidic applications requiring monolithic integration with microelectronics without compromising the throughput.

  15. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.


    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  16. Self-focused Attention in Anorexia Nervosa (United States)

    Zucker, Nancy; Wagner, H. Ryan; Merwin, Rhonda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Keeling, Lori; Hoyle, Rick


    Objective The clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by preoccupation with body experience, intrusive concerns regarding shape, and pathological fears of weight gain. These symptoms are suggestive of unrelenting self-focused attention. No research to date has characterized self-focused attention (SFA) in AN nor examined neurocognitive features that may facilitate an excessive, rigid, or sustained focus on one’s appearance. Method This study examined SFA, body image disturbance, and executive functioning in women with current anorexia nervosa (AN-C; n = 24), a history of AN who were weight-restored at the time of the study weight-restored (WR; n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 24). Results Private and public SFA were highest among WR and lowest among AN-C. Shape concerns were negatively correlated with SFA, especially among AN-C, after controlling for depression and social anxiety symptoms. Discussion Lower levels of SFA among AN-C were unexpected and suggest the acute state of AN may lessen pathological self-focus, negatively reinforcing symptoms. In addition, body image concerns may distract from general SFA. Deficits in executive attention may explain these findings, as each one unit increase in perseverative errors among AN-C participants was associated with an almost one-half unit decrease in public SFA. PMID:24899215

  17. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment. (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert


    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  18. Careers in focus library and information science

    CERN Document Server


    Careers in Focus: Library and Information Science, Second Edition profiles 19 careers for professionals interested in this field. Job profiles include:. -Acquisitions librarians. -Book conservators. -Children's librarians. -Corporate librarians. -Film and video librarians. -Law librarians. -Library assistants. -Library media specialists. -Medical librarians. -Research assistants.

  19. Focus. Volume 27, Number 2, Winter 2010 (United States)

    Caspar, Emma, Ed.


    The purpose of "Focus" is to provide coverage of poverty-related research, events, and issues, and to acquaint a large audience with the work of the Institute for Research on Poverty by means of short essays on selected pieces of research. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Progress toward Improving the U.S. Poverty Measure:…

  20. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.;


    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...... processes in the universe....

  1. Generating focused topic-specific sentiment lexicons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; Weerkamp, W.


    We present a method for automatically generating focused and accurate topic-specific subjectivity lexicons from a general purpose polarity lexicon that allow users to pin-point subjective on-topic information in a set of relevant documents. We motivate the need for such lexicons in the field of medi

  2. Trauma-Focused Training Program for Teachers (United States)

    Davis, Marilyn Diane


    Teachers have reported that they have difficulty providing support to traumatized children and youth because of a lack of training in how to identify and respond to the needs of these children. The program, "Amazing Help Skills for Teachers to Unmask Trauma in Children and Youth" (AHSUM), is a trauma-focused training program, designed…

  3. Empirical Study of Formative Evaluation in Adult ESL Teaching (United States)

    Yi, Qin


    Formative Evaluation is a method of evaluating a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the "process" during which problems are timely spotted, corrected and adjustments made so that an intended goal can be accomplished. Through a four-month empirical research work with students of…

  4. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in the First Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya; Glover, Simon C. O.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.


    We discuss the formation of supermassive black holes in the early universe, and how to probe their subsequent evolution with the upcoming mm/sub-mm telescope ALMA. We first focus on the chemical and radiative conditions for black hole formation, in particular considering radiation trapping and molec

  5. Study of Permanent Magnet Focusing for Astronomical Camera Tubes (United States)

    Long, D. C.; Lowrance, J. L.


    A design is developed of a permanent magnet assembly (PMA) useful as the magnetic focusing unit for the 35 and 70 mm (diagonal) format SEC tubes. Detailed PMA designs for both tubes are given, and all data on their magnetic configuration, size, weight, and structure of magnetic shields adequate to screen the camera tube from the earth's magnetic field are presented. A digital computer is used for the PMA design simulations, and the expected operational performance of the PMA is ascertained through the calculation of a series of photoelectron trajectories. A large volume where the magnetic field uniformity is greater than 0.5% appears obtainable, and the point spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function(MTF) indicate nearly ideal performance. The MTF at 20 cycles per mm exceeds 90%. The weight and volume appear tractable for the large space telescope and ground based application.

  6. Mechanism of Deep-focus Earthquakes Anomalous Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Linnik, E P; Mavrodiev, S C; Zelentsova, T N; Pintelina, L; Smolyar, V P; Pekevski, L


    Analyzing the NEIC-data we have shown that the spatial deep-focus earthquake distribution in the Earth interior over the 1993-2006 is characterized by the clearly defined periodical fine discrete structure with period L=50 km, which is solely generated by earthquakes with magnitude M 3.9 to 5.3 and only on the convergent boundary of plates. To describe the formation of this structure we used the model of complex systems by A. Volynskii and S. Bazhenov. The key property of this model consists in the presence of a rigid coating on a soft substratum. It is shown that in subduction processes the role of a rigid coating plays the slab substance (lithosphere) and the upper mantle acts as a soft substratum. Within the framework of this model we have obtained the estimation of average values of stress in the upper mantle and Young's modulus for the oceanic slab (lithosphere) and upper mantle.

  7. Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Hunt, Josephine; Perrin, Irene;


    Natural Toxin Task Force therefore organised a workshop on trichothecenes with a special focus on deoxynivalenol (DON). A number of experts reviewed the current knowledge on trichothecenes with respect to occurrence, including aspects of mould growth, toxin formation, storage and effects of processing......A number of mycotoxins of the class of trichothecenes are produced by a variety of Fusarium fungi commonly found on cereals. Unfavourable weather conditions may lead to a high level of Fusarium infections in crops such as wheat and correspondingly high trichothecene contents. The ILSI Europe......; prevention; analytical methodologies, including sampling; surveillance and exposure assessments; and toxicology and risk assessment. A number of recommendations were given under the headings: prevention, sampling and analytical methods, exposure assessment, and toxicology. Gaps in knowledge were also...

  8. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States)


    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  9. Gravitational Focusing and the Star Cluster Initial Mass Function (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Aleksandra; Hartmann, Lee; Burkert, Andreas


    We discuss the possibility that gravitational focusing is responsible for the power-law mass function of star clusters N({log}M)\\propto {M}-1. This power law can be produced asymptotically when the mass accretion rate of an object depends upon the mass of the accreting body, as \\dot{M}\\propto {M}2. Although Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion formally produces this dependence on mass in a uniform medium, realistic environments are much more complicated. However, numerical simulations in SPH that allow for sink formation yield such an asymptotic power-law mass function. We perform pure N-body simulations to isolate the effects of gravity from those of gas physics and to show that clusters naturally result with the power-law mass distribution. We also consider the physical conditions necessary to produce clusters on appropriate timescales. Our results help support the idea that gravitationally dominated accretion is the most likely mechanism for producing the cluster mass function.

  10. Relationship between internal dosimetry and DNA double strand breaks in lymphocytes after radionuclide therapy; Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Dosimetrie und DNA Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten nach Radionuklidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta


    In radionuclide therapy radiopharmaceuticals are administered mostly systemically. Primarily, beta-emitters are used because of their short range in tissue. As a result the radiopharmaceutical distributes within the human body and accumulates in organs and target structures. Thus, the body is irradiated internally, in contrast to external irradiation in radiotherapy. The pattern of the activity distribution within the human body is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the amount of activity and its accumulation in organs or tissues is essential for the calculation of the absorbed dose which defines the energy deposited in the body by ionizing radiation. During internal or external irradiation, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation which does not only destroy the malignant cells but also damages healthy tissue and cells. This is mainly caused by direct and indirect interaction of the radiation with the DNA which damages the DNA structure. Most frequently, there are single strand breaks and base damages. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are rare; nevertheless, they are the most critical lesions for cells as repairing the damage is difficult. Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA could cause mutations, chromosomal aberrations or lead to cell death. The formation of a DNA DSB in nuclear chromatin results in the rapid phosphorylation of the histone H2 variant H2AX, then called gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, DSBs also recruit the damage sensor 53BP1 to the chromatin surrounding the DSBs, which leads to 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX co-localization in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. By immunofluorescence staining with gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 antibodies those biomarkers can be addressed by microscopically visible DNA damage protein foci, this is also known as the DNA damage focus assay. With progression of DSB repair, gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci disappear. It is assumed that one focus corresponds to one DSB. Therefore, the number of foci per

  11. Indian Youth Speak about Tobacco: Results of Focus Group Discussions with School Students (United States)

    Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.


    This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…

  12. Designing a clinical skills training laboratory with focus on video for better learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Toftgård, Rie Castella; Nørgaard, Cita

    of the skills training laboratory was made. The principles included video in different instructional designs: 1. Teacher-produced video podcasts 2. Group work using video 3. Formative assessment using video 4. Practicing skills using video Each principle was described using a template focusing on (a) objectives...

  13. How to Reverse the Vicious Cycle of Low Self-Esteem: The Importance of Attentional Focus. (United States)

    Brockner, Joel; Hulton, A. J. Blethyn


    The hypothesis was tested that low self-esteem people are more "self-conscious," which impairs their task performance. High and low self-esteem subjects performed a concept formation task under conditions designed to focus the subject's attention on himself or on the task. Results paralleled findings on test anxiety. (SJL)

  14. Sharp Focus on Soft Skills: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students' Educational Expectations (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka


    In 2006, the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, recommended that all public institutions of higher learning in the country incorporate soft skills formation into their curricula. This qualitative study aimed to explore Malaysian students' expectations of university education with a special focus on the acquisition of soft skills and to…

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics FOCUS ON MICRO- AND NANOFLUIDICS (United States)

    Ajdari, Armand; Stone, Howard A.


    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics concentrates on recent developments in microfluidics, and related small-scale flow themes. This subject touches on many areas with the common element that they are engaged with understanding, measuring or manipulating flows at the scale of a few hundred microns or smaller. Microfluidics is of interest to many scientists and engineers from many disciplines because it is a toolbox from which they can investigate basic questions in their respective fields. In particular, the field has led to new studies of small-scale fluid flows, especially those dominated by surface effects, which is crucial for understanding electrokinetics, chemical reactions and phase changes, and multiphase systems, including those involving dispersed liquid and gas phases, suspended particles, cells, vesicles, capsules, etc. The lower length scale of these kinds of flows concerns nanoscale manipulation of objects such as DNA or nanoparticles, nanofabrication of surfaces, studies of the flow within nanometers of substrates, etc. Microfluidics has also given rise to technologies because it enables design and implementation of new devices for sensing, detection, measurement, materials characterization, combinatorial discovery, cellular-scale manipulation, miniaturization of reactors, etc. The fact that these systems are small, cheap, physically flexible, portable, multifunctional, and, when they are working, produce measurements quickly, offers many new avenues for innovation. In this issue we highlight contributions from around the world that explore research directions inspired by the manifold possibilities of microfluidics. In particular, the papers include reports of single-phase flows that are driven by electrical fields, so-called electrokinetics. Although the field has its origins in the 19th century, if not even earlier, new theoretical ideas are required to understand dynamics close to charged surfaces, and new applications of the basic ideas are

  16. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P A Coe; D Urner; A Reichold


    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative positions and orientations of several key components in the beam-delivery and interaction region. Monitoring the relative positions of the ILC final focus quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam-relative stability will have a direct impact on machine luminosity. Established, laser-based frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and fixed-frequency interferometry (FFI) offer positional resolution at length scales of the laser wavelength (1500 nm to 1560 nm) and a thousandth of the wavelength, respectively. As part of the ATF at KEK, StaFF will use interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam position monitors. Interferometers are being designed and tested in Oxford prior to deployment at the ATF.

  17. Focus on biodiversity, health and wellbeing (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn; Athias, Renato


    In 2012 Environmental Research Letters (ERL) launched a focus series of research papers on the theme of biodiversity, health and well-being. It was the year of the second Rio Summit on Sustainable Development, a huge number of species had been made extinct and conservationists were making increasingly urgent calls for the protection of biodiversity. The situation is ever more critical. Since we started the issue more species have become extinct, and hundreds more have now become critically endangered. The focus issue highlighted the complexity of the links of biodiversity and health, and provides more evidence for the importance to human health of biodiversity on our planet. Research papers contrasted anthropocentric western scientific views of biodiversity and its ecosystem service to humans, with the more horizontal conceptions of indigenous communities in the Amazon—and as many cultures have recognized throughout history, they recognize that we are part of nature: nature does not exist for us.

  18. Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment: Focus on Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjuan Fan


    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a complex multistep process involving not only genetic and epigenetic changes in the tumor cell but also selective supportive conditions of the deregulated tumor microenvironment. One key compartment of the microenvironment is the vascular niche. The role of angiogenesis in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies is now well established. Research on angiogenesis in general, and vascular endothelial growth factor in particular, is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of several antiangiogenic agents including thalidomide, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, temesirolimus, and everolimus. Indeed, antiangiogenic agents have significantly changed treatment strategies in solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Here we illustrate important aspects in the interrelationship between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to tumor progression, with focus on angiogenesis, and summarize derived targeted therapies.

