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Sample records for 53bp1 focus formation

  1. Analysis of Lymphocytic DNA Damage in Early Multiple Sclerosis by Automated Gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 Foci Detection: A Case Control Study.

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    Ludwig Rasche

    Full Text Available In response to DNA double-strand breaks, the histone protein H2AX becomes phosphorylated at its C-terminal serine 139 residue, referred to as γ-H2AX. Formation of γ-H2AX foci is associated with recruitment of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1, a regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. γ-H2AX expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was recently proposed as a diagnostic and disease activity marker for multiple sclerosis (MS.To evaluate the significance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in PBMCs as diagnostic and disease activity markers in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS and early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS using automated γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci detection.Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs of patients with CIS/early RRMS (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 27 with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 specific antibodies. Nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci were determined using a fully automated reading system, assessing the numbers of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci per total number of cells and the percentage of cells with foci. Patients underwent contrast enhanced 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and clinical examination including expanded disability status scale (EDSS score. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 were also compared in previously frozen PBMCs of each 10 CIS/early RRMS patients with and without contrast enhancing lesions (CEL and 10 healthy controls.The median (range number of γ-H2AX (0.04 [0-0.5] and 53BP1 (0.005 [0-0.2] foci per cell in freshly isolated PBMCs across all study participants was low and similar to previously reported values of healthy individuals. For both, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, the cellular focus number as well as the percentage of positive cells did not differ between patients with CIS/RRMS and healthy controls. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 levels neither correlated with number nor volume of T2-weighted lesions on MRI, nor with the EDSS. Although γ-H2AX, but not 53BP1, levels were higher in

  2. MOF phosphorylation by ATM regulates 53BP1-mediated DSB repair pathway choice

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    Gupta, Arun; Hunt, Clayton R.; Hegdec, Muralidhar L.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Udayakumar, Durga; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Singh1, Mayank; Ramnarain, Deepti B.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Namjoshi, Sarita; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Hazra, Tapas K.; Ludwig, Thomas; Pandita, Raj K.; Tyler, Jessica K.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that DSBs induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase) phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF) and that phosphorylated MOF co-localizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A) impedes DNA repair in S- and G2-phase but not G1-phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also reverses the reduction in DSB associated 53BP1 seen in wild type S/G2-phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2-phase. PMID:24953651

  3. MOF Phosphorylation by ATM Regulates 53BP1-Mediated Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice

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    Arun Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cycle phase is a critical determinant of the choice between DNA damage repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ or homologous recombination (HR. Here, we report that double-strand breaks (DSBs induce ATM-dependent MOF (a histone H4 acetyl-transferase phosphorylation (p-T392-MOF and that phosphorylated MOF colocalizes with γ-H2AX, ATM, and 53BP1 foci. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (MOF-T392A impedes DNA repair in S and G2 phase but not G1 phase cells. Expression of MOF-T392A also blocks the reduction in DSB-associated 53BP1 seen in wild-type S/G2 phase cells, resulting in enhanced 53BP1 and reduced BRCA1 association. Decreased BRCA1 levels at DSB sites correlates with defective repairosome formation, reduced HR repair, and decreased cell survival following irradiation. These data support a model whereby ATM-mediated MOF-T392 phosphorylation modulates 53BP1 function to facilitate the subsequent recruitment of HR repair proteins, uncovering a regulatory role for MOF in DSB repair pathway choice during S/G2 phase.

  4. A Damage-Independent Role for 53BP1 that Impacts Break Order and Igh Architecture during Class Switch Recombination

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    Pedro P. Rocha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During class switch recombination (CSR, B cells replace the Igh Cμ or δ exons with another downstream constant region exon (CH, altering the antibody isotype. CSR occurs through the introduction of AID-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs in switch regions and subsequent ligation of broken ends. Here, we developed an assay to investigate the dynamics of DSB formation in individual cells. We demonstrate that the upstream switch region Sμ is first targeted during recombination and that the mechanism underlying this control relies on 53BP1. Surprisingly, regulation of break order occurs through residual binding of 53BP1 to chromatin before the introduction of damage and independent of its established role in DNA repair. Using chromosome conformation capture, we show that 53BP1 mediates changes in chromatin architecture that affect break order. Finally, our results explain how changes in Igh architecture in the absence of 53BP1 could promote inversional rearrangements that compromise CSR.

  5. A Damage-Independent Role for 53BP1 that Impacts Break Order and Igh Architecture during Class Switch Recombination.

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    Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Fu, Yi; Kim, JungHyun; Luo, Vincent M; Aljoufi, Arafat; Swanzey, Emily; Pasquarella, Alessandra; Balestrini, Alessia; Miraldi, Emily R; Bonneau, Richard; Petrini, John; Schotta, Gunnar; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-28

    During class switch recombination (CSR), B cells replace the Igh Cμ or δ exons with another downstream constant region exon (CH), altering the antibody isotype. CSR occurs through the introduction of AID-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions and subsequent ligation of broken ends. Here, we developed an assay to investigate the dynamics of DSB formation in individual cells. We demonstrate that the upstream switch region Sμ is first targeted during recombination and that the mechanism underlying this control relies on 53BP1. Surprisingly, regulation of break order occurs through residual binding of 53BP1 to chromatin before the introduction of damage and independent of its established role in DNA repair. Using chromosome conformation capture, we show that 53BP1 mediates changes in chromatin architecture that affect break order. Finally, our results explain how changes in Igh architecture in the absence of 53BP1 could promote inversional rearrangements that compromise CSR. PMID:27320916

  6. 53BP1 fosters fidelity of homology-directed DNA repair

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    Ochs, Fena; Somyajit, Kumar; Altmeyer, Matthias;

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals is coordinated by the ubiquitin-dependent accumulation of 53BP1 at DSB-flanking chromatin. Owing to its ability to limit DNA-end processing, 53BP1 is thought to promote nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and to suppress homology-directed repair...... (HDR). Here, we show that silencing 53BP1 or exhausting its capacity to bind damaged chromatin changes limited DSB resection to hyper-resection and results in a switch from error-free gene conversion by RAD51 to mutagenic single-strand annealing by RAD52. Thus, rather than suppressing HDR, 53BP1...

  7. Ser1778 of 53BP1 Plays a Role in DNA Double-strand Break Repairs

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    Lee, Jung-Hee; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kang, Mi-Young; Kim, Sang-Young; Kang, Yoonsung

    2009-01-01

    53BP1 is an important genome stability regulator, which protects cells against double-strand breaks. Following DNA damage, 53BP1 is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA breakage, along with other DNA damage response proteins, including γ-H2AX, MDC1, and BRCA1. The recruitment of 53BP1 requires a tandem Tudor fold which associates with methylated histones H3 and H4. It has already been determined that the majority of DNA damage response proteins are phosphorylated by ATM and/or ATR after DNA dama...

  8. 53BP1 mediates productive and mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphoprotein interactions

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    Callen, E.; Wong, N.; Chen, H.-T.;

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) protein 53BP1 protects DNA ends from excessive resection in G1, and thereby favors repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) as opposed to homologous recombination (HR). During S phase, BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 to promote HR. The pro-NHEJ and antirecombinase functions...... productive CSR and suppresses mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphodependent interactions with RIF1 and PTIP. © 2013 Elsevier Inc....

  9. Lysine methylation-dependent binding of 53BP1 to the pRb tumor suppressor.

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    Carr, Simon M; Munro, Shonagh; Zalmas, Lykourgos-Panagiotis; Fedorov, Oleg; Johansson, Catrine; Krojer, Tobias; Sagum, Cari A; Bedford, Mark T; Oppermann, Udo; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2014-08-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb is a key regulator of cell cycle progression and mediator of the DNA damage response. Lysine methylation at K810, which occurs within a critical Cdk phosphorylation motif, holds pRb in the hypophosphorylated growth-suppressing state. We show here that methyl K810 is read by the tandem tudor domain containing tumor protein p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1). Structural elucidation of 53BP1 in complex with a methylated K810 pRb peptide emphasized the role of the 53BP1 tandem tudor domain in recognition of the methylated lysine and surrounding residues. Significantly, binding of 53BP1 to methyl K810 occurs on E2 promoter binding factor target genes and allows pRb activity to be effectively integrated with the DNA damage response. Our results widen the repertoire of cellular targets for 53BP1 and suggest a previously unidentified role for 53BP1 in regulating pRb tumor suppressor activity.

  10. The structural basis of modified nucleosome recognition by 53BP1.

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    Wilson, Marcus D; Benlekbir, Samir; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Sherker, Alana; Julien, Jean-Philippe; McEwan, Andrea; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; Sicheri, Frank; Rubinstein, John L; Durocher, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicit a histone modification cascade that controls DNA repair. This pathway involves the sequential ubiquitination of histones H1 and H2A by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, respectively. RNF168 ubiquitinates H2A on lysine 13 and lysine 15 (refs 7, 8) (yielding H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub, respectively), an event that triggers the recruitment of 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1) to chromatin flanking DSBs. 53BP1 binds specifically to H2AK15ub-containing nucleosomes through a peptide segment termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment motif (UDR), which requires the simultaneous engagement of histone H4 lysine 20 dimethylation (H4K20me2) by its tandem Tudor domain. How 53BP1 interacts with these two histone marks in the nucleosomal context, how it recognizes ubiquitin, and how it discriminates between H2AK13ub and H2AK15ub is unknown. Here we present the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a dimerized human 53BP1 fragment bound to a H4K20me2-containing and H2AK15ub-containing nucleosome core particle (NCP-ubme) at 4.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals that H4K20me2 and H2AK15ub recognition involves intimate contacts with multiple nucleosomal elements including the acidic patch. Ubiquitin recognition by 53BP1 is unusual and involves the sandwiching of the UDR segment between ubiquitin and the NCP surface. The selectivity for H2AK15ub is imparted by two arginine fingers in the H2A amino-terminal tail, which straddle the nucleosomal DNA and serve to position ubiquitin over the NCP-bound UDR segment. The structure of the complex between NCP-ubme and 53BP1 reveals the basis of 53BP1 recruitment to DSB sites and illuminates how combinations of histone marks and nucleosomal elements cooperate to produce highly specific chromatin responses, such as those elicited following chromosome breaks.

  11. 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress

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    Lukas, Claudia; Savic, Velibor; Bekker-Jensen, Simon;

    2011-01-01

    stress increases the frequency of chromosomal lesions that are transmitted to daughter cells. Throughout G1, these lesions are sequestered in nuclear compartments marked by p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and other chromatin-associated genome caretakers. We show that the number of such 53BP1 nuclear bodies...... increases after genetic ablation of BLM, a DNA helicase associated with dissolution of entangled DNA. Conversely, 53BP1 nuclear bodies are partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear...

  12. Impact of histone H4 lysine 20 methylation on 53BP1 responses to chromosomal double strand breaks.

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    Andrea J Hartlerode

    Full Text Available Recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin flanking double strand breaks (DSBs requires γH2AX/MDC1/RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of chromatin and interaction of 53BP1 with histone H4 methylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me. Several histone methyltransferases have been implicated in 53BP1 recruitment, but their quantitative contributions to the 53BP1 response are unclear. We have developed a multi-photon laser (MPL system to target DSBs to subfemtoliter nuclear volumes and used this to mathematically model DSB response kinetics of MDC1 and of 53BP1. In contrast to MDC1, which revealed first order kinetics, the 53BP1 MPL-DSB response is best fitted by a Gompertz growth function. The 53BP1 MPL response shows the expected dependency on MDC1 and RNF8. We determined the impact of altered H4K20 methylation on 53BP1 MPL response kinetics in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs lacking key H4K20 histone methyltransferases. This revealed no major requirement for the known H4K20 dimethylases Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 in 53BP1 recruitment or DSB repair function, but a key role for the H4K20 monomethylase, PR-SET7. The histone methyltransferase MMSET/WHSC1 has recently been implicated in 53BP1 DSB recruitment. We found that WHSC1 homozygous mutant MEFs reveal an alteration in balance of H4K20 methylation patterns; however, 53BP1 DSB responses in these cells appear normal.

  13. Ectopic expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 increases mutagenic but not physiological non-homologous end joining

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    Zong, Dali; Callén, Elsa; Pegoraro, Gianluca;

    2015-01-01

    BP1 and BRCA1 regulate the balance between NHEJ and HR. 53BP1 promotes CSR in part by mediating synapsis of distal DNA ends, and in addition, inhibits 5' end resection. BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 dependent DNA end-blocking activity during S phase, which would otherwise promote mutagenic NHEJ and genome...

  14. Role of 53BP1 in the regulation of DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice.

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    Gupta, Arun; Hunt, Clayton R; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Pandita, Raj K; Yordy, John; Ramnarain, Deepti B; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pandita, Tej K

    2014-01-01

    The p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is a well-known DNA damage response (DDR) factor, which is recruited to nuclear structures at the site of DNA damage and forms readily visualized ionizing radiation (IR) induced foci. Depletion of 53BP1 results in cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase as well as genomic instability in human as well as mouse cells. Within the DNA damage response mechanism, 53BP1 is classified as an adaptor/mediator, required for processing of the DNA damage response signal and as a platform for recruitment of other repair factors. More recently, specific 53BP1 contributions to DSB repair pathway choice have been recognized and are being characterized. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in understanding the role of 53BP1 in regulating DNA DSBs repair pathway choice, variable diversity joining [V(D)J] recombination and class-switch recombination (CSR). PMID:24320053

  15. Nanoscopic exclusion between Rad51 and 53BP1 after ion irradiation in human HeLa cells

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    Reindl, Judith; Drexler, Guido A.; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E.; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A.

    2015-12-01

    Many proteins involved in detection, signalling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) accumulate in large number in the vicinity of DSB sites, forming so called foci. Emerging evidence suggests that these foci are sub-divided in structural or functional domains. We use stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to investigate localization of mediator protein 53BP1 and recombination factor Rad51 after irradiation of cells with low linear energy transfer (LET) protons or high LET carbon ions. With a resolution better than 100 nm, STED microscopy and image analysis using a newly developed analyzing algorithm, the reduced product of the differences from the mean, allowed us to demonstrate that with both irradiation types Rad51 occupies spherical regions of about 200 nm diameter. These foci locate within larger 53BP1 accumulations in regions of local 53BP1 depletion, similar to what has been described for the localization of Brca1, CtIP and RPA. Furthermore, localization relative to 53BP1 and size of Rad51 foci was not different after irradiation with low and high LET radiation. As expected, 53BP1 foci induced by low LET irradiation mostly contained one Rad51 focal structure, while after high LET irradiation, most foci contained >1 Rad51 accumulation.

  16. 53BP1 regulates DNA resection and the choice between classical and alternative end joining during class switch recombination.

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    Bothmer, Anne; Robbiani, Davide F; Feldhahn, Niklas; Gazumyan, Anna; Nussenzweig, Andre; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2010-04-12

    Class switch recombination (CSR) diversifies antibodies by joining highly repetitive DNA elements, which are separated by 60-200 kbp. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase, an enzyme that produces multiple DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions. Switch regions are joined by a mechanism that requires an intact DNA damage response and classical or alternative nonhomologous end joining (A-NHEJ). Among the DNA damage response factors, 53BP1 has the most profound effect on CSR. We explore the role of 53BP1 in intrachromosomal DNA repair using I-SceI to introduce paired DSBs in the IgH locus. We find that the absence of 53BP1 results in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated-dependent increase in DNA end resection and that resected DNA is preferentially repaired by microhomology-mediated A-NHEJ. We propose that 53BP1 favors long-range CSR in part by protecting DNA ends against resection, which prevents A-NHEJ-dependent short-range rejoining of intra-switch region DSBs.

  17. Relationship between loss of 53BP1 expression and clinical pathology in prostate adenocarcinoma%53BP1蛋白表达缺失与前列腺腺癌临床病理的关系

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    杜然; 张惠箴; 陈杰; 蒋智铭

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨p53结合蛋白1(53BP1)在前列腺腺癌及癌旁良性前列腺组织、前列腺高级别上皮内瘤变、良性前列腺增生中的表达及其与临床病理的关系和意义.方法 对50例前列腺腺癌根治标本的癌及癌旁良性前列腺组织、20例前列腺高级别上皮内瘤变、20例良性前列腺增生标本应用免疫组织化学EnVision两步法检测53BP1在以上病变组织中的表达,并探讨其与前列腺腺癌发生及临床病理的相关性.结果 53BP1蛋白在良性前列腺增生上皮、高级别上皮内瘤变、癌旁良性前列腺上皮、前列腺腺癌细胞中阳性表达呈递减趋势,且在良性前列腺增生上皮、高级别上皮内瘤变、癌旁良性前列腺上皮的表达显著高于前列腺腺癌细胞 (P=0,0.015,0),在癌旁良性前列腺上皮及高级别上皮内瘤变中的表达显著低于良性前列腺增生上皮(P=0,0.035),而癌旁良性前列腺上皮与高级别上皮内瘤变的差异无统计学意义(P=0.658).53BP1在低年龄组中表达明显低于高年龄组(P=0.001),而与其他病理参数无关.结论 53BP1作为抑癌基因,其表达的缺失与前列腺腺癌发生有关,它有可能成为前列腺腺癌的早期指示因子,预示前列腺腺癌的发生可能.%Purpose To study the expression of tumor protein p53 binding protein 1 ( 53BP1 ) in prostate adenocarcinoma, adjacent benign prostate tissue , high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia ( HGPIN ) , benign prostatic hyperplasia( BPH ) and its clinicopathologic significance. Methods Immunohistochemical study for 53BP1 was performed on paraffin sections of 50 cases of prostate adeno carcinoma and adjacent benign prostate tissue,20 cases of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,20 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and its value was discussed for tumorigenesis of prostate adenocarcmoma. Results Immounohistochemical study showed the epithelial cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia, high

  18. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

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    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  19. A mitotic phosphorylation feedback network connects Cdk1, Plk1, 53BP1, and Chk2 to inactivate the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Gardino, Alexandra K; Linding, Rune;

    2010-01-01

    the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that the non-enzymatic checkpoint adaptor protein 53BP1 is an in vivo target of the cell cycle kinases Cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1). We show that Plk1 binds 53BP1 during mitosis and that this interaction is required for proper inactivation......DNA damage checkpoints arrest cell cycle progression to facilitate DNA repair. The ability to survive genotoxic insults depends not only on the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints but also on checkpoint maintenance. While activation of DNA damage checkpoints has been studied extensively, molecular...... of the DNA damage checkpoint. 53BP1 mutants that are unable to bind Plk1 fail to restart the cell cycle after ionizing radiation-mediated cell cycle arrest. Importantly, we show that Plk1 also phosphorylates the 53BP1-binding checkpoint kinase Chk2 to inactivate its FHA domain and inhibit its kinase activity...

  20. ATM Localization and Heterochromatin Repair Depend on Direct Interaction of the 53BP1-BRCT2 Domain with γH2AX.

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    Baldock, Robert A; Day, Matthew; Wilkinson, Oliver J; Cloney, Ross; Jeggo, Penelope A; Oliver, Antony W; Watts, Felicity Z; Pearl, Laurence H

    2015-12-15

    53BP1 plays multiple roles in mammalian DNA damage repair, mediating pathway choice and facilitating DNA double-strand break repair in heterochromatin. Although it possesses a C-terminal BRCT2 domain, commonly involved in phospho-peptide binding in other proteins, initial recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage depends on interaction with histone post-translational modifications--H4K20me2 and H2AK13/K15ub--downstream of the early γH2AX phosphorylation mark of DNA damage. We now show that, contrary to current models, the 53BP1-BRCT2 domain binds γH2AX directly, providing a third post-translational mark regulating 53BP1 function. We find that the interaction of 53BP1 with γH2AX is required for sustaining the 53BP1-dependent focal concentration of activated ATM that facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin in G1.

  1. ATM Localization and Heterochromatin Repair Depend on Direct Interaction of the 53BP1-BRCT2 Domain with γH2AX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Baldock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 53BP1 plays multiple roles in mammalian DNA damage repair, mediating pathway choice and facilitating DNA double-strand break repair in heterochromatin. Although it possesses a C-terminal BRCT2 domain, commonly involved in phospho-peptide binding in other proteins, initial recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage depends on interaction with histone post-translational modifications—H4K20me2 and H2AK13/K15ub—downstream of the early γH2AX phosphorylation mark of DNA damage. We now show that, contrary to current models, the 53BP1-BRCT2 domain binds γH2AX directly, providing a third post-translational mark regulating 53BP1 function. We find that the interaction of 53BP1 with γH2AX is required for sustaining the 53BP1-dependent focal concentration of activated ATM that facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin in G1.

  2. ATM Localization and Heterochromatin Repair Depend on Direct Interaction of the 53BP1-BRCT2 Domain with γH2AX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Robert A; Day, Matthew; Wilkinson, Oliver J; Cloney, Ross; Jeggo, Penelope A; Oliver, Antony W; Watts, Felicity Z; Pearl, Laurence H

    2015-12-15

    53BP1 plays multiple roles in mammalian DNA damage repair, mediating pathway choice and facilitating DNA double-strand break repair in heterochromatin. Although it possesses a C-terminal BRCT2 domain, commonly involved in phospho-peptide binding in other proteins, initial recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage depends on interaction with histone post-translational modifications--H4K20me2 and H2AK13/K15ub--downstream of the early γH2AX phosphorylation mark of DNA damage. We now show that, contrary to current models, the 53BP1-BRCT2 domain binds γH2AX directly, providing a third post-translational mark regulating 53BP1 function. We find that the interaction of 53BP1 with γH2AX is required for sustaining the 53BP1-dependent focal concentration of activated ATM that facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks in heterochromatin in G1. PMID:26628370

  3. Low p53 Binding Protein 1 (53BP1) Expression Is Associated With Increased Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy

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    Neboori, Hanmanth J.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Wu Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Aly, Amal [Division of Medical Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Schiff, Devora [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Golhar, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Chen Chunxia; Moore, Dirk [Department of Biostatistics, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the expression of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) has prognostic significance in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray of early-stage breast cancer treated with BCS+RT from a cohort of 514 women was assayed for 53BP1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Through log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate models, the staining profile of each tumor was correlated with clinical endpoints, including ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival (IBRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 477 (93%) evaluable tumors, 63 (13%) were scored as low. Low expression of 53BP1 was associated with worse outcomes for all endpoints studied, including 10-year IBRFS (76.8% vs. 90.5%; P=.01), OS (66.4% vs. 81.7%; P=.02), CSS (66.0% vs. 87.4%; P<.01), DMFS (55.9% vs. 87.0%; P<.01), and RFS (45.2% vs. 80.6%; P<.01). Multivariate analysis incorporating various clinico-pathologic markers and 53BP1 expression found that 53BP1 expression was again an independent predictor of all endpoints (IBRFS: P=.0254; OS: P=.0094; CSS: P=.0033; DMFS: P=.0006; RFS: P=.0002). Low 53BP1 expression was also found to correlate with triple-negative (TN) phenotype (P<.01). Furthermore, in subset analysis of all TN breast cancer, negative 53BP1 expression trended for lower IBRFS (72.3% vs. 93.9%; P=.0361) and was significant for worse DMFS (48.2% vs. 86.8%; P=.0035) and RFS (37.8% vs. 83.7%; P=.0014). Conclusion: Our data indicate that low 53BP1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for local relapse among other endpoints in early-stage breast cancer and TN breast cancer patients treated with BCS+RT. These results should be verified in larger cohorts of patients to validate their clinical

  4. Effects of shielding on the induction of 53BP1 foci and micronuclei after Fe ion exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wentao; Pei, Hailong; Li, He; Ding, Nan; He, Jinpeng; Wang, Jufang; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Liu, Cuihua; Li, Yinghui; Kawata, Tetsuya; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    High atomic number and high-energy (HZE) particles in deep space are of low abundance but substantially contribute to the biological effects of space radiation. Shielding is so far the most effective way to partially protect astronauts from these highly penetrating particles. However, simulated calculations and measurements have predicted that secondary particles resulting from the shielding of cosmic rays produce a significant fraction of the total dose and dose equivalent. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of secondary radiation with two cell types, and with cells exposed in different phases of the cell cycle, by comparing the biological effects of a 200 MeV/u iron beam with a shielded beam in which the energy of the iron ion beam was decreased from 500 MeV/u to 200 MeV/u with PMMA, polyethylene (PE), or aluminum. We found that beam shielding resulted in increased induction of 53BP1 foci and micronuclei in a cell-type-dependent manner compared with the unshielded 200 MeV/u Fe ion beam. These findings provide experimental proof that the biological effects of secondary particles resulting from the interaction between HZE particles and shielding materials should be considered in shielding design. PMID:23728321

  5. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  6. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia;

    2013-01-01

    represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role...

  7. Precise formation of geometrically focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometrically focused intense neutral beams for plasma diagnostic consist of many elementary beams formed by a multiaperture ion-optical system and aimed at the focal point. In real conditions, some of the elementary beams may have increased angular divergence and/or deviate from the intended direction, thus diminishing the neutral beam density at the focus. Several improvements to the geometrical focusing are considered in the article including flattening of the plasma profile across the emission surface, using of quasi-Pierce electrodes at the beam periphery, and minimizing the deviation of the electrodes from the spherical form. Application of these measures to the neutral beam Russian diagnostic injector developed in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics allows an increase of neutral beam current density in the focus by ∼50%

  8. Focus on the post-DVD formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Wei, Jingsong

    2005-09-01

    As the digital TV(DTV) technologies are developing rapidly on its standard system, hardware desktop, software model, and interfaces between DTV and the home net, High Definition TV (HDTV) program worldwide broadcasting is scheduled. Enjoying high quality TV program at home is not a far-off dream for people. As for the main recording media, what would the main stream be for the optical storage technology to meet the HDTV requirements is becoming a great concern. At present, there are a few kinds of Post-DVD formats which are competing on technology, standard and market. Here we give a review on the co-existing Post-DVD formats in the world. We will discuss on the basic parameters for optical disk, video /audio coding strategy and system performance for HDTV program.

  9. The impact of affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.L. van den; Manstead, A.S.R.; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of unobtrusive affective and cognitive focus on attitude formation. To induce focus, participants worked on a word-search puzzle consisting of either affective (e.g., emotion) or cognitive (e.g., reasoning) words. They then read positive and negative affective and cognitive i

  10. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Annabel K.; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user’s regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding follow...

  11. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Annabel K Clancy; Kaitlyn Woods; Anne McMahon; Yasmine Probst

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding follow...

  12. Formation of bubbles in a multisection flow-focusing junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michinao; Whitesides, George M

    2010-05-01

    The formation of bubbles in a flow-focusing (FF) junction comprising multiple rectangular sections is described. The simplest junctions comprise two sections (throat and orifice). Systematic investigation of the influence on the formation of bubbles of the flow of liquid and the geometry of the junction identifies regimes that generate monodisperse, bidisperse, and tridisperse trains of bubbles. The mechanisms by which these junctions form monodisperse and bidisperse bubbles are inferred from the shapes of the gas thread during breakup: these mechanisms differ primarily by the process in which the gas thread collapses in the throat and/or orifice. The dynamic self-assembly of bidisperse bubbles leads to unexpected groupings of bubbles during their flow along the outlet channel.

  13. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  14. Real-time fluorescence imaging of the DNA damage repair response during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Yamamoto, Mako; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Toneri, Makoto; Murakami, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Efimova, Elena V; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    The response to DNA damage during mitosis was visualized using real-time fluorescence imaging of focus formation by the DNA-damage repair (DDR) response protein 53BP1 linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (53BP1-GFP) in the MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) pancreatic cancer cell line. To observe 53BP1-GFP foci during mitosis, MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells were imaged every 30 min by confocal microscopy. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated that 11.4 ± 2.1% of the mitotic MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells had increased focus formation over time. Non-mitotic cells did not have an increase in 53BP1-GFP focus formation over time. Some of the mitotic MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells with focus formation became apoptotic. The results of the present report suggest that DNA strand breaks occur during mitosis and undergo repair, which may cause some of the mitotic cells to enter apoptosis in a phenomenon possibly related to mitotic catastrophe.

  15. Formation of brand-focused communication management system of industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashova Nadiia Vasylivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The importance of communication in formation brand industrial enterprise is defined in the article. The essence of the concept of “brand-focused communications management system” and the purpose of such an approach to the management of marketing communications company are investigated. The mechanism of brand-focused communications management system is proposed and it is explored its components. Peculiarities management functions arising from the implementation of an industrial enterprise brand-oriented management communications system are analyzed. The results of the analysis. The research highlights the importance of communication in the formation of industrial enterprise brand. The model of the brand is depicted through the use of enterprise-oriented brand communications. The mechanism of brand-focused communications management is suggested and investigation its components is realized. Specific of the proposed brand-focused communications management system of industrial enterprise are: harmonization objectives and brand communications within target subsystem; integration of principles and criteria brand-focused management into management subsystem, allocation role of corporate culture for brand-focused communication management. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Thus, peculiarities of management functions arising from the implementation of an industrial enterprise brand-focused management communications are investigated. Future research requires additional research defining of principles of brand-focused communications management of enterprise that will ensure such impact communications when each type of marketing communication strengthens the position of the brand in the consumer perception and enforce complementing, enhancing and refining an idea of the brand that is already formed. Another important area for future research is the development of an appropriate organizational structure that would

  16. Focus on Formative Feedbackcommunication and self-regulated learning – a study in compulsory schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students in compulsory schools with good quality formative feedback to enhance self-regulated learning in social interactions. Resent educational research indicates that social communicative interactions in the classroom, with a focus...... qualitative data from video recorded teaching sessions and student group interviews. Methodologically we are inspired by the ethnographical classroom research method. The empirical basis for studying these aspects is data from two compulsory schools in Denmark. This study is a work in progress. Our findings...... suggest that students can develop self-regulation skill by focusing on three key aspects: 1) Maintain focus on meta-reflection, 2) maintain focus on the construction of meaning and 3) rubrics can support self-regulated learning in group work....

  17. Trust, responsibility, and freedom: Focus-group research on contemporary patterns of union formation in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Isupova

    2015-01-01

    Background: While some studies directly address the issue of changes in union formation in Russia and Eastern Europe, few have focused on attitudes and norms regarding marriage and cohabitation. In Russia cohabitation has risen sharply in the last decades, but recently its level has stabilized and even decreased slightly. Objective: We intend to highlight gender and educational differences in perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of cohabitation vs. marriage. Methods: We condu...

  18. Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Group Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed.