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment: focus on angiogenesis. (United States)

    Fan, Fengjuan; Schimming, Alexander; Jaeger, Dirk; Podar, Klaus


    Tumorigenesis is a complex multistep process involving not only genetic and epigenetic changes in the tumor cell but also selective supportive conditions of the deregulated tumor microenvironment. One key compartment of the microenvironment is the vascular niche. The role of angiogenesis in solid tumors but also in hematologic malignancies is now well established. Research on angiogenesis in general, and vascular endothelial growth factor in particular, is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of several antiangiogenic agents including thalidomide, bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib, temesirolimus, and everolimus. Indeed, antiangiogenic agents have significantly changed treatment strategies in solid tumors (colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer) and multiple myeloma. Here we illustrate important aspects in the interrelationship between tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to tumor progression, with focus on angiogenesis, and summarize derived targeted therapies.

  20. Gravitational focusing of imperfect dark matter (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Ramazanov, Sabir


    Motivated by the projectable Horava-Lifshitz model/mimetic matter scenario, we consider a particular modification of standard gravity, which manifests as an imperfect low pressure fluid. While practically indistinguishable from a collection of nonrelativistic weakly interacting particles on cosmological scales, it leaves drastically different signatures in the Solar system. The main effect stems from gravitational focusing of the flow of imperfect dark matter passing near the Sun. This entails strong amplification of imperfect dark matter energy density compared to its average value in the surrounding halo. The enhancement is many orders of magnitude larger than in the case of cold dark matter, provoking deviations of the metric in the second order in the Newtonian potential. Effects of gravitational focusing are prominent enough to substantially affect the planetary dynamics. Using the existing bound on the post-Newtonian parameter βPPN, we deduce a stringent constraint on the unique constant of the model.

  1. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.


    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  2. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  3. Gravitational focusing of Imperfect Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny


    Motivated by the projectable Horava-Lifshitz model/mimetic matter scenario, we consider a particular modification of standard gravity, which manifests as an imperfect low pressure fluid. While practically indistinguishable from collection of non-relativistic weakly interacting particles on cosmological scales, it leaves drastically different signatures in the Solar system. The main effect stems from gravitational focusing of the flow of {\\it Imperfect Dark Matter} passing near the Sun. This entails the strong amplification of Imperfect Dark Matter energy density compared to its average value in the surrounding halo. The enhancement is many orders of magnitude larger than in the case of Cold Dark Matter, provoking deviations of the metric in the second order in the Newtonian potential. Effects of gravitational focusing are prominent enough to substantially affect the planetary dynamics. Using the existing bound on the PPN parameter $\\beta_{PPN}$, we deduce the stringent constraint on the unique constant of the...

  4. Self-focusing of whistler waves (United States)

    Karpman, V. I.; Kaufman, R. N.; Shagalov, A. G.


    The theory of axially symmetric self-focusing of whistler waves, based on the full system of Maxwell equations, is developed. The plasma is described by the magnetohydrodynamic equations including the ponderomotive force from RF field. The nonlinear Schrodinger equations (NSE) for arbitrary azimuthal modes of whistler waves are derived. It is shown that they differ from the NSE for a scalar field; this is connected with an intrinsic angular momentum due to the rotating polarization of whistlers. It is shown that the self-focusing, as described by the NSE, differs in its final stage from the results following the full set of Maxwell equations. The latter gives defocusing after sufficient narrowing of the initial wave beam, due to transformation of the trapped wave into a nontrapped branch which is not contained in the NSE description. The oscillatory character of the defocusing is demonstrated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A new approach to solving the kinetic equation for the beam distribution function, (very useful from the practical point of view), is discussed, in which the authors also obtain a complement to the Skrinsky's condition for the self-focused bunched beam. This problem belongs to the theory of nonlinear systems in which both regular and chaotic motion is possible. The kinetic approach, based on Vlasov-Poisson equations, are used to investigate the focusing and acceleration of bunched beam. Special attention is given to the studies of stability in a bunched beam by means of the two norm, which may be used to describe t!he motion of high-energy particles.

  6. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician Alecu


    Full Text Available The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress. Also, the project manger skills are highlighted in this specific context.

  7. Epileptogenic focus localization: a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Vânia [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, André Santos [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Capela, Carlos; Cerqueira, Luís [Department of Neuroradiology, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal)


    Epilepsy is one of the most important chronic neurological disorders worldwide affecting more than 50 million people of all ages. Among these, almost 20% of epilepsy cases are uncontrollable and have an unknown source of this abnormal electrical activity. Present techniques for the detection of epileptogenic foci include electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography, and multimodal EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), all with limitations in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to overcome some of those limitations a novel approach using fMRI alone was developed based on the hypotheses that the epileptogenic focus shows Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal profiles distinct from the remaining brain parenchyma during interictal activity and that the epileptogenic focus BOLD signals show lower complexity than healthy parenchyma. In this novel approach, bi-dimensional temporal clustering analysis, a data-driven technique, was used to identify brain regions with similar temporal profiles. Then, the BOLD signals of these regions were assessed regarding complexity using detrended fluctuation analysis and also using a modified multiscale entropy algorithm in order to identify which of those regions corresponded to epileptogenic tissue. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method three epileptic patients were analyzed comprising two types of epilepsy: unilateral and bilateral temporal lobe epilepsies. The results showed that this method is able to detect the brain regions associated with epileptogenic tissue. The results also showed that the epileptogenic focus influences the dynamics of related brain networks. This could be a key factor in the applicability of this method to other epilepsy cases. Finally, new perspectives are envisioned concerning the use of this method in the medical care of epilepsy. In particular, by improving this method using simultaneous structural, functional, and metabolic

  8. Focus on thermoelectric effects in nanostructures (United States)

    Sánchez, David; Linke, Heiner


    The field of nanoscale thermoelectrics began with a clear motivation for better performances of waste heat recovery processes by lowering the system dimensionality. Although this original inspiration still drives many recent developments, the field has also evolved to address fundamental questions on charge and energy transport across quantum conductors in the presence of both voltage and temperature differences. This ‘focus on’ collection provides new perspectives in the field and reports on the latest developments, both theoretically and experimentally.

  9. Tunable Focusing by a Flexible Metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Zárate, Yair; Powell, David A


    An efficient reflective elastic metasurface with tunable focusing point is proposed. The metasurface is based on electric resonators embedded in a stretchable elastic substrate. The focal length is controlled by mean of the stretching applied applied to the sample. The results predicted by theory and numerical simulations are experimentally verified. Our proposal shows that smart engineering elastic metamaterials are an effective platform for new functional devices based on metamaterials.

  10. Vision Trainer Teaches Focusing Techniques at Home (United States)


    Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects

  11. Presentational Focus in Heritage and Monolingual Spanish (United States)

    Hoot, Bradley


    In Spanish, it is most commonly claimed that constituents in narrow presentational focus appear rightmost, where they also get main stress (1a), while stress in situ (1b) is infelicitous. (1) [Context: Who bought a car?]. a. Compró un carro mi [mamá][subscript F]. bought a car my mom. b. Mi [mamá ][subscript F] compró un carro. However, some…

  12. Photoacoustic cell using elliptical acoustic focusing (United States)

    Heritier, J.-M.; Fouquet, J. E.; Siegman, A. E.


    A photoacoustic cell has been developed in the form of an elliptical cylinder in which essentially all the acoustic energy generated by a laser beam passing down one axis is focused onto a cylindrical acoustic tranducer located along the other axis. Preliminary measurements on a liquid-filled cell of this design show high sensitivity and a notably clean impulse response. A similar design may be useful for photoacoustic measurements in vapors as well.

  13. Focusing magnets for HIF based on racetracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N; Manahan, R R


    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is considered a promising path to a practical fusion reactor. A driver for a HIF reactor will require a large number of quadrupole arrays to focus heavy ion beams. A conceptual design, and trade off studies of the quadrupole array based on racetracks are presented. A comparison with a conventional shell magnet is given and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A more detailed design of a single quadrupole for the High Current experiment (HCX) is presented and discussed.

  14. Seven Issues Should Be Focused on Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ According to the investment situation of the first half of this year, under macro-control of the central government, the super high-speed investment momentum in the first half of this year was controlled and some overheated industries were becoming normal. Influenced by many positive factors, the targets of macro-control as expected will be achieved. However, in order to further settle this policy and realize the economic soft-landing, the following seven issues should be focused on.

  15. Introduction to Focus Issue: Lagrangian Coherent Structures. (United States)

    Peacock, Thomas; Dabiri, John


    The topic of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) has been a rapidly growing area of research in nonlinear dynamics for almost a decade. It provides a means to rigorously define and detect transport barriers in dynamical systems with arbitrary time dependence and has a wealth of applications, particularly to fluid flow problems. Here, we give a short introduction to the topic of LCS and review the new work presented in this Focus Issue.

  16. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca


    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  17. Formative Assessment in Context (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie


    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  18. Inertial Focusing of Microparticles in Curvilinear Microchannels (United States)

    Özbey, Arzu; Karimzadehkhouei, Mehrdad; Akgönül, Sarp; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali


    A passive, continuous and size-dependent focusing technique enabled by “inertial microfluidics”, which takes advantage of hydrodynamic forces, is implemented in this study to focus microparticles. The objective is to analyse the decoupling effects of inertial forces and Dean drag forces on microparticles of different sizes in curvilinear microchannels with inner radius of 800 μm and curvature angle of 280°, which have not been considered in the literature related to inertial microfluidics. This fundamental approach gives insight into the underlying physics of particle dynamics and offers continuous, high-throughput, label-free and parallelizable size-based particle separation. Our design allows the same footprint to be occupied as straight channels, which makes parallelization possible with optical detection integration. This feature is also useful for ultrahigh-throughput applications such as flow cytometers with the advantages of reduced cost and size. The focusing behaviour of 20, 15 and 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microparticles was examined for different channel Reynolds numbers. Lateral and vertical particle migrations and the equilibrium positions of these particles were investigated in detail, which may lead to the design of novel microfluidic devices with high efficiency and high throughput for particle separation, rapid detection and diagnosis of circulating tumour cells with reduced cost.

  19. The COSPIX Mission: Focusing on the Energetic and Obscured Universe (United States)

    Ferrando, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Beckmann, V; Arnaud, M.; Barcons, X.; Bomans, D.; Caballero, I.; Carrera, F.; Chaty, S.; Chenevez, J.; Claret, A.; Corbel, S.; Croston, J.; Daddi, E.; De Becker, M.; Decourchelle, A.; Elbaz, D.; Falanga, M.; Ferrari, C.; Feruglio, C.; Gotz, D.; Gouiffes, C.; Hailey, C.


    Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-rays, and polarimetric capabilities within the same focal plane instrumentation. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the mission, its baseline design, and its performances, as proposed to ESA.

  20. The COSPIX mission: focusing on the energetic and obscured Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, P; Laurent, P; Limousin, O; Beckmann, V; Arnaud, M; Barcons, X; Bomans, D; Caballero, I; Carrera, F; Chaty, S; Chenevez, J; Chipaux, R; Christensen, F; Claret, A; Corbel, S; Croston, J; Daddi, E; De Becker, M; Decourchelle, A; Elbaz, D; Falanga, M; Ferrari, C; Feruglio, C; Götz, D; Gouiffès, C; Hailey, C; Hernanz, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Malzac, J; Martignac, J; Mattana, F; Meuris, A; Miniutti, G; Nalewajko, K; Negueruela, I; O'Dell, S; Paltani, S; Petre, R; Petrucci, P -O; Pierre, M; Pinsard, F; Ponti, G; Rauw, G; Rea, N; Renaud, M; Robert, J -L; Rodriguez, J; Rozanska, A; Santangelo, A; Sauvageot, J -L; Soldi, S; Tagger, M; Tenzer, C; Terrier, R; Trap, G; Varnière, P; Wilms, J; Zhang, W; Heras, J Zurita


    Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-ray...

  1. Electromechanical properties of dried tendon and isoelectrically focused collagen hydrogels. (United States)

    Denning, D; Abu-Rub, M T; Zeugolis, D I; Habelitz, S; Pandit, A; Fertala, A; Rodriguez, B J


    Assembling artificial collagenous tissues with structural, functional, and mechanical properties which mimic natural tissues is of vital importance for many tissue engineering applications. While the electro-mechanical properties of collagen are thought to play a role in, for example, bone formation and remodeling, this functional property has not been adequately addressed in engineered tissues. Here the electro-mechanical properties of rat tail tendon are compared with those of dried isoelectrically focused collagen hydrogels using piezoresponse force microscopy under ambient conditions. In both the natural tissue and the engineered hydrogel D-periodic type I collagen fibrils are observed, which exhibit shear piezoelectricity. While both tissues also exhibit fibrils with parallel orientations, Fourier transform analysis has revealed that the degree of parallel alignment of the fibrils in the tendon is three times that of the dried hydrogel. The results obtained demonstrate that isoelectrically focused collagen has similar structural and electro-mechanical properties to that of tendon, which is relevant for tissue engineering applications.

  2. A numerical study on the oblique focus in MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound (United States)

    Hughes, Alec; Huang, Yuexi; Pulkkinen, Aki; Schwartz, Michael L.; Lozano, Andres M.; Hynynen, Kullervo


    Recent clinical data showing thermal lesions from treatments of essential tremor using MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound shows that in many cases the focus is oblique to the main axis of the phased array. The potential for this obliquity to extend the focus into lateral regions of the brain has led to speculation as to the cause of the oblique focus, and whether it is possible to realign the focus. Numerical simulations were performed on clinical export data to analyze the causes of the oblique focus and determine methods for its correction. It was found that the focal obliquity could be replicated with the numerical simulations to within 23.2+/- {{13.6}\\circ} of the clinical cases. It was then found that a major cause of the focal obliquity was the presence of sidelobes, caused by an unequal deposition of power from the different transducer elements in the array at the focus. In addition, it was found that a 65% reduction in focal obliquity was possible using phase and amplitude corrections. Potential drawbacks include the higher levels of skull heating required when modifying the distribution of power among the transducer elements, and the difficulty at present in obtaining ideal phase corrections from CT information alone. These techniques for the reduction of focal obliquity can be applied to other applications of transcranial focused ultrasound involving lower total energy deposition, such as blood-brain barrier opening, where the issue of skull heating is minimal.

  3. Finding focus : a study of the historical development of focus in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.


    This study reveals how two important focus articulations change over time in written English. Constituent focus, often accompanied by contrast, makes use of the clause-initial position in the oldest stages of English, but as this position comes to be used for the grammatical subject over time, the i

  4. Galaxy Formation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Andrew J


    We review the current theory of how galaxies form within the cosmological framework provided by the cold dark matter paradigm for structure formation. Beginning with the pre-galactic evolution of baryonic material we describe the analytical and numerical understanding of how baryons condense into galaxies, what determines the structure of those galaxies and how internal and external processes (including star formation, merging, active galactic nuclei etc.) determine their gross properties and evolution. Throughout, we highlight successes and failings of current galaxy formation theory. We include a review of computational implementations of galaxy formation theory and assess their ability to provide reliable modeling of this complex phenomenon. We finish with a discussion of several "hot topics" in contemporary galaxy formation theory and assess future directions for this field.

  5. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R


    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  6. Topic-Focus Articulation of Isotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Sova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with linguistic phenomena at suprasentential level. In particular, it looks into how textual analysis can be enhanced by supplementing the Parisian programme of interpretive semantics, as devised by François Rastier, namely his theory of isotopies, with elementary aspects of topic-focus articulation (TFA, as well as contextual boundness (CB and contextual non-boundness (CN, as elaborated within the Praguian linguistic tradition (V. Mathesius, P. Sgall, E. Hajičová, F. Daneš, J. Firbas, and how the descriptive power of the former can be increased by the latter. In this respect, it is argued that two types of TFA phenomena interact during any process of textual interpretation: those of topic-focus articulation at the level of sentence, conceiving lexical morphs as thematic (T and/or rhematic (R, as well as contextually bound (CB and/or contextually non-bound (CN, and those of topic-focus articulation at the level of isotopy, with each isotopy being conceived as structured around a center (an abstract semantic unit and periphery (a span of concrete utterances. Two types of such interaction are described, each defined by either correlation, or non-correlation of the CB and CN semes at the levels of isotopy and sentence, respectively: thematic-rhematic isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CB seme of the periphery; and thematic-rhematic allotopy (i.e. non-isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CN seme of the periphery. Since topic-focus isotopies and allotopies can be perceived as members of privative oppositions, a tentative system of such oppositions is presented, based on linguistic analyses of selected European Commission texts drafted in English and their Czech translations. The author’s ultimate intention is to show that the semantic features of topic-focus articulation at the sentential and suprasentential levels are both structurally parallel and

  7. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, G


    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  8. Formative Assessment Probes: Big and Small Seeds. Linking Formative Assessment Probes to the Scientific Practices (United States)

    Keeley, Page


    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. Formative assessment probes are designed to uncover students' ideas about objects, events, and processes in the natural world. This assessment information is then used throughout instruction to move students toward an understanding of the scientific ideas behind the probes. During the…

  9. Magnetic Assisted Colloidal Pattern Formation (United States)

    Yang, Ye

    Pattern formation is a mysterious phenomenon occurring at all scales in nature. The beauty of the resulting structures and myriad of resulting properties occurring in naturally forming patterns have attracted great interest from scientists and engineers. One of the most convenient experimental models for studying pattern formation are colloidal particle suspensions, which can be used both to explore condensed matter phenomena and as a powerful fabrication technique for forming advanced materials. In my thesis, I have focused on the study of colloidal patterns, which can be conveniently tracked in an optical microscope yet can also be thermally equilibrated on experimentally relevant time scales, allowing for ground states and transitions between them to be studied with optical tracking algorithms. In particular, I have focused on systems that spontaneously organize due to particle-surface and particle-particle interactions, paying close attention to systems that can be dynamically adjusted with an externally applied magnetic or acoustic field. In the early stages of my doctoral studies, I developed a magnetic field manipulation technique to quantify the adhesion force between particles and surfaces. This manipulation technique is based on the magnetic dipolar interactions between colloidal particles and their "image dipoles" that appear within planar substrate. Since the particles interact with their own images, this system enables massively parallel surface force measurements (>100 measurements) in a single experiment, and allows statistical properties of particle-surface adhesion energies to be extracted as a function of loading rate. With this approach, I was able to probe sub-picoNewton surface interactions between colloidal particles and several substrates at the lowest force loading rates ever achieved. In the later stages of my doctoral studies, I focused on studying patterns formed from particle-particle interaction, which serve as an experimental model of

  10. Theoretical Study of a Spherical Plasma Focus (United States)

    Ay, Yasar

    A theoretical model is developed for two concentric electrodes spherical plasma focus device in order to investigate the plasma sheath dynamics, radiative emission, and the ion properties. The work focuses on the model development of the plasma sheath dynamics and its validation, followed by studying of the radiation effects and the beam-ion properties in such unique geometry as a pulsed source for neutrons, soft and hard x-rays, and electron and ion beams. Chapter 1 is an introduction on fusion systems including plasma focus. Chapter 2 is an extensive literature survey on plasma focus modeling and experiments including the various radiations and their mechanism. Chapter 3 details modeling and validation of the plasma sheath dynamics model with comparison between hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and deuterium-tritium mixture for the production of pulsed neutrons. Chapter 4 is a study of the radiative phase, in which neutron yield is investigated, as well as the predicted beam-ion properties. Chapter 5 summarizes and discusses the results. Chapter 6 provides concluding remarks and proposed future works. The phases of the developed model are the rundown phase I, rundown phase II, the reflected phase and a radiative phase. The rundown phase I starts immediately after the completion of the gas breakdown and ends when the current sheath reaches the equator point of the spherical shape. Then immediately followed by rundown phase II to start and it ends when the shock front hits the axis, which is the beginning of the reflected shock phase. Reflected shock front moves towards the incoming current sheath and meets it which is both the end of the reflected shock phase and the beginning of the radiative phase. After the reflected shock front and the current sheath meet, the current sheath continues to move radially inward by compressing the produced plasma column until it reaches the axis. Since the discharge current contains important information about the plasma dynamic

  11. New Office Software course format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Always interested to anticipate your training needs, the Technical Training service is pleased to propose two new Office Software course formats : “Focus on... ” : On a monthly basis we will propose a theme such as “Sharepoint Collaboration Workspace” or “Word 2007” or “charts” etc. You will have to send us in advance your questions regarding the proposed topic and register for the course through our Training Catalogue. During the session, our trainer will answer all the questions received and participants will increase their knowledge thanks to the solutions discussed for everyone. The course will last two hours, from 09h00 to 11h00 - with open questions on the proposed topic at the end. “Office software Individual coaching”: If one or several particular topics cause you sleepless nights, you can get the help of our trainer who will come to your workplace for a multiple of 1-hour slots . All fields ...

  12. Design and Fabrication of Double-Focused Ultrasound Transducers to Achieve Tight Focusing (United States)

    Jang, Jihun; Chang, Jin Ho


    Beauty treatment for skin requires a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer to generate coagulative necrosis in a small focal volume (e.g., 1 mm3) placed at a shallow depth (3–4.5 mm from the skin surface). For this, it is desirable to make the F-number as small as possible under the largest possible aperture in order to generate ultrasound energy high enough to induce tissue coagulation in such a small focal volume. However, satisfying both conditions at the same time is demanding. To meet the requirements, this paper, therefore, proposes a double-focusing technique, in which the aperture of an ultrasound transducer is spherically shaped for initial focusing and an acoustic lens is used to finally focus ultrasound on a target depth of treatment; it is possible to achieve the F-number of unity or less while keeping the aperture of a transducer as large as possible. In accordance with the proposed method, we designed and fabricated a 7-MHz double-focused ultrasound transducer. The experimental results demonstrated that the fabricated double-focused transducer had a focal length of 10.2 mm reduced from an initial focal length of 15.2 mm and, thus, the F-number changed from 1.52 to 1.02. Based on the results, we concluded that the proposed double-focusing method is suitable to decrease F-number while maintaining a large aperture size. PMID:27509500

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan


    papers, the authors have not carried out the necessary control experiments and materials characterization to convincingly eliminate these possibilities. The former includes the growth of films without the magnetic dopant and the associated demonstration of the absence of ferromagnetism. Magnetic secondary phase formation is particularly problematic because in order to inject enough magnetic dopant to generate appreciable magnetization and spin polarization, one must often exceed the solid solubility of the dopant in the host. If the dopant is itself ferromagnetic in its elemental state, or if unintended magnetic products nucleate, spurious ferromagnetism will occur. Moreover, it is often a major analysis challenge to detect secondary phases when they consist of only a few per cent of the dopant; element specific spectroscopies such as x-ray absorption have been invaluable in this task. Powder diffraction is not sufficiently sensitive for this level of analysis. Against this backdrop, this focus issue of New Journal of Physics now appears. The editors' principal goal in soliciting papers has been to encourage investigators to submit work in which the necessary experiments have been done to allow the material to be adequately characterized. This collection contains a mix of experimental and theoretical papers, and many different types of materials are covered. This focus issue thus constitutes a snapshot in time of a fast-moving and fascinating field of materials physics. Reference [1] Dietl T, Ohno H, Matsukura F, Cibert J and Ferrand D 2000 Science 287 1019 Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors Contents Lithographically and electrically controlled strain effects on anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As E De Ranieri, A W Rushforth, K Výborný, U Rana, E Ahmad, R P Campion, C T Foxon, B L Gallagher, A C Irvine, J Wunderlich and T Jungwirth Structure and magnetism of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films M Ivill, S J Pearton, S Rawal, L Leu, P Sadik, R Das, A F Hebard, M

  14. Neuroticism focuses attention: evidence from SSVEPs. (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Janani; De Vos, Maarten; Thorne, Jeremy D; Kranczioch, Cornelia


    Neuroticism and negative affect have been associated with an increase in attentional investment and the greater processing of irrelevant stimuli. Previous research proposes the overinvestment of attention and a focused mental state as the mechanism of this effect. We investigated the neural correlates of this idea using a dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation paradigm with centrally presented, overlapping streams of letters that changed at different frequencies. Participants attended one stream at a time. We predicted that the more focused cognitive style associated with higher neuroticism would be reflected in the overinvestment of attention in the irrelevant stream of to-be-ignored letters, in particular, when the ignored stream was the more salient one. This was expected to lead to a smaller difference in power between the attended and unattended frequencies. Results showed that power differences between attended and unattended streams were negatively correlated with neuroticism scores in direct support of our hypothesis. Exploratory correlations also showed that extraversion was positively related to the attention difference. As extraversion has been contrasted to neuroticism and linked to increased cognitive flexibility and control in previous studies, it is possible that this trait may help in disengagement from salient stimuli. Together, these results provide the first neural correlates of the focused cognitive style idea. That the effect of extraversion is seen in the centro-parietal region and the effect of neuroticism is seen in the occipital region, indicate that these personality traits may affect the hierarchy of visual information processing. These findings provide new insight into the influence of personality traits on attention mechanisms and open up questions regarding the relationship between neuroticism, extraversion and information processing.

  15. Clay Mineralogical Study of the Tertiary Malubog Formation, Cebu Province, Philippines


    ALETA, Dennis Gerald A.; TOMITA, Katsutoshi; KAWANO, Motoharu; ALETA, Josephine T.; LUPO, Elena S.


    The Early Miocene Malubog Formation (MbF) is one of the most widespread Tertiary formations in Central Cebu, Philippines. The formation consists of mudstone, shale and occasional beds of conglomerate, limestone and coal. It exhibits poor bedding and shows rapid lithologic changes vertically and horizontally. The formation is subdivided into several members which are all essentially coal measures and limestones. Mineralogical study of the Malubog Formation focused on the gently dipping strata ...