  19. Effect of a focusing electric field on the formation of arc generated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Soumen; Nagar, Harshada; Pasricha, R.; Seth, T.; Sathe, V. G.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Das, A. K.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of a focusing electric field on the formation of carbon nanotubes in a direct current arc-plasma is investigated. The hard deposits on the surface of the cathode are the main products, rich in multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It is seen that the focusing electric field has a distinct influence on the yield, purity and morphology of the nanotubes. The yield of the carbon nanotubes under the 'focused field condition' has been found to be higher than that derived from the normal electrode configuration. It has been observed that the deposition of carbonaceous soot on the reactor wall is considerably reduced on application of the focusing electric field. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to determine the morphology of the nanotubes. In addition, Raman spectroscopy has helped in distinguishing the graphene-like structures from the disordered carbon networks and helped in analysing the morphology of the tubes. Thermal analysis gave a qualitative estimation of the relative yield of carbon nanotubes within the cathode deposits and their thermal stabilities. The crystalline nature of the samples has been confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. The results clearly indicate that the focusing electric field confines the positively charged carbon precursors within the cathode-anode space causing high relative yield and purity and has a distinct effect on controlling the inner diameter of the as-synthesized carbon nanotubes.

  20. Wave energy focusing to subsurface poroelastic formations to promote oil mobilization

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, P. M.

    2015-04-22

    We discuss an inverse source formulation aimed at focusing wave energy produced by ground surface sources to target subsurface poroelastic formations. The intent of the focusing is to facilitate or enhance the mobility of oil entrapped within the target formation. The underlying forward wave propagation problem is cast in two spatial dimensions for a heterogeneous poroelastic target embedded within a heterogeneous elastic semi-infinite host. The semi-infiniteness of the elastic host is simulated by augmenting the (finite) computational domain with a buffer of perfectly matched layers. The inverse source algorithm is based on a systematic framework of partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization. It is demonstrated, via numerical experiments, that the algorithm is capable of converging to the spatial and temporal characteristics of surface loads that maximize energy delivery to the target formation. Consequently, the methodology is well-suited for designing field implementations that could meet a desired oil mobility threshold. Even though the methodology, and the results presented herein are in two dimensions, extensions to three dimensions are straightforward.

  1. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radicalmediated activation of multiple signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Pens GELAIN; Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt PASQUALI; Fernanda Freitas CAREGNATO; Mauro Antonio Alves CASTRO; José Claudio Fonseca MOREIRA

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A)has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation.Thus,we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation,deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats.Methods:Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured.The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol.Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed.The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580(10 μmol/L),the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L),the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L),the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L)the pan-PKC inhibitor G(O)6983 (10 μmol/L)and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L)on morphological and proliferative/transformationassociated modifications were studied.Results:Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L)significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells,inhibition of p38,JNK,ERK1/2,Akt,and PKA suppressed retinol-induced[3H]dT incorporation into the cells,while PKC inhibition had no effect.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells,while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells,while other treatments had no effect.Conclusion:Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level.

  2. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains.

  3. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains. PMID:17157942

  4. Formation of plasma channels in air under filamentation of focused ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, A. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.

    2015-03-01

    The formation of plasma channels in air under filamentation of focused ultrashort laser pulses was experimentally and theoretically studied together with theoreticians of the Moscow State University and the Institute of Atmospheric Optics. The influence of various characteristics of ultrashort laser pulses on these plasma channels is discussed. Plasma channels formed under filamentation of focused laser beams with a wavefront distorted by spherical aberration (introduced by adaptive optics) and by astigmatism, with cross-section spatially formed by various diaphragms and with different UV and IR wavelengths, were experimentally and numerically studied. The influence of plasma channels created by a filament of a focused UV or IR femtosecond laser pulse (λ = 248 nm or 740 nm) on characteristics of other plasma channels formed by a femtosecond pulse at the same wavelength following the first one with varied nanosecond time delay was also experimentally studied. An application of plasma channels formed due to the filamentation of focused UV ultrashort laser pulses including a train of such pulses and a combination of ultrashort and long (~100 ns) laser pulses for triggering and guiding long (~1 m) electric discharges is discussed.

  5. Effects of shielding on the induction of 53BP1 foci and micronuclei after Fe ion exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wentao; Pei, Hailong; Li, He; Ding, Nan; HE, JINPENG; Wang, Jufang; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Liu, Cuihua; Li, Yinghui; Kawata, Tetsuya; Zhou,Guangming

    2013-01-01

    High atomic number and high-energy (HZE) particles in deep space are of low abundance but substantially contribute to the biological effects of space radiation. Shielding is so far the most effective way to partially protect astronauts from these highly penetrating particles. However, simulated calculations and measurements have predicted that secondary particles resulting from the shielding of cosmic rays produce a significant fraction of the total dose and dose equivalent. In this study, we...

  6. Fluid displacement during droplet formation at microfluidic flow-focusing junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Microdroplets and microcapsules have been widely produced using microfluidic flow-focusing junctions for biomedical and chemical applications. However, the multiphase microfluidic flow at the flow-focusing junction has not been well investigated. In this study, the displacement of two (core and shell) aqueous fluids that disperse into droplets altogether in a carrier oil emulsion was investigated both numerically and experimentally. It was found that extensive displacement of the two aqueous fluids within the droplet during its formation could occur as a result of the shear effect of the carrier fluid and the capillary effect of interfacial tension. We further identified that the two mechanisms of fluid displacement can be evaluated by two dimensionless parameters. The quantitative relationship between the degree of fluid displacement and these two dimensionless parameters was determined experimentally. Finally, we demonstrated that the degree of fluid displacement could be controlled to generate hydrogel microparticles of different morphologies using planar or nonplanar flow-focusing junctions. These findings should provide useful guidance to the microfluidic production of microscale droplets or capsules for various biomedical and chemical applications. PMID:26381220

  7. Membrane Thickness Dependence of Nanopore Formation with a Focused Helium Ion Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Sawafta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state nanopores are emerging as a valuable tool for the detection and characterization of individual biomolecules. Central to their success is the realization of fabrication strategies that are both rapid and flexible in their ability to achieve diverse device dimensions. In this paper, we demonstrate the membrane thickness dependence of solid-state nanopore formation with a focused helium ion beam. We vary membrane thickness in situ and show that the rate of pore expansion follows a reproducible trend under all investigated membrane conditions. We show that this trend shifts to lower ion dose for thin membranes in a manner that can be described quantitatively, allowing devices of arbitrary dimension to be realized. Finally, we demonstrate that thin, small-diameter nanopores formed with our approach can be utilized for high signal-to-noise ratio resistive pulse sensing of DNA.

  8. The mechanism of lesion formation by focused ultrasound ablation catheter for treatment of atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Y. D.; Fjield, T.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.

    2009-10-01

    The application of therapeutic ultrasound for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) is investigated. The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of ultrasound ablation catheter are presented. The major components of the catheter are the high power cylindrical piezoelectric element and parabolic balloon reflector. Thermal elevation in the ostia of pulmonary veins is achieved by focusing the ultrasound beam in shape of a torus that transverses the myocardial tissue. High intensity ultrasound heating in the focal zone results in a lesion surrounding the pulmonary veins that creates an electrical conduction blocks and relief from AF symptoms. The success of the ablation procedure largely depends on the correct choice of reflector geometry and ultrasonic power. We present a theoretical model of the catheter’s acoustic field and bioheat transfer modeling of cardiac lesions. The application of an empirically derived relation between lesion formation and acoustic power is shown to correlate with the experimental data. Developed control methods combine the knowledge of theoretical acoustics and the thermal lesion formation simulations with experiment and thereby establish dosimetry that contributes to a safe and effective ultrasound ablation procedure.

  9. Mechanisms of material removal and mass transport in focused ion beam nanopore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kallol, E-mail: das7@illinois.edu; Johnson, Harley T., E-mail: htj@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Laboratory, MC-236, 104 South Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Despite the widespread use of focused ion beam (FIB) processing as a material removal method for applications ranging from electron microscope sample preparation to nanopore processing for DNA sequencing, the basic material removal mechanisms of FIB processing are not well understood. We present the first complete atomistic simulation of high-flux FIB using large-scale parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanopore fabrication in freestanding thin films. We focus on the root mechanisms of material removal and rearrangement and describe the role of explosive boiling in forming nanopores. FIB nanopore fabrication is typically understood to occur via sputter erosion. This can be shown to be the case in low flux systems, where individual ion impacts are sufficiently separated in time that they may be considered as independent events. But our detailed MD simulations show that in high flux FIB processing, above a threshold level at which thermal effects become significant, the primary mechanism of material removal changes to a significantly accelerated, thermally dominated process. Under these conditions, the target is heated by the ion beam faster than heat is conducted away by the material, leading quickly to melting, and then continued heating to nearly the material critical temperature. This leads to explosive boiling of the target material with spontaneous bubble formation and coalescence. Mass is rapidly rearranged at the atomistic scale, and material removal occurs orders of magnitude faster than would occur by simple sputtering. While the phenomenology is demonstrated computationally in silicon, it can be expected to occur at lower beam fluxes in other cases where thermal conduction is suppressed due to material properties, geometry, or ambient thermal conditions.

  10. Microbubble formation and pinch-off scaling exponent in flow-focusing devices

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoeve, Wim; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gas jet breakup and the resulting microbubble formation in a microfluidic flow-focusing device using ultra high-speed imaging at 1 million frames/s. In recent experiments [Dollet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 034504 (2008)] it was found that in the final stage of the collapse the radius of the neck scales with time with a 1/3 power-law exponent, which suggested that gas inertia and the Bernoulli suction effect become important. Here, ultra high-speed imaging was used to capture the complete bubble contour and quantify the gas flow through the neck. It revealed that the resulting decrease in pressure, due to Bernoulli suction, is too low to account for an accelerated pinch-off. The high temporal resolution images enable us to approach the final moment of pinch-off to within 1 {\\mu}s. We observe that the final moment of bubble pinch-off is characterized by a scaling exponent of 0.41 +/- 0.01. This exponent is approximately 2/5, which can be derived, based on the observation that during the co...

  11. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  12. Neocarzinostatin-induced Rad51 nuclear focus formation is cell cycle regulated and aberrant in AT cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double-stranded breaks are the most detrimental form of DNA damage and, if not repaired properly, may lead to an accumulation of chromosomal aberrations and eventually tumorigenesis. Proteins of the Rad51/Rad52 epitasis group are crucial for the recombinational repair of DNA double-stranded breaks, whereas the Rad50/NBS1/Mre11 nuclease complex is involved in both the recombinational and the end-joining repair of DNA double-stranded breaks. Herein, we demonstrate that the chemotherapeutic enediyne antibiotic neocarzinostatin induced Rad51, but not NBS1, nuclear focus formation in a cell- cycle-dependent manner. Furthermore, neocarzinostatin-induced Rad51 foci formation revealed a slower kinetic change in AT cells, but not in wild-type or NBS cells. In summary, our results suggest that neocarzinostatin induces Rad51 focus formation through an ATM- and cell-cycle-dependent, but NBS1-independent, pathway

  13. Advanced nanopattern formation by a subtractive self-organization process with focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugstein, A. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at; Basner, B. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Brezna, W. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Weil, M. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Golka, S. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Bertagnolli, E. [Technical University Vienna, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    We have studied the evolution of the GaAs, InAs and GaSb surfaces due to FIB exposure. In contrast to conventional bottom up or top down processes the observed nanopattern formation is discussed, based on a subtractive self-organization process relying on material decomposition induced by FIB exposure.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion focusing and crowdion formation in self-ion-irradiated Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Di [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Shao Lin, E-mail: lshao@mailaps.org [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate damage and defect development in a Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 0 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Fe substrate upon 2 keV Fe ion bombardment. The damage cascade formation is accompanied by atomic shifting over a limited distance along the direction of one atomic row, which leads to formation of crowdions aligned with Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 1 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket direction. At the end of structural relaxation and defect recombination, crowdions lead to formation of dumbbell defects - a type of vacancy-interstitial complexes having one vacancy between a pair of slightly displaced interstitials. The dumbbell defects are initially oriented along Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 1 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket direction. After a typical period of 0.2 ps, some dumbbell defects rotate towards Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 1 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket direction. Crowdion and dumbbell defect formation influence the time dependent damage buildups.

  15. Bubble formation in yield stress fluids using flow-focusing and T-Junction devices

    OpenAIRE

    Laborie, Benoît; Rouyer, Florence; Angelescu, Dan,; Lorenceau, Elise

    2015-01-01

    We study the production of bubbles inside yield stress fluids (YSFs) in axisymmetric T-junction and flow-focusing devices. Taking advantage of yield stress over capillary stress, we exhibit a robust break-up mechanism reminiscent of the geometrical operating regime in 2D flow-focusing devices for Newtonian fluids. We report that when the gas is pressure driven, the dynamics is unsteady due to hydrodynamic feedback and YSF deposition on the walls of the channels. However, the present study als...

  16. Bubble Formation in Yield Stress Fluids Using Flow-Focusing and T-Junction Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Laborie, Benoît; Rouyer, Florence; Angelescu, Dan,; Lorenceau, Elise

    2015-01-01

    We study the production of bubbles inside yield stress fluids (YSFs) in axisymmetric T-junction and flow-focusing devices. Taking advantage of yield stress over capillary stress, we exhibit a robust break-up mechanism reminiscent of the geometrical operating regime in 2D flow-focusing devices for Newtonian fluids. We report that when the gas is pressure driven, the dynamics is unsteady due to hydrodynamic feedback and YSF deposition on the walls of the channels. However, the present study als...

  17. In vitro formation of a secondary epileptogenic mirror focus by interhippocampal propagation of seizures.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalilov, Ilgam; Holmes, Gregory,; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2003-01-01

    International audience We have determined whether seizures generate an epileptogenic focus in distal structures using an in vitro preparation composed of three independent chambers that accommodate two intact hippocampi and their connecting commissures. This enabled us to apply a convulsive agent to one hippocampus, allow the propagation of a given number of seizures to the other side and block the connections reversibly by applying tetrodotoxin (TTX) to the commissural chamber. The propag...

  18. Calibration of the γ-H2AX DNA double strand break focus assay for internal radiation exposure of blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Uta; Peper, Michel; Fernández, Maria; Lassmann, Michael; Scherthan, Harry

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) formation induced by ionizing radiation exposure is indicated by the DSB biomarkers γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Knowledge about DSB foci formation in-vitro after internal irradiation of whole blood samples with radionuclides in solution will help us to gain detailed insights about dose-response relationships in patients after molecular radiotherapy (MRT). Therefore, we studied the induction of radiation-induced co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci as surrogate markers for DSBs in-vitro, and correlated the obtained foci per cell values with the in-vitro absorbed doses to the blood for the two most frequently used radionuclides in MRT (I-131 and Lu-177). This approach led to an in-vitro calibration curve. Overall, 55 blood samples of three healthy volunteers were analyzed. For each experiment several vials containing a mixture of whole blood and radioactive solutions with different concentrations of isotonic NaCl-diluted radionuclides with known activities were prepared. Leukocytes were recovered by density centrifugation after incubation and constant blending for 1 h at 37°C. After ethanol fixation they were subjected to two-color immunofluorescence staining and the average frequencies of the co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci/nucleus were determined using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a red/green double band pass filter. The exact activity was determined in parallel in each blood sample by calibrated germanium detector measurements. The absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegrations occurring in 1 ml of blood were calculated for both isotopes by a Monte Carlo simulation. The measured blood doses in our samples ranged from 6 to 95 mGy. A linear relationship was found between the number of DSB-marking foci/nucleus and the absorbed dose to the blood for both radionuclides studied. There were only minor nuclide-specific intra- and inter-subject deviations.

  19. Calibration of the γ-H2AX DNA double strand break focus assay for internal radiation exposure of blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Eberlein

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB formation induced by ionizing radiation exposure is indicated by the DSB biomarkers γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Knowledge about DSB foci formation in-vitro after internal irradiation of whole blood samples with radionuclides in solution will help us to gain detailed insights about dose-response relationships in patients after molecular radiotherapy (MRT. Therefore, we studied the induction of radiation-induced co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci as surrogate markers for DSBs in-vitro, and correlated the obtained foci per cell values with the in-vitro absorbed doses to the blood for the two most frequently used radionuclides in MRT (I-131 and Lu-177. This approach led to an in-vitro calibration curve. Overall, 55 blood samples of three healthy volunteers were analyzed. For each experiment several vials containing a mixture of whole blood and radioactive solutions with different concentrations of isotonic NaCl-diluted radionuclides with known activities were prepared. Leukocytes were recovered by density centrifugation after incubation and constant blending for 1 h at 37°C. After ethanol fixation they were subjected to two-color immunofluorescence staining and the average frequencies of the co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci/nucleus were determined using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a red/green double band pass filter. The exact activity was determined in parallel in each blood sample by calibrated germanium detector measurements. The absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegrations occurring in 1 ml of blood were calculated for both isotopes by a Monte Carlo simulation. The measured blood doses in our samples ranged from 6 to 95 mGy. A linear relationship was found between the number of DSB-marking foci/nucleus and the absorbed dose to the blood for both radionuclides studied. There were only minor nuclide-specific intra- and inter-subject deviations.

  20. Calibration of the γ-H2AX DNA double strand break focus assay for internal radiation exposure of blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Uta; Peper, Michel; Fernández, Maria; Lassmann, Michael; Scherthan, Harry

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) formation induced by ionizing radiation exposure is indicated by the DSB biomarkers γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Knowledge about DSB foci formation in-vitro after internal irradiation of whole blood samples with radionuclides in solution will help us to gain detailed insights about dose-response relationships in patients after molecular radiotherapy (MRT). Therefore, we studied the induction of radiation-induced co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci as surrogate markers for DSBs in-vitro, and correlated the obtained foci per cell values with the in-vitro absorbed doses to the blood for the two most frequently used radionuclides in MRT (I-131 and Lu-177). This approach led to an in-vitro calibration curve. Overall, 55 blood samples of three healthy volunteers were analyzed. For each experiment several vials containing a mixture of whole blood and radioactive solutions with different concentrations of isotonic NaCl-diluted radionuclides with known activities were prepared. Leukocytes were recovered by density centrifugation after incubation and constant blending for 1 h at 37°C. After ethanol fixation they were subjected to two-color immunofluorescence staining and the average frequencies of the co-localizing γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci/nucleus were determined using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a red/green double band pass filter. The exact activity was determined in parallel in each blood sample by calibrated germanium detector measurements. The absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegrations occurring in 1 ml of blood were calculated for both isotopes by a Monte Carlo simulation. The measured blood doses in our samples ranged from 6 to 95 mGy. A linear relationship was found between the number of DSB-marking foci/nucleus and the absorbed dose to the blood for both radionuclides studied. There were only minor nuclide-specific intra- and inter-subject deviations. PMID:25853575

  1. COX-2 inhibition is neither necessary nor sufficient for celecoxib to suppress tumor cell proliferation and focus formation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petasis Nicos A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of reports is challenging the notion that the antitumor potential of the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex® is mediated primarily via the inhibition of COX-2. We have investigated this issue by applying two different analogs of celecoxib that differentially display COX-2-inhibitory activity: the first analog, called unmethylated celecoxib (UMC, inhibits COX-2 slightly more potently than its parental compound, whereas the second analog, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC, has lost the ability to inhibit COX-2. Results With the use of glioblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, we comparatively analyzed the effects of celecoxib, UMC, and DMC in various short-term (≤48 hours cellular and molecular studies, as well as in long-term (≤3 months focus formation assays. We found that DMC exhibited the most potent antitumor activity; celecoxib was somewhat less effective, and UMC clearly displayed the overall weakest antitumor potential in all aspects. The differential growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-stimulatory potency of these compounds in short-term assays did not at all correlate with their capacity to inhibit COX-2, but was closely aligned with their ability to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS, as indicated by the induction of the ERS marker CHOP/GADD153 and activation of the ERS-associated caspase 7. In addition, we found that these compounds were able to restore contact inhibition and block focus formation during long-term, chronic drug exposure of tumor cells, and this was achieved at sub-toxic concentrations in the absence of ERS or inhibition of COX-2. Conclusion The antitumor activity of celecoxib in vitro did not involve the inhibition of COX-2. Rather, the drug's ability to trigger ERS, a known effector of cell death, might provide an alternative explanation for its acute cytotoxicity. In addition, the newly discovered ability of this drug to restore contact inhibition and

  2. Effects of Dynamic Changes in Ultrasound Attenuation and Blood Perfusion on Lesion Formation of Multiple focus Pattern during Ultrasound Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen-xi; BAI Jing-feng; CHEN Ya-zhu

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear finite-element program was developed to simulate the dynamic evolution of coagulation in tissue considering temperature and thermal-dose dependence of the ultrasound attenuation and blood perfusion rate.The effects of these dynamic parameters on the lesion formation were investigated in the particular case of ultrasound hepatic ablation with bi-focus intensity pattern.The results of simulations were compared that incorporate dynamic changes of ultrasound attenuation and perfusion and results that neglect these effects.The result shows that thermal-dose-dependent ultrasound attenuation is the dominating factor in the full dynamic model.If the dynamic ultrasound attenuation is ignored, a relatively significant underestimation of the temperature rise appears in the focal plane and the region next to the focal plane, resulting in an underestimation in predicting diameter of coagulation.Higher heating intensity leads to greater underestimation.

  3. Microwaves from GSM Mobile Telephones Affect 53BP1 and γ-H2AX Foci in Human Lymphocytes from Hypersensitive and Healthy Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Markovà, Eva; Hillert, Lena; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Belyaev, Igor Y.

    2005-01-01

    The data on biologic effects of nonthermal microwaves (MWs) from mobile telephones are diverse, and these effects are presently ignored by safety standards of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the present study, we investigated effects of MWs of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). We meas...

  4. Process of children's formation of self by seeing their interaction in their classroom Focus on the viewpoint of the intersubjective elements in Goffman's theory

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 慶子

    2010-01-01

    Children's school lives have a great influence on their formations of self. I consider that the analysis of children's interaction in their classroom shows clearly the process of their formation of self. This study is based on Goffman's theory. Goffman revealed human behavior in daily life by conducting an analysis of their interactions. However, he did not provide a detailed explanation of human emotions in their interactions. In this study, I attempt to supplement his theory by focusing on ...

  5. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazja Grabarz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ. BLM represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1 protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2 promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid unscheduled resection that might jeopardize genome integrity.

  6. Effect of radiation-thermal treatment with focused electron beam on fine atomic structure and carbide formation in roll steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using nuclear physics methods - positron annihilation and nuclear gamma-resonance vacancy type point defects concentration and distribution changes as well as carbide phase precipitation in steel surface layers were studied. Steel for color deformation rolls was irradiated with focused 1.5 MeV electron beam at 400-550 deg C

  7. Transformation of the beam intensity distribution and formation of a uniform ion beam by means of nonlinear focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoiding undesirable thermal stress or damage of a target vessel is an essential subject in high-intensity beam irradiation for accelerator-driven neutron production. A promising method to tailor the transverse beam intensity distribution for uniform beam irradiation on the target is the use of multipole magnets. We, therefore, study the transformation and uniformization of the transverse intensity distribution by means of nonlinear focusing induced from multipole magnets. It is theoretically described how the intensity distribution is transformed and made uniform by the nonlinear focusing force. Large-area uniform proton and heavy-ion beams are experimentally formed using octupole magnets at the azimuthally-varying-field cyclotron in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  8. The formation of stable pH gradients with weak monovalent buffers for isoelectric focusing in free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Graham, Aly; Bier, Milan

    1985-01-01

    Two methods which utilize simple buffers for the generation of stable pH gradients (useful for preparative isoelectric focusing) are compared and contrasted. The first employs preformed gradients comprised of two simple buffers in density-stabilized free solution. The second method utilizes neutral membranes to isolate electrolyte reservoirs of constant composition from the separation column. It is shown by computer simulation that steady-state gradients can be formed at any pH range with any number of components in such a system.

  9. Formation of Tunable, Emulsion Micro-Droplets Utilizing Flow-Focusing Channels and a Normally-Closed Micro-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Bin Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A mono-dispersed emulsion is of great significance in many chemical, biomedical and industrial applications. The current study reports a new microfluidic chip capable of forming tunable micro-droplets in liquids for emulsification applications. It can precisely generate size-tunable, uniform droplets using flow-focusing channels and a normally-closed valve, which is opened by a pneumatic suction force. Experimental data showed that micro-droplets with a diameter ranging from several to tens of micrometers could be precisely generated with a high uniformity. The droplet size is experimentally found to be dependent on the velocity of the dispersed-phase liquid, which is controlled by the deflection of the suction membrane. Emulsions with droplet sizes ranging from 5.5 to 55 μm are successfully observed. The variation in droplet sizes is from 3.8% to 2.5%. The micro-droplets have a uniform size and droplets smaller than those reported in previous studies are possible with this approach. This new microfluidic device can be promising for emulsification and other related applications.

  10. Upgrade with a sociocultural focus of the process of teaching-learning of the nuclear physics for the formation and professors' excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When modernizing the teaching-learning procces of the nuclear physics, to put it in better correspondence with the current sociocultural context and to overcome the limitations presented in the professors formation, It have kept in mind a nucleus of ideas in those that it is synthesized the theoretical and practice experience in the field of the science didactics during the last decades. The idea defend in the investigation is that in correspondence with a sociocultural focus the process teaching-learning of the nuclear physics for the formation and professors should be structured around the most general problems that face the science, the technology and the society. The theoretical contribution of the work resides in the establishment of essential relationships among the teaching-learning of the nuclear physics, the sociocultural focus of the scientific education, the distinctive characteristics of the human psychic activity and of the activity scientist contemporary investigator, The practical contribution of the carried out work resides in the following results. a) strategy for the bring up to date of the process of teaching-learning of the nuclear physics, b) it programs of the subject the nuclear physics in the science, the technology and the society, c) systems of educational tasks, d) it structures basic of a place Web Science and nuclear Technology'', d) it programs computer of simulation of the dispersion of nuclear particles and and) I study on-line Nuclear Physics and the situation of the world'' (Author)

  11. Formation of pure Cu nanocrystals upon post-growth annealing of Cu–C material obtained from focused electron beam induced deposition: comparison of different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rodrigues Vaz, Alfredo; Zhang, Yucheng; Rudkowski, Andrzej; Kapusta, Czesław; Erni, Rolf; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this paper we study in detail the post-growth annealing of a copper-containing material deposited with focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). The organometallic precursor Cu(II)(hfac)2 was used for deposition and the results were compared to that of compared to earlier experiments with (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the deposition of amorphous material from Cu(II)(hfac)2. In contrast, as-deposited material from (hfac)Cu(I)(VTMS) and (hfac)Cu(I)(DMB) was nano-composite with Cu nanocrystals dispersed in a carbonaceous matrix. After annealing at around 150–200 °C all deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing the elements carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. Post-irradiation of deposits with 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope favored the formation of Cu nanocrystals within the carbonaceous matrix of freestanding rods and suppressed the formation on their surface. Electrical four-point measurements on FEBID lines from Cu(hfac)2 showed five orders of magnitude improvement in conductivity when being annealed conventionally and by laser-induced heating in the scanning electron microscope chamber. PMID:26425404

  12. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  13. Circumferential lesion formation around the pulmonary veins in the left atrium with focused ultrasound using a 2D-array endoesophageal device: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo [Imaging Research-Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room C713, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently sustained cardiac arrhythmia affecting humans. The electrical isolation by ablation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in the left atrium (LA) of the heart has been proven as an effective cure of AF. The ablation consists mainly in the formation of a localized circumferential thermal coagulation of the cardiac tissue surrounding the PVs. In the present numerical study, the feasibility of producing the required circumferential lesion with an endoesophageal ultrasound probe is investigated. The probe operates at 1 MHz and consists of a 2D array with enough elements (114 x 20) to steer the acoustic field electronically in a volume comparable to the LA. Realistic anatomical conditions of the thorax were considered from the segmentation of histological images of the thorax. The cardiac muscle and the blood-filled cavities in the heart were identified and considered in the sound propagation and thermal models. The influence of different conditions of the thermal sinking in the LA chamber was also studied. The circumferential ablation of the PVs was achieved by the sum of individual lesions induced with the proposed device. Different scenarios of lesion formation were considered where ultrasound exposures (1, 2, 5 and 10 s) were combined with maximal peak temperatures (60, 70 and 80 {sup 0}C). The results of this numerical study allowed identifying the limits and best conditions for controlled lesion formation in the LA using the proposed device. A controlled situation for the lesion formation surrounding the PVs was obtained when the targets were located within a distance from the device in the range of 26 {+-} 7 mm. When combined with a maximal temperature of 70 {sup 0}C and an exposure time between 5 and 10 s, this distance ensured preservation of the esophageal structures, controlled lesion formation and delivery of an acoustic intensity at the transducer surface that is compatible with existing materials. With a peak

  14. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  15. Passive focus sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Knop, Karl

    1995-05-01

    A focus-sensor module that could take the place of the visual-image control for professional large-format cameras was fabricated. In addition, a passive focus-sensing method was shown to work at arbitrary locations and orientations in the recording plane of large-format professional cameras. A focus resolution of better than 0.1 mm and a range of measurement of +/- 5 mm at the image side were obtained at a minimum level of illuminance and with an aperture f/5.6 of the imaging lens. In the current method, three out of four images that arose from various sections of the camera's objective lens were applied for triangulation. The demonstrated approach was based on a linear photodiode array and employed one-dimensional image information for focus sensing.

  16. Interaction of weak shocks leading to Mach stem formation in focused beams and reflections from a rigid surface: numerical modeling and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    KARZOVA, Maria; Salze, Edouard; Ollivier, Sébastien; Castelain, Thomas; André, Benoît; Yuldashev, Petr,; Khokhlova, Vera; Sapozhnikov, Oleg; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience Mach stem is a well-known structure observed in the process of interaction of two strong shock waves (Mach number Ma > 0.1), typically in the case of reflections from a rigid boundary. However this phenomenon has not been studied in detail for weak shocks in nonlinear acoustic fields, i.e. for acoustic Mach number in the range from 10-3 to 10-2. In acoustics, interaction of shocks occurs in the case of reflections or in the focusing of high power nonlinear beams. The...

  17. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  18. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... technology affects our habits of consumption. Risto Holopainen presents a notion of autonomous instruments and automated composition that, in the end, cannot escape the human while Jøren Rudi reflects on aesthetic elements and artistic approaches to sound in computer games. This focus is edited by Sanne...