  16. Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel


    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless remotely controlled switching using passive optical splitters. The signal to be transmitted is digitally pre-distorted so that it is routed through the physical layer in order to arrive at only one receiver in an array. System...... performance in the presence of additive white gaussian noise, modal group delay, and timing error is investigated numerically for single-mode and 10-mode fiber. Focusing using a two-transmitter array and 44 km of single- mode fiber is demonstrated experimentally for 3 GBd QPSK signals with a bit error rate...

  17. Service Academy 2007 Gender Relations Focus Groups (United States)


    I’ve been here. I feel I heard a lot of them my plebe [freshman] year, and then as time has gone on, because they made it such a focus, I feel like...they’re discussing it and it has become less of an issue. I feel like the plebes have never even heard it or heard of anyone using that term. I...than it was a few years ago. – “My plebe [freshman] year we had drunk firsties [seniors] coming in almost every night to my room just to sit and talk

  18. Language of CTO interventions - Focus on hardware. (United States)

    Mishra, Sundeep


    The knowledge of variety of chronic total occlusion (CTO) hardware and the ability to use them represents the key to success of any CTO interventions. However, the multiplicity of CTO hardware and their physical character and the terminology used by experts create confusion in the mind of an average interventional cardiologist, particularly a beginner in this field. This knowledge is available but is scattered. We aim to classify and compare the currently used devices based on their properties focusing on how physical character of each device can be utilized in a specific situation, thus clarifying and simplifying the technical discourse.

  19. Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines. (United States)

    Voigt, Emily A; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A


    Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development. Smallpox vaccine development is thus a much-reviewed topic of high interest. This review focuses on the current state of smallpox vaccines and their context in biodefense efforts.

  20. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S


    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  1. CRISIS FOCUS:Back to Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The devastating global financial crisis stemmed from the corruption of the U.S. property market and a wide range of financial derivatives that were devised based on home mortgages. The world’s financial institutions have been hit hard, with some going bankrupt. To avoid such financial catastrophe in the future, Fan Gang, Director of the National Economic Institute, called on business people nationwide to focus more on real industries instead of blindly pouring money into financial and service sectors. He made a speech at a forum on the global financial crisis and China’s economic development. His edited speech follows:

  2. Triplet Focusing for Recirculating Linear Muon Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Eberhard


    Focusing by symmetrical triplets is studied for the linear accelerator lattices in recirculating muon accelerators with several passes where the ratio of final to initial muon energy is about four. Triplet and FODO lattices are compared. At similar acceptance, triplet lattices have straight sections for the RF cavities that are about twice as long as in FODO lat-tices. For the same energy gain, the total lengths of the linear accelerators with triplet lattices are about the same as of those with FODO lattices.

  3. Focus point from direct gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)


    This paper is devoted to the reconciliation of the tension between the theoretic expectation from naturalness and the present LHC limits on the superpartner mass bounds. We argue that in supersymmetry models of direct gauge mediation the focusing phenomenon appears, which dramatically reduces the fine tuning associated to the 126 GeV Higgs boson. This type of model is highly predictive as regards the mass spectrum, with a multi-TeV third generation, the A{sub t} term of order 1 TeV, gluino mass above LHC mass bound, and the light neutralinos and charginos below 1 TeV. (orig.)

  4. Focus groups: a strategy for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Kfouri LOPES


    Full Text Available Introduction: The research strategy through open interviews is a qualitative alternative that can capture the meaning embedded in opinions expressed, revealing values and feelings of the research subjects. As a constructivist method it requires the interpretative analysis of the speech. Data collection requires pragmatism from the researcher and absence of stimuli that might induce or inhibit the interviewees. Objective: This study had the following proposals: a to implement the strategy of focus groups as part of the evaluation of the Qualitative Methods discipline in a stricto sensu course; b to search the criteria that determine the patient’s choice of dental professional.Material and methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the research,an exercise was carried out aimed at understanding the content of focus groups through active learning methodology based on the experience and binomial action-reflection. The activity was developed under the theme “Determinants in the relationship established between the dental professional and their patients”, according to the patients’ opinions.The group that coordinated the activity consisted of four dentists,students of the Qualitative Methods discipline, who played the following roles: a mediator; b reporter; c observer; d recording operator.The discussion group was composed of six (N = 6 volunteers from a total of 20 students enrolled in this discipline. The exclusion criteria included those with private dental plans and/or the exclusive users of public health services. The recording was transcribed and submitted to content analysis. To this end the ATLAS.ti 5.0 computer program was used. Results: Patients select the dental professional according to the references they get from others. The personal relationship was highly valued by the group, reinforcing the skills and abilities of sensitivity and commitment to the human being presented in the text of the National Curriculum Guidelines

  5. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.


    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  6. Seven Issues Should Be Focused on Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      According to the investment situation of the first half of this year, under macro-control of the central government, the super high-speed investment momentum in the first half of this year was controlled and some overheated industries were becoming normal. Influenced by many positive factors, the targets of macro-control as expected will be achieved. However, in order to further settle this policy and realize the economic soft-landing, the following seven issues should be focused on.……

  7. Challenges in Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro


    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are: 1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; 2) the growth of the first planetesimals; 3) orbital migration driven by interactions between proto-planets and gaseous disk; 4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and 5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  8. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server


    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  9. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminescence of luminol. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalare inhibited methemoglobin formation. The generation of the superoxide anion is discussed in regard to methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

  10. Nonlinear Effect on Focusing Gain of a Focusing Transducer with a Wide Aperture Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-He; ZHANG Dong; GONG Xiu-Fen


    @@ Nonlinear effect on focusing gain of acoustic field radiated from a 1-MHz focusing transmitter with a wide aperture angle of 35° is theoretically and experimentally investigated. With the enhancement of nonlinearity, the focusing gains of both intensity and peak positive pressure show non-monotonic behaviour. There exist the same saturated levels at which the maximum outputs are reached and their spatial distributions are more localized. In contrast,the peak negative pressure always decreases monotonically and its spatial distribution is less localized.

  11. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chenglin


    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas–solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb2O5nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid–solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities.

  12. Seasonal variation of the Sq focus position during 2006-2010 (United States)

    Vichare, Geeta; Rawat, Rahul; Jadhav, Madhavi; Sinha, Ashwini Kumar


    In the present paper, the perception of the seasonal variation of the Sq focus position is re-examined during low solar activity period (2006-2010). Equivalent current vectors are plotted for each geomagnetic quiet day (Ap ⩽ 5), using diurnal variations of H and D components measured at the magnetic observatories located in a narrow longitudinal belt of the Indo-Russian region. On the formation of well-defined Sq current loop, the information about the Sq focus is extracted by identifying a pair of neighboring stations with opposite zonal currents and nearby local times with opposite meridional currents. Thus, the method employed here is different from the methods used in earlier studies. Prominent seasonal variations in the Sq focus latitude, as well as in the local time of Sq focus, are observed. It is observed that the Sq focus is located at ∼30 deg in March equinox, but it moves to lower latitudes in the month of September. In winter, it shows large variability and also the formation of clear Sq current loop is less frequent. The local time of Sq focus is at ∼12 LT in March and shifts to ∼10 LT during September. It is clearly evident from the present analysis that the March and September equinoxes behave differently. The dominance of DE3 and semidiurnal waves in the September equinox could be the reason for the observed disparity.

  13. Pictorial Formats. Volume 1. Format Development (United States)


    the pilot to help him evaluate when to change course to avoid objects in TF/TA modes. In addition to the projected flight path, there are commanded...TYPESFigMASTER5 Wepo Saus clr ase 00I 16I AI 󈧋TRA- X PI prI MEN p~ll It 62 AIR-TO-GROUND _ - PRGRAM ýRELEASE SELECTIONS _ZY - Figure 58 71T ý Weapon...development should always be done within the context oF a baseline aircraft weapon system. Further studies are needed to simulate and evaluate these formats

  14. Diode and Final Focus Simulations for DARHT (United States)

    Hughes, Thomas P.; Welch, Dale R.; Carlson, Randolph L.


    We have used the numerical simulation codes uc(ivory,) uc(iprop) and uc(pbguns) to simulate beam dynamics in the diode and final focus of the 4 kA, 20 MV DARHT linear accelerator. A low emittance 4 MV, 4 kA source for a 4-pulse injector was designed using uc(ivory) and uc(pbguns.) Due to the long pulse length (four 70 ns pulses over 1 μsec), we have kept the field stress to stacks. The normalized edge emittance produced by the diode optics is only ≈ 130 mm-mrad. In the final-focus region, we have used uc(iprop) to model the effect of ion emission from the target. The intense electric field of the beam at the 1 mm diameter focal spot produces substantial ion velocities, and, if the space-charge-limited current density can be supplied, significant focal spot degradation may occur due to ion space-charge. Calculations for the ITS test stand, which has a larger focal spot, show that the effect should be observable for H^+ and C^+ ion species. The effect may be lessened if there is insufficient ion density on the target to supply the space-charge-limited current density, or if the ion charge-to-mass ratio is sufficiently large.

  15. Drawing road networks with focus regions. (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon


    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems.

  16. Focusing on the essentials: learning for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Catherine J


    Full Text Available Abstract As The World health report 2006 emphasized, there is increasing consensus that training programmes should focus on "know-how" instead of "know-all." Health workers need to know how to do the job they will be expected to do. IntraHealth International's Learning for performance: a guide and toolkit for health worker training and education programs offers a step-by-step, customizable approach designed to develop the right skills linked to job responsibilities. Using Learning for performance (LFP yields more efficient training that focuses on what is essential for health workers to do their jobs and on effective learning methods, while addressing the factors that ensure application of new skills on the job. This brief communication describes the Learning for performance approach and initial findings from its application for pre-service education and in-service training in three countries: India, Mali and Bangladesh. Based on IntraHealth's experiences, the author provides thoughts on how LFP's performance-based learning approach can be a useful tool in training scale-up to strengthen human resources for health.

  17. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn E; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia


    The Gamma-Ray Imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200 - 1300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ~10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10^-7 ph/cm2/s/keV for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 x 10^-6 ph/cm2/s for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin - an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector ...

  18. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents. (United States)


    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  19. Focusing parabolic guide for very small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hils, T.; Boeni, P.; Stahn, J


    Modern materials can often only be grown in small quantities. Therefore, neutron-scattering experiments are difficult to perform due to the low signal. In order to increase the flux at the sample position, we have developed the concept of a small focusing guide tube with parabolically shaped walls that are coated with supermirror m=3. The major advantage of parabolic focusing is that the flux maximum occurs not at the exit of the tube. It occurs at the focal point that can be several centimeters away from the exit of the tube. We show that an intensity gain of 6 can easily be obtained. Simulations using the software package McStas demonstrate that gain factors up to more than 50 can be realised on a spot size of approximately 1.2 mm diameter. For PGAA we expect flux gains of up to three orders of magnitude if multiplexing is used. We show that elliptic ballistic guides lead to flux gains of more than 6.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations for focusing elliptical guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicu, Roxana [FRM2 Garching, Muenchen (Germany); Boeni, Peter [E20, TU Muenchen (Germany)


    The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations using McStas Programme was to improve the focusing of the neutron beam existing at PGAA (FRM II) by prolongation of the existing elliptic guide (coated now with supermirrors with m=3) with a new part. First we have tried with an initial length of the additional guide of 7,5cm and coatings for the neutron guide of supermirrors with m=4,5 and 6. The gain (calculated by dividing the intensity in the focal point after adding the guide by the intensity at the focal point with the initial guide) obtained for this coatings indicated that a coating with m=5 would be appropriate for a first trial. The next step was to vary the length of the additional guide for this m value and therefore choosing the appropriate length for the maximal gain. With the m value and the length of the guide fixed we have introduced an aperture 1 cm before the focal point and we have varied the radius of this aperture in order to obtain a focused beam. We have observed a dramatic decrease in the size of the beam in the focal point after introducing this aperture. The simulation results, the gains obtained and the evolution of the beam size will be presented.

  1. Focusing parabolic guide for very small samples (United States)

    Hils, T.; Boeni, P.; Stahn, J.


    Modern materials can often only be grown in small quantities. Therefore, neutron-scattering experiments are difficult to perform due to the low signal. In order to increase the flux at the sample position, we have developed the concept of a small focusing guide tube with parabolically shaped walls that are coated with supermirror m=3. The major advantage of parabolic focusing is that the flux maximum occurs not at the exit of the tube. It occurs at the focal point that can be several centimeters away from the exit of the tube. We show that an intensity gain of 6 can easily be obtained. Simulations using the software package McStas demonstrate that gain factors up to more than 50 can be realised on a spot size of approximately 1.2 mm diameter. For PGAA we expect flux gains of up to three orders of magnitude if multiplexing is used. We show that elliptic ballistic guides lead to flux gains of more than 6.

  2. Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex


    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

  3. Malformations of cortical development and neocortical focus. (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner; Clusmann, Hans


    Developmental neocortical malformations resulting from abnormal neurogenesis, disturbances in programmed cell death, or neuronal migration disorders may cause a long-term hyperexcitability. Early generated Cajal-Retzius and subplate neurons play important roles in transient cortical circuits, and structural/functional disorders in early cortical development may induce persistent network disturbances and epileptic disorders. In particular, depolarizing GABAergic responses are important for the regulation of neurodevelopmental events, like neurogenesis or migration, while pathophysiological alterations in chloride homeostasis may cause epileptic activity. Although modern imaging techniques may provide an estimate of the structural lesion, the site and extent of the cortical malformation may not correlate with the epileptogenic zone. The neocortical focus may be surrounded by widespread molecular, structural, and functional disturbances, which are difficult to recognize with imaging technologies. However, modern imaging and electrophysiological techniques enable focused hypotheses of the neocortical epileptogenic zone, thus allowing more specific epilepsy surgery. Focal cortical malformation can be successfully removed with minimal rim, close to or even within eloquent cortex with a promising risk-benefit ratio.

  4. Skills and Regional Entrepreneurship Capital Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendonça, Joana; Grimpe, Christoph


    - and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing......, and that the effects are thus contingent on regional factors. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York...

  5. Tuning the DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    accelerator cell to replace a failed solenoid in March of 2012. We took advantage of this opportunity to improve the design of the focusing tune with better models of the remaining partially failed solenoids, better estimates of beam initial conditions, and better values for pulsed-power voltages. As with all previous tunes for Axis-II, this one incorporates measures to mitigate beam-breakup (BBU) instability, image displacement instability (IDI), corkscrew (sweep), and emittance growth. Section II covers the general approach to of design of focusing solenoid tunes for the DARHT Axis-2 LIA. Section III explains the specific requirements and simulations needed to design the tune for the injector, which includes the thermionic electron source, diode, and six induction cells. Section IV explains the requirements and simulations for tuning the main accelerator, which consists of 68 induction cells. Finally, Section V explores sensitivity of the tune to deviations of parameters from nominal, random variations, and uncertainties in values. Four appendices list solenoid settings for this new tune, discuss comparisons of different simulation codes, show halo formation in mismatched beams, and present a brief discussion of the beam envelope equation, which is the heart of the method used to design LIA solenoid tunes.

  6. Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huth


    Full Text Available Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has reached a stage at which this technique is now particularly attractive for several areas in both, basic and applied research. The present topical review addresses selected examples that highlight this development in the areas of charge-transport regimes in nanogranular metals close to an insulator-to-metal transition, the use of these materials for strain- and magnetic-field sensing, and the prospect of extending FEBID to multicomponent systems, such as binary alloys and intermetallic compounds with cooperative ground states.Results: After a brief introduction to the technique, recent work concerning FEBID of Pt–Si alloys and (hard-magnetic Co–Pt intermetallic compounds on the nanometer scale is reviewed. The growth process in the presence of two precursors, whose flux is independently controlled, is analyzed within a continuum model of FEBID that employs rate equations. Predictions are made for the tunability of the composition of the Co–Pt system by simply changing the dwell time of the electron beam during the writing process. The charge-transport regimes of nanogranular metals are reviewed next with a focus on recent theoretical advancements in the field. As a case study the transport properties of Pt–C nanogranular FEBID structures are discussed. It is shown that by means of a post-growth electron-irradiation treatment the electronic intergrain-coupling strength can be continuously tuned over a wide range. This provides unique access to the transport properties of this material close to the insulator-to-metal transition. In the last part of the review, recent developments in mechanical

  7. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R


    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  8. Collision Induced Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Schäffer, R


    We present a semi-analytical model in which galaxy collisions and strong tidal interactions, both in the field and during the collapse phase of groups and clusters help determine galaxy morphology. From a semi-analytical analysis based on simulation results of tidal collisions (Aguilar & White 1985), we propose simple rules for energy exchanges during collisions that allow to discriminate between different Hubble types: efficient collisions result in the disruption of disks and substantial star formation, leading to the formation of elliptical galaxies; inefficient collisions allow a large gas reservoir to survive and form disks. Assuming that galaxy formation proceeds in a Omega_0=1 Cold Dark Matter universe, the model both reproduces a number of observations and makes predictions, among which are the redshifts of formation of the different Hubble types in the field. When the model is normalized to the present day abundance of X-ray clusters, the amount of energy exchange needed to produce elliptical gal...

  9. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus? (United States)

    Gray, Rob


    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.

  10. All in Focus Image Generation based on New Focusing Measure Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Eldeen M. Shamardan


    Full Text Available To generate an all in focus image, the Shape-From-Focus (SFF is used. The SFF key is finding the optimal focus depth at each pixel or area in an image within sequence of images. In this paper two new focusing measure operators are suggested to be used for SFF. The suggested operators are based on modification for the state of art tool for time-frequency analysis, the Stockwell Transform (ST. The first operator depends on Discrete Orthogonal Stockwell Transform (DOST which represents a pared version of ST, while the other depends on Pixelwise DOST (P-DOST which provides a local spatial frequency description. Both of the operators provides the computational complexity and memory demand efficiency compared to the operator depending on ST. A comparison between the suggested operators to operators based on ST are performed and showed that the suggested operators’ performances are as analogous to that of ST.

  11. The Effects of Focus on Forms and Focus on Form in Teaching Complex Grammatical Structures (United States)

    Pawlak, Miroslaw


    The classroom-based study reported in the present paper sought to compare the effectiveness of the focus on forms (FonFs) and focus on form (FonF) approach in teaching English third conditional to Polish high school students. It involved three intact classes, randomly designated as FonF (n = 34), FonFs (n = 36), and Control (n = 35) with a pretest…

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch


    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  13. Signatures of star formation by cold collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Aleksandra; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier


    Sub-virial gravitational collapse is one mechanism by which star clusters may form. Here we investigate whether this mechanism can be inferred from observations of young clusters. To address this question, we have computed SPH simulations of the initial formation and evolution of a dynamically young star cluster through cold (sub-virial) collapse, starting with an ellipsoidal, turbulently seeded distribution of gas, and forming sink particles representing (proto)stars. While the initial density distributions of the clouds do not have large initial mass concentrations, gravitational focusing due to the global morphology leads to cluster formation. We use the resulting structures to extract observable morphological and kinematic signatures for the case of sub-virial collapse. We find that the signatures of the initial conditions can be erased rapidly as the gas and stars collapse, suggesting that kinematic observations need to be made either early in cluster formation and/or at larger scales, away from the grow...

  14. Dust Evolution and the Formation of Planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T; Johansen, A


    The solid content of circumstellar disks is inherited from the interstellar medium: dust particles of at most a micrometer in size. Protoplanetary disks are the environment where these dust grains need to grow at least 13 orders of magnitude in size. Our understanding of this growth process is far from complete, with different physics seemingly posing obstacles to this growth at various stages. Yet, the ubiquity of planets in our galaxy suggests that planet formation is a robust mechanism. This chapter focuses on the earliest stages of planet formation, the growth of small dust grains towards the gravitationally bound "planetesimals", the building blocks of planets. We will introduce some of the key physics involved in the growth processes and discuss how they are expected to shape the global behavior of the solid content of disks. We will consider possible pathways towards the formation of larger bodies and conclude by reviewing some of the recent observational advances in the field.

  15. Hot subdwarf formation: Confronting theory with observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier S.


    Full Text Available The formation of hot subdwarf stars is still unclear. Both single-star and binary scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of these evolved stars situated at the extreme blue end of the horizontal branch. The observational evidence gathered in the last decade, which revealed high fractions of binaries, shifted the focus from the single-star to the binary formation scenarios. Common envelope ejection, stable Roche lobe overflow and the merger of helium white dwarfs seemed to be sufficient to explain the formation of both the binary as well as the remaining single hot subdwarfs. However, most recent and rather unexpected observations challenge the standard binary evolution scenarios.

  16. [Strategic focusing of attention during narrative reading]. (United States)

    Hähnel, A; Rinck, M


    In 2 experiments based on the constructionist view of text comprehension, we investigated whether readers are able to strategically use, in a problem solving matter, spatial and temporal information that varies in its relevance to the goals of the protagonists. In order to accomplish this, we varied the specificity of the protagonists' goal descriptions. Both experiments consisted of a reading section, a test, and a questionnaire, and differed only in respect to when the questionnaire was administered. The results of both experiments showed that readers were able to use spatial and temporal information of narrative texts in a strategic matter, and they even did so without explicit instruction. This focus of attention, however, was not uniformly reflected in the reading times. Memory data showed a clear disadvantage for temporal information as compared to spatial information. This was the case even though both types of information had been equally well identified in the questionnaire as crucial to the problem solving process of the protagonist.

  17. Focus on the Physics of Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas


    Despite the spectacular achievements of molecular biology in the second half of the twentieth century and the crucial advances it permitted in cancer research, the fight against cancer has brought some disillusions. It is nowadays more and more apparent that getting a global picture of the very diverse and interlinked aspects of cancer development necessitates, in synergy with these achievements, other perspectives and investigating tools. In this undertaking, multidisciplinary approaches that include quantitative sciences in general and physics in particular play a crucial role. This `focus on' collection contains 19 articles representative of the diversity and state-of-the-art of the contributions that physics can bring to the field of cancer research.

  18. Gene therapy in India: A focus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarvani Chodisetty; Everette Jacob Remington Nelson


    Gene therapy refers to the treatment of genetic diseases using normal copies of the defective genes. It has the potential to cure any genetic disease with long-lasting therapeutic benefits. It remained an enigma for a long period of time, which was followed by a series of setbacks in the late 1990s. Gene therapy has re-emerged as a therapeutic option with reports of success from recent clinical studies. The United States and Europe has been pioneers in this field for over two decades. Recently, reports of gene therapy have started coming in from Asian countries like China, Japan and Korea. This review focuses on the current status of gene therapy in India.

  19. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  20. Broadening the focus of evaluation: An experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty, S.


    Full Text Available Evaluation of student performance in any course, especially those delivered in a management programme, poses a serious challenge; more so, in a course like ‘Business Communication’, where oral communication ought to form an integral part of evaluation. This paper presents various details of an experiment, conducted with a view to introduce this much needed component in the evaluation process. Essential purpose of the exercise was to try and broaden the focus of evaluation, simultaneously enlarging its scope. The need to maintain certain amount of objectivity and transparency was taken as critical. Group Discussion was used as a tool. A process was developed with the objective of getting every student evaluated on both written as well as non-written skills. A two-sided evaluation mechanism was put in place to achieve the dual purpose of leaning and evaluation. Statistical analysis of the results suggests that the experiment was a useful one. The student feedback, too, was favourable.

  1. Focused electrojetting for nanoscale 3-D fabrication (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Kim, Ho-Young


    Although extreme miniaturization of components in integrated circuits and biochemical chips has driven the development of various nanofabrication technologies, three-dimensional fabrication of nanoscale objects is still in its infancy. Here we propose a novel method to fabricate a free-standing nanowall by the line-by-line deposition of electrospun polymer nanofibers. We show that the electrified nanojet, which tends to get unstable as traveling in free space due to the Coulombic repulsion, can be stably focused onto a narrow line of metal electrode. On the conducting line, the polymer nanojet is spontaneously folded successively to form a wall-like structure. We rationalize the period of spontaneous folding by balancing the tension in the polymer fiber with the electrostatic interaction of the fiber with the metal ground. This novel fabrication scheme can be applied for the development of three-dimensional bioscaffolds, nanofilters and nanorobots.

  2. X-ray focusing using microchannel plates (United States)

    Kaaret, P.; Geissbuehler, P.; Chen, A.; Glavinas, E.


    We present measurements of the X-ray focusing properties of square-pore microchannel plates (MCP's). Square-pore MCP's contain large numbers of closely packed optical surfaces, as required for grazing incidence X-ray optics. The surface of individual MCP channels has been measured and found to have high microroughness transverse to the channel axis and low microroughness parallel to the axis. The high frequency transverse roughness, on length scales greater than 400 nm, has a rms value of 5.9 nm and a Gaussian autocorrelation function with correlation length of 1.41 micron. We find that the geometric misalignments of the surfaces of different channels limit the angular resolution obtainable with current samples of MCP's to 7.1 arcmin.

  3. Focus Point SUSY at the LHC Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Siba Prasad; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Mukherjee, Siddhartha


    The estimation of the backgrounds for gluino signals in focus point supersymmetry is extended by including the backgrounds from the production of four third generation quarks in the analysis. We find that these backgrounds are negligible if one uses the strong selection criteria proposed in the literature (including this analysis) for heavy gluino searches. Softer selection criteria often recommended for lighter gluino searches yield backgrounds which are small but numerically significant. We have also repeated the more conventional background calculations and compared our results with the other groups. We find that the size of the total residual background estimated by different groups using different event generators and hard kinematical cuts agree approximately. In view of the theoretical uncertainties in the signal and background cross sections in the leading order mainly due to the choice of the QCD scale the gluino mass reach at the LHC cannot be pinpointed, if the selection criteria requires $\\geq$ 2 t...