  19. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  20. The social formation and cultural identity of Southeast Asian frontier society: Focused on the concept of maritime Zomia as frontier in connection with the ocean and the inland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Seok-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the applicability of the Zomia concept for social scientific studies of the Malaysian region, with a focus on the Malaysian port cities, including Melaka. While for both empirical and socio-cultural reasons the term Zomia itself may not be entirely appropriate to the Malaysian Melaka region, the analytical implications that are based on James C. Scott’s usage of it, particularly the emphasis on the cultural dynamics of inter-ethnic, inter-national, and inter-religious relations of port areas, can be of great utility to those working in the Malaysian region. Zomia is a neologism gaining popularity with the publication of James C. Scott’s provocative book, The art of not being governed: an anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. The term of Zomia is designed to indicate the people who has not been governed by the nation-state and national regime.

  1. Partial Melt Systems in Plate-Driven Corner Flow: Evaluating the Formation of Porosity Bands as a Mechanism for Magma Focusing at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, D.; Butler, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The imposition of an external shear on a system of partial melt will result in compaction of the solid matrix and concentration of the interstitial liquid melt leading to the formation of regions of contrasting high and low porosity. In experiments, direct and torsional shear geometries have demonstrated that these regions of varying porosity form in bands orientated at low angles relative to the shear plane. A variety of numerical models have been employed to recreate these experimental results. Simple shear, pure shear and torsional shear geometries have been used in both linear and nonlinear numerical settings to model the formation of the porosity bands. In this contribution the numerical models utilize a shear geometry derived from the velocity field of the plate-driven corner flow of a mid-ocean ridge. Motivation for using the velocity field of a mid-ocean ridge comes from evidence that suggests the existence of lateral melt channeling from either side of the ridge axis. Imposing the shear from a mid-ocean ridge corner flow allows for the evaluation of the resulting porosity bands in terms of suitability for channeling melt laterally toward the ridge axis. This is done using both slow and fast spreading ridge geometries. The degree of similarity between previous numerical and experimental results has been found to be greatly influenced by the imposed viscosity law of the solid matrix phase. In order to keep this in mind, the numerical models in this contribution use three different matrix viscosity laws: strain-rate independent, strain-rate dependent and anisotropic. Of these rheologies, strain-rate independence results in the poorest orientation for channeling melt directly to the ridge axis. The strain-rate dependent and anisotropic viscosities present more favorable direct-channeling orientations for the fastest growing porosity bands, but in both cases the background flow will rotate bands to less ideal orientations over time. However, these less

  2. Tsunami focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  3. Characterizing the DNA Damage Response by Cell Tracking Algorithms and Cell Features Classification Using High-Content Time-Lapse Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Georgescu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the kinetics of DNA repair have been estimated using immunocytochemistry by labeling proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR with fluorescent markers in a fixed cell assay. However, detailed knowledge of DDR dynamics across multiple cell generations cannot be obtained using a limited number of fixed cell time-points. Here we report on the dynamics of 53BP1 radiation induced foci (RIF across multiple cell generations using live cell imaging of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A expressing histone H2B-GFP and the DNA repair protein 53BP1-mCherry. Using automatic extraction of RIF imaging features and linear programming techniques, we were able to characterize detailed RIF kinetics for 24 hours before and 24 hours after exposure to low and high doses of ionizing radiation. High-content-analysis at the single cell level over hundreds of cells allows us to quantify precisely the dose dependence of 53BP1 protein production, RIF nuclear localization and RIF movement after exposure to X-ray. Using elastic registration techniques based on the nuclear pattern of individual cells, we could describe the motion of individual RIF precisely within the nucleus. We show that DNA repair occurs in a limited number of large domains, within which multiple small RIFs form, merge and/or resolve with random motion following normal diffusion law. Large foci formation is shown to be mainly happening through the merging of smaller RIF rather than through growth of an individual focus. We estimate repair domain sizes of 7.5 to 11 µm2 with a maximum number of ~15 domains per MCF10A cell. This work also highlights DDR which are specific to doses larger than 1 Gy such as rapid 53BP1 protein increase in the nucleus and foci diffusion rates that are significantly faster than for spontaneous foci movement. We hypothesize that RIF merging reflects a "stressed" DNA repair process that has been taken outside physiological conditions when

  4. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob; Oestergaard, Vibe H; Lisby, Michael

    2015-08-17

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  5. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon...... mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise...... temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin...

  6. Star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-09-27

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references.

  7. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  8. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  9. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  10. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  11. Genitive focus in Supyire

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Robert,

    2006-01-01

    Supyire has two distinct genitive constructions, one consisting of juxtaposed nouns, and the other marked with a particle. This study demonstrates that the marked genitive correlates significantly in natural discourse with contrastive focus as operationally defined in Myhill and Xing (1996). The method used avoids the vicious circularity of many discourse-based studies of focus. Contrastive focus, rather than being "coded", is a pragmatic construal which is dependent on other elements in the ...

  12. Design and characterization of a tunable opto-mechatronic system to mimic the focusing and the regulation of illumination in the formation of images made by the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Cruz-Félix, A.; Hernández Méndez, A.; Pérez-Maldonado, Y.; Domínguez-Osante, C.

    2015-05-01

    Tunable lenses have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like machine vision, laser projection, ophthalmology, etc. In this work we present the design of a tunable opto-mechatronic system capable of focusing and to regulate the entrance illumination that mimics the performance made by the iris and the crystalline lens of the human eye. A solid elastic lens made of PDMS has been used in order to mimic the crystalline lens and an automatic diaphragm has been used to mimic the iris of the human eye. Also, a characterization of such system has been performed with standard values of luminosity for the human eye have been taken into account to calibrate and to validate the entrance illumination levels to the overall optical system.

  13. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  14. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope variations within Cretaceous continental flood-basalt suites of the Canadian High Arctic, with a focus on the Hassel Formation basalts of northeast Ellesmere Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Solveig

    2015-11-01

    Early- to mid-Cretaceous flood-basalt suites of the northeast Canadian High Arctic assigned to a High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) were studied for their whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes. Data from basalt flows within the upper Albian to lower Cenomanian Hassel Formation of northeast Ellesmere Island are compared with former published data and new inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data of the stratigraphic equivalent Strand Fiord basalts and the older, late Hauterivian to Aptian Isachsen basalts from Axel Heiberg Island. The transitional to mildly alkaline aphyric Hassel basalts, with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like geochemical signatures in parts, have an Ar-Ar whole-rock age of on average 96.4 ± 1.6 Ma. They represent two geochemically different flow units without a fractional crystallization relationship: the high-phosphorous (HP) and low-phosphorous (LP) basalts. The Hassel HP basalts differ from the LP basalts by additionally higher Ba, K, Rb, Th and LREE contents, a pronounced positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 1.74-1.76), as well as lower Ta, Nb, Zr and Hf concentrations. The Nd and Sr isotope ratios of the Hassel HP basalts [ ɛ Nd( t) of -1.3 to -1.4, 87Sr/86Sr( t) of 0.70706-0.70707] and the LP basalts [ ɛ Nd( t) of 4.5-4.9, 87Sr/86Sr( t) of 0.7038-0.7040] indicate an origin from different mantle sources. The geochemically similar tholeiitic Isachsen (ca. 130-113 Ma) and Strand Fiord basalts (ca. 105-95 Ma) are also incompatible element enriched relative to the primitive mantle, however, with negative Sr-P anomalies as well as partially negative K, Ta and Nb anomalies. In terms of incompatible element ratios (Zr/Nb, Nb/Th), several mantle components are involved in the formation of the flood-basalt suites: a component with primitive mantle composition, an OIB-like component (probably subducted and recycled oceanic crust) and an enriched lithospheric component. The latter component, probably metasomatized subcontinental

  15. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  16. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping

    2005-01-01

    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  17. Focus on Compression Stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy may be recommended as part of a treatment plan. There are several situations when compression may be helpful, including: tired legs, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), lymphedema, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This brochure focuses ...

  18. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  19. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  20. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  1. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  2. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  3. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  5. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  6. Homework. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  7. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  8. Optimally focusing wave packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K., E-mail: karl.vogel@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Gleisberg, F. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Harshman, N.L. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Department of Physics, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20016-8058 (United States); Kazemi, P.; Mack, R.; Plimak, L.; Schleich, W.P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2010-10-05

    An appropriately prepared real-valued wave packet moving in one space dimension will focus during a brief period of time even in the absence of any force. We illustrate this phenomenon by considering the time evolution of the elementary superposition of the ground state and the second excited state of a harmonic oscillator. Moreover, we show that a variation of the superposition parameter leads us from a domain of enhanced spreading via a point of suppressed spreading to a region where the wave packets focuses before it spreads again. We determine the points of maximal spreading and optimal focusing. Our analysis of this unusual behavior of a free quantum particle rests on the time dependence of (i) the average separation of the wave packet from the origin, (ii) the probability density in position space, and (iii) the Wigner phase space distribution. We conclude our search for optimally focusing wave packets by solving the corresponding variational problem with respect to a family of measures expressing the width of the wave packet.

  9. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  10. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  11. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  12. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  13. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  14. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  15. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  16. Antiproton Focus Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  17. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  18. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  19. CERN In Focus

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2008-01-01

    First edition 2008 of Cern in Focus. On behalf of the audiovisual team, a selection of the latest videos filmed at CERN. Every six weeks, we will bring you the latest in CERN's activities, from LHC start up to the Computing Grid, featuring the experiments and many other goings-on at CERN. The agenda of this first edition of CERN in Focus features the visit of the prime minister of Malta, Lawrence Gonzi... CMS and the final descent of the YE-1 end cap... The departure of UA1 magnets to Japan... The start up of sectors 4 and 5... And finally, in our sports round up... We'll talk about football. New in brief this month... The final bolt is in place : On 7th November, in the bowels of the LHC tunnel, CERN's Director General Robert Aymar tightened a gold-plated bolt for the last arc interconnection of sector 1-2. This symbolic gesture marks the completion of all the arc interconnections of the LHC. Last welding work: it was never going to be an easy task. On this day last year just one sector had been completed,...

  20. Alliance-focused training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  1. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic of......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge that...... interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ, not as...

  2. Plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron source not permanently active is obtained from an electric discharge plasma focus (PF) device. A small PF device, a Mather model device, works in the limit of low energy, 100 to 200 J at charging voltage of 20 to 30 kV with a capacitor bank of 160 nF, and a characteristic inductance of 25 to 50 nH. A theoretical model leads us to estimate the optimum values of capacitance, inductance, initial charging voltage and electrode geometry. In this work is presented the design evolution and construction of a first PF neutron source prototype, preliminary measures of current, voltage and temporal evolution of the current with the end of have an electric characterization. This parameters must be optimized with the objective of geeting an emission of 104 to 105 neutrons per pulse when Deuterium is used like filled gas (C.W)

  3. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  4. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  5. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  6. Focusing on flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  7. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  8. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  9. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated. PMID:26486330

  10. Discrete and modal focusing effects: principles and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    the charges to distinct locations on the electrode surface depending on the entrance coordinates at the sheath edge. Two focusing effects are identified. Discrete focusing leads to the formation of a passive surface of no ion impact, near the edge of the electrodes interfacing insulators. Modal focusing...... results in the formation of certain ‘modal spots’ and/or ‘modal lines’. Several phenomenological aspects and potential applications are reviewed and further discussed, including charge focusing by a three-dimensional plasma–sheath–lens, ion dose uniformity during plasma immersion ion implantation, mass...

  11. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  12. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  13. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  14. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  15. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3-72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids.

  16. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7-week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3–72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. (author)

  17. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  18. Investigating Form-Focused Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of form-focused instruction research, defines what is meant by form-focused instruction, and discusses the main research methods that have been used to investigate form-focused instruction in terms of a broad distinction between confirmatory and interpretive research. (Author/VWL)

  19. Process-focused Salary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Shao-zu; LI Wei

    2002-01-01

    Salary often acts as the main incentive by managers to push employees to adjust their behaviors so as to realize organization's goal. With the transfer from function-focused organization to proeess-focused organization, the new relative salary system should be established at the same time. This article is intended to introduce an original salary system-process-focused salary system. After pointing out faults of traditional function-focused salary system, the article explains the design thoughts behind the new process-focused salary system, summaries its three styles: based-on-cost, based-on-quality and based-on-task; and at last defines its application scope.

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  1. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI)has emerged,intending to bring language forms instructionback to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types of application.The tentative conclusion is FFI does show some explicit and reliable effects on accuracy and error elimination in language teaching;however,the investigation into its application is not simply either Focus on Form Or Focus on FormS,but focuses on the optimal combination of the two in teaching.

  2. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Non-public Owned Enterprises Burgeon Recently the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce published the results of its member enterprise 2001 survey. According to survey statistics, the total business income of

  3. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China has launched a crackdown on Internet pornography. Of China's Netizens, 70 percent are students and 20 percent are juveniles. According to conservative estimates, 46 percent of juvenile Netizens visit porn websites.

  4. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Ninth Congress of CPC Guangdong Provincial Committee has 880 formal delegates. This is the first timefor people representing private entrepreneurs to attend the provincial congress. In addition to eight such del-egates, there are also three representing Sino--foreign joint ventures in the province, seven from share-holding

  5. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese railway department has decided to make significant adjustments to its railway network.It is tobuild a second Beijing-Guangzhou Railway line exclusively for passenger transport.The new railway,over2.000kilometers long,will take only 10hours to cover the distance between Beijing and Guangzhou.The

  6. FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    More than 600 Posionous Trees Found in Hainan;Cyber Counseling Service for Prisoners;""Super"" Maize Bred in China;English Level Improves as Proficiency in Mother Tongue Declines;Greater Proportion oF Chinese Leaders Graduates in Liberal Arts.

  7. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    400 Million People Shake off PovertyUN World Food Program (WFP) Executive Director James Morris recently praised the Chinese government, saying, "China has lifted several hundred million people out of poverty in less than a generation. That is an extraordinary achievement." Morris congratulated the Chinese government on its "remarkable success," adding that

  8. Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Personal Information Protection Law Under Legislative Procedure;China's Most Populous Province;New Marriage Law Brings New Trends;Beijing Repeals Regulations Governing Migrant Workers;A New Law to Regulate Electrical Junk in China;Highly-educated Jobless;Growing Up Alone;Internet Gambling Invades the Chinese Mainland;Dreams of Stardom;Chinese Smokers Consume1/3 of the World's Cigarettes.

  9. The Use of Online Focus Groups to Design an Online Food Safety Education Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…

  10. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  11. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof-the-art...

  12. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...

  13. Highly focused supersonic microjets: numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Ivo R; Oudalov, Nikolai; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2012-01-01

    By focusing a laser pulse inside a capillary partially filled with liquid, a vapour bubble is created which emits a pressure wave. This pressure wave travels through the liquid and creates a fast, focused axisymmetric microjet when it is reflected at the meniscus. We numerically investigate the formation of this microjet using axisymmetric boundary-integral simulations, where we model the pressure wave as a pressure pulse applied on the bubble. We find a good agreement between the simulations and experimental results in terms of the time evolution of the jet and on all parameters that can be compared directly. We present a simple analytical model that accurately predicts the velocity of the jet after the pressure pulse and its maximum velocity.

  14. Bulge Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    1999-01-01

    The currently discussed theories of bulge formation are reviewed, including the primordial scenario, where bulges form rapidly and then accrete disks, the secular scenario, where bulges are formed by dynamical evolution of disks through bars and galaxy interactions, and some combinations of both, where formation of bulges and disks are more continuous and interleaved. The various scenarios make specific predictions about the relative masses, angular momenta, colours, metallicities of bulges relative to disks, and the bulge-to-disk ratio as a function of time. Dynamical processes relevant to the formation of bulges (bar instabilities, mergers) are described and tested against observed statistics. Current data suggest a dynamical feedback from gravitational instabilities in bulge and disk formation. It is very difficult to discriminate between the various scenarios from surveys at z=0 only, and observations at high redshift are presently the best hope for large progress.

  15. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  16. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the g

  17. Doing Focus-on-Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Basturkmen, Helen; Loewen, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Considers the rationale for using a focus on form approach to teaching form as opposed to the more traditional focus on forms approach where linguistic features are treated sequentially. Describes methodological options for attending to form in communication. (Author/VWL)

  18. Focusing on life beyond numers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    at home to clarify their difficulties. Shifting the focus from ‘numbers’ to the patients’ life with diabetes can increase attendance and release the potential for change. Conclusion Susan benefitted from this flexible intervention, breaking out of her isolation by focusing on what was personally important...

  19. Six beam spherical compression of plasma focus guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary experiment with a one beam plasma focus is carried out to confirm plasma formation with the lowest input energy of 0.2 kJ for six beam spherical compression of plasma focus guns. The plasma front of this cableless gun can be used for compression and for the coupling of six guns situated along three rectangular axes, providing a good plasma focus pinch instantaneously or many plasma focus pinches continuously. The whole device with the energy bank is mounted on a sphere, and the minimum requirement for the plasma chamber of this sphere is a diameter of ∼ 22 cm. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  20. Microsources of intense fusion in focused discharges of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High nuclear reactivity within submillimetric domains in the space structure of the pinch of focused discharges has been reported since many years. Now the authors summarize and compare new and previously published data from our experiments which describe the emission of D+ beams and the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions within submillimetric domains of plasma focus (PF) discharges for W = 5--10 kJ PF machines operating in the neutron optimized mode

  1. New Results from the FOCUS/E831 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D Y; Alimonti, G; Anjos, J C; Arena, V; Barberis, S; Bediaga, I; Benussi, L; Bertani, L; Bianco, S; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Boschini, M; Butler, J N; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cawlfield, C; Cerutti, A; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Cho, K; Chung, Y S; Cinquini, L; Cuautle, E; Cumalat, J P; D'Angelo, P; Davenport, T F; De Miranda, J M; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Dos Reis, A C; Edera, L; Engh, D; Erba, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Gardner, R; Garren, L A; Giammarchi, M; Gianini, G; Gottschalk, E E; Green, S W; Göbel, C; Han, T; Hernández, H; Hosack, M; Inzani, P; Johns, W E; Kang, J S; Kasper, P H; Kim, D Y; Ko, B R; Kreymer, A E; Kryemadhi, A; Kutschke, R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Leveraro, F; Liguori, G; Link, J M; Lopes-Pegna, D; Luiggi, E; López, A M; Magnin, J; Malvezzi, S; Massafferri, A; Menasce, D; Merlo, M M; Mezzadri, M; Mitchell, R; Moroni, L; Méndez, H; Nehring, M S; O'Reilly, B; Pantea, D; Paris, A; Park, H; Pedrini, D; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Pon, C; Prelz, F; Quinones, J; Rahimi, A; Ramírez, J E; Ratti, S P; Reyes, M; Riccardi, C; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Segoni, I; Sheaff, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vaandering, E W; Vitulo, P; Vázquez, F; Wahl, M; Wang, M; Webster, M; Wilson, J R; Wiss, J; Yager, P M; Zallo, A; Zhang, Y; Kim, Doris Yangsoo

    2003-01-01

    The E831/FOCUS experiment at Fermilab is a photoproduction experiment which generated high quality charm particles. During its run, we obtained a large data set, including more than 1 million charm mesons in the Kpi/K2pi/K3pi mode decays. The current analysis efforts by the collaboration members are quite active and diverse. I will summarize the recent papers published by the FOCUS group on topics of semileptonic decays of charm mesons.

  2. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  3. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  4. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found that 8% of all the…

  5. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  6. Instrument Measures Shift In Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1992-01-01

    Optical components tested at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Focus-shift-measuring instrument easy to use. Operated in lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through microscope. Measures distance along which focal point of converging beam of light shifted by introduction of nominally plane parallel optical component into beam. Intended primarily for measuring focus shifts produced by windows and filters at wavelengths from 120 to 1,100 nanometers. Portable, compact, and relatively inexpensive for degree of precision.

  7. Focusing Mirror with Tunable Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We present a new kind of varifocal mirror with independently adjustable curvatures in the major directions. For actuation we use two stacked piezo bending actuators with crossed in-plane polarization. This mirror can be used for example as an off-axis focusing device with tunable focal length and compensation for a variable angle of incidence or for coma correction. We demonstrate the prototype of such a mirror and characterize the mechanical deflection, as well as the focusing capabilities.

  8. Individual focus and knowledge contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Adamic, Lada A.; Wei, Xiao; Yang, Jiang; Gerrish, Sean; Nam, Kevin K.; Clarkson, Gavin S.

    2010-01-01

    Before contributing new knowledge, individuals must attain requisite background knowledge or skills through schooling, training, practice, and experience. Given limited time, individuals often choose either to focus on few areas, where they build deep expertise, or to delve less deeply and distribute their attention and efforts across several areas. In this paper we measure the relationship between the narrowness of focus and the quality of contribution across a range of both traditional and ...

  9. Properties of self-focusing of elliptic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stationary self-focusing of collimated elliptic Gaussian beams is studied numerically. It is shown that the critical self-focusing power increases with increasing the axial ratio of the initial elliptic cross section. Self-focusing is accompanied by oscillations of the beam transverse size caused by the competition between the diffraction-limited divergence and nonlinear compression. As the power of the beam with the axial ratio a/b≥3 increases, aberration self-focusing occurs, at which, after the formation and competition of several intensity maxima in the beam cross section, a global maximum appears at the beam centre, which forms a nonlinear focus. The approximation formula for the self-focusing distance is generalised to elliptic beams. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    . The differences are ascribed to the amount of charge transfer into C60 upon adsorption on different surfaces. In summary, in the field of molecular electronics new materials and structures are developed and investigated, both with respect to a basic understanding of the materials and their compositions and with respect to possible applications in electronics. While in the field of molecular electronics on the microscale the techniques are well established, they still need to be refined in the field of nano-molecular electronics. Nevertheless, both subfields share some of the most challenging questions: e.g. the problems of charge and energy transport, of excitations and the formation of new quasi-particles. Another question is the role of vibrational degrees of freedom, where on the one hand one has to cope with the unavoidable effect of heat dissipation. On the other hand, vibrational excitations are intimately connected to the individual molecule under study and thus offer the possibility to be used in functional devices based on intrinsic molecular properties. This Focus Issue represents a snapshot of the state of the art of this emerging field in the first half of 2008. We expect that the fast development which the research has undergone in recent years will even speed up in the near future. References [1] Pope M and Sweenberg Ch E 1999 Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Silinsh E A and Capek V 1994 Organic Molecular Crystals (New York: AIP Press) [3] Agranovich V M and La Rocca G C 2002 Organic Nanostructures: Science and Applications, Proc. Int. School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi', Course CXLIX (Amsterdam: IOS Press) [4] Schwoerer M and Wolf H C 2007 Organic Molecular Solids (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) [5] Cuniberti G, Fagas G and Richter K (ed) 2005 Introducing Molecular Electronics, Lecture Notes in Physics (Berlin: Springer) [6] Reed M and Lee T 2003 Molecular Nanoelectronics (Stevenson Ranch, CA

  11. Prime Focus Instrument of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Schwochert, Mark A; Huang, Pin-Jie; Kimura, Masahiko; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Reiley, Dan J; Mao, Peter; Fisher, Charles D; Tamura, Naoyuki; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Chou, Richard C -Y; Takato, Naruhisa; Sugai, Hajime; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Ueda, Akitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding (A&G) cameras, the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy.

  12. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  13. Focused ion beams in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Kedar; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    A quiet revolution is under way in technologies used for nanoscale cellular imaging. Focused ion beams, previously restricted to the materials sciences and semiconductor fields, are rapidly becoming powerful tools for ultrastructural imaging of biological samples. Cell and tissue architecture, as preserved in plastic-embedded resin or in plunge-frozen form, can be investigated in three dimensions by scanning electron microscopy imaging of freshly created surfaces that result from the progressive removal of material using a focused ion beam. The focused ion beam can also be used as a sculpting tool to create specific specimen shapes such as lamellae or needles that can be analyzed further by transmission electron microscopy or by methods that probe chemical composition. Here we provide an in-depth primer to the application of focused ion beams in biology, including a guide to the practical aspects of using the technology, as well as selected examples of its contribution to the generation of new insights into subcellular architecture and mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions.

  14. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  15. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  16. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  17. Focus on stochastic flows and climate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, JB; Williams, Paul D.

    2016-09-01

    The atmosphere and ocean are examples of dynamical systems that evolve in accordance with the laws of physics. Therefore, climate science is a branch of physics that is just as valid and important as the more traditional branches, which include particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and statistical mechanics. This ‘focus on’ collection of New Journal of Physics brings together original research articles from leading groups that advance our understanding of the physics of climate. Areas of climate science that can particularly benefit from input by physicists are emphasised. The collection brings together articles on stochastic models, turbulence, quasi-linear approximations, climate statistics, statistical mechanics of atmospheres and oceans, jet formation, and reduced-form climate models. The hope is that the issue will encourage more physicists to think about the climate problem.

  18. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...... we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...... networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context....

  19. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  20. Injector for RFQ using electrostatically focused transport and matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the principles and performance of a new type of high- current H- injector for RFQs. The distinguishing feature of our injector is that we replace the conventional gas-neutralized transport and matching units by electrostatic focusing units. Our system prevents plasma formation along the beam instead of utilizing it. Some advantages of this approach are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs

  1. Formation of Bidisperse Particle Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Zhao, Bing; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2014-11-01

    When a group of dense particles is released instantaneously into water, their motion has been conceptualized as a circulating particle thermal (Ruggerber 2000). However, Wen and Nacamuli (1996) observed the formation of particle clumps characterized by a narrow, fast moving core shedding particles into wakes. They observed the clump formation even for particles in the non-cohesive range as long as the source Rayleigh number was large (Ra > 1E3) or equivalently the source cloud number (Nc) was small (Nc < 3.2E2). This physical phenomenon has been investigated by Zhao et al. (2014) through physical experiments. They proposed the theoretical support for Nc dependence and categorized the formation processes into cloud formation, transitional regime and clump formation. Previous works focused mainly on the behavior of monodisperse particles. The present study further extends the experimental investigation to the formation process of bidisperse particles. Experiments are conducted in a glass tank with a water depth of 90 cm. Finite amounts of sediments with various weight proportions between coarser and finer particles are released from a cylindrical tube. The Nc being tested ranges from 6E-3 to 9.9E-2, which covers all the three formation regimes. The experimental results showed that the introduction of coarse particles promotes cloud formation and reduce the losses of finer particles into the wake. More quantitative descriptions of the effects of source conditions on the formation processes will be presented during the conference.

  2. Methodology of focus group research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slađana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of focus group interview has rapidly grown in the last two decades. After long-time period in which this technique had been practiced almost exclusively in marketing research it begins the period of its frequent application in a great number of academic fields (sociology, psychology, evaluation research, public opinion research, communication, medical care. Only with the intensification of investigations in which focus group interviewing has been applied it was enabled achieving of experience that can be methodologically generalized, with accompanying development of the technique. This text refers to the basic methodological principles of this technique's application. In the paper the methodological experiences are synthesized which are accumulated through an enormous number of foreign explorations, as well as in many-year research experience of the author.

  3. Plasma focusing in coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capacitor bank has been discharged between two coaxial electrodes of 6.6 cm outer diameter, 3.2 cm inner diameter and length of 31.5 cm. filled with hydrogen gas at pressure of 310 μHg. Results show that, the axial and radial plasma current reach a maximum value at a position adjacent to the gun muzzle, at which the plasma focus occurs. The measurement of the electron temperature and density and azimuthal electric field along the axis of the expansion chamber, gives a maximum value at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, while the axial plasma current and velocity has a minimum value at that position. These results indicate that a second point of a plasma focus has been formed at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, along the axis of the expansion chamber

  4. Focusing of truncated Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Zoltán L.; Bor, Zsolt

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that the focusing of truncated Gaussian beams can be treated by the same manner as uniform spherical waves, i.e., the diffraction integral can be expressed by the Lommel functions, which offers a very efficient way for the calculation of the three-dimensional light distribution near focus. All the expressions for the uniform spherical waves hold good for Gaussian beams if the first variable in the Lommel functions is extended to the complex domain. The intensity distribution depending on the Fresnel number and the truncation coefficient is calculated. The location of the first few minima and maxima of the intensity in focal plane is given for different values of the truncation coefficient. The phase behavior depending on the truncation coefficient is studied.

  5. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  6. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  7. World Focus on the Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese people would never for-get the moment-14:28, on May 12, 2008, as the 8.0-magnitude earthquake shook the whole of Sichuan; at that moment the world's at-tention was focused on the southwest of China - the homeland of the Giant Panda. This rare yet catastrophic natural disaster has resulted in the heavy loss of lives and property throughout the region.

  8. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Alimonti, G; Anjos, J C; Arena, V; Bediaga, I; Bianco, S; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Boschini, M; Butler, J N; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cawlfield, C; Cheung, H W K; Cho, K; Chung, Y S; Cinquini, L; Cuautle, E; Cumalat, J P; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Engh, D; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Gardner, R; Garren, L A; Giammarchi, M; Gianini, G; Gottschalk, E; Göbel, C; Handler, T; Hernández, H; Hosack, M; Inzani, P; Johns, W E; Kang, J S; Kasper, P H; Kim, D Y; Ko, B R; Kreymer, A E; Kryemadhi, A; Kutschke, R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Leveraro, F; Liguori, G; Magnin, J; Malvezzi, S; Massafferri, A; Menasce, D; Merlo, M M; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Miranda, J M D; Mitchell, R; Montiel, E; Moroni, L; Méndez, H; Méndez, L; Nehring, M S; O'Reilly, B; Olaya, D; Pantea, D; Paris, A; Park, H; Park, K S; Pedrini, D; Pepe, I M; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Quinones, J; Rahimi, A; Ramírez, J E; Ratti, S P; Reis, A C D; Reyes, M; Riccardi, C; Rivera, C; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Sarwar, S; Segoni, I; Sheaff, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vaandering, E W; Vitulo, P; Vázquez, F; Webster, M; Wilson, J R; Wiss, J; Xiong, W; Yager, P M; Zallo, A; Zhang, Y

    2002-01-01

    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  9. Cherenkov particle identification in FOCUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Goebel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; Miranda, J.M. de; Pepe, I.M.; Reis, A.C. dos; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; O' Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J.E.; Vaandering, E.W.; Butler, J.N.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P.H.; Kreymer, A.E.; Kutschke, R.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D.Y.; Park, K.S.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J. E-mail: jew@uiuc.edu; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y.S.; Kang, J.S.; Ko, B.R.; Kwak, J.W.; Lee, K.B.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Boschini, M.; D' Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Milazzo, L.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport III, T.F.; Agostino, L.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M.M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Segoni, I.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A.M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J.R.; Cho, K.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Johns, W.E.; Hosack, M.; Nehring, M.S.; Sheldon, P.D.; Stenson, K.; Webster, M.S.; Sheaff, M

    2002-05-21

    We describe the algorithm used to identify charged tracks in the fixed-target charm-photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We begin by describing the new algorithm and contrast this approach with that used in our preceding experiment - E687. We next illustrate the algorithm's performance using physics signals. Finally, we briefly describe some of the methods used to monitor the quantum efficiency and noise of the Cherenkov cells.