  4. Preface - Focus Meeting 20: Astronomy for Development (United States)

    Govender, Kevin


    This Focus Meeting was about the global developmental impact that all aspects related to astronomy can deliver. The interdisciplinary nature of the meeting made it relevant to all IAU Divisions and the professional astronomy community in general. The manner in which the strategic plan has been designed and the way in which OAD implements it allows for input and innovation from the professional community both to develop the astronomy field globally and to stimulate the developmental benefits arising from the astronomy field. IAU members have played a key role in every stage of implementation of the strategic plan, from its ratification, through to strong participation in its implementation. This meeting served to report back to them in terms of progress, as well as seek input from them in terms of shaping the way forward.

  5. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  6. Obesity-Related Hypertension: Focus on Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard

    suggested to play a role in obesity-related hypertension such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system, inflammation, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, and abnormal production of adipocytokines. Of all adipocytokines, leptin and adiponectin have received most...... attention and both hormones are considered as candidate intermediaries between adipose tissue and overweight and obesity-related disorders. Objectives: To study obesity-related hypertension with special focus on the hormone leptin. As obesity-related hypertension is multifactorial, other biological systems...... proposed to play a major role were also studied. Primary hypotheses: 1. leptin is a significant mediator of overweight- and obesity-related hypertension. 2. by investigating several biological systems involved in blood pressure regulation, it would be possible to identify specific factors which would...

  7. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction. (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit


    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism.

  8. Literature in Focus Perspectives on LHC Physics

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Library invites you to a book presentation, a Literature in Focus event. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the world’s largest, highest energy and highest intensity particle accelerator. This is a timely book with several perspectives on the hoped-for discoveries from the LHC. This book provides an overview of the techniques that will be crucial for finding new physics at the LHC, as well as perspectives on the importance and implications of the discoveries. Among the accomplished contributors to this book are leaders and visionaries in the field of particle physics beyond the Standard Model, including two Nobel Laureates (Steven Weinberg and Frank Wilczek). With its blend of popular and technical contents, the book will have wide appeal, not only to physical scientists but also to those in related fields. Perspectives on LHC Physics (World Scientific Publishing) Gordon Kane and Aaron Pierce (eds.) Tuesday 12 August, 4.30pm Council Chamber Refresh...

  9. Focus characteristics of long distance flying optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兆谷; 蒋金波; 李现勤; 许国良; 夏金安; W.M.Steen; G.Dearden


    The ABCD law for the complex parameter q of the TEM00 Gaussian beam is generally not valid for high-order modes. It can be used for the high-order modes or their superposition when the spot size w in the virtual part of the parameter q is substituted by the Rayleigh range ZR of a certain resonator. The focus characteristics of long distance flying optics are studied in this paper theoretically and experimentally for the TEMmn Gaussian beams between the two types of resonators without and with distortion. It is very important for the applications of the flying optical processing, the laser space craft and the spatial filter in the large laser project.

  10. Posterior cruciate ligament: focus on conflicting issues. (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Jung, Young Bok


    There is little consensus on how to optimally reconstruct the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the natural history of injured PCL is also unclear. The graft material (autograft vs. allograft), the type of tibial fixation (tibial inlay vs. transtibial tunnel), the femoral tunnel position within the femoral footprint (isometric, central, or eccentric), and the number of bundles in the reconstruction (1 bundle vs. 2 bundles) are among the many decisions that a surgeon must make in a PCL reconstruction. In addition, there is a paucity of information on rehabilitation after reconstruction of the PCL and posterolateral structures. This article focused on the conflicting issues regarding the PCL, and the scientific rationales behind some critical points are discussed.

  11. Teaching Introductory Physics with an Environmental Focus (United States)

    Martinuk, Mathew ``Sandy''; Moll, Rachel F.; Kotlicki, Andrzej


    Throughout North America the curriculum of introductory physics courses is nearly standardized. In 1992, Tobias wrote that four texts dominate 90% of the introductory physics market and current physics education research is focusing on how to sustain educational reforms.2 The instructional team at the University of British Columbia (UBC) recently implemented some key curriculum and pedagogical changes in Physics 100, their algebra-based introductory course for non-physics majors. These changes were aimed at improving their students' attitudes toward physics and their ability to apply physics concepts to useful real-life situations. In order to demonstrate that physics is relevant to real life, a theme of energy and environment was incorporated into the course.

  12. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P


    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  13. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle (United States)

    Mora, A.; Biermann, M.; Bombrun, A.; Boyadjian, J.; Chassat, F.; Corberand, P.; Davidson, M.; Doyle, D.; Escolar, D.; Gielesen, W. L. M.; Guilpain, T.; Hernandez, J.; Kirschner, V.; Klioner, S. A.; Koeck, C.; Laine, B.; Lindegren, L.; Serpell, E.; Tatry, P.; Thoral, P.


    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  14. Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists (United States)

    Kaptein, Matthew J.


    We propose that renal consults are enhanced by incorporating a nephrology-focused ultrasound protocol including ultrasound evaluation of cardiac contractility, the presence or absence of pericardial effusion, inferior vena cava size and collapsibility to guide volume management, bladder volume to assess for obstruction or retention, and kidney size and structure to potentially gauge chronicity of renal disease or identify other structural abnormalities. The benefits of immediate and ongoing assessment of cardiac function and intravascular volume status (prerenal), possible urinary obstruction or retention (postrenal), and potential etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease far outweigh the limitations of bedside ultrasonography performed by nephrologists. The alternative is reliance on formal ultrasonography, which creates a disconnect between those who order, perform, and interpret studies, creates delays between when clinical questions are asked and answered, and may increase expense. Ultrasound-enhanced physical examination provides immediate information about our patients, which frequently alters our assessments and management plans.

  15. Variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array (United States)

    Zhao, Wu-xiang; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Zang, Shang-fei; Wang, Qiong-hua


    A variable-focus cylindrical liquid lens array based on two transparent liquids of different refractive index is demonstrated. An elastic membrane divides a transparent reservoir into two chambers. The two chambers are filled with liquid 1 and liquid 2, respectively, which are of different refractive index. The micro-clapboards help liquid 1, liquid 2 and the elastic membrane form a cylindrical lens array. Driving these two liquids to flow can change the shape of the elastic membrane as well as the focal length. In this design, the gravity effect of liquid can be overcome. A demo lens array of positive optical power is developed and tested. Moreover, a potential application of the proposed lens array for autostereoscopic 3D displays is emphasized.

  16. Autoinflammatory Skin Disorders: The Inflammasomme in Focus. (United States)

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi


    Autoinflammatory skin disorders are a group of heterogeneous diseases that include diseases such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Therapeutic strategies targeting IL-1 cytokines have proved helpful in ameliorating some of these diseases. While inflammasomes are the major regulators of IL-1 cytokines, inflammasome-independent complexes can also process IL-1 cytokines. Herein, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how IL-1 cytokines, stemming from inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of skin conditions. Importantly, we discuss several mouse models of skin inflammation generated to help elucidate the basic cellular and molecular effects and modulation of IL-1 in the skin. Such models offer perspectives on how these signaling pathways could be targeted to improve therapeutic approaches in the treatment of these rare and debilitating inflammatory skin disorders.

  17. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter


    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated usi...

  18. Competitive mindsets, creativity, and the role of regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny V.; Heidemeier, Heike


    We examined how regulatory focus and intentions to compete rather than cooperate with group members relate to creativity. Study 1 showed that a promotion focus (i.e., a focus on ideals) activated a cooperative mindset, whereas a prevention focus (i.e., a focus on responsibilities) activated a compet

  19. Human skin image analysis using coherent focused beam scattering (United States)

    Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Utz, Sergei R.; Mishin, Alexey A.


    The analysis of statistical and correlation properties of speckle patterns formed during different skin tissue scanning by the sharply focused probing laser beam has been carried out. The influences of the biotissues' structural features on the speckle patterns formation under Gaussian beam illumination have been investigated. The relationships between the structural characteristics of the sample under study, Rayleigh range of the probing beam and normalized statistical moments of the speckle intensity (contrast and asymmetry coefficient) are discussed for the different scatterer models. A phenomenological model of speckle pattern formation for the large-scale scatterers allows us to explain the dependence of speckle contrast and the coefficient of asymmetry on the generalized structure parameters and illumination conditions for the samples under study. The experimental investigations of the human skin structure features have been carried out using two types of the tissue samples by means of coherent scanning microscopy (CSM). Firstly, D-SQUAME discs (CuDerm Corporation, Texas, USA) have been used for the evaluation of skin dryness level. Secondly, the samples under study were the thin layers of normal and psoriatic epidermis (skin strippings). The dependencies of contrast and coefficient of asymmetry on the beam defocusing parameter and 2D correlation functions of speckle pattern intensity have been analyzed for different zones on the biotissue's surface. Particularly, promising results in skin dryness studies (using D-SQUAME discs) have been obtained. Our results and conventional 5-pattern kit scale are in good agreement. So, the presented method is accurate and objective and may be useful in novel cosmetic research and development.

  20. Focus variation microscope: linear theory and surface tilt sensitivity. (United States)

    Nikolaev, Nikolay; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy


    In a recent publication [3rd International Conference on Surface Metrology, Annecy, France, 2012, p. 1] it was shown that surface roughness measurements made using a focus variation microscope (FVM) are influenced by surface tilt. The effect appears to be most significant when the surface has microscale roughness (Ra≈50  nm) that is sufficient to provide a diffusely scattered signal that is comparable in magnitude to the specular component. This paper explores, from first principles, image formation using the focus variation method. With the assumption of incoherent scattering, it is shown that the process is linear and the 3D point spread characteristics and transfer characteristics of the instrument are well defined. It is argued that for the case of microscale roughness and through the objective illumination, the assumption of incoherence cannot be justified and more rigorous analysis is required. Using a foil model of surface scattering, the images that are recorded by a FVM have been calculated. It is shown that for the case of through-the-objective illumination at small tilt angles, the signal quality is degraded in a systematic manner. This is attributed to the mixing of specular and diffusely reflected components and leads to an asymmetry in the k-space representation of the output signals. It is shown that by using extra-aperture illumination or tilt angles greater than the acceptance angle of aperture (such that the specular component is lost), the incoherent assumption can be justified once again. The work highlights the importance of using ring-light illumination and/or polarizing optics, which are often available as options on commercial instruments, as a means to mitigate or prevent these effects.

  1. A project management focused framework for assuring quality work processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamsby, S.O.; Mize, J.D. [Allied Signal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Federal Mfg. and Technologies; Reid, R.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Federal Manufacturing & Technologies/New Mexico (FM&T/NM) of AlliedSignal is an organization of approximately 300 associates providing operations support, engineering, and other technical services for DOE, New Mexico`s National Laboratories, etc. Work performed is primarily project-oriented and ranges from executing a major long-term contract for retrofitting and maintaining a large fleet of escort vehicles to creating a single, small, prototype electronic device for measuring radiation in a unique environment. FM&T/NM is functionally organized and operates in a classic matrix format with functional departments providing personnel with technical expertise, necessary physical resources, and administrative support to several project-based groups. Like most matrix-based organizations that provide support to diverse customers, FM&T/NM has encountered problems that occur when a group of project managers is expected to work together in using and scheduling a shared set of limited resources for the good of the organization as a whole. The framework for managing projects that we present focuses on developing, understanding, and managing the relationships between the functional organization structure, the system of work processes, and the management of projects. FM&T/NM retains its functional structure which primarily assigns personnel to work processes. The evolving role of the process leader focuses primarily on designing, managing, and improving the process, and the interactions among the subprocesses. The project manager is responsible for (1) translating customer requirements into product specifications, (2) determining the sequence of activities needed to meet project goals, (3) scheduling the required work processes, (4) monitoring project progress, (5) providing liaison between the customer and process leaders, and (6) having the desired product and/or service delivered to a satisfied customer in a timely manner.

  2. Neutronic calculations for a final focus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, E. E-mail:; Premuda, F.; Lee, E


    For heavy-ion fusion and for 'liquid-protected' reactor designs such as HYLIFE-II (Moir et al., Fusion Technol. 25 (1994); HYLIFE-II-Progress Report, UCID-21816, 4-82-100), a mixture of molten salts made of F{sup 10}, Li{sup 6}, Li{sup 7}, Be{sup 9} called flibe allows highly compact target chambers. Smaller chambers will have lower costs and will allow the final-focus magnets to be closer to the target with decreased size of the focus spot and of the driver, as well as drastically reduced costs of IFE electricity. Consequently the superconducting coils of the magnets closer to the chamber will suffer higher radiation damage though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. The scope of our calculations is essentially the total energy deposited on the magnetic lens system by fusion neutrons and induced {gamma}-rays. Such a study is important for the design of the final focus system itself from the neutronic point of view and indicates some guidelines for a design with six magnets in the beam line. The entire chamber consists of 192 beam lines to provide access of heavy ions that will implode the pellet. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The development of efficient and precise models for geometric representation and nuclear analysis is necessary. The parameters are optimized thanks to an accurate analysis of six geometrical models that are developed starting from the simplest. Different configurations are examined employing TART 98 (D.E. Cullen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-126455, Rev. 1, November, 1997) and MCNP 4B (Briesmeister (Ed.), Version 4B, La-12625-m, March 1997, Los Alamos National Laboratory): two Monte Carlo codes for neutrons and photons. The quantities analyzed include: energy deposited by neutrons and gamma photons, values of the total fluence integrated on the whole

  3. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku


    and Synolakis, 1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112) with a finite crest length, which is most common tsunami initial waveform. We fit earthquake initial waveform calculated through Okada (1985, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1040) to the N-wave form presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994). First, we investigate focusing phenomena as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015) and compare our results with their non-dispersive and dispersive linear analytical solutions. We confirm focusing phenomena, which amplify the wave height in the leading depression side. We then study sequencing of an N-wave profile with a finite crest length. Our preliminary results show that sequencing is more pronounced on the leading depression side. We perform parametric study to understand sequencing in terms of N-wave, hence earthquake, parameters. We then discuss the results both in terms of tsunami focusing and leading wave amplitude. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).