  10. Metal assisted focused-ion beam nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegulla, Akash; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Focused-ion beam milling is a versatile technique for maskless nanofabrication. However, the nonuniform ion beam profile and material redeposition tend to disfigure the surface morphology near the milling areas and degrade the fidelity of nanoscale pattern transfer, limiting the applicability of the technique. The ion-beam induced damage can deteriorate the performance of photonic devices and hinders the precision of template fabrication for nanoimprint lithography. To solve the issue, we present a metal assisted focused-ion beam (MAFIB) process in which a removable sacrificial aluminum layer is utilized to protect the working material. The new technique ensures smooth surfaces and fine milling edges; in addition, it permits direct formation of v-shaped grooves with tunable angles on dielectric substrates or metal films, silver for instance, which are rarely achieved by using traditional nanolithography followed by anisotropic etching processes. MAFIB was successfully demonstrated to directly create nanopatterns on different types of substrates with high fidelity and reproducibility. The technique provides the capability and flexibility necessary to fabricate nanophotonic devices and nanoimprint templates.

  11. Metal assisted focused-ion beam nanopatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegulla, Akash; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Focused-ion beam milling is a versatile technique for maskless nanofabrication. However, the nonuniform ion beam profile and material redeposition tend to disfigure the surface morphology near the milling areas and degrade the fidelity of nanoscale pattern transfer, limiting the applicability of the technique. The ion-beam induced damage can deteriorate the performance of photonic devices and hinders the precision of template fabrication for nanoimprint lithography. To solve the issue, we present a metal assisted focused-ion beam (MAFIB) process in which a removable sacrificial aluminum layer is utilized to protect the working material. The new technique ensures smooth surfaces and fine milling edges; in addition, it permits direct formation of v-shaped grooves with tunable angles on dielectric substrates or metal films, silver for instance, which are rarely achieved by using traditional nanolithography followed by anisotropic etching processes. MAFIB was successfully demonstrated to directly create nanopatterns on different types of substrates with high fidelity and reproducibility. The technique provides the capability and flexibility necessary to fabricate nanophotonic devices and nanoimprint templates. PMID:27479713

  12. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  13. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  14. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line. PMID:15807042

  15. A focus on human flourishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2010-10-01

    In this column the author focuses on the concepts of human vulnerability and human flourishing. A parable is presented highlighting the importance of now, the present, in human flourishing. A bioethical, anthropological perspective and a nursing humanbecoming perspective on human flourishing are offered. Nursing education is challenged to emphasize the nursing theories of the discipline to teach the concept of human flourishing. Parse's concept of true presence, the four postulates of humanbecoming, and the humanbecoming community change concepts illuminate a nursing theoretical understanding of human flourishing. PMID:20870999

  16. Focusing properties of mushroom microlenses

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskin, A V; Benson, T; Sewell, P; Nosich, A I

    2010-01-01

    Focusing properties of a novel type photoresist microlens are studied. A specific character of the microlens is its mushroom shape. Recently it was predicted and experimentally revealed that such a lens integrated with a light-emitting diode is capable of enhancing its output efficiency and directivity. In our paper we describe the true electromagnetic performance of a mushroom lens by applying a mathematically rigorous method of boundary integral equations. Numerical results are presented for the mushroom lens illuminated with a plane E-polarized wave and include figures describing the evolution of the lens focal spot and near field maps.

  17. Bayesian Query-Focused Summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We present BayeSum (for ``Bayesian summarization''), a model for sentence extraction in query-focused summarization. BayeSum leverages the common case in which multiple documents are relevant to a single query. Using these documents as reinforcement for query terms, BayeSum is not afflicted by the paucity of information in short queries. We show that approximate inference in BayeSum is possible on large data sets and results in a state-of-the-art summarization system. Furthermore, we show how BayeSum can be understood as a justified query expansion technique in the language modeling for IR framework.

  18. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...... the public and makes a point of interest in a small exhibit area. A countdown clock can be simple, but it is possible to expand the concept to an eye-catching part of a museum....

  19. A focused bibliography on robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  20. Geometrically focused neutral beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A more reliable 40 kV, 65 A power supply drain at 0.4 A/cm2, neutral-beam accelerator was developed for the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). Multiple slotted aperture grids of 60% transparency are fabricated from refractory metal wires mounted to form a spherical surface. This geometrically focuses the beam by aiming individual beamlets at the center of curvature of the spherical grid (r = 3.2 m). We attain greater reliability and faster conditioning with geometrical focusing than with the previous technique of electrostatically steering beamlets to a common point. Electrostatic steering, accomplished by offsetting grid wires, is satisfactory if the offset of a beamlet is much less than the distance from the beamlet to the grids. It was found that Pierce Angle entrance grids performed better if sharper edged. A redesigned accelerator grid support structure reduced the number of ceramic-to-metal vacuum joints, and eliminated O rings between precisely aligned parts. The suppressor grid feedthrough is required to withstand a maximum voltage of 15 kV occurring during breakdown, greatly exceeding the operating voltage of 1.5 kV. Convenient fabrication and assembly techniques have been developed. Assembly of accelerators and plasma sources in a clean room appears to reduce the conditioning time. Following the successful testing of the prototype, eight 40 kV accelerators were built for TMX. Furthermore, ten 20 kV versions were built that are modifiable to 40 kV by exchanging the entrance grid

  1. Development of a Focusing DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, J.; Bedajanek, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B.; Suzuki, K.; Schwiening, J.; Uher, J.; Va' vra, J.; /SLAC

    2006-12-12

    Benefiting from the recent introduction of new fast vacuum-based photon detectors with a transit time spread of {sigma}{sub TTS} {approx} 30-150 ps, we are developing a novel RICH detector capable of correcting the chromatic error through good time measurements; we believe that this is the first time such a technique has been demonstrated. We have built and successfully tested a particle identification detector called ''Focusing DIRC''. The concept of the prototype is based on the BaBar DIRC, with several important improvements: (a) much faster pixelated photon detectors based on Burle MCP-PMTs and Hamamatsu MaPMTs, (b) a focusing mirror which allows the photon detector to be smaller and less sensitive to background in future applications, (c) electronics allowing the measurement of single photon timing to better than {sigma} {approx} 100-200ps, which allows a correction of the chromatic error. The detector was tested in a SLAC 10GeV/c electron test beam. This detector concept could be used for particle identification at Super B-factory, ILC, GlueX, Panda, etc.

  2. On highly focused supersonic microjets

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Willem, Claas; Peters, Ivo R; van der Meer, Deveraj; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    By focusing a laser pulse in a liquid-filled glass-microcapillary open at one end, a small mass of liquid is instantaneously vapourised. This leads to a shock wave which travels towards the concave free surface where it generates a high-speed microjet. The initial shape of the meniscus plays a dominant role in the process. The velocity of the jet can reach supersonic speeds up to 850\\,m/s while maintaining a very sharp geometry. The entire evolution of the jet is observed by high-speed recordings of up to $10^6\\,$fps. A parametric study of the jet velocity as a function of the contact angle of the liquid-glass interface, the energy absorbed by the liquid, the diameter of the capillary tube, and the distance between the laser focus and the free surface is performed, and the results are rationalised. The method could be used for needle-free injection of vaccines or drugs.

  3. Isoelectric focusing of urinary metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felley-Bosco, E; Hunziker, P E; Savolainen, H

    1990-05-01

    Isoelectric focusing of human urinary metallothionein at a pH range of 4.8 to 7.0 yielded a single protein band with a pI of 5.57 which co-migrated with authentic purified metallothionein I from human liver. Minimum pretreatment of the urine samples (160 ml) was needed. The preparatory steps included sample concentration with the original protein, enriched from 69 +/- 23 micrograms/ml to 2.0 +/- 1.4 mg/ml (+/- SD; n = 9), followed by heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 5 min (2.4 +/- 1.7 mg protein/ml). After focusing, the gels were stained with silver and the lanes were scanned with a laser scanner. Peak areas were used for quantitation with commercial beta 2-microglobulin as a standard. The urinary metallothionein ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 nmol/mmol creatinine, which is comparable with values reached by radio-immunoassay.

  4. On the interplay between star formation and feedback in galaxy formation simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Agertz, Oscar; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the star formation-feedback cycle in cosmological galaxy formation simulations, focusing on progenitors of Milky Way (MW)-sized galaxies. We find that in order to reproduce key properties of the MW progenitors, such as semi-empirically derived star formation histories and the shape of rotation curves, our implementation of star formation and stellar feedback requires 1) a combination of local early momentum feedback via radiation pressure and stellar winds and subsequent effici...

  5. MDF: Magnetic Particle Imaging Data Format

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Tobias; Bringout, Gael; Ahlborg, Mandy; Rahmer, Jürgen; Hofmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a tomographic method to determine the spatial distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. In this document a file format for the standardized storage of MPI data is introduced. The aim of the Magnetic Particle Imaging Data Format (MDF) is to provide a coherent way of exchanging MPI data acquired with different MPI scanners worldwide. The focus of the file format is on sequence parameters, raw measurement data, calibration data, and reconstruction data. The format is based on the hierarchical document format (HDF) in version 5 (HDF5).

  6. Micron-focused ion beamlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-01

    A multiple beam electrode system (MBES) is used to provide focused ion beamlets of elements from a compact microwave plasma. In this study, a honeycomb patterned plasma electrode with micron size apertures for extracting ion beamlets is investigated. The performance of the MBES is evaluated with the help of two widely adopted and commercially available beam simulation tools, AXCEL-INP and SIMION, where the input parameters are obtained from our experiments. A simple theoretical model based upon electrostatic ray optics is employed to compare the results of the simulations. It is found that the results for the beam focal length agree reasonably well. Different geometries are used to optimize the beam spot size and a beam spot ˜5-10 μm is obtained. The multiple ion beamlets will be used to produce microfunctional surfaces on soft matter like polymers. Additionally, the experimental set-up and plans are presented in the light of above applications.

  7. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  8. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  9. Non-imaging, focusing heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.T.; Chong, K.K.; Bligh, T.P. [Univ. of Technology Malaysia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Johor (MY)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    A non-imaging focusing heliostat for effective use of thermal solar energy is proposed. The heliostat consists of a number of grouped slave mirrors, which are able to move according to a proposed formula to eliminate the first order aberration. The master tracks the sun by a proposed rotation-elevation mode to project solar rays together with the rest of slave mirrors into a fixed target. The merit of this design is that if may benefit the use of solar energy in high temperature applications by allowing a single stage collector to replace a conventional double stage structure; it may also benefit high concentration applications, e.g., solar powered Stirling engines, solar pumped lasers, etc. The feasibility and a reliability test of the proposed method by a prototype heliostat in the University of Technology, Malaysia is reported. (Author)

  10. Centripetal focusing of gyrotactic phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencini, M; Franchino, M; Santamaria, F; Boffetta, G

    2016-06-21

    A suspension of gyrotactic microalgae Chlamydomonas augustae swimming in a cylindrical water vessel in solid-body rotation is studied. Our experiments show that swimming algae form an aggregate around the axis of rotation, whose intensity increases with the rotation speed. We explain this phenomenon by the centripetal orientation of the swimming direction towards the axis of rotation. This centripetal focusing is contrasted by diffusive fluxes due to stochastic reorientation of the cells. The competition of the two effects lead to a stationary distribution, which we analytically derive from a refined mathematical model of gyrotactic swimmers. The temporal evolution of the cell distribution, obtained via numerical simulations of the stochastic model, is in quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements in the range of parameters explored. PMID:27060672

  11. On-chip pumping for pressure mobilization of the focused zones following microchip isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillo, Christelle; Karlinsey, James M; Landers, James P

    2007-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing (IEF), traditionally accomplished in slab or tube gels, has also been performed extensively in capillary and, more recently, in microchip formats. IEF separations performed in microchips typically use electroosmotic flow (EOF) or chemical treatment to mobilize the focused zones past the detection point. This report describes the development and optimization of a microchip IEF method in a hybrid PDMS-glass device capable of controlling the mobilization of the focused zones past the detector using on-chip diaphragm pumping. The microchip design consisted of a glass fluid layer (separation channels), a PDMS layer and a glass valve layer (pressure connections and valve seats). Pressure mobilization was achieved on-chip using a diaphragm pump consisting of a series of reversible elastomeric valves, where a central diaphragm valve determined the volume of solution displaced while the gate valves on either side imparted directionality. The pumping rate could be adjusted to control the mobilization flow rate by varying the actuation times and pressure applied to the PDMS to actuate the valves. In order to compare the separation obtained using the chip with that obtained in a capillary, a serpentine channel design was used to match the separation length of the capillary, thereby evaluating the effect of diaphragm pumping itself on the overall separation quality. The optimized mIEF method was applied to the separation of labeled amino acids. PMID:17180213

  12. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection

  13. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper. PMID:19413164

  14. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  15. Prime Focus Spectrograph - Subaru's future -

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, Hajime; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Shimono, Atsushi; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Ling, Hung-Hsu; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H; Bennett, Charles L; Bickerton, Steve; Braun, David F; Bruno, Robin J; Carr, Michael A; Oliveira, João Batista de Carvalho; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Dekany, Richard G; Dominici, Tania Pereira; Ellis, Richard S; Fisher, Charles D; Gunn, James E; Heckman, Timothy M; Ho, Paul T P; Hu, Yen-Shan; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer; Kimura, Masahiko; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H; Madec, Fabrice; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Martin, Laurent; Murayama, Hitoshi; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Macanhan, Vanessa Bawden de Paula; Prieto, Eric; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Seiffert, Michael D; Smee, Stephen A; Smith, Roger M; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N; Surace, Christian; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project has been endorsed by Japanese community as one of the main future instruments of the Subaru 8.2-meter telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph targets cosmology with galaxy surveys, Galactic archaeology, and studies of galaxy/AGN evolution. Taking advantage of Subaru's wide field of view, which is further extended with the recently completed Wide Field Corrector, PFS will enable us to carry out multi-fiber spectroscopy of 2400 targets within 1.3 degree diameter. A microlens is attached at each fiber entrance for F-ratio transformation into a larger one so that difficulties of spectrograph design are eased. Fibers are accurately placed onto target positions by positioners, each of which consists of two stages of piezo-electric rotary motors, through iterations by using back-illuminated fiber position measurements with a wide-field metrology camera. Fibers then carry l...

  16. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineker, Peter; Schülz, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructures in general are playing a more and more important role in the physics and chemistry of condensed matter systems including both hard and soft materials. This Focus Issue concentrates particularly on recent developments in Nanostructured Soft Matter Systems. Many interesting questions related to both fundamental and applied research in this field have arisen. Some of them are connected to the chemical reactions that take place during the irreversible formation of soft matter systems. Others refer to the theoretical and experimental investigations of structures and topologies of `nanostructured soft matter', e.g. heterogeneous polymers and polymer networks, or soft matter at low dimensions or in constrained geometries. Additional research has also been devoted to the dynamics of other complex nanostructured systems, such as the structure formation on the basis of polymer systems and polyelectrolytes, and several kinds of phase transitions on nano- and microscales. The contributions collected here present the most up-to-date research results on all of these topics. New Journal of Physics, as an electronic journal, is perfectly suited for the presentation of the complex results that the experimental and theoretical investigations reported here yield. The articles that will follow provide a number of excellent examples of the use of animations, movies and colour features for the added benefit of the reader. Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter Contents Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages Peter Virnau, Marcus Müller, Luis González MacDowell and Kurt Binder Spectral dynamics in the B800 band of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum: a single-molecule study Clemens Hofmann, Thijs J Aartsma, Hartmut Michel and Jürgen Köhler Adsorption of polyacrylic acid on self-assembled monolayers investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy Claudia Friedsam, Aránzazu Del Campo Bécares, Ulrich Jonas

  18. Intermittent ion trajectories and focusing in spherical inertial electromagnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of spherical magnetic electrostatic confinement fusion is analyzed. Magnetic field lines in spherical cusps provide a chaotic scattering system that improves the ion focusing due to synergetic effect of intermittent ion trajectories. Confined ions are bounced within electrostatic well reflecting from magnetic barriers shaped by convex field lines. The concept offers a means of enhancing ion reactivity provided by caustic formation that are resulted from an intersection of ion orbits within confinement volume. Parameters of the experimental device are estimated. (author)

  19. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  20. Regioselective Heck Coupling Reactions : Focus on Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Vallin, Karl S. A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond formation reactions are among the most important processes in chemistry, as they represent key steps in the synthesis of more complex molecules from simple precursors. This thesis describes mainly the development of novel regioselective applications of the mild and versatile palladium-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling method, commonly known as the Heck reaction. In addition, this thesis will focus on environmentally friendly developments of the Heck reaction. Novel ligand-co...

  1. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  2. GSM microwaves and 50 Hz electromagnetic field induce stress response but not apoptosis in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used specific conditions of exposure to microwaves from a GSM (global system for mobile communication) mobile phone (915 MHz, SAR=0.4 mW/g) and 50 Hz electromagnetic field (EMF, 15 μT amplitude) to investigate the response of lymphocytes from healthy subjects and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to EMF. The groups of hypersensitive and healthy donors were matched by gender and age and the data were analyzed in blind. The changes in chromatin conformation were measured with the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). 53BP1 protein, which has been shown to co-localize in foci with DNA double strand breaks (DSB), was analyzed by immunostaining in situ. Exposure either to GSM microwaves or EMF/50 Hz resulted in significant condensation of chromatin, which was similar to the effect of heat shock at 41deg C. These effects varied between donors with a trend for prolonged condensation of chromatin in the cells from hypersensitive subjects. Cells from subjects, which were classified as pronounced hypersensitivity, responded to GSM /ELF stronger than cells from matched control subjects, but these differences in responses need to be confirmed in a larger study group. Neither GSM nor ELF exposure induced formation of 53BP1 foci. In contrary, distinct decrease in background level of 53BP1 signaling was observed upon these exposures as well as after heat shock treatments. This decrease correlated with the AVTD data and may indicate decrease in accessibility of 53BP1 to antibodies because of stress-induced chromatin condensation. No apoptosis was induced by exposure to ELF/50 Hz and GSM microwaves. In conclusion, ELF magnetic fields and GSM microwaves under specified conditions of exposure induced stress response in lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive donors

  3. Processing advantages for focused words in Korean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kember, H.; Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Korean, focus is expressed in accentual phrasing. To ascertain whether words focused in this manner enjoy a processing advantage analogous to that conferred by focus as expressed in, e.g, English and Dutch, we devised sentences with target words in one of four conditions: prosodic focus, syntacti

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  6. Parametric studies in a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high temperature and density plasmas can be produced in modest size plasma focus devices at the kJ level. Much of the scaling parameters on the plasma focus have been evaluated, though many questions still remain. The modest cost and simple construction allows easy modification to the device and the discharge parameters. In this paper the authors report on a small plasma focus device, which is set-up to investigate the effect of some of those modifications on the plasma, with detailed experimental diagnostics. Experiments have been carried out in various gases and with mixtures of different ratios. Extended operating range from below 0.5 torr upwards has been achieved with the implementation of the auxiliary discharge circuit. Despite the low voltage and low energy operation, energetic beam formation has been observed at the time of the final compression, prior to disruption. Current sheath formation and evolution has been characterized using the magnetic probes array, in correlation with beam formation and plasma emission. The relationship of the current sheath structure and that of the pinched plasma, as shown by the filtered X-ray pinhole camera, has been investigated

  7. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  8. Focus group interviews part 3: Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The use of focus group interviews as a means of qualitative data collection has gained popularity in health service research in recent years. Despite their popularity, analysing qualitative data???particularly focus-group interviews???poses a challenge to most researchers. This article follows the authors??? previous articles on; focus group theory, and the preparation and conduct of focus group interviews. Despite the publications on conducting focus groups, little information...

  9. Focus groups in research in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marjeta Šarić

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of literature concerning the use of focus groups in research in psychology. Particulary, some specific problems with the implementation of focus groups as a researchmethod are emphasised, and some characteristics of analysis of focus group data are discussed. The main objectives are to define focus groups as a method of data collection, to draw attention to someparticularities of its use in psychological research and to encourage researchers to use focus groups as ...

  10. Hydrodynamic focusing – a versatile tool

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Joel P.; Justin, Gusphyl A.; Nasir, Mansoor; Ligler, Frances S.

    2011-01-01

    The control of hydrodynamic focusing in a microchannel has inspired new approaches for microfluidic mixing, separations, sensors, cell analysis and microfabrication. Achieving a flat interface between the focusing and focused fluids is dependent on Reynolds number and device geometry, and many hydrodynamic focusing systems can benefit from this understanding. For applications where a specific cross-sectional shape is desired for the focused flow, advection generated by grooved structures in t...

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  12. Formation of porous gas hydrates

    CERN Document Server

    Salamatin, Andrey N

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrates grown at gas-ice interfaces are examined by electron microscopy and found to have a submicron porous texture. Permeability of the intervening hydrate layers provides the connection between the two counterparts (gas and water molecules) of the clathration reaction and makes further hydrate formation possible. The study is focused on phenomenological description of principal stages and rate-limiting processes that control the kinetics of the porous gas hydrate crystal growth from ice powders. Although the detailed physical mechanisms involved in the porous hydrate formation still are not fully understood, the initial stage of hydrate film spreading over the ice surface should be distinguished from the subsequent stage which is presumably limited by the clathration reaction at the ice-hydrate interface and develops after the ice grain coating is finished. The model reveals a time dependence of the reaction degree essentially different from that when the rate-limiting step of the hydrate formation at...

  13. Focus takes time: structural effects on reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Previous eye-tracking work has yielded inconsistent evidence regarding whether readers spend more or less time encoding focused information compared with information that is not focused. We report the results of an eye-tracking experiment that used syntactic structure to manipulate whether a target word was linguistically defocused, neutral, or focused, while controlling for possible oculomotor differences across conditions. As the structure of the sentence made the target word increasingly more focused, reading times systematically increased. We propose that the longer reading times for linguistically focused words reflect deeper encoding, which explains previous findings showing that readers have better subsequent memory for focused versus defocused information.

  14. Nuevos desafíos para la formación del profesional de la información frente al surgimiento de la cibersociedad: un enfoque de competencias New challenges for the formation of the information professional put before the emergence of cibersociety: a focus on competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Pirela Morillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El mundo actual plantea nuevos y complejos retos para formar a los profesionales vinculados con la gestión del conocimiento; en función de lo cual se ha desarrollado una investigación documental cuyos objetivos apuntan a profundizar teóricamente sobre la concepción educativa basada en competencias; caracterizar dicho esquema de formación en la enseñanza de las ciencias de la información, y proponer competencias para el profesional de la información a la luz del planteamiento de la cibersociedad. Se concluye que la concepción basada en competencias hace más significativa la formación y capacitación de profesionales, y que lo mismo sucede con la contextualización y aplicación de los nuevos conocimientos, la ejercitación del autoaprendizaje y la socialización del individuo. Se observa también un desplazamiento de la visión instrumental-técnica y documental-informacionalista del objeto de estudio, y por ende de la profesión, hacia una visión compleja, integradora, holística e informacional-cognitiva, lo cual amplía las funciones de bibliotecólogos, archivólogos y documentalistas, entendidos como profesionales del conocimiento. Además se proponen nuevos perfiles profesionales, tales como: ingeniero de la información, gestor del capital intelectual, mediador de información y comunicador de conocimientos registrados en formatos impresos y digitales.Today's world raises new and complex challenges for the formation of professionals linked to knowledge management; thus, a literature research intends to go deeper into the theoretically aspects of the educational concept of competence; to characterize such a scheme of education for the teaching of information sciences; and to propose abilities for the information professional in the context of cibersociety. It is concluded that the idea based on abilities or competence makes the education and training of professionals more significant, and that contextualization and application

  15. Nucleolin participates in DNA double-strand break-induced damage response through MDC1-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available H2AX is an important factor for chromatin remodeling to facilitate accumulation of DNA damage-related proteins at DNA double-strand break (DSB sites. In order to further understand the role of H2AX in the DNA damage response (DDR, we attempted to identify H2AX-interacting proteins by proteomics analysis. As a result, we identified nucleolin as one of candidates. Here, we show a novel role of a major nucleolar protein, nucleolin, in DDR. Nucleolin interacted with γ-H2AX and accumulated to laser micro-irradiated DSB damage sites. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay also displayed the accumulation of nucleolin around DSB sites. Nucleolin-depleted cells exhibited repression of both ATM-dependent phosphorylation following exposure to γ-ray and subsequent cell cycle checkpoint activation. Furthermore, nucleolin-knockdown reduced HR and NHEJ activity and showed decrease in IR-induced chromatin accumulation of HR/NHEJ factors, agreeing with the delayed kinetics of γ-H2AX focus. Moreover, nucleolin-knockdown decreased MDC1-related events such as focus formation of 53 BP1, RNF168, phosphorylated ATM, and H2A ubiquitination. Nucleolin also showed FACT-like activity for DSB damage-induced histone eviction from chromatin. Taken together, nucleolin could promote both ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint and DSB repair by functioning in an MDC1-related pathway through its FACT-like function.

  16. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  17. Inspire: The Quest for a Coherent Curriculum through a Performing Arts-Focused Curriculum Integration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on the formation of a performing arts-focused curriculum integration project, in which key components of curriculum integration were employed within a project-focus involving the performing arts of music, theater, and dance. The project occurred within a curricular community partnership between a public school and nearby…

  18. Absorption of focused light by spherical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For light focused on spherical plasmas, we obtain new results giving the power absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and resonance absorption as a function of the focusing scheme. For a given beam profile and lens, there is an optimum focus to maximize total absorption. Linearly polarized beams lead to asymmetric absorption. Good agreement with experimental absorption and scattered light data is obtained

  19. Differential spot-size focus servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Wang, M. S.; Froehlich, F. F.; Kann, J. L.; Treptau, J. P.; Erwin, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    We describe performance of a differential spot-size (wax-wane) focus servo. Crosstalk from the tracks are analyzed in the single detector and differential focus circuits. Magnitude of the crosstalk is reduced by a factor of three in the differential circuit. A false focus-error signal (FES) is present when the spot crosses sector marks at an angle.

  20. Collective action : a regulatory focus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Maarten Pieter

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate how individuals respond to collective disadvantage from the perspective of regulatory focus theory. Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between two motivational systems: promotion focus, the system in charge of the approach of positive end-states, and prevention

  1. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok;

    2013-01-01

    or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...... of these utterances given focus information....

  2. 朱熹“理一分殊”思想的形成--以《延平答问》为核心的思想史研究%The Formation of Zhu Xi'sConcept “Liyi-Fenshu”---A thought history research which focus on theQuestion and Response of Li Tong and Zhu Xi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伟

    2016-01-01

    朱熹的“理一分殊”思想有两种传统解释,分别受到西方哲学式和苏联唯物辩证法论式的影响。二者都是从《朱子语类》出发,结合自己的范式进行解释。八十年代以来,朱熹思想史研究对传统解释提出了质疑。对《延平答问》的文本研究,揭示了朱熹接受理一分殊的历史情境,显示“理一分殊”最初是作为辨别异端的标准和伦理命题被朱熹接受,后来被朱熹扩展到本体论和功夫领域。对于延平时期的朱熹,《论语》和《孟子》的重要性大于理学文本,《论语》“一贯”章对于朱熹理一分殊思想的形成有着重要作用。而面对“如何领会理一”的问题,朱熹在走向程颐和《大学》的道路中,将理一分殊扩展到认识和功夫领域。正是由于对“理一”本身的思考,才使得朱学呈现出“道问学”的特色。%There are two traditional explanations for the concept"Liyi-Fenshu(理一分殊)"of Zhu Xi and either of them were affected by western philosophy or Soviet Materialist Dialectics.Both of them combined Zhuzi's Language Category (《朱 子 语 类》)with their own paradigm to explain about this concept.Since 1 980s,the thought history research on Zhu Xi has discovered many problems of the traditional explanation. The research ontheQuestion and Response of Li Tong and Zhu Xi (《延 平 答 问》)reveals the historical context ofhow"Liyi-Fenshu"was accepted by Zhu Xiand displays that this concept was understood as a standard to distinguish heresy and an ethics proposition.When Zhu Xi was learning from Li Tong,the Analects and the Works of Menciuswere more important than those Neo - Confucianism works.The chapter about "Yi Guan(一 贯)"in the Analects played amoreimportant role in the formation of"Liyi -Fenshu" for Zhu Xi.And in the face of"how to grasp the Liyi(理一)",Zhu Xi extended"Liyi-Fenshu"to epistemology and"Gong Fu" theory(功夫论)when he

  3. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  4. Stimulated Raman Scattering and Nonlinear Focusing of High-Power Laser Beams Propagating in Water

    CERN Document Server

    Hafizi, B; Penano, J R; Gordon, D F; Jones, T G; Helle, M H; Kaganovich, D

    2015-01-01

    The physical processes associated with propagation of a high-power (power > critical power for self-focusing) laser beam in water include nonlinear focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), optical breakdown and plasma formation. The interplay between nonlinear focusing and SRS is analyzed for cases where a significant portion of the pump power is channeled into the Stokes wave. Propagation simulations and an analytical model demonstrate that the Stokes wave can re-focus the pump wave after the power in the latter falls below the critical power. It is shown that this novel focusing mechanism is distinct from cross-phase focusing. While discussed here in the context of propagation in water, the gain-focusing phenomenon is general to any medium supporting nonlinear focusing and stimulated forward Raman scattering.

  5. Stimulated Raman scattering and nonlinear focusing of high-power laser beams propagating in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Palastro, J P; Peñano, J R; Gordon, D F; Jones, T G; Helle, M H; Kaganovich, D

    2015-04-01

    The physical processes associated with propagation of a high-power (power > critical power for self-focusing) laser beam in water include nonlinear focusing, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), optical breakdown, and plasma formation. The interplay between nonlinear focusing and SRS is analyzed for cases where a significant portion of the pump power is channeled into the Stokes wave. Propagation simulations and an analytical model demonstrate that the Stokes wave can re-focus the pump wave after the power in the latter falls below the critical power. It is shown that this novel focusing mechanism is distinct from cross-phase focusing. The phenomenon of gain-focusing discussed here for propagation in water is expected to be of general occurrence applicable to any medium supporting nonlinear focusing and stimulated Raman scattering. PMID:25831383

  6. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  7. The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.

  8. Extreme Star Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, JL

    2010-01-01

    Extreme star formation includes star formation in starbursts and regions forming super star clusters. We survey the current problems in our understanding of the star formation process in starbursts and super star clusters - initial mass functions, cluster mass functions, star formation efficiencies, and radiative feedback into molecular clouds - that are critical to our understanding of the formation and survival of large star clusters, topics that will be the drivers of the observations of t...

  9. Characterization of bismuth nanospheres deposited by plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M., E-mail: cscientific2@aec.org.sy [IBA Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Mrad, O. [Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2015-02-14

    A new method for producing thin layer of bismuth nanospheres based on the use of low energy plasma focus device is demonstrated. Various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology and the composition of the nanospheres. Experimental parameters may be adjusted to favour the formation of bismuth nanospheres instead of microspheres. Therefore, the formation of large surface of homogeneous layer of bismuth nanospheres with sizes of below 100 nm can be obtained. The natural snowball phenomenon is observed to be reproduced in nanoscale where spheres roll over the small nanospheres and grow up to bigger sizes that can reach micro dimensions. The comet-like structure, a reverse phenomenon to snowball is also observed.

  10. The impact of visual format in strategy communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ylinen, Riina

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Visual Format in Strategy Communication Objective of the Study: The objective of the study was to find out about the impact of the visual format in strategy communication, i.e. communication on strategy. More specifically, the study focused on examining if the format matters in initiating, maintaining and keeping up interest in communication and what role content plays in communication as compared to the format. In relation to the first aim of the study, specific attenti...

  11. Numerical simulation of spherical plasma focus diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-magnetically insulated, three-dimensionally-focused ion-beam diode, spherical plasma focus diode (SPFD), is studied by numerical simulation using a two-dimensional, electromagnetic, relativistic particle-in-cell computer code. The calculated results of the diode impedance, the ion-current efficiency, and the focusing characteristics of the ion beam are presented. These results, except the data of the ion-beam current, are in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  12. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  13. From focus to context and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigel, Martin; Boring, Sebastian; Marquardt, Nicolai;

    2013-01-01

    Focus plus context displays combine high-resolution detail and lower-resolution overview using displays of different pixel densities. Historically, they employed two fixed-size displays of different resolutions, one embedded within the other. In this paper, we explore focus plus context displays...... using one or more mobile projectors in combination with a stationary display. The portability of mobile projectors as applied to focus plus context displays contributes in three ways. First, the projector’s projection on the stationary display can transition dynamically from being the focus of one...

  14. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  15. Low voltage operation of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma foci of compact sizes and operating with low energies (from tens of joules to few hundred joules) have found application in recent years and have attracted plasma-physics scientists and engineers for research in this direction. We are presenting a low energy and miniature plasma focus which operates from a capacitor bank of 8.4 μF capacity, charged at 4.2-4.3 kV and delivering approximately 52 kA peak current at approximately 60 nH calculated circuit inductance. The total circuit inductance includes the plasma focus inductance. The reported plasma focus operates at the lowest voltage among all reported plasma foci so far. Moreover the cost of capacitor bank used for plasma focus is nearly 20 U.S. dollars making it very cheap. At low voltage operation of plasma focus, the initial breakdown mechanism becomes important for operation of plasma focus. The quartz glass tube is used as insulator and breakdown initiation is done on its surface. The total energy of the plasma focus is approximately 75 J. The plasma focus system is made compact and the switching of capacitor bank energy is done by manual operating switch. The focus is operated with hydrogen and deuterium filled at 1-2 mbar.

  16. Image Analysis of Plasma Induced by Focused IR Pulsed Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hadi Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma induced by focused laser beam is very essential especially in laser material interaction. Preliminary study leading to this research has been carried out. A Q-switch Nd:YAG laser was employed as a source of energy. The laser was focused using a wide-angle camera lens. The formation of plasma at the focal region was visualized perpendicularly using a CCD video camera interfaced to an image processing system. The dynamic expansion of the laser plasma was grabbed in conjunction with a high-speed photographic system. The observation results show that the plasma was formed in an ellipsoidal shape. The lateral width and the length of the plasma were found gradually increased

  17. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  18. Nitrogen ion implantation of silicon in dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy (1.45 kJ) Mather type plasma focus device is used for nitrogen ion implantation in mono-crystalline silicon. The silicon specimens are exposed to different number of focus shots by placing the targets in front of the anode at a fixed distance. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are employed to characterize the implanted specimens. The results indicate that mono-crystalline silicon transforms into amorphous structure through micro-crystalline phase on increasing the implantation dose. Further irradiation of the specimens results in the formation of amorphous Si3N4 layers. High temperature annealing in argon ambient transforms the amorphous Si3N4 into β-Si3N4

  19. Dense plasma focus-assisted nitriding of AISI-304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M.; Asghar, M.; Ahmad, S.; Sadiq, M.; Qayyum, A.; Zakaullah, M.

    Nitrogen ion implantation into AISI-304 stainless steel is carried out using a dense plasma focus device, operated at a charging voltage of 18 kV (discharge energyD1.45 kJ) with nitrogen filling at optimum pressure of 0.75 mbar. AISI-304 stainless steel samples placed axially above the anode tip are exposed to the ions for 10, 20 and 30 focus shots. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vickers's micro hardness tester, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used to explore the ion induced changes in the crystallographic structures, surface morphology, elemental composition and surface hardness of the ion irradiated samples. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of an expanded austenite phase, owing to nitrogen incorporated into the existing iron lattice. The results of micro hardness tester show that the hardness is increased about three times at an axial distance of 5 cm for 20 shots.

  20. Free-format RPG IV the express guide to learning free format

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Focusing strictly on teaching free-format RPG programming methods, this book will help programmers wishing to upgrade their skills   This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything you need to know to write RPG IV in the free-format

  1. Optimizing Focusing X-Ray Optics for Planetary Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melso, Nicole; Romaine, Suzanne; Hong, Jaesub; Cotroneo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    X-Ray observations are a valuable tool for studying the composition, formation and evolution of the numerous X-Ray emitting objects in our Solar System. Although there are plenty of useful applications for in situ X-Ray focusing instrumentation, X-Ray focusing optics have never been feasible for use onboard planetary missions due to their mass and cost. Recent advancements in small-scale X-Ray instrumentation have made focusing X-Ray technology more practical and affordable for use onboard in situ spacecraft. Specifically, the technology of a metal-ceramic hybrid material combined with Electroformed Nickel Replication (ENR) holds great promise for realizing lightweight X-ray optics. We are working to optimize these lightweight focusing X-Ray optics for use in planetary science applications. We have explored multiple configurations and geometries that maximize the telescope's effective area and field of view while meeting practical mass and volume requirements. Each configuration was modeled via analytic calculations and Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations and compared to alternative Micro-pore Optics designs. The improved performance of our approach using hybrid materials has many exciting implications for the future of planetary science, X-Ray instrumentation, and the exploration of X-Ray sources in our Solar System.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  2. Auto-focused virtual source imaging with arbitrarily shaped interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Jorge; Cruza, Jorge F

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a new method, named auto-focused virtual source imaging (AVSI), for synthetic aperture focusing through arbitrarily shaped interfaces with arrays. First, the shape of the component surface is obtained by time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Then, a set of virtual source/receivers is created by focusing several array subapertures at the interface normal incidence points. Finally, the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) is applied to the received signals to generate a high-resolution image. The AVSI method provides several advantages for ultrasonic imaging in a two-media scenario. First, knowledge of the probe-part geometry is not required, because all information needed for image formation is obtained from a set of ultrasonic measurements. Second, refraction complications in TOF calculations are avoided, because foci at the interface can be considered as virtual source/ receivers, and SAFT can be performed in the second medium only. Third, the signal-to-noise ratio is higher than with synthetic aperture techniques that use a single element as emitter, and fourth, resolution is higher than that obtained by phased-array imaging with the same number of active elements, which reduces hardware complexity. The theoretical bases of the method are given, and its performance is evaluated by simulation. Finally, experimental results showing good agreement with theory are presented. PMID:26559624

  3. Restucturing the Project Work Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The chapter is based on an evaluation of a pedagogical experiment at Roskilde University, the Antology Experiment. The objective of the experiment was to develop and expand the framework for project work through the production of anthologies compiled collectively by a number of project groups....... The novel aspects of the Anthology Experiment were most notably its magnitude and complexity. In this experiment the groups were totalling some 50 students who were working together. The experiment used a well-known publishing format from research, namely the anthology form, which usually focuses....... The organization was complex, the written product changed from project to article format, the students had to concentrate on working in their own project group as well as in the so-called clusters, and the form of exam was radically changed...

  4. DNA-PK inhibition causes a low level of H2AX phosphorylation and homologous recombination repair in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of DNA-PK inhibition on DSB repair using fish cells. ► A radiation sensitive mutant RIC1 strain showed a low level of DNA-PK activity. ► DNA-PK dysfunction leads defects in HR repair and DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation. ► DNA-PK dysfunction leads a slight increase in the number of 53BP1 foci after DSBs. ► DNA-PK dysfunction leads an alternative NHEJ that depends on 53BP1. -- Abstract: Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are known as DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. It has been reported that DNA-PK, a member of PI3 kinase family, promotes NHEJ and aberrant DNA-PK causes NHEJ deficiency. However, in this study, we demonstrate that a wild-type cell line treated with DNA-PK inhibitor and a mutant cell line with dysfunctional DNA-PK showed decreased HR efficiency in fish cells (Medaka, Oryzias latipes). Previously, we reported that the radiation-sensitive mutant RIC1 strain has a defect in the Histone H2AX phosphorylation after γ-irradiation. Here, we showed that a DNA-PK inhibitor, NU7026, treatment resulted in significant reduction in the number of γH2AX foci after γ-irradiation in wild-type cells, but had no significant effect in RIC1 cells. In addition, RIC1 cells showed significantly lower levels of DNA-PK kinase activity compared with wild-type cells. We investigated NHEJ and HR efficiency after induction of DSBs. Wild-type cells treated with NU7026 and RIC1 cells showed decreased HR efficiency. These results indicated that aberrant DNA-PK causes the reduction in the number of γH2AX foci and HR efficiency in RIC1 cells. We performed phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (Thr2609) and 53BP1 focus assay after γ-irradiation. RIC1 cells showed significant reduction in the number of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs foci and no deference in the number of 53BP1 foci compared with wild-type cells. These results suggest that low level of DNA-PK activity causes aberrant DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation

  5. DNA-PK inhibition causes a low level of H2AX phosphorylation and homologous recombination repair in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urushihara, Yusuke [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Kobayashi, Junya [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Komatsu, Kenshi [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Oda, Shoji [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Mitani, Hiroshi, E-mail: mitani@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of DNA-PK inhibition on DSB repair using fish cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A radiation sensitive mutant RIC1 strain showed a low level of DNA-PK activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads defects in HR repair and DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads a slight increase in the number of 53BP1 foci after DSBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads an alternative NHEJ that depends on 53BP1. -- Abstract: Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are known as DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. It has been reported that DNA-PK, a member of PI3 kinase family, promotes NHEJ and aberrant DNA-PK causes NHEJ deficiency. However, in this study, we demonstrate that a wild-type cell line treated with DNA-PK inhibitor and a mutant cell line with dysfunctional DNA-PK showed decreased HR efficiency in fish cells (Medaka, Oryzias latipes). Previously, we reported that the radiation-sensitive mutant RIC1 strain has a defect in the Histone H2AX phosphorylation after {gamma}-irradiation. Here, we showed that a DNA-PK inhibitor, NU7026, treatment resulted in significant reduction in the number of {gamma}H2AX foci after {gamma}-irradiation in wild-type cells, but had no significant effect in RIC1 cells. In addition, RIC1 cells showed significantly lower levels of DNA-PK kinase activity compared with wild-type cells. We investigated NHEJ and HR efficiency after induction of DSBs. Wild-type cells treated with NU7026 and RIC1 cells showed decreased HR efficiency. These results indicated that aberrant DNA-PK causes the reduction in the number of {gamma}H2AX foci and HR efficiency in RIC1 cells. We performed phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (Thr2609) and 53BP1 focus assay after {gamma}-irradiation. RIC1 cells showed significant reduction in the number of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs foci and no deference in the

  6. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  7. Attentional Focus Effects in Balance Acrobats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Performing and learning motor skills has been shown to be enhanced if the performer adopts an external relative to internal focus (or no focus) of attention (Wulf, 2007). The present study examined the generalizability of this effect to top-level performers (balance acrobats). Participants performed a balance task (standing on an inflated rubber…

  8. Magnetic focusing in triangular electron billiards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Kristensen, A.; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    1999-01-01

    focusing spectrum compared to the case of a perpendicular injection angle. From numerical and analytical analysis, we confirm that the quenching is a fundamental geometrical effect, and identify two mechanisms responsible for the anomaly. The focusing spectrum of the considered skewed geometry is...

  9. Optimum annular focusing by a phase plate

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional light focusing, i. e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into an annular field with topological charge of arbitrary integer order q. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the focal field with the maximum possible peak intensity. In particular, we discuss and implement experimentally the optimum annular focusing of a Gaussian beam. The attributes of optimum annular focal fields, namely the high peak intensity, intensity gradient and narrow annular section, are advantageous for different applications of such structured fields.

  10. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  11. Star Formation in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  12. The Focus and Substance of Formative Comment Provided by PhD Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Fairbairn, Hedy; Lovat, Terence

    2014-01-01

    In practice and process PhD examination is distinctive, reflecting the high expectations of students whose learning has been directed to their becoming researchers. This article builds on previous research on the examination of Australian theses that revealed that examiners in Science (n?=?542) and Education (n?=?241) provide a substantial…

  13. The music classroom in focus. Everyday culture, identity, governance and knowledge formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Claes; Lindgren, Monica; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a larger research project with the purpose to study how market aesthetics and student’s music culture are expressed in the Swedish music classroom. The empirical material consists of video observations of classroom activities in secondary school settings in Sweden. The theoretical framework consists of poststructuralist and social constructionist theory combined with theories of late modernity, while our methodological point of departure is discourse analysis. Some im...

  14. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  15. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Among the organs of our body, the function of heart and brain are unique in that their operation emerges from the collective dynamics of millions of strongly interacting cells well organized in their geometrical structure and connectivity. In the heart muscle the propagation of a nonlinear wave pulse, the cardiac action potential, controls the contraction. Usually the propagation is well-organized both in space and time and the heart functions as an efficient biological pump. Instabilities triggered by diseased tissue but also by dynamical heterogeneities, may, however, induce cardiac arrhythmia and fibrillation, where the pacemaker looses control to dynamically generated, high-frequency self-excitation of the muscle. In this state the coherence of contraction is lost and may lead within minutes to death. The appearance of arrhythmias can be associated with topological singularities, the so called spiral or scroll waves, and how the occurrence of this malfunctioning pattern-formation process can be understood is a dominant subject of current research. This is all the more important as cardiac arrhythmias and fibrillation are the main cause of premature death in the developed world. Similarly, in the brain the propagation of a nonlinear wave pulse, namely the neural action potential, is at the basis of the computational and memory power of the brain, i.e. what determines the workings of our 'minds'. Here, however, due to the high degree of interconnectivity and topological complexity of the neuronal network, the coordinated activity of millions of interacting nerve cells is more complex, although the basic principles of action potential generation at the level of each cell are quite similar. The currently emerging field of network dynamical systems is largely driven by the mathematical challenge and the steady stream of novel dynamical phenomena that results from the interplay of local nonlinear dynamics and complex network structure in models of biological neuronal

  17. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  18. Skills and Regional Entrepreneurship Capital Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mendonça, Joana

    2015-01-01

    - and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...

  19. Amadori products formation in emulsified systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of Amadori products (APs) is the key step determining the development of the Maillard reaction (MR). The information on the chemical behaviour of the reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars in emulsions during thermal treatments is scanty and mainly focused on volatile comp

  20. Suppression of Space Charge Induced Beam Halo in Nonlinear Focusing Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Batygin, Yuri K; Kurennoy, Sergey; Li, Chao

    2016-01-01

    An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. A new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry is discussed. The resulting solution is applied to the problem of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.

  1. Suppression of space charge induced beam halo in nonlinear focusing channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batygin, Yuri K.; Scheinker, Alexander; Kurennoy, Sergey; Li, Chao

    2016-04-01

    An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. A new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry is discussed. The resulting solution is applied to the problem of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.

  2. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  3. CRISIS FOCUS Fundamentals,Confidence and Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Entering the third year of the most serious economic crisis since the Great Depression, the world economy is still bogged down on the muddy road to recovery. The latest edition of Standard Chartered Bank’s monthly report, Global Focus,

  4. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  5. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  6. Range-Based Auto-Focus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maracel Systems and Software Technologies, LLC proposes a revolutionary Range-Based Auto Focus (RBAF) system that will combine externally input range, such as might...

  7. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  8. A New Framework for Focused Web Crawling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Tao; HE Fengling; ZUO Wanli

    2006-01-01

    Focused crawlers are important tools to support applications such as specialized Web portals, online searching, and Web search engines.A topic driven crawler chooses the best URLs and relevant pages to pursue during Web crawling.It is difficult to deal with irrelevant pages.This paper presents a novel focused crawler framework.In our focused crawler, we propose a method to overcome some of the limitations of dealing with the irrelevant pages.We also introduce the implementation of our focused crawler and present some important metrics and an evaluation function for ranking pages relevance.The experimental result shows that our crawler can obtain more "important" pages and has a high precision and recall value.

  9. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally focusing is done by taking out one sample in the received signal from each transducer element and then sum these signals. This method does not take into account the temporal or spatial spread of the received signal from a point scatterer and does not make an optimal focus of the data......, but the approach always yields point spread functions better or equal to a traditional dynamically focused image. Finally, the process was applied to in-vivo clinical images of the liver and right kidney from a 28 years old male. The data was obtained with a single element transducer focused at 100 mm...... for beamforming the received RF signals from the individual transducer elements. The matched filter is applied on RF signals from individual transducer elements, thus properly taking into account the spatial spread of the received signal. The method can be applied to any transducer and can also be used...

  10. Molecular focusing and alignment with plasmon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    We show the possibility of simultaneously aligning molecules and focusing their center-of-mass motion near a metal nanoparticle in the field intensity gradient created by the surface plasmon enhancement of incident light. The rotational motion is described quantum mechanically while the translation is treated classically. The effects of the nanoparticle shape on the alignment and focusing are explored. Our results carry interesting implications to the field of molecular nanoplasmonics and suggest several potential applications in nanochemistry.

  11. Neutron radiography in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with some theoretical considerations, the paper describes the experimental basis for neutron radiography in the plasma focus. With an appropriate combination of scintillator and image converter, average optical density can already be reached at neutron density of about 5 x 104 n/cm2. Contrast studies near the plasma focus with the aid of neutrons have thus become possible for the first time. (author)

  12. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  13. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  14. Regulatory focus and the assignment of punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Carmichael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Focus has been demonstrated to influence human behavior in a number of domains, such as object valuation and readiness to commit time or money to social projects. It has also been demonstrated to influence an individual’s approach to mistakes; and a person’s preference for global or local processing of information. The present work seeks to consider how regulatory focus might interact with punitive behaviors, specifically, the assignment of legal punishment. In this study, 240 undergraduates completed a series of written instruments that assessed their regulatory focus. They read a vignette that described a target that commits a crime, is detected by the police, and is arrested due to a careless mistake. Participants were asked what level of legal punishment they deemed appropriate. Participants’ punitive evaluations show that there are significant interactions a between the regulatory focus of the participant and the regulatory focus of the target and b between the regulatory focus of the participant and the level of detail used to describe the target and her behavior. In each case, when the regulatory foci matched, causing ‘fit,’ the participant was more lenient than in the non-fit condition.

  15. Results from the Scaled Final Focus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum ballistic focusing is the straightforward method to obtain a heavy ion beam spot size necessary to drive an inertial confinement fusion target. The beam is first expanded then focused to obtain the desired convergence angles at the exit of the last element. This is done in an attempt to achieve a focal spot size in which emittance is the limiting factor; however, aberrations and space charge will influence the spot radius. Proper scaling of particle energy, mass, beam current, beam emittance, and magnetic field replicates the dynamics of a full driver beam at the focus in a small laboratory experiment. By scaling the beam current to ∼100 μA, 160 keV Cs+ has been used to study experimentally a proposed driver design at one-tenth scale. Once a nominal focal spot is achieved, the magnet strengths are deliberately de-tuned to simulate the effect of an off-momentum slice of the beam. Additionally, several methods will be used to inject electrons into beam following the last focusing element in order to study the neutralization of space charge and its effect on the focus. Transverse phase space and beam current density measurements at various stages of the focus will be presented as well spot size measurements from the various trials. This data will be compared to the results of a PIC model of the experiment

  16. Water-in-Water Droplets by Passive Microfluidic Flow Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong-Ui; Abbasi, Niki; Jones, Steven G; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S H

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple microfluidic system that generates water-in-water, aqueous two phase system (ATPS) droplets, by passive flow focusing. ATPS droplet formation is achieved by applying weak hydrostatic pressures, with liquid-filled pipette tips as fluid columns at the inlets, to introduce low speed flows to the flow focusing junction. To control the size of the droplets, we systematically vary the interfacial tension and viscosity of the ATPS fluids and adjust the fluid column height at the fluid inlets. The size of the droplets scales with a power law of the ratio of viscous stresses in the two ATPS phases. Overall, we find a drop size coefficient of variation (CV; i.e., polydispersity) of about 10%. We also find that when drops form very close to the flow focusing junction, the drops have a CV of less than 1%. Our droplet generation method is easily scalable: we demonstrate a parallel system that generates droplets simultaneously and improves the droplet production rate by up to one order of magnitude. Finally, we show the potential application of our system for encapsulating cells in water-in-water emulsions by encapsulating microparticles and cells. To the best of our knowledge, our microfluidic technique is the first that forms low interfacial tension ATPS droplets without applying external perturbations. We anticipate that this simple approach will find utility in drug and cell delivery applications because of the all-biocompatible nature of the water-in-water ATPS environment.

  17. Preliminary Results Of A 600 Joules Small Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary results of a 600 J (3.7 μF, 18 kV) Mather type plasma focus device operated at low pressure will be presented. The discharge is formed between a solid anode with length of 6 cm and six symmetrically and coaxially arranged cathode rods of same lengths. The cathode base is profiled in a knife-edge design and a set of coaxial plasma gun are attached to it in order to initiate the breakdown and enhance the current sheath formation. The experiments have been performed in argon gas under a low pressure condition of several microbars. The discharge current and the voltage across the electrodes during the discharge are measured with high voltage probe and current coil. The current and voltage characteristics are used to determine the possible range of operating pressure that gives good focusing action. At a narrow pressure regime of 9.0±0.5 μbar, focusing action is observed with good reproducibility. Preliminary result of ion beam energy is presented. More work will be carried out to investigate the radiation output.

  18. Low-voltage paper isotachophoresis device for DNA focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Long; Crooks, Richard M

    2015-10-21

    We present a new paper-based isotachophoresis (ITP) device design for focusing DNA samples having lengths ranging from 23 to at least 1517 bp. DNA is concentrated by more than two orders of magnitude within 4 min. The key component of this device is a 2 mm-long, 2 mm-wide circular paper channel formed by concertina folding a paper strip and aligning the circular paper zones on each layer. Due to the short channel length, a high electric field of ~16 kV m(-1) is easily generated in the paper channel using two 9 V batteries. The multilayer architecture also enables convenient reclamation and analysis of the sample after ITP focusing by simply opening the origami paper and cutting out the desired layers. We profiled the electric field in the origami paper channel during ITP experiments using a nonfocusing fluorescent tracer. The result showed that focusing relied on formation and subsequent movement of a sharp electric field boundary between the leading and trailing electrolyte.

  19. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the focus of space system architectures changes from single, to multiple, and eventually to many spacecraft flying in formation, a greater demand on total...

  20. Followers feel valued : When leaders' regulatory focus makes leaders exhibit behavior that fits followers' regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn; Sassenberg, K.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When do followers feel valued by their leader? We propose that leaders' regulatory focus can make followers feel valued when leaders' regulatory focus is the same as followers' regulatory focus, that is, when there is regulatory fit between leaders and followers. We further propose that the reason w

  1. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  2. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Milosavljevic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  3. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  4. Computational Approaches for Probing the Formation of Atmospheric Molecular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas

    This thesis presents the investigation of atmospheric molecular clusters using computational methods. Previous investigations have focused on solving problems related to atmospheric nucleation, and have not been targeted at the performance of the applied methods. This thesis focuses on assessing...... the performance of computational strategies in order to identify a sturdy methodology, which should be applicable for handling various issues related to atmospheric cluster formation. Density functional theory (DFT) is applied to study individual cluster formation steps. Utilizing large test sets of numerous...

  5. [Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses mp some 3.6 x 105 times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100 angstrom), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 μm. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5√(m/mp) times the nozzle diameter dn. But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs

  6. An Rf Focused Interdigital Ion Accelerating Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) ion accelerating structure will be described. It represents an effective combination of the Wideroee (or interdigital) linac structure, used for many low frequency, heavy ion applications, and the rf electric quadrupole focusing used in the RFQ and RFD linac structures. As in the RFD linac structure, rf focusing is introduced into the RFI linac structure by configuring the drift tubes as two independent pieces operating at different electrical potentials as determined by the rf fields of the linac structure. Each piece (or electrode) of the RFI drift tube supports two fingers pointed inwards towards the opposite end of the drift tube forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field along the axis of the linac for focusing the beam. However, because of the differences in the rf field configuration along the axis, the scheme for introducing rf focusing into the interdigital linac structure is quite different from that adopted for the RFD linac structure. The RFI linac structure promises to have significant size, efficiency, performance, and cost advantages over existing linac structures for the acceleration of low energy ion beams of all masses (light to heavy). These advantages will be reviewed. A 'cold model' of this new linac structure has been fabricated and the results of rf cavity measurements on this cold model will be presented

  7. Macroscopic self-focusing effects in a laser-produced low-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale self-focusing effects are evidenced by focusing a 300 MW Nd laser beam with a F/8 spherical lens in a fairly low-density gas (such that nsub(e) approx. nsub(c)/100). They include important beam recollimation and formation of an ''empty'' channel which was visualized by holographic interferometry. In these conditions plasma expansion and laser energy deposition were both larger ahead than behind the focal point

  8. Focusing upgrade for sectors 11 through 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to transport high current, single bunch beams to the SLC positron source for spring 1986 testing, it will be necessary to augment the strength of available focusing in sectors 11 through 19. We have decided to replace the sector doublet type QB quadrupoles with stronger type QE magnets. In conjunction with new Vax controlled power supplies, this sector 11 through 19 doublet lattice can be run at optimal settings for beam energies of several GeV up to the full SLC energy of 32 GeV by sector 19. Installation of the temporary stronger focusing is planned for summer 1985; full SLC FODO array focusing is scheduled for the following summer. This note presents the intermediate solution for sectors 11 through 19. In addition, the sector 10 quadrupole strengths required for matching beams into the doublet array are given. 1 figure, 4 tables

  9. High speed plasma focus fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical discharge thermonuclear reactor having a capacitor which is discharged into a reaction chamber through a low inductance distribution circuit funneling discharge current to a focus point in the reaction chamber so that the magnitude of the magnetic field intensity associated with the discharge current is generally inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the focus point. Then the circuit inductance is limited to an minimum value regardless of the absolute maximum distance from the capacitor to the focus point and thus the size of the capacitor. The distribution circuit has two outward-branching, interpenetrating three dimensional circuit networks of opposite polarity conveniently fabricated by stacking conductor plates having a generally cylindrical geometry. The distribution circuit spherically surrounds the reaction chamber so far as is practical so that the discharge rate, power and energy transfer to the reaction chamber are maximized and thus reducing the required size of the reactor

  10. Underdense plasma lenses for focusing particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma lenses are of interest for providing ultra-strong focusing of particle beams in order to enhance the luminosity of a high-energy linear collider. Previous work has explored the selfpinch of e+ or e- beams as they pass through an overdense slab of passive plasma (i.e., plasma density much greater than the beam density). Here the authors examine the focusing of beams in an underdense plasma through physical and particle simulation models. In this regime the plasma dynamics becomes highly non-linear and differs for e+ and e- beams. For e- beams the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled by the beam's space charge leaving a uniform column of ion charge that provides the focusing force. Compared to the overdense lens, the underdense lens has the advantages that spherical aberrations, longitudinal aberrations, and plasma contribution to background in the detectors are all greatly reduced. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. CY15 Livermore Computing Focus Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Tom M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cupps, Kim C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); D' Hooge, Trent E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahey, Tim J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fox, Dave M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Futral, Scott W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gary, Mark R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstone, Robin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, Pam G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heer, Todd M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mark, Rich J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morrone, Chris J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoopman, Jerry D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slavec, Joe A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springmeyer, Becky R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stearman, Marc D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Watson, Py C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The LC team undertook a survey of primary Center drivers for CY15. Identified key drivers included enhancing user experience and productivity, pre-exascale platform preparation, process improvement, data-centric computing paradigms and business expansion. The team organized critical supporting efforts into three cross-cutting focus areas; Improving Service Quality; Monitoring, Automation, Delegation and Center Efficiency; and Next Generation Compute and Data Environments In each area the team detailed high level challenges and identified discrete actions to address these issues during the calendar year. Identifying the Center’s primary drivers, issues, and plans is intended to serve as a lens focusing LC personnel, resources, and priorities throughout the year.

  12. Dynamic focusing in the zebrafish beating heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Delgado, L.; Peralta, M.; Mercader, N.; Ripoll, J.

    2016-03-01

    Of the large amount of the animal models available for cardiac research, the zebrafish is extremely valuable due to its transparency during early stages of development. In this work a dual illumination laser sheet microscope with simultaneous dual camera imaging is used to image the beating heart at 200 fps, dynamically and selectively focusing inside the beating heart through the use of a tunable lens. This dual color dynamic focusing enables imaging with cellular resolution at unprecedented high frame rates, allowing 3D imaging of the whole beating heart of embryonic zebrafish.

  13. Light focusing in the Anderson Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Leonetti, Marco; Mafi, Arash; Conti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Anderson localization is a regime in which diffusion is inhibited and waves (also electromagnetic waves) get localized. Here we exploit adaptive optics to achieve focusing in disordered optical fibers in the Anderson regime. By wavefront shaping and optimization, we observe the generation of a propagation invariant beam, where light is trapped transversally by disorder, and show that Anderson localizations can be also excited by extended speckled beams. We demonstrate that disordered fibers allow a more efficient focusing action with respect to standard fibers in a way independent of their length, because of the propagation invariant features and cooperative action of transverse localizations.