  4. Formation peculiarities of tourism documentation


    Zhezhnych, Pavlo; Soprunyuk, Oksana


    The article describes formation peculiarities of tourism documentation, the role of tourism data consolidation for unified format creation and the the need to use existing software tools to handle tourism information, formation process of tourism documentation is presented.

  5. Transferring data objects: A focused Ada investigation (United States)

    Legrand, Sue


    The use of the Ada language does not guarantee that data objects will be in the same form or have the same value after they have been stored or transferred to another system. There are too many possible variables in such things as the formats used and other protocol conditions. Differences may occur at many different levels of support. These include program level, object level, application level, and system level. A standard language is only one aspect of making a complex system completely homogeneous. Many components must be standardized and the various standards must be integrated. The principal issues in providing for interaction between systems are of exchanging files and data objects between systems which may not be compatible in terms of their host computer, operating system or other factors. A typical resolution of the problem of invalidating data involves at least a common external form, for data objects and for representing the relationships and attributes of data collections. Some of the issues dealing with the transfer of data are listed and consideration is given on how these issues may be handled in the Ada language.

  6. Focus on the physics of biofilms (United States)

    Lecuyer, Sigolene; Stocker, Roman; Rusconi, Roberto


    Bacteria are the smallest and most abundant form of life. They have traditionally been considered as primarily planktonic organisms, swimming or floating in a liquid medium, and this view has shaped many of the approaches to microbial processes, including for example the design of most antibiotics. However, over the last few decades it has become clear that many bacteria often adopt a sessile, surface-associated lifestyle, forming complex multicellular communities called biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are found in a vast range of environments and have major consequences on human health and industrial processes, from biofouling of surfaces to the spread of diseases. Although the study of biofilms has been biologists’ territory for a long time, a multitude of phenomena in the formation and development of biofilms hinges on physical processes. We are pleased to present a collection of research papers that discuss some of the latest developments in many of the areas to which physicists can contribute a deeper understanding of biofilms, both experimentally and theoretically. The topics covered range from the influence of physical environmental parameters on cell attachment and subsequent biofilm growth, to the use of local probes and imaging techniques to investigate biofilm structure, to the development of biofilms in complex environments and the modeling of colony morphogenesis. The results presented contribute to addressing some of the major challenges in microbiology today, including the prevention of surface contamination, the optimization of biofilm disruption methods and the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

  7. Literature in focus: How to Score

    CERN Multimedia


    What is the perfect way to take a free kick? Which players are under more stress: attackers, midfielders or defenders? How do we know when a ball has crossed the goal-line? And how can teams win a penalty shoot out? From international team formations to the psychology of the pitch and the changing room... The World Cup might be a time to forget about physics for a while, but not for Ken Bray, a theoretical physicist and visiting Fellow of the Sport and Exercise Science Group at the University of Bath who specializes in the science of football. Dr Bray will visit CERN to talk exclusively about his book: How to Score. As a well-seasoned speaker and advisor to professional football teams, this presentation promises to be a fascinating and timely insight into the secret science that lies behind 'the beautiful game'. If you play or just watch football, don't miss this event! Ken Bray - How to Score Thursday 22 June at 3 p.m. (earlier than usual to avoid clashes with World Cup matches!) Central Library reading ...

  8. EDITORIAL: Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries FOCUS ON SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH EXOTIC SYMMETRIES (United States)

    Rice, T. Maurice; Sigrist, Manfred; Maeno, Yoshiteru


    here and a consistent theoretical description of all aspects of their superconductivity remains a formidable challenge. While the discovery of the BCS theory led, in only a few years, to the complete and consistent theoretical description of all aspects of conventional superconductivity, we are far from this goal for the exotic superconductors. Hence these superconductors continue to be the focus of most research activity in the field of superconductivity today. The papers in this special issue represent a cross section of current activity in both experiment and theory on these fascinating materials. Focus on Superconductors with Exotic Symmetries Contents Phase-sensitive-measurement determination of odd-parity, spin-triplet superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 Ying Liu Striped superconductors: how spin, charge and superconducting orders intertwine in the cuprates Erez Berg, Eduardo Fradkin, Steven A Kivelson and John M Tranquada A twisted ladder: relating the Fe superconductors to the high-Tc cuprates E Berg, S A Kivelson and D J Scalapino Fractional vortex lattice structures in spin-triplet superconductors Suk Bum Chung, Daniel F Agterberg and Eun-A Kim Momentum dependence of pseudo-gap and superconducting gap in variation theory T Watanabe, H Yokoyama, K Shigeta and M Ogata Variational ground states of the two-dimensional Hubbard model D Baeriswyl, D Eichenberger and M Menteshashvili Charge dynamics of vortex cores in layered chiral triplet superconductors M Eschrig and J A Sauls Vortices in chiral, spin-triplet superconductors and superfluids J A Sauls and M Eschrig Flux periodicities in loops of nodal superconductors Florian Loder, Arno P Kampf, Thilo Kopp and Jochen Mannhart Evidence of magnetic mechanism for cuprate superconductivity Amit Keren Wave function for odd-frequency superconductors Hari P Dahal, E Abrahams, D Mozyrsky, Y Tanaka and A V Balatsky Nernst effect as a probe of superconducting fluctuations in disordered thin films A Pourret, P Spathis, H Aubin and K

  9. Foreword: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano


    Full Text Available Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm−3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors.This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008, which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1.The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  10. Comparison of back side chrome focus monitor to focus self-metrology of an immersion scanner (United States)

    D'havé, Koen; Machida, Takahiro; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee


    Monitoring of the focus performance is recognized to be an important part of a periodic scanner health check, but can one simply apply all techniques that have been used for dry scanners to immersion scanners? And if so how do such techniques compare to scanner self-metrology tests that are used to set up the tool? In this paper we look at one specific off-line focus characterization technique, Back Side Chrome (BSC), which we then try to match with results obtained from two self-metrology focus tests, available on the scanner chosen for this work. The latter tests are also used to set up the immersion scanner. We point out a few concerns, discuss their effect and indicate that for each generation of immersion tool one should redo the entire exercise.

  11. The Effects of Formative Assessment on Learner Autonomy in English Teachin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In recent years, formative assessment is attracting more and more domestic and foreign scholars and their theoretical achievements are remark-able. Actual y, the functions of formative assessment are having been pitiful y neglected in English teaching. Therefore, focusing on the formative assess-ment and exploring the practical assessment model are badly necessary.

  12. Solar System formation

    CERN Document Server

    Crida, A


    In this review, three major changes in our understanding of the early history of the Solar System are presented. 1) Early differentiation: A few recent results support the idea that protoplanet formation and differentiation occurred partly simultaneously than CAI formation. First, some iron meteorites, eucrites, and angrites older than the chondrules or even than the CAI have been found. Second, iron meteorites could be debris of early disrupted differentiated planetesimals, scattered from the terrestrial planet region to the Main Belt. Finally, chondrules contain fragments of planetesimal material. 2) Earth and Moon: An equilibration mechanism explains the identical Oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and the Moon. In addition, it has been shown that the Earth and the Moon mantles have the same 182^W anomaly, in contrast to what was believed before. Consequently, the Moon forming impact should have occurred after the extinction of the 182Hf radioactivity, about 60 Myr after Solar System formation. This ...

  13. Primordial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E


    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion...

  14. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.


    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  15. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard


    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  16. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly


    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  17. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W


    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  18. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel


    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific......A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system...... specifications which guarantee operational preorders to be precongruences. The technique is applied to the trace preorder, the completed trace pre order and the failures preorder. In the latter two cases, new syntactic formats ensuring precongruence properties are introduced....

  19. Linear collider IR and final focus introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.; Burke, D.


    The Linear Collider subgroup of the Accelerator Physics working group concerned itself with all aspects of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design from the end of the accelerating structure to and through the interaction region. Within this region are: (1) a collimation section, (2) muon protection (of the detector from the collimator), (3) final focus system, (4) interaction point physics, and (5) detector masking from synchrotron radiation and beam-beam pair production. These areas of study are indicated schematically in Fig. 1. The parameters for the Next Linear Collider are still in motion, but attention has settled on a handful of parameter sets. Energies under consideration vary from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV in the center of mass, and luminosities vary from 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. To be concrete we chose as a guide for our studies the parameter sets labeled F and G, Table 1 from Palmer. These cover large and small crossing angle cases and 0.4 m to 1.8 m of free length at the interaction point.

  20. Bioprospecting Archaea: Focus on Extreme Halophiles

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, André


    In 1990, Woese et al. divided the Tree of Life into three separate domains: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Archaea were originally perceived as little more than “odd bacteria” restricted to extreme environmental niches, but later discoveries challenged this assumption. Members of this domain populate a variety of unexpected environments (e.g. soils, seawater, and human bodies), and we currently witness ongoing massive expansions of the archaeal branch of the Tree of Life. Archaea are now recognized as major players in the biosphere and constitute a significant fraction of the earth’s biomass, yet they remain underexplored. An ongoing surge in exploration efforts is leading to an increase in the (a) number of isolated strains, (b) associated knowledge, and (c) utilization of Archaea in biotechnology. They are increasingly employed in fields as diverse as biocatalysis, biocomputing, bioplastic production, bioremediation, bioengineering, food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. This chapter provides a general overview on bioprospecting Archaea, with a particular focus on extreme halophiles. We explore aspects such as diversity, ecology, screening techniques and biotechnology. Current and future trends in mining for applications are discussed.

  1. Why focus on mental health systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry


    Full Text Available Abstract The global situation for people with mental illness – in developing and developed countries – is dire. Legislative and human rights protections are frequently lacking. Mental health budgets are inadequate. There are insufficient numbers of skilled policy makers, managers and clinicians. Communities are poorly informed about mental health and illness and not well organised for purposes of advocacy. In most of the world, mental health services are inaccessible or of poor quality. Most people who would benefit from psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation do not have affordable access to such services. Leadership – at all levels – for mental health system development needs to be greatly strengthened. While mental health research attention and funds are devoted predominantly to neuroscience and clinical research, we believe that the highest global mental health research priority is mental health systems research. There is an urgent need to focus on the development of effective, appropriate, affordable mental health services. The evidence base for such development is currently weak. The International Journal of Mental Health Systems aims to stimulate greater attention to the central importance of building functioning mental health systems. Rapid publication and global reach through open access will make this journal a resource for all those who wish to contribute to such development.

  2. Subaru Prime Focus Camera -- Suprime-Cam --

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, S; Sekiguchi, M; Okamura, S; Doi, M; Furusawa, H; Hamabe, M; Imi, K; Kimura, M; Nakata, F; Okada, N; Ouchi, M; Shimasaku, K; Yagi, M; Yasuda, N; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Maki; Okamura, Sadanori; Doi, Mamoru; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hamabe, Masaru; Imi, Katsumi; Kimura, Masahiki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki


    We have built an 80 mega pixels (10240 X 8192) mosaic CCD camera, called Suprime-Cam, for the wide field prime focus of the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Suprime-Cam covers a field of view 34 arcmin X 27 arcmin, a unique facility among the the 8 - 10 m class telescopes, with a resolution of 0.202 arcsec per pixel. The focal plane consists of ten high-resistivity 2kX4k CCDs developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and these are cooled by a large stirling cycle cooler. The CCD readout electronics are developed originally by our group (M-Front & Messia-III) and the system is designed scalable that allows multiple read-out of tens of CCDs. It takes 50 seconds to readout entire arrays. We have designed a filter exchange mechanism of jukebox type that can holds up to ten large filters (205 X 170 X 15 mm^3). The wide field corrector is basically a three-lens Wynne-type but has a new type of atmospheric dispersion corrector. The corrector provides flat focal plane and un-vignetted field of view of 30 arcmin in diameter. Ach...