  14. A self-focusing mercury jet target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    Mercury jet production targets have been studied in relation to antiproton production and, more recently, pion production for a neutrino factory. There has always been a temptation to include some self-focusing of the secondaries by passing a current through the mercury jet analogous to the already proven lithium lens. However, skin heating of the mercury causes fast vaporization leading to the development of a gliding discharge along the surface of the jet. This external discharge can, nevertheless, provide some useful focusing of the secondaries in the case of the neutrino factory. The technical complications must not be underestimated.

  15. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural

  16. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in the First Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya; Glover, Simon C. O.; Spaans, Maarten; Klessen, Ralf S.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Bromm, Volker; Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the formation of supermassive black holes in the early universe, and how to probe their subsequent evolution with the upcoming mm/sub-mm telescope ALMA. We first focus on the chemical and radiative conditions for black hole formation, in particular considering radiation trapping and molec

  17. Attentional Focus Effects in Standing Long Jump Performance: Influence of a Broad and Narrow Internal Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kevin A; Smith, Peter J K

    2015-07-01

    The content of instructions that strength coaches give can have a significant impact on how an athlete or client performs. Research on motor learning has shown an advantage of instructions focusing on the effects of movements (external focus) over those focusing on the movements themselves (internal focus) in the performance of motor skills. Internally focused cues are abundant in coaching, therefore the purpose of this study was to test whether some internally focused cues might be more helpful than others. Participants (68) were randomly assigned to either an external focus (EX), broad internal focus (B-IN), narrow internal focus (N-IN), or a control group (CON), and performed 5 standing long jumps. All groups were instructed that the goal was to jump as far as possible. In addition, the EX group was told to "jump as far past the start line as possible." The B-IN group was told to "use your legs." The N-IN group was told to "extend your knees as rapidly as possible," and the CON group received no additional instruction. An analysis of covariance showed that the EX group (198.09 ± 31.89 cm) jumped significantly farther than both the B-IN group (173.74 ± 35.36 cm), p = 0.010 and the N-IN group (178.53 ± 31.17 cm), p = 0.049, with no group different from the CON group. The results suggest that a broad internal focus is no more effective than a narrow internal focus, and that an external focus leads to the greatest jump distance. Strength and conditioning professionals should carefully word their instructions to induce an external focus of attention whenever possible.

  18. Party system institutionalization and government formation in new democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Lee Michael

    2016-01-01

    Party systems provide the essential structure of the coalition bargaining environment. Stability in party systems ensures that there are regularities that can be observed in government formation, but most empirical research focuses on established democracies. In new democracies party systems are less institutionalized and interactions between parties are less predictable. This has significant implications for coalition formation. This paper presents the first study of coalition formation in n...

  19. Nanopillar Fabrication with Focused Ion Beam Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Oleksii V.; Pei, Yutao T.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2014-01-01

    A versatile method to fabricate taper-free micro-/nanopillars of large aspect ratio was developed with focused ion beam (FIB) cutting. The key features of the fabrication are a FIB with an incident angle of 90 degrees to the long axis of the pillar that enables milling of the pillar sideways avoidin

  20. Flexural waves focusing through shunted piezoelectric patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Ichchou, M.; Li, L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and analyzed a piezo-lens to focus flexural waves in thin plates. The piezo-lens is comprised of a host plate and piezoelectric arrays bonded on the surfaces of the plate. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance circuits. The effective refractive indexes inside the piezo-lens are designed to fit a hyperbolic secant distribution by tuning the negative capacitance values. A homogenized model of a piezo-mechanical system is adopted in the designing process of the piezo-lens. The wave focusing effect is studied by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the piezo-lens can focus flexural waves by bending their trajectories, and is effective in a large frequency band. The piezo-lens has the ability to focus flexural waves at different locations by tuning the shunting negative capacitance values. The piezo-lens is shown to be effective for flexural waves generated by different types of sources.

  1. Optimization of focused ion beam performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors have analyzed how much current can be obtained in the probe of an optimized two-lens focused ion beam (FIB) system. This becomes relevant, as systems become available that have the potential to image and/or fabricate structures smaller than 10 nm. The probe current versus probe size curv

  2. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  3. Focused-ion-beam processing for photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de René M.; Hopman, Wico C.L.; Ay, Feridun

    2007-01-01

    Although focused ion beam (FIB) processing is a well-developed technology for many applications in electronics and physics, it has found limited application to photonics. Due to its very high spatial resolution in the order of 10 nm, and its ability to mill almost any material, it seems to have a go

  4. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  5. Fast calculation of best focus position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzubik, V.; Belashenkov, N.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    New computational technique based on linear-scale differential analysis (LSDA) of digital image is proposed to find the best focus position in digital microscopy by means of defocus estimation in two near-focal positions only. The method is based on the calculation of local gradients of the image on

  6. Form-Focused Instruction: Isolated or Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina; Lightbown, Patsy M.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing consensus that form-focused instruction helps learners in communicative or content-based instruction to learn features of the target language that they may not acquire without guidance. The subject of this article is the role of instruction that is provided in separate (isolated) activities or within the context of…

  7. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  8. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.;

    2009-01-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...

  9. Reading Motivation: A Focus on English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protacio, Maria Selena

    2012-01-01

    Because of the numerous challenges that ELs face, such as having to concurrently learn the curriculum and the English language, it is critical to focus on motivation. However, little attention has been given to ELs' motivation to read in English. Based on an interview study, results indicate that ELs may be motivated to read in English to learn…

  10. Focused Communication Tasks and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuyoshi, Junko; Ellis, Rod

    1993-01-01

    A study of six adult learners of English as a Second Language provides some evidence to suggest that pushing learners to produce more accurate output contributes to acquisition. The data also demonstrate how this might be achieved through focused communication tasks. (Contains 11 references.) (Author)

  11. All-dielectric metasurface for optical focusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, E.; Silvestri, F.; Gerini, G.; Lancellotti, V.; Galdi, V.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the design of a dielectric flat lens for visible wavelengths, capable of efficiently focus the incident field at a given distance. Our approach relies on the recently proposed exploitation of high-index dielectric resonators with spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonan

  12. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  13. Controlled Spatiotemporal Focusing Through Turbid Media

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Ori; Small, Eran; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    We apply adaptive beam shaping for the simultaneous spatial focusing and temporal compression of ultrashort pulses propagating through turbid media, in the context of nonlinear microscopy. We find that by optimizing a nonlinear two-photon signal, controlled temporal shaping is attainable using only the spatial degrees of control.

  14. Spatial optical solitons supported by mutual focusing

    OpenAIRE

    Salgueiro, Jose R.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2003-01-01

    We study composite spatial optical solitons supported by two-wave mutual focusing induced by cross-phase modulation in Kerr-like nonlinear media. We find the families of both single- and two-hump solitons and discuss their properties and stability. We also reveal remarkable similarities between recently predicted holographic solitons in photorefractive media and parametric solitons in quadratic nonlinear crystals.

  15. Careers in focus library and information science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Careers in Focus: Library and Information Science, Second Edition profiles 19 careers for professionals interested in this field. Job profiles include:. -Acquisitions librarians. -Book conservators. -Children's librarians. -Corporate librarians. -Film and video librarians. -Law librarians. -Library assistants. -Library media specialists. -Medical librarians. -Research assistants.

  16. Quality? Is it Allowed? FACTC Focus, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Mark, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "FACTC Focus" is a publication of Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) with the purpose of presenting diverse views on faculty issues. Included in this issue are: (1) Shooting In The Dark: Evaluating Distance Learning Instruction (Stephanie Delaney); (2) Trust Who? - Trust and Learning: Crafting a Conversation That…

  17. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world

  18. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California 94550 (United States); Welch, D. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  19. Production of radioisotopes within a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, research conducted in the US and in Italy has demonstrated production of radioisotopes in Plasma Focus (PF) devices, and particularly, on what could be termed 'endogenous' production, to wit, production within the plasma itself, as opposed to irradiation of targets. This technique relies on the formation of localized small plasma zones characterized by very high densities and fairly high temperatures. The conditions prevailing in these zones lead to high nuclear reaction rates, as pointed out in previous work by several authors. Further investigation of the cross sections involved has proven necessary to model the phenomena involved. In this paper, the present status of research in this field is reviewed, both with regards to cross section models and to experimental production of radioisotopes. Possible outcomes and further development are discussed. (author)

  20. Mechanism of Deep-focus Earthquakes Anomalous Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Linnik, E P; Mavrodiev, S C; Zelentsova, T N; Pintelina, L; Smolyar, V P; Pekevski, L

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the NEIC-data we have shown that the spatial deep-focus earthquake distribution in the Earth interior over the 1993-2006 is characterized by the clearly defined periodical fine discrete structure with period L=50 km, which is solely generated by earthquakes with magnitude M 3.9 to 5.3 and only on the convergent boundary of plates. To describe the formation of this structure we used the model of complex systems by A. Volynskii and S. Bazhenov. The key property of this model consists in the presence of a rigid coating on a soft substratum. It is shown that in subduction processes the role of a rigid coating plays the slab substance (lithosphere) and the upper mantle acts as a soft substratum. Within the framework of this model we have obtained the estimation of average values of stress in the upper mantle and Young's modulus for the oceanic slab (lithosphere) and upper mantle.

  1. Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Hunt, Josephine; Perrin, Irene;

    2004-01-01

    Natural Toxin Task Force therefore organised a workshop on trichothecenes with a special focus on deoxynivalenol (DON). A number of experts reviewed the current knowledge on trichothecenes with respect to occurrence, including aspects of mould growth, toxin formation, storage and effects of processing......A number of mycotoxins of the class of trichothecenes are produced by a variety of Fusarium fungi commonly found on cereals. Unfavourable weather conditions may lead to a high level of Fusarium infections in crops such as wheat and correspondingly high trichothecene contents. The ILSI Europe......; prevention; analytical methodologies, including sampling; surveillance and exposure assessments; and toxicology and risk assessment. A number of recommendations were given under the headings: prevention, sampling and analytical methods, exposure assessment, and toxicology. Gaps in knowledge were also...

  2. Experimental reconstruction of primary fragments with kinematical focusing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental method was used to evaluate the primary isotope yields of semi-central collisions in the reaction system 64Zn+112Sn at 40A MeV, The characteristic nature of the hot nuclear matter at the time of the isotope formation was studied. The multiplicities of light particles (LPs) associated with intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) were determined experimentally by using a kinematical focusing technique. The primary isotope distributions, reconstructed by a Monte Carlo method, were compared with those of the AMD-Gemini simulations. ac/T=0.11 and asym/T=3.34 were extracted from the reconstructed primary fragments yield. These are consistent with those of the primary fragments of the AMD simulation. (authors)

  3. Reliability measure for shape-from-focus

    OpenAIRE

    Pertuz, Said; Puig, Domenec; García, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal Image and Vision Computing . Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal Image and Vision Computing , 31, 10 (2013) DOI: 10.1016/...

  4. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  5. Indian Youth Speak about Tobacco: Results of Focus Group Discussions with School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…

  6. Sharp Focus on Soft Skills: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students' Educational Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, recommended that all public institutions of higher learning in the country incorporate soft skills formation into their curricula. This qualitative study aimed to explore Malaysian students' expectations of university education with a special focus on the acquisition of soft skills and to…

  7. Patch diameter limitation due to high chirp rates in focused SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    1994-10-01

    Polar-format processed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have a limited focused patch diameter that results from unmitigated phase errors. Very high chirp rates, encountered with fine-resolution short-pulse radars, exasperate the problem via a residual video phase error term. This letter modifies the traditional maximum patch diameter expression to include effects of very high chirp rates.

  8. Community College Dual Enrollment Faculty Orientation: A Utilization-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Hara D.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2010-01-01

    The current climate of accountability demands that institutions engage in data-driven program evaluation. In order to promote quality dual enrollment (DE) programs, institutions must support the adjunct faculty teaching college courses in high schools. This study uses Patton's utilization-focused model (1997) to conduct a formative evaluation of a…

  9. Neuronal migration disorders: Focus on the cytoskeleton and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffer, Melissa A; Golden, Jeffrey A; Francis, Fiona

    2016-08-01

    A wide spectrum of focal, regional, or diffuse structural brain abnormalities, collectively known as malformations of cortical development (MCDs), frequently manifest with intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, and/or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). As the acronym suggests, MCDs are perturbations of the normal architecture of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The pathogenesis of these disorders remains incompletely understood; however, one area that has provided important insights has been the study of neuronal migration. The amalgamation of human genetics and experimental studies in animal models has led to the recognition that common genetic causes of neurodevelopmental disorders, including many severe epilepsy syndromes, are due to mutations in genes regulating the migration of newly born post-mitotic neurons. Neuronal migration genes often, though not exclusively, code for proteins involved in the function of the cytoskeleton. Other cellular processes, such as cell division and axon/dendrite formation, which similarly depend on cytoskeletal functions, may also be affected. We focus here on how the susceptibility of the highly organized neocortex and hippocampus may be due to their laminar organization, which involves the tight regulation, both temporally and spatially, of gene expression, specialized progenitor cells, the migration of neurons over large distances and a birthdate-specific layering of neurons. Perturbations in neuronal migration result in abnormal lamination, neuronal differentiation defects, abnormal cellular morphology and circuit formation. Ultimately this results in disorganized excitatory and inhibitory activity leading to the symptoms observed in individuals with these disorders. PMID:26299390

  10. Magnetic Assisted Colloidal Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye

    Pattern formation is a mysterious phenomenon occurring at all scales in nature. The beauty of the resulting structures and myriad of resulting properties occurring in naturally forming patterns have attracted great interest from scientists and engineers. One of the most convenient experimental models for studying pattern formation are colloidal particle suspensions, which can be used both to explore condensed matter phenomena and as a powerful fabrication technique for forming advanced materials. In my thesis, I have focused on the study of colloidal patterns, which can be conveniently tracked in an optical microscope yet can also be thermally equilibrated on experimentally relevant time scales, allowing for ground states and transitions between them to be studied with optical tracking algorithms. In particular, I have focused on systems that spontaneously organize due to particle-surface and particle-particle interactions, paying close attention to systems that can be dynamically adjusted with an externally applied magnetic or acoustic field. In the early stages of my doctoral studies, I developed a magnetic field manipulation technique to quantify the adhesion force between particles and surfaces. This manipulation technique is based on the magnetic dipolar interactions between colloidal particles and their "image dipoles" that appear within planar substrate. Since the particles interact with their own images, this system enables massively parallel surface force measurements (>100 measurements) in a single experiment, and allows statistical properties of particle-surface adhesion energies to be extracted as a function of loading rate. With this approach, I was able to probe sub-picoNewton surface interactions between colloidal particles and several substrates at the lowest force loading rates ever achieved. In the later stages of my doctoral studies, I focused on studying patterns formed from particle-particle interaction, which serve as an experimental model of

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics FOCUS ON MICRO- AND NANOFLUIDICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Armand; Stone, Howard A.

    2009-07-01

    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics concentrates on recent developments in microfluidics, and related small-scale flow themes. This subject touches on many areas with the common element that they are engaged with understanding, measuring or manipulating flows at the scale of a few hundred microns or smaller. Microfluidics is of interest to many scientists and engineers from many disciplines because it is a toolbox from which they can investigate basic questions in their respective fields. In particular, the field has led to new studies of small-scale fluid flows, especially those dominated by surface effects, which is crucial for understanding electrokinetics, chemical reactions and phase changes, and multiphase systems, including those involving dispersed liquid and gas phases, suspended particles, cells, vesicles, capsules, etc. The lower length scale of these kinds of flows concerns nanoscale manipulation of objects such as DNA or nanoparticles, nanofabrication of surfaces, studies of the flow within nanometers of substrates, etc. Microfluidics has also given rise to technologies because it enables design and implementation of new devices for sensing, detection, measurement, materials characterization, combinatorial discovery, cellular-scale manipulation, miniaturization of reactors, etc. The fact that these systems are small, cheap, physically flexible, portable, multifunctional, and, when they are working, produce measurements quickly, offers many new avenues for innovation. In this issue we highlight contributions from around the world that explore research directions inspired by the manifold possibilities of microfluidics. In particular, the papers include reports of single-phase flows that are driven by electrical fields, so-called electrokinetics. Although the field has its origins in the 19th century, if not even earlier, new theoretical ideas are required to understand dynamics close to charged surfaces, and new applications of the basic ideas are

  12. Formative Assessment Probes: Big and Small Seeds. Linking Formative Assessment Probes to the Scientific Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. Formative assessment probes are designed to uncover students' ideas about objects, events, and processes in the natural world. This assessment information is then used throughout instruction to move students toward an understanding of the scientific ideas behind the probes. During the…

  13. Proto-I axial-focusing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-integrated axial (z) focus of the 4.5-cm-radius Proto I (1.5 MV, 500 kA) radial proton diode is presently limited to approx. 3 mm FWHM. This result is obtained with current neutralized beam transport in a gas cell with 6 Torr argon. If the vertical local divergence were the same (10 or less) as the horizontal divergence, the local divergence alone would produce a 1.5 mm FWHM focus. The axial focal size is evidently limited by time-dependent effects. These are studied by observing the beam incident upon various targets with two time-resolved pinhole cameras. The first camera observes Rutherford-scattered protons from gold targets with an array of 11 siicon PIN detectors. The second camera observes K/sub α/-fluorescence from aluminum targets with 4 independently-gated microchannel plates imaging tubes

  14. Plasma lenses for focusing particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focusing of particles by a thin plasma lens is analyzed with physical, linearized fluid and particle-in-cell computational models. For parameters similar to next-generation linear colliders, the plasma lens strength can exceed 100 MG/cm, and the luminosity can be enhanced by an order of magnitude by passing each beam through an appropriate plasma slab. The plasma electrons affect the focusing by shifting so as to (partially or completely) charge neutralize the beam. Both overdense and underdense plasma lenses are described (plasma density n0 greater or less than beam density nb). The former case applies equally well to e+ and e- beams, while the latter has distinct advantages for e- beams (including smaller aberrations and background). The effects of spherical and longitudinal aberrations, emittance, plasma boundaries, and non-linear-plasma dynamics on the final spot size are discussed

  15. Self-focusing of whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, V. I.; Kaufman, R. N.; Shagalov, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of axially symmetric self-focusing of whistler waves, based on the full system of Maxwell equations, is developed. The plasma is described by the magnetohydrodynamic equations including the ponderomotive force from RF field. The nonlinear Schrodinger equations (NSE) for arbitrary azimuthal modes of whistler waves are derived. It is shown that they differ from the NSE for a scalar field; this is connected with an intrinsic angular momentum due to the rotating polarization of whistlers. It is shown that the self-focusing, as described by the NSE, differs in its final stage from the results following the full set of Maxwell equations. The latter gives defocusing after sufficient narrowing of the initial wave beam, due to transformation of the trapped wave into a nontrapped branch which is not contained in the NSE description. The oscillatory character of the defocusing is demonstrated.

  16. Gravitational focusing of Imperfect Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the projectable Horava-Lifshitz model/mimetic matter scenario, we consider a particular modification of standard gravity, which manifests as an imperfect low pressure fluid. While practically indistinguishable from collection of non-relativistic weakly interacting particles on cosmological scales, it leaves drastically different signatures in the Solar system. The main effect stems from gravitational focusing of the flow of {\\it Imperfect Dark Matter} passing near the Sun. This entails the strong amplification of Imperfect Dark Matter energy density compared to its average value in the surrounding halo. The enhancement is many orders of magnitude larger than in the case of Cold Dark Matter, provoking deviations of the metric in the second order in the Newtonian potential. Effects of gravitational focusing are prominent enough to substantially affect the planetary dynamics. Using the existing bound on the PPN parameter $\\beta_{PPN}$, we deduce the stringent constraint on the unique constant of the...

  17. Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, I.G. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Frazão, H.M. [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Profa. Cinobelina Elvas, CEP 64900-000, Bom Jesus, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Nemes, M.C. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Av. Amazonas 7675, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510-000 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.

  18. Focus on biodiversity, health and wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn; Athias, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 Environmental Research Letters (ERL) launched a focus series of research papers on the theme of biodiversity, health and well-being. It was the year of the second Rio Summit on Sustainable Development, a huge number of species had been made extinct and conservationists were making increasingly urgent calls for the protection of biodiversity. The situation is ever more critical. Since we started the issue more species have become extinct, and hundreds more have now become critically endangered. The focus issue highlighted the complexity of the links of biodiversity and health, and provides more evidence for the importance to human health of biodiversity on our planet. Research papers contrasted anthropocentric western scientific views of biodiversity and its ecosystem service to humans, with the more horizontal conceptions of indigenous communities in the Amazon—and as many cultures have recognized throughout history, they recognize that we are part of nature: nature does not exist for us.

  19. Final focus plasma lenses in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyze the optics of a high energy beam which is focused by its own wake-fields in an overdense plasma. We calculate the effects of lens aberration on the focusing strength of the lens and on the dilution of the beam's phase space density. From this we derive the minimum spot size achievable using a cylindrically symmetric bi-Gaussian beam and, after inclusion of the beam-beam disruption effect, the luminosity enhancement that can be gained in principle. We estimate the luminosity enhancement in the case of SLC design parameters and discuss limitations and possible improvements in plasma lens performance. Motivated by the need to reduce the background event rate due to beam-ion collisions, we discuss the optics of the underdense plasma lens and introduce the concept of bootstrap disruption. Possible use of the underdense plasma lens in a TLC-type collider is examined. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P A Coe; D Urner; A Reichold

    2007-12-01

    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative positions and orientations of several key components in the beam-delivery and interaction region. Monitoring the relative positions of the ILC final focus quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam-relative stability will have a direct impact on machine luminosity. Established, laser-based frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and fixed-frequency interferometry (FFI) offer positional resolution at length scales of the laser wavelength (1500 nm to 1560 nm) and a thousandth of the wavelength, respectively. As part of the ATF at KEK, StaFF will use interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam position monitors. Interferometers are being designed and tested in Oxford prior to deployment at the ATF.

  1. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  2. New Office Software course format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Always interested to anticipate your training needs, the Technical Training service is pleased to propose two new Office Software course formats : “Focus on... ” : On a monthly basis we will propose a theme such as “Sharepoint Collaboration Workspace” or “Word 2007” or “charts” etc. You will have to send us in advance your questions regarding the proposed topic and register for the course through our Training Catalogue. During the session, our trainer will answer all the questions received and participants will increase their knowledge thanks to the solutions discussed for everyone. The course will last two hours, from 09h00 to 11h00 - with open questions on the proposed topic at the end. “Office software Individual coaching”: If one or several particular topics cause you sleepless nights, you can get the help of our trainer who will come to your workplace for a multiple of 1-hour slots . All fields ...

  3. Focused logistics: holy grail or poisoned chalice?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D M; Antill, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    With logistics having become more important as the 20th century has progressed, and particularly since the end of the Cold War, the need for more efficient and effective logistics is becoming paramount, as it is seen as both a 'competitive advange' and a 'force enabler'. 'Focused Logistics' is the latest term to enter usage, and this paper will examine how different it is from what has gone before, and whether it is applicable to some of the operational challenges that the a...

  4. Results of final focus test beam

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrof, V.A.; Balakin, V.; Mikhailichenko, A..; Flottmann, K.; Peters, F.; Voss, G.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Halling, M.; Buon, J.; Jeanjean, J.; LeDiberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Puzo, P.; Heimlinger, G.; Settles, R.

    1995-01-01

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 μm×75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders

  5. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician Alecu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress. Also, the project manger skills are highlighted in this specific context.

  6. Re-Focusing the Business School Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Anne Sigismund; Huff, James Oran

    2001-01-01

    This commentary agrees with Starkey and Madan (2001) that business schools must incorporate Mode 2 production methods if they are to be significant knowledge producers in the future. We reinforce their specific suggestions about how that might be accomplished by focusing on learning from early Mode 2 attempts, promoting practitioner research, seeking business co-sponsorship and sheltering some Mode 1 practices and values, including longitudinal reflective research and information storage. We ...

  7. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Felician Alecu; Paul Pocatilu; Sergiu Capisizu

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress....

  8. Tunable Focusing by a Flexible Metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Zárate, Yair; Powell, David A

    2016-01-01

    An efficient reflective elastic metasurface with tunable focusing point is proposed. The metasurface is based on electric resonators embedded in a stretchable elastic substrate. The focal length is controlled by mean of the stretching applied applied to the sample. The results predicted by theory and numerical simulations are experimentally verified. Our proposal shows that smart engineering elastic metamaterials are an effective platform for new functional devices based on metamaterials.

  9. Focus on thermoelectric effects in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, David; Linke, Heiner

    2014-11-01

    The field of nanoscale thermoelectrics began with a clear motivation for better performances of waste heat recovery processes by lowering the system dimensionality. Although this original inspiration still drives many recent developments, the field has also evolved to address fundamental questions on charge and energy transport across quantum conductors in the presence of both voltage and temperature differences. This ‘focus on’ collection provides new perspectives in the field and reports on the latest developments, both theoretically and experimentally.

  10. Seven Issues Should Be Focused on Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ According to the investment situation of the first half of this year, under macro-control of the central government, the super high-speed investment momentum in the first half of this year was controlled and some overheated industries were becoming normal. Influenced by many positive factors, the targets of macro-control as expected will be achieved. However, in order to further settle this policy and realize the economic soft-landing, the following seven issues should be focused on.

  11. Emotion-Focused Therapy: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of developments in the understanding of the role of emotions in human functioning and in the psychological helping process, emotion is regarded as centrally important in the experience of self, in both adaptive and maladaptive functioning, and in the process of therapeutic change. In spite of this, working with emotions in psychological counseling/therapy still remains a major challenge for many practitioners. Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) is an empirically supported and experient...

  12. Simultaneous Navigation and Synthetic Aperture Radar Focusing

    OpenAIRE

    Sjanic, Zoran; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipment is a radar imaging system that can be used to create high-resolution images of a scene by utilizing the movement of a flying platform. Knowledge of the platforms trajectory is essential to get good and focused images. An emerging application field is real-time SAR imaging using small and cheap platforms where estimation errors in navigation systems imply unfocused images. This contribution investigates a joint estimation of the trajectory and SAR image...

  13. The COSPIX mission: focusing on the energetic and obscured Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, P; Laurent, P; Limousin, O; Beckmann, V; Arnaud, M; Barcons, X; Bomans, D; Caballero, I; Carrera, F; Chaty, S; Chenevez, J; Chipaux, R; Christensen, F; Claret, A; Corbel, S; Croston, J; Daddi, E; De Becker, M; Decourchelle, A; Elbaz, D; Falanga, M; Ferrari, C; Feruglio, C; Götz, D; Gouiffès, C; Hailey, C; Hernanz, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Malzac, J; Martignac, J; Mattana, F; Meuris, A; Miniutti, G; Nalewajko, K; Negueruela, I; O'Dell, S; Paltani, S; Petre, R; Petrucci, P -O; Pierre, M; Pinsard, F; Ponti, G; Rauw, G; Rea, N; Renaud, M; Robert, J -L; Rodriguez, J; Rozanska, A; Santangelo, A; Sauvageot, J -L; Soldi, S; Tagger, M; Tenzer, C; Terrier, R; Trap, G; Varnière, P; Wilms, J; Zhang, W; Heras, J Zurita

    2011-01-01

    Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-ray...

  14. TECHNICAL INTEGRATION ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOCUS AREAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey R. Butler

    2001-10-01

    This contract involved a team of companies led by WPI (formerly the Waste Policy Institute). In addition to WPI, the team included four subcontractors--TRW (formerly BDM Federal), SAIC, Energetics, and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The team of companies functioned as a ''seamless team'' assembled to support the Environmental Management Program Focus Areas. Staff resources were applied in the following offices: Richland, Washington, Idaho Falls, Idaho, Morgantown, West Virginia, Grand Forks, North Dakota, Aiken, South Carolina, Gaithersburg, Maryland, and Blacksburg, Virginia. These locations represented a mixture of site support offices at the field focus area locations and central staff to support across the focus areas. The management of this dispersed resource base relied on electronic communication links to allow the team to function as a ''virtual office'' to address tasks with the best qualified staff matched to the task assignments. A variety of tasks were assigned and successfully completed throughout the life of the contract that involved program planning and analysis, program execution, program information management and communication and data transmission.

  15. Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

  16. Finding focus : a study of the historical development of focus in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals how two important focus articulations change over time in written English. Constituent focus, often accompanied by contrast, makes use of the clause-initial position in the oldest stages of English, but as this position comes to be used for the grammatical subject over time, the i

  17. Topic-Focus Articulation of Isotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Sova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linguistic phenomena at suprasentential level. In particular, it looks into how textual analysis can be enhanced by supplementing the Parisian programme of interpretive semantics, as devised by François Rastier, namely his theory of isotopies, with elementary aspects of topic-focus articulation (TFA, as well as contextual boundness (CB and contextual non-boundness (CN, as elaborated within the Praguian linguistic tradition (V. Mathesius, P. Sgall, E. Hajičová, F. Daneš, J. Firbas, and how the descriptive power of the former can be increased by the latter. In this respect, it is argued that two types of TFA phenomena interact during any process of textual interpretation: those of topic-focus articulation at the level of sentence, conceiving lexical morphs as thematic (T and/or rhematic (R, as well as contextually bound (CB and/or contextually non-bound (CN, and those of topic-focus articulation at the level of isotopy, with each isotopy being conceived as structured around a center (an abstract semantic unit and periphery (a span of concrete utterances. Two types of such interaction are described, each defined by either correlation, or non-correlation of the CB and CN semes at the levels of isotopy and sentence, respectively: thematic-rhematic isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CB seme of the periphery; and thematic-rhematic allotopy (i.e. non-isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CN seme of the periphery. Since topic-focus isotopies and allotopies can be perceived as members of privative oppositions, a tentative system of such oppositions is presented, based on linguistic analyses of selected European Commission texts drafted in English and their Czech translations. The author’s ultimate intention is to show that the semantic features of topic-focus articulation at the sentential and suprasentential levels are both structurally parallel and

  18. Challenges in Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, large strides have been made in the field of planet formation. Yet fundamental questions remain. Here we review our state of understanding of five fundamental bottlenecks in planet formation. These are: 1) the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks; 2) the growth of the first planetesimals; 3) orbital migration driven by interactions between proto-planets and gaseous disk; 4) the origin of the Solar System's orbital architecture; and 5) the relationship between observed super-Earths and our own terrestrial planets. Given our lack of understanding of these issues, even the most successful formation models remain on shaky ground.

  19. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminescence of luminol. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalare inhibited methemoglobin formation. The generation of the superoxide anion is discussed in regard to methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

  20. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  1. The Effect of Solution-Focused Versus Problem-Focused Questions: A Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipp, Marie-Carmen; Beyebach, Mark; Nuñez, Rosa M; Martínez-González, Marie-Carmen

    2016-07-01

    In therapeutic conversations, questions can be considered as interventions in their own right. This study is a cross-cultural replication of Grant (Journal of Systemic Therapies, 2012, 31, 2, 21) study on the effects of different types of questions on various clinically relevant variables. A total of 204 students of a Spanish university described a real-life problem that they wanted to solve and were then randomly assigned to either a solution-focused or a problem-focused questions condition. Before and after answering the questions, they completed a set of measures that assessed positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, and goal attainment. Solution-focused questions produced a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy, goal approach, and action steps than problem-focused questions, and a significantly greater decrease in negative affect, providing further empirical support to solution-focused practices. PMID:26387987

  2. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas–solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb2O5nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid–solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities.

  3. Formation of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.

    The discovery of extrasolar planets and the determination of their orbital properties have provided golden opportunities for new advancements in the quest to understand the origin and evolution of planets and planetary systems. While their bizarre variety presents a challenge for the existing theories, their ubiquity suggests that planetary formation is a robust process. Combining data obtained from solar system exploration, star formation studies and the searches for extra solar planets, we address some outstanding issues concerning critical processes of grain condensation, planetesimal coagulation, and gas accretion. Some implications of these investigations are: 1) the about of heavy elements available for planetary formation in protostellar disks is retained at a similar level as that empirically inferred for the primordial solar nebula, through self regulated processes and 2) the critical stages of planet formation, from grain condensation, planetesimal coagulation, to gas accretion, proceed on the timescale of a few million years.

  4. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    papers, the authors have not carried out the necessary control experiments and materials characterization to convincingly eliminate these possibilities. The former includes the growth of films without the magnetic dopant and the associated demonstration of the absence of ferromagnetism. Magnetic secondary phase formation is particularly problematic because in order to inject enough magnetic dopant to generate appreciable magnetization and spin polarization, one must often exceed the solid solubility of the dopant in the host. If the dopant is itself ferromagnetic in its elemental state, or if unintended magnetic products nucleate, spurious ferromagnetism will occur. Moreover, it is often a major analysis challenge to detect secondary phases when they consist of only a few per cent of the dopant; element specific spectroscopies such as x-ray absorption have been invaluable in this task. Powder diffraction is not sufficiently sensitive for this level of analysis. Against this backdrop, this focus issue of New Journal of Physics now appears. The editors' principal goal in soliciting papers has been to encourage investigators to submit work in which the necessary experiments have been done to allow the material to be adequately characterized. This collection contains a mix of experimental and theoretical papers, and many different types of materials are covered. This focus issue thus constitutes a snapshot in time of a fast-moving and fascinating field of materials physics. Reference [1] Dietl T, Ohno H, Matsukura F, Cibert J and Ferrand D 2000 Science 287 1019 Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors Contents Lithographically and electrically controlled strain effects on anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As E De Ranieri, A W Rushforth, K Výborný, U Rana, E Ahmad, R P Campion, C T Foxon, B L Gallagher, A C Irvine, J Wunderlich and T Jungwirth Structure and magnetism of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films M Ivill, S J Pearton, S Rawal, L Leu, P Sadik, R Das, A F Hebard, M

  6. PRAGMALINGUISTIC ELEMENTS IN TOURIST DESTIONATION IMAGE FORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Blažević, Nevenka; Stojić, Aneta

    2006-01-01

    Image has been an important topic in tourism research. It is one of the key factors in the travel selection process. The image of a tourist destination is the sum of all perceptions tourists and potential visitors hold of that destination. In tourist advertising materials it is represented through verbal and pictorial elements. The focus of this research is to find out pragmalinguistic elements in tourist destination image formation. This paper especially concentrates on some typical pragmali...

  7. Operations on Rigid Formations of Autonomous Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eren, Tolga; Anderson, Brian D. O.; Morse, A. Stephen; Whiteley, Walter; Belhumeur, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the maintenance of rigid formations of mobile autonomous agents. A key element in all future multi-agent systems will be the role of sensor and communication networks as an integral part of coordination. Network topologies are critically important for autonomous systems involving mobile underwater, ground and air vehicles and for sensor networks. This paper focuses on developing techniques and strategies for the analysis and design of sensor a...

  8. Design and Fabrication of Double-Focused Ultrasound Transducers to Achieve Tight Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jihun; Chang, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Beauty treatment for skin requires a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer to generate coagulative necrosis in a small focal volume (e.g., 1 mm³) placed at a shallow depth (3-4.5 mm from the skin surface). For this, it is desirable to make the F-number as small as possible under the largest possible aperture in order to generate ultrasound energy high enough to induce tissue coagulation in such a small focal volume. However, satisfying both conditions at the same time is demanding. To meet the requirements, this paper, therefore, proposes a double-focusing technique, in which the aperture of an ultrasound transducer is spherically shaped for initial focusing and an acoustic lens is used to finally focus ultrasound on a target depth of treatment; it is possible to achieve the F-number of unity or less while keeping the aperture of a transducer as large as possible. In accordance with the proposed method, we designed and fabricated a 7-MHz double-focused ultrasound transducer. The experimental results demonstrated that the fabricated double-focused transducer had a focal length of 10.2 mm reduced from an initial focal length of 15.2 mm and, thus, the F-number changed from 1.52 to 1.02. Based on the results, we concluded that the proposed double-focusing method is suitable to decrease F-number while maintaining a large aperture size. PMID:27509500

  9. Design and Fabrication of Double-Focused Ultrasound Transducers to Achieve Tight Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jihun; Chang, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Beauty treatment for skin requires a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer to generate coagulative necrosis in a small focal volume (e.g., 1 mm3) placed at a shallow depth (3–4.5 mm from the skin surface). For this, it is desirable to make the F-number as small as possible under the largest possible aperture in order to generate ultrasound energy high enough to induce tissue coagulation in such a small focal volume. However, satisfying both conditions at the same time is demanding. To meet the requirements, this paper, therefore, proposes a double-focusing technique, in which the aperture of an ultrasound transducer is spherically shaped for initial focusing and an acoustic lens is used to finally focus ultrasound on a target depth of treatment; it is possible to achieve the F-number of unity or less while keeping the aperture of a transducer as large as possible. In accordance with the proposed method, we designed and fabricated a 7-MHz double-focused ultrasound transducer. The experimental results demonstrated that the fabricated double-focused transducer had a focal length of 10.2 mm reduced from an initial focal length of 15.2 mm and, thus, the F-number changed from 1.52 to 1.02. Based on the results, we concluded that the proposed double-focusing method is suitable to decrease F-number while maintaining a large aperture size. PMID:27509500

  10. Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Emily A; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development. Smallpox vaccine development is thus a much-reviewed topic of high interest. This review focuses on the current state of smallpox vaccines and their context in biodefense efforts.

  11. SS focused technology: Gateways and NOS's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, R.

    1985-01-01

    The extensions and enhancements of the fiber optic data bus technology supported by the Space Station Focused Technology Program are discussed. This includes the operating software for the network called the Network Operating System (NOS); gateways and bridges for multiple network topologies; and very large scale topology implimentations to shrink the size and power of the Bus Interface Unit (BIU) down to more manageable dimensions. CMOS is being investigated for the lower speed (parallel) logic. Gallium arsendide is being studied for the high speed (serial) logic.

  12. Focus groups: a strategy for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Kfouri LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research strategy through open interviews is a qualitative alternative that can capture the meaning embedded in opinions expressed, revealing values and feelings of the research subjects. As a constructivist method it requires the interpretative analysis of the speech. Data collection requires pragmatism from the researcher and absence of stimuli that might induce or inhibit the interviewees. Objective: This study had the following proposals: a to implement the strategy of focus groups as part of the evaluation of the Qualitative Methods discipline in a stricto sensu course; b to search the criteria that determine the patient’s choice of dental professional.Material and methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the research,an exercise was carried out aimed at understanding the content of focus groups through active learning methodology based on the experience and binomial action-reflection. The activity was developed under the theme “Determinants in the relationship established between the dental professional and their patients”, according to the patients’ opinions.The group that coordinated the activity consisted of four dentists,students of the Qualitative Methods discipline, who played the following roles: a mediator; b reporter; c observer; d recording operator.The discussion group was composed of six (N = 6 volunteers from a total of 20 students enrolled in this discipline. The exclusion criteria included those with private dental plans and/or the exclusive users of public health services. The recording was transcribed and submitted to content analysis. To this end the ATLAS.ti 5.0 computer program was used. Results: Patients select the dental professional according to the references they get from others. The personal relationship was highly valued by the group, reinforcing the skills and abilities of sensitivity and commitment to the human being presented in the text of the National Curriculum Guidelines

  13. Finite sample effect in temperature gradient focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao; Shackman, Jonathan G; Ross, David

    2008-06-01

    Temperature gradient focusing (TGF) is a new and promising equilibrium gradient focusing method which can provide high concentration factors for improved detection limits in combination with high-resolution separation. In this technique, temperature-dependent buffer chemistry is employed to generate a gradient in the analyte electrophoretic velocity. By the application of a convective counter-flow, a zero-velocity point is created within a microchannel, at which location the ionic analytes accumulate or focus. In general, the analyte concentration is small when compared with buffer ion concentrations, such that the focusing mechanism works in the ideal, linearized regime. However, this presumption may at times be violated due to significant sample concentration growth or the use of a low-concentration buffer. Under these situations the sample concentration becomes non-negligible and can induce strong nonlinear interactions with buffer ions, which eventually lead to peak shifting and distortion, and the loss of detectability and resolution. In this work we combine theory, simulation, and experimental data to present a detailed study on nonlinear sample-buffer interactions in TGF. One of the key results is the derivation of a generalized Kohlrausch regulating function (KRF) that is valid for systems in which the electrophoretic mobilities are not constant but vary spatially. This generalized KRF greatly facilitates analysis, allowing reduction of the problem to a single equation describing sample concentration evolution, and is applicable to other problems with heterogeneous electrophoretic mobilities. Using this sample evolution equation we have derived an understanding of the nonlinear peak deformation phenomenon observed experimentally in TGF. We have used numerical simulations to validate our theory and to quantitatively predict TGF. Our simulation results demonstrate excellent agreement with experimental data, and also indicate that the proper inclusion of

  14. CRISIS FOCUS:Back to Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The devastating global financial crisis stemmed from the corruption of the U.S. property market and a wide range of financial derivatives that were devised based on home mortgages. The world’s financial institutions have been hit hard, with some going bankrupt. To avoid such financial catastrophe in the future, Fan Gang, Director of the National Economic Institute, called on business people nationwide to focus more on real industries instead of blindly pouring money into financial and service sectors. He made a speech at a forum on the global financial crisis and China’s economic development. His edited speech follows:

  15. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

  16. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  17. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  18. Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel;

    2015-01-01

    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless remotely controlled switching using passive optical splitters. The signal to be transmitted is digitally pre-distorted so that it is routed through the physical layer in order to arrive at only one receiver in an array. System...... performance in the presence of additive white gaussian noise, modal group delay, and timing error is investigated numerically for single-mode and 10-mode fiber. Focusing using a two-transmitter array and 44 km of single- mode fiber is demonstrated experimentally for 3 GBd QPSK signals with a bit error rate...

  19. Language of CTO interventions - Focus on hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of variety of chronic total occlusion (CTO) hardware and the ability to use them represents the key to success of any CTO interventions. However, the multiplicity of CTO hardware and their physical character and the terminology used by experts create confusion in the mind of an average interventional cardiologist, particularly a beginner in this field. This knowledge is available but is scattered. We aim to classify and compare the currently used devices based on their properties focusing on how physical character of each device can be utilized in a specific situation, thus clarifying and simplifying the technical discourse.

  20. Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Emily A; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development. Smallpox vaccine development is thus a much-reviewed topic of high interest. This review focuses on the current state of smallpox vaccines and their context in biodefense efforts. PMID:27049653

  1. Seven Issues Should Be Focused on Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      According to the investment situation of the first half of this year, under macro-control of the central government, the super high-speed investment momentum in the first half of this year was controlled and some overheated industries were becoming normal. Influenced by many positive factors, the targets of macro-control as expected will be achieved. However, in order to further settle this policy and realize the economic soft-landing, the following seven issues should be focused on.……

  2. Focus point from direct gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reconciliation of the tension between the theoretic expectation from naturalness and the present LHC limits on the superpartner mass bounds. We argue that in supersymmetry models of direct gauge mediation the focusing phenomenon appears, which dramatically reduces the fine tuning associated to the 126 GeV Higgs boson. This type of model is highly predictive as regards the mass spectrum, with a multi-TeV third generation, the A{sub t} term of order 1 TeV, gluino mass above LHC mass bound, and the light neutralinos and charginos below 1 TeV. (orig.)

  3. Focusing experiments with light ion diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent experimental and theoretical work at Sandia Laboratories on magnetically insulated single stage ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion experiments is presented. The production, focusing, and numerical simulation of a 0.5 TW annular proton beam using the Proto I dual transmission line generator is described. The modular magnetically insulated ion diode for the Hydra generator is also described along with recent experimental results. A brief description of how an array of modular diodes similar to the Hydra magnetically insulated diode could be used on the EBFA I generator for breakeven fusion experiments is presented

  4. Focused Ion Beam Technology for Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmaier, J. P.; Bach, L.; Forchel, A.

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution proximity free lithography was developed using InP as anorganic resist for ion beam exposure. InP is very sensitive on ion beam irradiation and show a highly nonlinear dose dependence with a contrast function comparable to organic electron beam resists. In combination with implantation induced quantum well intermixing this new lithographic technique based on focused ion beams is used to realize high performance nano patterned optoelectronic devices like complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers.

  5. Point focusing of intense ion beam by spherical open-quotes plasma focus diodeclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional focusing of intense ion-beam has been obtained by using spherical open-quotes plasma focus diode.close quotes Experimental data have shown that ion beam was focused into a small cylindrical volume with ∼0.5 mm in diameter and ∼2.5 mm in length, where the ion-beam current density and the power density is estimated to be ∼680 kA/cm2 and ∼0.54 TW/cm2

  6. Nonlinear Effect on Focusing Gain of a Focusing Transducer with a Wide Aperture Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-He; ZHANG Dong; GONG Xiu-Fen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Nonlinear effect on focusing gain of acoustic field radiated from a 1-MHz focusing transmitter with a wide aperture angle of 35° is theoretically and experimentally investigated. With the enhancement of nonlinearity, the focusing gains of both intensity and peak positive pressure show non-monotonic behaviour. There exist the same saturated levels at which the maximum outputs are reached and their spatial distributions are more localized. In contrast,the peak negative pressure always decreases monotonically and its spatial distribution is less localized.

  7. Primary and secondary clustering of DSB repair foci and repair kinetics compared for γ-rays, protons of different energies and high-LET 20Ne ions

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Falkova, Iva; Davidkova, Marie; Bacikova, Alena; Stefancikova, Lenka; Jezkova, Lucie; Vachelova, Jana; Michaelidesova, Anna; Boreyko, Alla; Krasavin, Evgeny A.; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiations of different qualities (e.g. high-LET and low-LET) might differently interact with structurally and functionally distinct higher order chromatin domains (discussed in [ 1] and citations therein); this might be reflected by DNA double strand break (DSB) repair efficiency and the mechanism of how cancerogenous chromosomal translocations (CHT) form. Therefore, we compared the DSB repair kinetics and formation of γH2AX/p53BP1 repair clusters upon the action of γ-rays ...

  8. Dust Evolution and the Formation of Planetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T; Johansen, A

    2016-01-01

    The solid content of circumstellar disks is inherited from the interstellar medium: dust particles of at most a micrometer in size. Protoplanetary disks are the environment where these dust grains need to grow at least 13 orders of magnitude in size. Our understanding of this growth process is far from complete, with different physics seemingly posing obstacles to this growth at various stages. Yet, the ubiquity of planets in our galaxy suggests that planet formation is a robust mechanism. This chapter focuses on the earliest stages of planet formation, the growth of small dust grains towards the gravitationally bound "planetesimals", the building blocks of planets. We will introduce some of the key physics involved in the growth processes and discuss how they are expected to shape the global behavior of the solid content of disks. We will consider possible pathways towards the formation of larger bodies and conclude by reviewing some of the recent observational advances in the field.

  9. Hot subdwarf formation: Confronting theory with observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hot subdwarf stars is still unclear. Both single-star and binary scenarios have been proposed to explain the properties of these evolved stars situated at the extreme blue end of the horizontal branch. The observational evidence gathered in the last decade, which revealed high fractions of binaries, shifted the focus from the single-star to the binary formation scenarios. Common envelope ejection, stable Roche lobe overflow and the merger of helium white dwarfs seemed to be sufficient to explain the formation of both the binary as well as the remaining single hot subdwarfs. However, most recent and rather unexpected observations challenge the standard binary evolution scenarios.

  10. Molecular Emission Line Formation in Prestellar Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlyuchenkov, Ya; Shustov, B; Henning, T; Launhardt, R; Semenov, D

    2008-01-01

    We investigate general aspects of molecular line formation under conditions which are typical of prestellar cores. Focusing on simple linear molecules, we study formation of their rotational lines by radiative transfer simulations. We present a thermalization diagram to show the effects of collisions and radiation on the level excitation. We construct a detailed scheme (contribution chart) to illustrate the formation of emission line profiles. This chart can be used as an efficient tool to identify which parts of the cloud contribute to a specific line profile. We show how molecular line characteristics for uniform model clouds depend on hydrogen density, molecular column density, and kinetic temperature. The results are presented in a 2D plane to illustrate cooperative effects of the physical factors. We also use a core model with a non-uniform density distribution and chemical stratification to study the effects of cloud contraction and rotation on spectral line maps. We discuss the main issues that should ...

  11. Dust Evolution and the Formation of Planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnstiel, T.; Fang, M.; Johansen, A.

    2016-05-01

    The solid content of circumstellar disks is inherited from the interstellar medium: dust particles of at most a micrometer in size. Protoplanetary disks are the environment where these dust grains need to grow at least 13 orders of magnitude in size. Our understanding of this growth process is far from complete, with different physics seemingly posing obstacles to this growth at various stages. Yet, the ubiquity of planets in our galaxy suggests that planet formation is a robust mechanism. This chapter focuses on the earliest stages of planet formation, the growth of small dust grains towards the gravitationally bound "planetesimals", the building blocks of planets. We will introduce some of the key physics involved in the growth processes and discuss how they are expected to shape the global behavior of the solid content of disks. We will consider possible pathways towards the formation of larger bodies and conclude by reviewing some of the recent observational advances in the field.

  12. Signatures of star formation by cold collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Aleksandra; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Sub-virial gravitational collapse is one mechanism by which star clusters may form. Here we investigate whether this mechanism can be inferred from observations of young clusters. To address this question, we have computed SPH simulations of the initial formation and evolution of a dynamically young star cluster through cold (sub-virial) collapse, starting with an ellipsoidal, turbulently seeded distribution of gas, and forming sink particles representing (proto)stars. While the initial density distributions of the clouds do not have large initial mass concentrations, gravitational focusing due to the global morphology leads to cluster formation. We use the resulting structures to extract observable morphological and kinematic signatures for the case of sub-virial collapse. We find that the signatures of the initial conditions can be erased rapidly as the gas and stars collapse, suggesting that kinematic observations need to be made either early in cluster formation and/or at larger scales, away from the grow...

  13. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  14. Monte Carlo simulations for focusing elliptical guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicu, Roxana [FRM2 Garching, Muenchen (Germany); Boeni, Peter [E20, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations using McStas Programme was to improve the focusing of the neutron beam existing at PGAA (FRM II) by prolongation of the existing elliptic guide (coated now with supermirrors with m=3) with a new part. First we have tried with an initial length of the additional guide of 7,5cm and coatings for the neutron guide of supermirrors with m=4,5 and 6. The gain (calculated by dividing the intensity in the focal point after adding the guide by the intensity at the focal point with the initial guide) obtained for this coatings indicated that a coating with m=5 would be appropriate for a first trial. The next step was to vary the length of the additional guide for this m value and therefore choosing the appropriate length for the maximal gain. With the m value and the length of the guide fixed we have introduced an aperture 1 cm before the focal point and we have varied the radius of this aperture in order to obtain a focused beam. We have observed a dramatic decrease in the size of the beam in the focal point after introducing this aperture. The simulation results, the gains obtained and the evolution of the beam size will be presented.

  15. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn E; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200 - 1300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ~10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10^-7 ph/cm2/s/keV for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 x 10^-6 ph/cm2/s for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin - an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector ...

  16. Novel photon detectors for focusing DIRC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, C.; Hadig, T.; Jain, M.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Schwiening, J.; Va' vra, J. E-mail: jjv@slac.stanford.edu

    2004-02-01

    For present BaBar DIRC, the Cherenkov angular resolution is dominated by three contributions - the chromatic error, bar thickness and pixel size. We have designed the Focusing DIRC prototype, which potentially can reduce the chromatic error by a precise timing in the range of 50-100 ps per photon, and the bar thickness by a focusing mirror. This paper describes two novel photon detectors, which are candidates for this type of concept: Hamamatsu 64-channel multi-anode Flat Panel H-8500 PMTs and Burle 64-channel micro-channel plate MCP-PMTs. The detectors were tested with a PiLas laser diode light pulse providing 35 ps FWHM timing resolution. A single-photon timing resolution of (1) {sigma}{approx}120-140 ps was achieved with the Hamamatsu PMTs, and (2) {sigma}{approx}55 ps with the Burle MCP-PMTs. To achieve the good timing resolution results, we have developed a new fast amplifier and a constant-fraction discriminator. We have also developed a computer-controlled scanning setup, which allows a detailed study of the relative efficiency response to single photons.

  17. Novel photon detectors for focusing DIRC prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C.; Hadig, T.; Jain, M.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Schwiening, J.; Va'vra, J.

    2004-02-01

    For present BaBar DIRC, the Cherenkov angular resolution is dominated by three contributions—the chromatic error, bar thickness and pixel size. We have designed the Focusing DIRC prototype, which potentially can reduce the chromatic error by a precise timing in the range of 50-100 ps per photon, and the bar thickness by a focusing mirror. This paper describes two novel photon detectors, which are candidates for this type of concept: Hamamatsu 64-channel multi-anode Flat Panel H-8500 PMTs and Burle 64-channel micro-channel plate MCP-PMTs. The detectors were tested with a PiLas laser diode light pulse providing 35 ps FWHM timing resolution. A single-photon timing resolution of (1) σ˜120-140 ps was achieved with the Hamamatsu PMTs, and (2) σ˜55 ps with the Burle MCP-PMTs. To achieve the good timing resolution results, we have developed a new fast amplifier and a constant-fraction discriminator. We have also developed a computer-controlled scanning setup, which allows a detailed study of the relative efficiency response to single photons.

  18. Diode and Final Focus Simulations for DARHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Thomas P.; Welch, Dale R.; Carlson, Randolph L.

    1997-05-01

    We have used the numerical simulation codes uc(ivory,) uc(iprop) and uc(pbguns) to simulate beam dynamics in the diode and final focus of the 4 kA, 20 MV DARHT linear accelerator. A low emittance 4 MV, 4 kA source for a 4-pulse injector was designed using uc(ivory) and uc(pbguns.) Due to the long pulse length (four 70 ns pulses over 1 μsec), we have kept the field stress to stacks. The normalized edge emittance produced by the diode optics is only ≈ 130 mm-mrad. In the final-focus region, we have used uc(iprop) to model the effect of ion emission from the target. The intense electric field of the beam at the 1 mm diameter focal spot produces substantial ion velocities, and, if the space-charge-limited current density can be supplied, significant focal spot degradation may occur due to ion space-charge. Calculations for the ITS test stand, which has a larger focal spot, show that the effect should be observable for H^+ and C^+ ion species. The effect may be lessened if there is insufficient ion density on the target to supply the space-charge-limited current density, or if the ion charge-to-mass ratio is sufficiently large.

  19. Reduction of Maintenance Error Through Focused Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that a significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are tied to human error. In flight operations, research of operational errors has shown that so-called "pilot error" often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the "team" concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical operations. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  20. Focusing on the essentials: learning for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Catherine J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As The World health report 2006 emphasized, there is increasing consensus that training programmes should focus on "know-how" instead of "know-all." Health workers need to know how to do the job they will be expected to do. IntraHealth International's Learning for performance: a guide and toolkit for health worker training and education programs offers a step-by-step, customizable approach designed to develop the right skills linked to job responsibilities. Using Learning for performance (LFP yields more efficient training that focuses on what is essential for health workers to do their jobs and on effective learning methods, while addressing the factors that ensure application of new skills on the job. This brief communication describes the Learning for performance approach and initial findings from its application for pre-service education and in-service training in three countries: India, Mali and Bangladesh. Based on IntraHealth's experiences, the author provides thoughts on how LFP's performance-based learning approach can be a useful tool in training scale-up to strengthen human resources for health.

  1. Focus on climate projections for adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijt, Arnout; Appenzeller, Christof; Siegmund, Peter; von Storch, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Most papers in this focus issue on ‘climate and climate impact projections for adaptation strategies’ are solicited by the guest editorial team and originate from a cluster of projects that were initiated 5 years ago. These projects aimed to provide climate change and climate change adaptation information for a wide range of societal areas for the lower parts of the deltas of the Rhine and Meuse rivers, and particularly for the Netherlands. The papers give an overview of our experiences, methods, approaches, results and surprises in the process to developing scientifically underpinned climate products and services for various clients. Although the literature on interactions between society and climate science has grown over the past decade both with respect to policy-science framing in post-normal science (Storch et al 2011 J. Environ. Law Policy 1 1-15, van der Sluijs 2012 Nature and Culture 7 174-195), user-science framing (Berkhout et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 879-93) and joint knowledge production (Hegger et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 1049-62), there is still a lot to gain. With this focus issue we want to contribute to best practices in this quickly moving field between science and society.

  2. The focusing DIRC: An innovative PID detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FDIRC (Focusing Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a new concept of PID (Particle IDentification) detector aimed at separating kaons from pions up to a few GeV/c. It is the successor of the BABAR DIRC and benefits from the knowledge accumulated with a first FDIRC prototype built and operated at SLAC. The FDIRC is intended to be used in an environment with a luminosity 100 times higher than for BABAR and Belle. Backgrounds will be higher as well; yet, the FDIRC has been designed to perform at least as well as the BABAR DIRC. The main improvement is a complete redesign of the photon camera, moving from a huge tank of ultra-pure water to much smaller focusing cameras with solid fused-silica optics. Furthermore, the detection chain will be 10 times faster than in BABAR to reject more background and to measure more accurately Cherenkov angles. This is achieved using H-8500 MaPMTs and a new front-end electronics (FEE) with significantly improved timing precision, higher hit rate capability, and small dead time. A full-scale FDIRC prototype covering 1/12th of the barrel azimuth is installed at SLAC and has just started recording cosmic-ray data. In this paper, we summarize the FDIRC design, present the status of the prototype test at SLAC and review the ongoing work to analyse the data

  3. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  4. Plant status control - with an operational focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuclear industry, we have done a very good job of designing, developing, constructing, and improving our nuclear facilities. We have, however, often been inconsistent in documenting the details of our facilities, clearly addressing the rules around facility operation, and controlling and tracking the temporary, or permanent changes to our facilities. The reality is, that once we build a facility, we then must operate the facility, for it to be viable. Further we must operate it safely and efficiently for the facility to produce its product, and be acceptable to the public. Unfortunately, when we design and build these large, complicated facilities, we cannot project all the nuances of facility operation, although we can recognize this potential gap, and prepare for it. In order to allow for the complexities of the real world, we must provide the individuals who are tasked with operating our nuclear facilities, with the tools and processes to deal with 'all the nuances' of facility operation. This discussion will focus on the concepts behind a key process for ensuring that we meet our design and operating needs for our facilities, as well as recognizing and dealing with the potential gaps. The key process is 'Plant Status Control', and the discussion will have a primary focus on the needs of the end users, that being the individuals that have the immediate and current accountability for control and safety of the facility, the equipment, the staff, and ultimately the public, that being our Operations staff, and the Shift Manager. (author)

  5. Is accommodation colorblind? Focusing chromatic contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J M; Owens, D A

    1981-01-01

    Two adjacent regions define an edge if they differ in either color or luminance. If the difference is purely chromatic, the edge is said to be isoluminant. Isoluminant contours are often perceptually unstable. Perhaps some of this instability could be explained if isoluminant contours were difficult to bring into focus. To test this hypothesis, a vernier optometer was used to measure the accuracy of steady-state accommodation for the vertical boundary of a red-green bipartite field. This edge was presented at optical distances of 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 diopters, with brightness contrasts between the two hemifields of 0% (isoluminant), 15%, 58%, and 100%. Accommodation was essentially unresponsiveness to the isoluminant edge and exhibited increasing focusing accuracy with increased brightness contrast. Control experiments replicated this finding for red-orange, green-blue, and white-white fields. These results imply that luminance contrast is a necessary stimulus for monocular accommodation. Inappropriate accommodation may be a factor contributing to the perceptual instability of isoluminant patterns. PMID:7255083

  6. Double focusing mass spectrometers of second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resolution of the on-line mass spectrograph is normally several hundred and this is sufficient to separate nuclei having different mass number A. If the nuclei to be analyzed have the same A but different charge number Z, they can not be separated by this amount of resolution. However, the complete separation of nuclei (both A and Z) can be possible if the resolution is raised by about hundred times, that is, up to several ten thousands. The resolving power of about 30,000 would be sufficient to resolve all nuclei far from the valley of beta-stability. Besides, the direct mass measurement of short lived nuclei would be possible with such a high resolution mass spectrograph. The determination of masses of nuclei far from beta-stability is also a very interesting and important problem. For this purpose, a mass spectrograph which can collect many ions and still has a high resolution is necessary. In order to satisfy such conditions, it is essentially necessary to realize good focusing. Therefore, the possibility of correcting for second order image aberrations of a double focusing instrument is investigated and several suitable designs are found by computer calculation

  7. Malformations of cortical development and neocortical focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner; Clusmann, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Developmental neocortical malformations resulting from abnormal neurogenesis, disturbances in programmed cell death, or neuronal migration disorders may cause a long-term hyperexcitability. Early generated Cajal-Retzius and subplate neurons play important roles in transient cortical circuits, and structural/functional disorders in early cortical development may induce persistent network disturbances and epileptic disorders. In particular, depolarizing GABAergic responses are important for the regulation of neurodevelopmental events, like neurogenesis or migration, while pathophysiological alterations in chloride homeostasis may cause epileptic activity. Although modern imaging techniques may provide an estimate of the structural lesion, the site and extent of the cortical malformation may not correlate with the epileptogenic zone. The neocortical focus may be surrounded by widespread molecular, structural, and functional disturbances, which are difficult to recognize with imaging technologies. However, modern imaging and electrophysiological techniques enable focused hypotheses of the neocortical epileptogenic zone, thus allowing more specific epilepsy surgery. Focal cortical malformation can be successfully removed with minimal rim, close to or even within eloquent cortex with a promising risk-benefit ratio.