  3. Literature in focus: A Berlin Romance

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN staff have many hidden talents. Who knows, maybe a colleague you see every day is actually a virtuoso violinist, an accomplished sportsman or an internationally renowned collector. Mathilde Fontanet, a translator in the CERN Translation and Minutes Service, is a writer in her spare time. Those who read her first essays in the Graviton no doubt spotted her talent. Following the publication of four short stories, her first novel, 'Rabenstrasse 5', was published in Switzerland in May 2005. Its backdrop is the busy Berlin arts faculty in the early 1980s. Lydia, a student, meets a young woman who leads her into some rather unusual activities. In parallel, two friends, both professors of literature, each record their thoughts and emotions in a diary. The paths of Lydia and the two professors are to cross... The novel will be published in France on 14 October. Mathilde Fontanet will present it in the framework of a forthcoming 'Literature in Focus' event in the CERN Library. Mathilde Fontanet'Rabenstras...

  4. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.


    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Physiology of BDNF: focus on hypothalamic function. (United States)

    Tapia-Arancibia, Lucia; Rage, Florence; Givalois, Laurent; Arancibia, Sandor


    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family which interacts with high-affinity protein kinase receptors (Trk) and the unselective p75(NGFR) receptor. The BDNF gene has a complex structure with multiple regulatory elements and four promoters that are differentially expressed in central or peripheral tissue. BDNF expression is regulated by neuronal activity or peripheral hormones. Neurotrophins regulate the survival and differentiation of neurons during development but growing evidence indicates that they are also involved in several functions in adulthood, including plasticity processes. BDNF expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is modified by various kinds of brain insult (stress, ischemia, seizure activity, hypoglycemia, etc.) and alterations in its expression may contribute to some pathologies such as depression, epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease. Apart from very traumatic situations, the brain functioning is resilient to stress and capable of adaptive plasticity. Neurotrophins might act as plasticity mediators enhancing this trait which seems to be crucial in adaptive processes. In addition to documenting all of the topics mentioned above in the CNS, we review the state of the art concerning neurotrophins and their receptors, including our personal contribution which is essentially focused on the stress response.

  6. A Multi-Threaded Semantic Focused Crawler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Punam Bedi; Anjali Thukral; Hema Banati; Abhishek Behl; Varun Mendiratta


    The Web comprises of voluminous rich learning content.The volume of ever growing learning resources however leads to the problem of information overload.A large number of irrelevant search results generated from search engines based on keyword matching techniques further augment the problem.A learner in such a scenario needs semantically matched learning resources as the search results.Keeping in view the volume of content and significance of semantic knowledge,our paper proposes a multi-threaded semantic focused crawler (SFC) specially designed and implemented to crawl on the WWW for educational learning content.The proposed SFC utilizes domain ontology to expand a topic term and a set of seed URLs to initiate the crawl.The results obtained by multiple iterations of the crawl on various topics are shown and compared with the results obtained by executing an open source crawler on the similar dataset.The results are evaluated using Semantic Similarity,a vector space model based metric,and the harvest ratio.

  7. General focus point in the MSSM (United States)

    Delgado, A.; Quiros, M.; Wagner, C. E. M.


    The minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (SM) is a well motivated scenario for physics beyond the SM, which allows a perturbative description of the theory up to scales of the order of the Grand Unification scale, where gauge couplings unify. The Higgs mass parameter is insensitive to the ultraviolet physics and is only sensitive to the scale of soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Present collider bounds suggest that the characteristic values of these parameters may be significantly larger than the weak scale. Large values of the soft breaking parameters, however, induce large radiative corrections to the Higgs mass parameter and therefore the proper electroweak scale may only be obtained by a fine tuned cancellation between the square of the holomorphic μ parameter and the Higgs supersymmetry breaking square mass parameter. This can only be avoided if there is a correlation between the scalar and gaugino mass parameters, such that the Higgs supersymmetry breaking parameter remains of the order of the weak scale. The scale at which this happens is dubbed as focus point. In this article, we define the general conditions required for this to happen, for different values of the messenger scale at which supersymmetry breaking is transmitted to the observable sector, and for arbitrary boundary conditions of the sfermion, gaugino, and Higgs mass parameters. Specific supersymmetry breaking scenarios in which these correlations may occur are also discussed.

  8. Forewords Focus Issue of Nano Optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Rapid progress of nanoscience and nanotechnology has made significant impact on many academic disciplines and technical fields recently. In particular, nano-optics has become one of the fastest growing areas in optics and optoelectronics with many exciting advances published in a wide range of journals. This focus issue intends to provide a broad vision of this emerging area with the inclusion of excellent review articles by internationally renowned experts in the field as well as original contributions which cover the breadth of this new field. The represented areas include quantum dots and nanowires, photonic crystals, silicon photonics, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, slow light and fast light, nano-particles and nano-crystals, and guided optics. We would like to express our gratitude to authors of the invited manuscripts to devote their precious time to write the illuminating articles and reviewers for their thorough reading and helpful comments. Finally, we hope you will enjoy the articles and find inspiration for your own work.

  9. Dark Matter Detection in Focus Point Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Patrick; Kant, Philipp; Profumo, Stefano; Sanford, David


    We determine the prospects for direct and indirect detection of thermal relic neutralinos in supersymmetric theories with multi-TeV squarks and sleptons. We consider the concrete example of the focus point region of minimal supergravity, but our results are generically valid for all models with decoupled scalars and mixed Bino-Higgsino or Higgsino-like dark matter. We determine the parameter space consistent with a 125 GeV Higgs boson including 3-loop corrections in the calculation of the Higgs mass. These corrections increase $m_h$ by 1--3 GeV, lowering the preferred scalar mass scale and decreasing the fine-tuning measure in these scenarios. We then systematically examine prospects for dark matter direct and indirect detection. Direct detection constraints do not exclude these models, especially for $\\mu < 0$. At the same time, the scenario generically predicts spin-independent signals just beyond current bounds. We also consider indirect detection with neutrinos, gamma rays, anti-protons, and anti-deute...

  10. Optical characterization of nonimaging focusing heliostat (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong


    A novel nonimaging focusing heliostat consisted of many small movable element mirrors that can be dynamically maneuvered in a line-tilting manner has been proposed for the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angle from 0° to 70°. In this article, a comprehensive optical characterization of the new heliostat with total reflective area of 25 m2 and slant range of 25 m using ray-tracing method has been carried to analyze the performance including solar concentration ratio, ratio of aberrated-to-ideal image area, intercept efficiency and spillage loss. The optical characterization of the heliostat in the application of solar power tower system has embraced the cases of 1×1, 9×9, 11×11, 13×13, 15×15, 17×17 and 19×19 arrays of concave mirrors provided that the total reflective area remains the same. The simulated result has shown that the maximum solar concentration ratio at a high incident angle of 65° can be improved from 1.76 suns (single mirror) to 104.99 suns (9×9 mirrors), to 155.93 suns (11×11 mirrors), to 210.44 suns (13×13 mirrors), to 246.21 suns (15×15 mirrors), to 259.80 suns (17×17 mirrors) and to 264.73 suns (19×19 mirrors).

  11. Focusing: coming to the point in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Guenneau, Sebastien; McPhedran, Ross


    The point of the paper is to show some limitations of geometrical optics in the analysis of subwavelength focusing. We analyze the resolution of the image of a line source radiating in the Maxwell fisheye and the Veselago-Pendry slab lens. The former optical medium is deduced from the stereographic projection of a virtual sphere and displays a heterogeneous refractive index n(r) which is proportional to the inverse of $1+r^2$. The latter is described by a homogeneous, but negative, refractive index. It has been suggested that the fisheye makes a perfect lens without negative refraction [Leonhardt, Philbin arxiv:0805.4778v2]. However, we point out that the definition of super-resolution in such a heterogeneous medium should be computed with respect to the wavelength in a homogenized medium, and it is perhaps more adequate to talk about a conjugate image rather than a perfect image (the former does not necessarily contains the evanescent components of the source). We numerically find that both the Maxwell fishe...

  12. A process for risk-focused maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Cooper, S.E.; Kurth, R.E.; Phillips, L.B. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))


    This report presents a process for focusing maintenance resources on components that enable nuclear plant systems to perform their essential functions and on components whose failure may initiate challenges to safety systems, so as to have the greatest impact in decreasing risk. The process provides criteria, based on risk, for deciding which components are critical to risk and determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of those risk-critical components. Two approaches are provided for selection of risk-critical components. One approach uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); the other is based on the methodology developed for this report, which has a basis in PRA although it does not use the results of a PRA study. Following identification of risk-critical components, both approaches use a single methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of the identified components. The report also provides demonstrations of application of the two approaches to selection of risk-critical components and demonstrations of application of the methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to an active standby safety system, a normally operating system, and passive components. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Focus on young men in pregnancy prevention. (United States)


    The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.

  14. Sensitivity Data File Formats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The format of the TSUNAMI-A sensitivity data file produced by SAMS for cases with deterministic transport solutions is given in Table 6.3.A.1. The occurrence of each entry in the data file is followed by an identification of the data contained on each line of the file and the FORTRAN edit descriptor denoting the format of each line. A brief description of each line is also presented. A sample of the TSUNAMI-A data file for the Flattop-25 sample problem is provided in Figure 6.3.A.1. Here, only two profiles out of the 130 computed are shown.

  15. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W


    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  16. Metacoatings for wavelength scale, high NA plano-concave focusing lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Naserpour, Mahin; Díaz-Aviñó, Carlos; Hashemi, Mahdieh


    We design plano-concave silicon lenses with coupled gradient-index plasmonic metacoatings for ultrawide apertured focusing utilizing a reduced region of $\\sim 20 \\lambda^2$. The anomalous refraction induced in the planar input side of the lens and in the boundary of the wavelength-scale focal region boosts the curvature of the emerging wavefront, thus significantly enhancing the resolution of the tightly-focused optical wave. The formation of a light tongue with dimensions approaching those of the concave opening is here evidenced. This scheme is expected to have potential applications in optical trapping and detection.

  17. Self-focusing of femtosecond diffraction-resistant vortex beams in water. (United States)

    Shiffler, Stacy; Polynkin, Pavel; Moloney, Jerome


    We report experiments on self-focusing of femtosecond diffraction-resistant vortex beams in water. These beams are higher-order Bessel beams with weak azimuthal modulation of the transverse intensity patterns. The modulation overrides the self-focusing dynamics and results in the formation of regular bottlelike filament distributions. The peak-power thresholds for filamentation, at a particular distance, are relatively accurately estimated by the adaptation of the Marburger formula derived earlier for Gaussian beams. The nonlinear conversion of the incident conical waves into the localized spatial wave packets propagating near the beam axis is observed.

  18. Simultaneous formation of Solar System giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Guilera, O M; Brunini, A; Benvenuto, O G


    In the last few years, the so-called "Nice model" has got a significant importance in the study of the formation and evolution of the solar system. According to this model, the initial orbital configuration of the giant planets was much more compact than the one we observe today. We study the formation of the giant planets in connection with some parameters that describe the protoplanetary disk. The aim of this study is to establish the conditions that favor their simultaneous formation in line with the initial configuration proposed by the Nice model. We focus in the conditions that lead to the simultaneous formation of two massive cores, corresponding to Jupiter and Saturn, able to achieve the cross-over mass (where the mass of the envelope of the giant planet equals the mass of the core, and gaseous runway starts) while Uranus and Neptune have to be able to grow to their current masses. We compute the in situ planetary formation, employing the numerical code introduced in our previous work, for different d...

  19. A new hypothesis of sunspot formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukov, V I


    The process of sunspot formation is considered with the account of heat effects. According to the Le Chatelier principle, a local overheating must precede to the cooling of solar surface in the places of sunspot formation. The sunspot dynamics is a process close to the surface nucleate-free boiling in a thin layer with formation of bubbles (or craters), so we focus on the analogy between these two processes. Solar spots and surface nucleate-free boiling in a thin layer have similarities in formation conditions, results of impact on the surface were they have been formed, periodicity, and their place in the hierarchy of self-organization in complex systems. The difference is in the working medium and method of channelling of extra energy from the overheated surface -for boiling process, the energy is forwarded to generation of vapor, and in sunspots the solar energy is consumed to formation of a strong magnetic field. This analogy explains the problem of a steady brightness (temperature) of a spot that is inde...

  20. Satellite Formation based on SDDF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang


    Full Text Available The technology of satellite formation flying has being a research focus in flight application. The relative position and velocity between satellites are basic parameters to achieve the control of formation flight during the satellite formation flying mission. In order to improve the navigation accuracy, a new filter different from Extended Kalman Filter (EKF should be adopted to estimate the errors of relative position and velocity, which is based on the nonlinearity of the kinetic model for the satellite formation flying. A nonlinear Divided Difference Filter (DDF based on Stirling interpolation formula was proposed in this paper. According to the linearity of the measurement equation for the filter, a simplified differential filter was designed by means of expanding the polynomial of the nonlinear system equation and linear approximating of the finite differential interpolation. Digital simulation experiment for the relative positioning of satellite formation flying was carried out. The result demonstrates that the filter proposed in this paper has a higher filtering accuracy, faster convergence speed and better stability. Compared with the EKF, the estimation accuracy of the relative position and velocity has improved by 77.1%and 47% respectively in the method of simplified DDF, which indicates the significance for practical applications.