  8. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  9. Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has reached a stage at which this technique is now particularly attractive for several areas in both, basic and applied research. The present topical review addresses selected examples that highlight this development in the areas of charge-transport regimes in nanogranular metals close to an insulator-to-metal transition, the use of these materials for strain- and magnetic-field sensing, and the prospect of extending FEBID to multicomponent systems, such as binary alloys and intermetallic compounds with cooperative ground states.Results: After a brief introduction to the technique, recent work concerning FEBID of Pt–Si alloys and (hard-magnetic Co–Pt intermetallic compounds on the nanometer scale is reviewed. The growth process in the presence of two precursors, whose flux is independently controlled, is analyzed within a continuum model of FEBID that employs rate equations. Predictions are made for the tunability of the composition of the Co–Pt system by simply changing the dwell time of the electron beam during the writing process. The charge-transport regimes of nanogranular metals are reviewed next with a focus on recent theoretical advancements in the field. As a case study the transport properties of Pt–C nanogranular FEBID structures are discussed. It is shown that by means of a post-growth electron-irradiation treatment the electronic intergrain-coupling strength can be continuously tuned over a wide range. This provides unique access to the transport properties of this material close to the insulator-to-metal transition. In the last part of the review, recent developments in mechanical

  10. Tuning the DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-24

    accelerator cell to replace a failed solenoid in March of 2012. We took advantage of this opportunity to improve the design of the focusing tune with better models of the remaining partially failed solenoids, better estimates of beam initial conditions, and better values for pulsed-power voltages. As with all previous tunes for Axis-II, this one incorporates measures to mitigate beam-breakup (BBU) instability, image displacement instability (IDI), corkscrew (sweep), and emittance growth. Section II covers the general approach to of design of focusing solenoid tunes for the DARHT Axis-2 LIA. Section III explains the specific requirements and simulations needed to design the tune for the injector, which includes the thermionic electron source, diode, and six induction cells. Section IV explains the requirements and simulations for tuning the main accelerator, which consists of 68 induction cells. Finally, Section V explores sensitivity of the tune to deviations of parameters from nominal, random variations, and uncertainties in values. Four appendices list solenoid settings for this new tune, discuss comparisons of different simulation codes, show halo formation in mismatched beams, and present a brief discussion of the beam envelope equation, which is the heart of the method used to design LIA solenoid tunes.

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Superconductivity is the most dramatic and clear cut phenomenon in condensed matter physics. Realization of room temperature superconductors, which would lead to the revolution of our society, is an ultimate goal for researchers. The discovery of high Tc cuprate superconductors in 1986 by Bednorz and Müller triggered intensive research worldwide and the maximum critical temperature has been raised above 100 K. Scientific research on this break-through material clarified a new route to high Tc materials, carrier doping to a Mott insulator with anti-ferromagnetic ordering. High superconductivity occurs in the neighborhood of Mott-insulators and Fermi-metals. Such a view, which was completely new, now stands as a guiding principle for exploring new high Tc materials. Many theoretical approaches to the mechanism for cuprate superconductors have been carried out to understand this unexpected material and to predict new high Tc materials. In 2006 a new superconductor based on iron, LaFeOP, was discovered by a group at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan. Iron, as a ferromagnet, was believed to be the last element for the realization of superconductivity because of the way ferromagnetism competes against Cooper pair formation. Unexpectedly, however, the critical temperature remained at 4-6 K irrespective of hole/electron-doping. A large increase in the Tc to 26 K was then found in LaFe[O1-xFx]As by the same group (and was published on 23 February 2008, in the Journal of the American Chemical Society). The Tc of this material was further raised to 43 K under a pressure of 2 GPa and scientists in China then achieved a Tc of 56 K at ambient pressure by replacing La with other rare earth ions with smaller radius—a critical temperature that is second only to the high Tc cuprates. This fast progress has revitalized research within superconductivity and in 2008 there were more than seven international symposia specifically on Fe(Ni)-based superconductors. Through the rapid

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  13. The Effects of Focus on Forms and Focus on Form in Teaching Complex Grammatical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The classroom-based study reported in the present paper sought to compare the effectiveness of the focus on forms (FonFs) and focus on form (FonF) approach in teaching English third conditional to Polish high school students. It involved three intact classes, randomly designated as FonF (n = 34), FonFs (n = 36), and Control (n = 35) with a pretest…

  14. Customer-focused and service-focused orientation in organizational structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Heiko; Kowalkowski, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to provide a better understanding of the interrelatedness of customer and service orientations in the organizational structures of capital goods manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative, multi-case research design was employed using 36 European capital goods manufacturing companies. Findings – This article explored four different patterns of how companies move from being product-focused to service-focused, and from having an organizat...

  15. Focus on the Physics of Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the spectacular achievements of molecular biology in the second half of the twentieth century and the crucial advances it permitted in cancer research, the fight against cancer has brought some disillusions. It is nowadays more and more apparent that getting a global picture of the very diverse and interlinked aspects of cancer development necessitates, in synergy with these achievements, other perspectives and investigating tools. In this undertaking, multidisciplinary approaches that include quantitative sciences in general and physics in particular play a crucial role. This `focus on' collection contains 19 articles representative of the diversity and state-of-the-art of the contributions that physics can bring to the field of cancer research.

  16. Focus on networks, energy and the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Marc; Kocarev, Ljupco; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    A sustainable and reliable energy supply constitutes a fundamental prerequisite for the future of our society. The change to renewable sources comes with several systemic changes and includes, among others, smaller and more distributed producers as well as stronger and less predictable fluctuations. Parallel developments such as the transition from conventional producers and consumers to prosumers and the increasing number of electric vehicles add further complications. These changes require to extend and upgrade currently existing power grids. Yet precisely how to achieve an effective, robustly operating (electric) energy system is far from being understood. This focus issue aims to contribute to a number of these upcoming challenges from the perspective of self-organization and the collective nonlinear dynamics of power grids, interacting economic factors as well as technical restrictions and opportunities for distributed systems.

  17. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism.

  18. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism. PMID:20575491

  19. [Strategic focusing of attention during narrative reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnel, A; Rinck, M

    1999-01-01

    In 2 experiments based on the constructionist view of text comprehension, we investigated whether readers are able to strategically use, in a problem solving matter, spatial and temporal information that varies in its relevance to the goals of the protagonists. In order to accomplish this, we varied the specificity of the protagonists' goal descriptions. Both experiments consisted of a reading section, a test, and a questionnaire, and differed only in respect to when the questionnaire was administered. The results of both experiments showed that readers were able to use spatial and temporal information of narrative texts in a strategic matter, and they even did so without explicit instruction. This focus of attention, however, was not uniformly reflected in the reading times. Memory data showed a clear disadvantage for temporal information as compared to spatial information. This was the case even though both types of information had been equally well identified in the questionnaire as crucial to the problem solving process of the protagonist.

  20. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  1. Broadening the focus of evaluation: An experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of student performance in any course, especially those delivered in a management programme, poses a serious challenge; more so, in a course like ‘Business Communication’, where oral communication ought to form an integral part of evaluation. This paper presents various details of an experiment, conducted with a view to introduce this much needed component in the evaluation process. Essential purpose of the exercise was to try and broaden the focus of evaluation, simultaneously enlarging its scope. The need to maintain certain amount of objectivity and transparency was taken as critical. Group Discussion was used as a tool. A process was developed with the objective of getting every student evaluated on both written as well as non-written skills. A two-sided evaluation mechanism was put in place to achieve the dual purpose of leaning and evaluation. Statistical analysis of the results suggests that the experiment was a useful one. The student feedback, too, was favourable.

  2. Literature in Focus Perspectives on LHC Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Library invites you to a book presentation, a Literature in Focus event. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the world’s largest, highest energy and highest intensity particle accelerator. This is a timely book with several perspectives on the hoped-for discoveries from the LHC. This book provides an overview of the techniques that will be crucial for finding new physics at the LHC, as well as perspectives on the importance and implications of the discoveries. Among the accomplished contributors to this book are leaders and visionaries in the field of particle physics beyond the Standard Model, including two Nobel Laureates (Steven Weinberg and Frank Wilczek). With its blend of popular and technical contents, the book will have wide appeal, not only to physical scientists but also to those in related fields. Perspectives on LHC Physics (World Scientific Publishing) Gordon Kane and Aaron Pierce (eds.) Tuesday 12 August, 4.30pm Council Chamber Refresh...

  3. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  4. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  5. Focused electrojetting for nanoscale 3-D fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhee; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-11-01

    Although extreme miniaturization of components in integrated circuits and biochemical chips has driven the development of various nanofabrication technologies, three-dimensional fabrication of nanoscale objects is still in its infancy. Here we propose a novel method to fabricate a free-standing nanowall by the line-by-line deposition of electrospun polymer nanofibers. We show that the electrified nanojet, which tends to get unstable as traveling in free space due to the Coulombic repulsion, can be stably focused onto a narrow line of metal electrode. On the conducting line, the polymer nanojet is spontaneously folded successively to form a wall-like structure. We rationalize the period of spontaneous folding by balancing the tension in the polymer fiber with the electrostatic interaction of the fiber with the metal ground. This novel fabrication scheme can be applied for the development of three-dimensional bioscaffolds, nanofilters and nanorobots.

  6. Focus characteristics of long distance flying optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兆谷; 蒋金波; 李现勤; 许国良; 夏金安; W.M.Steen; G.Dearden

    2000-01-01

    The ABCD law for the complex parameter q of the TEM00 Gaussian beam is generally not valid for high-order modes. It can be used for the high-order modes or their superposition when the spot size w in the virtual part of the parameter q is substituted by the Rayleigh range ZR of a certain resonator. The focus characteristics of long distance flying optics are studied in this paper theoretically and experimentally for the TEMmn Gaussian beams between the two types of resonators without and with distortion. It is very important for the applications of the flying optical processing, the laser space craft and the spatial filter in the large laser project.

  7. Consumer focus can spur group practice turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M S; Draper, A

    2001-06-01

    Many healthcare organizations have lost money on their employed group practices. The solution to this dilemma is not necessarily divestment of the group practices. Instead, some healthcare organizations should view their physicians as an asset. Healthcare organizations and physicians need to develop a new framework for their relationship to optimize their competitive advantage. Three guiding principles that will help accomplish this objective are to recast the healthcare organization-physician relationship to focus on the consumer, reconfigure the economic model to exceed consumer demands, and restructure the group practice to encourage fiscal and service excellence. In developing a new relationship framework, the stakeholders need to define the group practice's mission, strategic direction, composition, infrastructure, compensation model, and structure. PMID:11407124

  8. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  9. The IAEA Focuses on Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  10. The IAEA Focuses On Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  11. Obesity-Related Hypertension: Focus on Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard

    Background: Hypertension is a leading cause of death worldwide. Population studies have shown that at least two-thirds of hypertension incidence can be attributed directly to overweight and obesity. The underlying mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension are not clear. Various factors have been...... suggested to play a role in obesity-related hypertension such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system, inflammation, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, and abnormal production of adipocytokines. Of all adipocytokines, leptin and adiponectin have received most...... attention and both hormones are considered as candidate intermediaries between adipose tissue and overweight and obesity-related disorders. Objectives: To study obesity-related hypertension with special focus on the hormone leptin. As obesity-related hypertension is multifactorial, other biological systems...

  12. Gene therapy in India: A focus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarvani Chodisetty; Everette Jacob Remington Nelson

    2014-06-01

    Gene therapy refers to the treatment of genetic diseases using normal copies of the defective genes. It has the potential to cure any genetic disease with long-lasting therapeutic benefits. It remained an enigma for a long period of time, which was followed by a series of setbacks in the late 1990s. Gene therapy has re-emerged as a therapeutic option with reports of success from recent clinical studies. The United States and Europe has been pioneers in this field for over two decades. Recently, reports of gene therapy have started coming in from Asian countries like China, Japan and Korea. This review focuses on the current status of gene therapy in India.

  13. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  14. Plasma focus discharges with multiple current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic measurements on the structure and the propagation velocity v(z, r) of the current sheets were carried out for deuterium plasma-focus discharges. Each discharge had a multiplicity N ≤ 4 (N = 2 in ∼80% of the discharges) of pinching current sheets. The linear correlation of coefficients between the total neutron yield per discharge, Y, and the velocity vi of the i-th sheet were determine for vi at different locations (z, r) -- z is the coordinate along the electrode axis orthogonal to r -- during the sheet rolling off the interelectrode gap (when dv/dz achieves its maximum value) and during the radial compression (maximum of dv/dr). Two quasi-identical plasma focus machines (with and without field distortion elements at the electrode breech) were utilized at variable levels of the capacitor bank energy W in the interval 13 kJ ≤ W ≤ 30 kJ, and peak electrode current IM (approx-gt 1 MA). The difference between the two systems was limited to a variation ΔC = 0.2 C and ΔL = 0.2 Lc of the capacitance C and inductance Lc of the of two-module capacitor bank in order to determine the derivatives ΔY/ΔL, ΔY/ΔW. The acquired information is applied to further increase Y (> 1010 neutrons per discharge from D + D reactions) for the assigned IM, W values. A neural network analysis is carried out to assess the bearing on Y -- and on the neutron pulse duration -- of the current-sheet mutual interference, specifically, of N and of the time-spacing between sheets

  15. Primordial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E

    2010-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion...

  16. Solar System formation

    CERN Document Server

    Crida, A

    2009-01-01

    In this review, three major changes in our understanding of the early history of the Solar System are presented. 1) Early differentiation: A few recent results support the idea that protoplanet formation and differentiation occurred partly simultaneously than CAI formation. First, some iron meteorites, eucrites, and angrites older than the chondrules or even than the CAI have been found. Second, iron meteorites could be debris of early disrupted differentiated planetesimals, scattered from the terrestrial planet region to the Main Belt. Finally, chondrules contain fragments of planetesimal material. 2) Earth and Moon: An equilibration mechanism explains the identical Oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and the Moon. In addition, it has been shown that the Earth and the Moon mantles have the same 182^W anomaly, in contrast to what was believed before. Consequently, the Moon forming impact should have occurred after the extinction of the 182Hf radioactivity, about 60 Myr after Solar System formation. This ...

  17. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.;

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  18. Narrowing the Focus: Experimental Studies on Exhaustivity and Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Mary Byram

    2013-01-01

    Focus structure has a profound effect on language production and processing. Yet, despite that focus has so much influence on an utterance, it still remains unclear what the meaning of focus is. Some theories consider focus to be entirely pragmatic, having no influence on the truth conditions or presuppositions of a focused sentence. Other…

  19. Competitive mindsets, creativity, and the role of regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny V.; Heidemeier, Heike

    2013-01-01

    We examined how regulatory focus and intentions to compete rather than cooperate with group members relate to creativity. Study 1 showed that a promotion focus (i.e., a focus on ideals) activated a cooperative mindset, whereas a prevention focus (i.e., a focus on responsibilities) activated a compet

  20. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  1. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  2. Formats and data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The currently used ENDF-6 format has a number of shortcomings that originate from the punch-card legacy. Some, such as redundancy, counting lines, too short MAT number and too many options could be resolved within the current format. The more critical issues, such as rigidity to extensions, limited accuracy due to fixed number of digits, difficulty of reading by humans, lack of native software support, and lack of integration with EXFOR and ENSDF libraries, would require such considerable efforts that migration to a new and modern format, offering additional advantages, is a more attractive option. Actually, such an option is even more justified by the existence of the well advanced General Nuclear Data (GND) format being developed by LLNL. This XML based framework is easily extensible, its numerical precision is not fixed, it is easier to edit, can store additional information (e.g. renormalized experimental data used in the evaluation), allows for storing various versions side by side (e.g. reconstructed data, group-wise data, alternative evaluations), it may include hyperlinks to documentation or another set of data (e.g. covariances). Two additional advantages are the possibility of using native Python support software and already available conversion (in both directions) to the binary HDF5 format which allows to organize, store, access, analyze, share, and preserve data huge in both size and complexity. The GND format comes with the processing software FUDGE, whose class structure mirrors the GND format. It provides for arbitrary alteration of the data, energy deposition/kermas, data checking, translation to different format (ENDF-6, HDF5, ENDL), grouping, resonance reconstruction, visualization and sampling from covariances. It is deemed advantageous to the Nuclear Data community to adopt this new system and develop interfaces to the currently used processing codes and retrieval systems to take full advantage of the evolving technology. Such modernization is

  3. Sensitivity Data File Formats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The format of the TSUNAMI-A sensitivity data file produced by SAMS for cases with deterministic transport solutions is given in Table 6.3.A.1. The occurrence of each entry in the data file is followed by an identification of the data contained on each line of the file and the FORTRAN edit descriptor denoting the format of each line. A brief description of each line is also presented. A sample of the TSUNAMI-A data file for the Flattop-25 sample problem is provided in Figure 6.3.A.1. Here, only two profiles out of the 130 computed are shown.

  4. Terrestrial planet formation

    OpenAIRE

    Righter, K.; D. P. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally e...

  5. The Effects of Formative Assessment on Learner Autonomy in English Teachin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冉冉

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, formative assessment is attracting more and more domestic and foreign scholars and their theoretical achievements are remark-able. Actual y, the functions of formative assessment are having been pitiful y neglected in English teaching. Therefore, focusing on the formative assess-ment and exploring the practical assessment model are badly necessary.

  6. A project management focused framework for assuring quality work processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamsby, S.O.; Mize, J.D. [Allied Signal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Federal Mfg. and Technologies; Reid, R.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Federal Manufacturing & Technologies/New Mexico (FM&T/NM) of AlliedSignal is an organization of approximately 300 associates providing operations support, engineering, and other technical services for DOE, New Mexico`s National Laboratories, etc. Work performed is primarily project-oriented and ranges from executing a major long-term contract for retrofitting and maintaining a large fleet of escort vehicles to creating a single, small, prototype electronic device for measuring radiation in a unique environment. FM&T/NM is functionally organized and operates in a classic matrix format with functional departments providing personnel with technical expertise, necessary physical resources, and administrative support to several project-based groups. Like most matrix-based organizations that provide support to diverse customers, FM&T/NM has encountered problems that occur when a group of project managers is expected to work together in using and scheduling a shared set of limited resources for the good of the organization as a whole. The framework for managing projects that we present focuses on developing, understanding, and managing the relationships between the functional organization structure, the system of work processes, and the management of projects. FM&T/NM retains its functional structure which primarily assigns personnel to work processes. The evolving role of the process leader focuses primarily on designing, managing, and improving the process, and the interactions among the subprocesses. The project manager is responsible for (1) translating customer requirements into product specifications, (2) determining the sequence of activities needed to meet project goals, (3) scheduling the required work processes, (4) monitoring project progress, (5) providing liaison between the customer and process leaders, and (6) having the desired product and/or service delivered to a satisfied customer in a timely manner.

  7. Focus variation microscope: linear theory and surface tilt sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Nikolay; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    In a recent publication [3rd International Conference on Surface Metrology, Annecy, France, 2012, p. 1] it was shown that surface roughness measurements made using a focus variation microscope (FVM) are influenced by surface tilt. The effect appears to be most significant when the surface has microscale roughness (Ra≈50  nm) that is sufficient to provide a diffusely scattered signal that is comparable in magnitude to the specular component. This paper explores, from first principles, image formation using the focus variation method. With the assumption of incoherent scattering, it is shown that the process is linear and the 3D point spread characteristics and transfer characteristics of the instrument are well defined. It is argued that for the case of microscale roughness and through the objective illumination, the assumption of incoherence cannot be justified and more rigorous analysis is required. Using a foil model of surface scattering, the images that are recorded by a FVM have been calculated. It is shown that for the case of through-the-objective illumination at small tilt angles, the signal quality is degraded in a systematic manner. This is attributed to the mixing of specular and diffusely reflected components and leads to an asymmetry in the k-space representation of the output signals. It is shown that by using extra-aperture illumination or tilt angles greater than the acceptance angle of aperture (such that the specular component is lost), the incoherent assumption can be justified once again. The work highlights the importance of using ring-light illumination and/or polarizing optics, which are often available as options on commercial instruments, as a means to mitigate or prevent these effects.

  8. Literature in focus: How to Score

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What is the perfect way to take a free kick? Which players are under more stress: attackers, midfielders or defenders? How do we know when a ball has crossed the goal-line? And how can teams win a penalty shoot out? From international team formations to the psychology of the pitch and the changing room... The World Cup might be a time to forget about physics for a while, but not for Ken Bray, a theoretical physicist and visiting Fellow of the Sport and Exercise Science Group at the University of Bath who specializes in the science of football. Dr Bray will visit CERN to talk exclusively about his book: How to Score. As a well-seasoned speaker and advisor to professional football teams, this presentation promises to be a fascinating and timely insight into the secret science that lies behind 'the beautiful game'. If you play or just watch football, don't miss this event! Ken Bray - How to Score Thursday 22 June at 3 p.m. (earlier than usual to avoid clashes with World Cup matches!) Central Library reading ...

  9. Local and Global Radiative Feedback from Population III Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of recent work that focuses on understanding the radiative feedback processes that are potentially important during Population III star formation. Specifically, we examine the effect of the Lyman-Werner (photodissociating) background on the early stages of primordial star formation, which serves to delay the onset of star formation in a given halo but never suppresses it entirely. We also examine the effect that both photodissociating and ionizing radiation in I-fronts from nearby stellar systems have on the formation of primordial protostellar clouds. Depending on the strength of the incoming radiation field and the central density of the halos, Pop III star formation can be suppressed, unaffected, or even enhanced. Understanding these and other effects is crucial to modeling Population III star formation and to building the earliest generations of galaxies in the Universe.

  10. Tsunami focusing and leading wave height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku

    2016-04-01

    and Synolakis, 1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112) with a finite crest length, which is most common tsunami initial waveform. We fit earthquake initial waveform calculated through Okada (1985, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1040) to the N-wave form presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994). First, we investigate focusing phenomena as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015) and compare our results with their non-dispersive and dispersive linear analytical solutions. We confirm focusing phenomena, which amplify the wave height in the leading depression side. We then study sequencing of an N-wave profile with a finite crest length. Our preliminary results show that sequencing is more pronounced on the leading depression side. We perform parametric study to understand sequencing in terms of N-wave, hence earthquake, parameters. We then discuss the results both in terms of tsunami focusing and leading wave amplitude. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe).

  11. Foreword: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm−3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors.This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008, which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1.The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  12. Acceleration and Focusing of Plasma Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Martin E.

    The acceleration of flowing plasmas is a fundamental problem that is useful in a wide variety of technological applications. We consider the problem from the perspective of plasma propulsion. Gridded ion thrusters and Hall thrusters are the most commonly used devices to create flowing plasma for space propulsion, but both suffer from fundamental limitations. Gridded ion sources create good quality beams in terms of energy spread and spatial divergence, but the Child-Langmuir law in the non-neutral acceleration region limits the maximum achievable current density. Hall thrusters avoid this limitation by accelerating ions in quasi-neutral plasma but, as a result, produce plumes with high spatial divergence and large energy spread. In addition the more complicated magnetized plasma in the Hall Thruster produces oscillations that can reduce the efficiency of the thruster by increasing electron transport to the anode. We present investigations of three techniques to address the fundamental limitations on the performance of each thruster. First, we propose a method to increase the time-averaged current density (and thus thrust density) produced by a gridded ion source above the Child-Langmuir limit by introducing time-varying boundary conditions. Next, we use an electrostatic plasma lens to focus the Hall thruster plume, and finally we develop a technique to suppress a prominent oscillation that degrades the performance of Hall thrusters. The technique to loosen the constraints on current density from gridded ion thrusters actually applies much more broadly to any space charge limited flow. We investigate the technique with a numerical simulation and by proving a theoretical upper bound. While we ultimately conclude that the approach is not suitable for space propulsion, our results proved useful in another area, providing a benchmark for research into the spontaneously time-dependent current that arises in microdiodes. Next, we experimentally demonstrate a novel

  13. Comparison of back side chrome focus monitor to focus self-metrology of an immersion scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'havé, Koen; Machida, Takahiro; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

    2007-03-01

    Monitoring of the focus performance is recognized to be an important part of a periodic scanner health check, but can one simply apply all techniques that have been used for dry scanners to immersion scanners? And if so how do such techniques compare to scanner self-metrology tests that are used to set up the tool? In this paper we look at one specific off-line focus characterization technique, Back Side Chrome (BSC), which we then try to match with results obtained from two self-metrology focus tests, available on the scanner chosen for this work. The latter tests are also used to set up the immersion scanner. We point out a few concerns, discuss their effect and indicate that for each generation of immersion tool one should redo the entire exercise.

  14. ON NUMBER OF LIMIT CYCLES FOR THE QUADRATIC SYSTEMS WITH A WEAK FOCUS AND A STRONG FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangPingguang; ZhaoShenqi

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. It is proved that the quadratic system with a weak focus and a strong focus has atmost one limit cycle around the strong focus, and as the weak focus is a 2nd -order (or 3rd-order ) weak focus the quadratic system has at most two (one) limit cycles which have (1,1)-distribution ((0,1)-distribution).

  15. Kepler Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  16. Gravitational Structure Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Labini, Francesco Sylos; Baertschiger, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the formation of the first structures in gravitational N-body simulations. The role of two-body interaction is found to be a crucial element and an analogy with the dynamics of the Coulomb lattice, well-studied in solid state physics, is discussed.

  17. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  18. Airship formation control

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, E.; Moreira, André; Diegues, Sérgio; Carvalheira, Manuel Pereira; Monteiro, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem underlying the control and coordination of multiple autonomous airships that must travel maintaining a desired geometric formation and simultaneously avoid collisions with moving or stationary obstacles. The control architecture is based on the attractor dynamics approach to behaviour generation. The airship physical model is presented and the mathematical background for the control architecture is explained. Simulations (with perturbations) ...

  19. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific...

  20. Generic file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.

  1. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  2. Dark Matter Detection in Focus Point Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Patrick; Kant, Philipp; Profumo, Stefano; Sanford, David

    2013-01-01

    We determine the prospects for direct and indirect detection of thermal relic neutralinos in supersymmetric theories with multi-TeV squarks and sleptons. We consider the concrete example of the focus point region of minimal supergravity, but our results are generically valid for all models with decoupled scalars and mixed Bino-Higgsino or Higgsino-like dark matter. We determine the parameter space consistent with a 125 GeV Higgs boson including 3-loop corrections in the calculation of the Higgs mass. These corrections increase $m_h$ by 1--3 GeV, lowering the preferred scalar mass scale and decreasing the fine-tuning measure in these scenarios. We then systematically examine prospects for dark matter direct and indirect detection. Direct detection constraints do not exclude these models, especially for $\\mu < 0$. At the same time, the scenario generically predicts spin-independent signals just beyond current bounds. We also consider indirect detection with neutrinos, gamma rays, anti-protons, and anti-deute...

  3. Forewords Focus Issue of Nano Optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Rapid progress of nanoscience and nanotechnology has made significant impact on many academic disciplines and technical fields recently. In particular, nano-optics has become one of the fastest growing areas in optics and optoelectronics with many exciting advances published in a wide range of journals. This focus issue intends to provide a broad vision of this emerging area with the inclusion of excellent review articles by internationally renowned experts in the field as well as original contributions which cover the breadth of this new field. The represented areas include quantum dots and nanowires, photonic crystals, silicon photonics, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, slow light and fast light, nano-particles and nano-crystals, and guided optics. We would like to express our gratitude to authors of the invited manuscripts to devote their precious time to write the illuminating articles and reviewers for their thorough reading and helpful comments. Finally, we hope you will enjoy the articles and find inspiration for your own work.

  4. Sleep and emotions: a focus on insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Lombardo, Caterina; Riemann, Dieter

    2010-08-01

    Insomnia disorder is defined as difficulties in initiating/maintaining sleep and/or non-restorative sleep accompanied by decreased daytime functioning, persisting for at least four weeks. For many patients suffering from depression and anxiety, insomnia is a pervasive problem. Many of the aetiological theories of insomnia postulate that heightened emotional reactivity contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This review focuses on the role of emotional reactivity in insomnia, and how the relationship between insomnia and depression and anxiety may be mediated by emotional reactivity. Furthermore, studies investigating the valence of emotions in insomnia are reviewed. Overall, there is empirical evidence that dysfunctional emotional reactivity might mediate the interaction between cognitive and autonomic hyperarousal, thus contributing to the maintenance of insomnia. Moreover, dysfunctions in sleep-wake regulating neural circuitries seem to be able to reinforce emotional disturbances. It seems plausible that dysfunctional emotional reactivity modulates the relationship between insomnia and depression and anxiety. Considering the interaction between sleep and emotional valence, poor sleep quality seems to correlate with high negative and low positive emotions, both in clinical and subclinical samples. Good sleep seems to be associated with high positive emotions, but not necessarily with low negative emotions. This review underlines the need for future research on emotions in insomnia. PMID:20137989

  5. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. A Multi-Threaded Semantic Focused Crawler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Punam Bedi; Anjali Thukral; Hema Banati; Abhishek Behl; Varun Mendiratta

    2012-01-01

    The Web comprises of voluminous rich learning content.The volume of ever growing learning resources however leads to the problem of information overload.A large number of irrelevant search results generated from search engines based on keyword matching techniques further augment the problem.A learner in such a scenario needs semantically matched learning resources as the search results.Keeping in view the volume of content and significance of semantic knowledge,our paper proposes a multi-threaded semantic focused crawler (SFC) specially designed and implemented to crawl on the WWW for educational learning content.The proposed SFC utilizes domain ontology to expand a topic term and a set of seed URLs to initiate the crawl.The results obtained by multiple iterations of the crawl on various topics are shown and compared with the results obtained by executing an open source crawler on the similar dataset.The results are evaluated using Semantic Similarity,a vector space model based metric,and the harvest ratio.

  7. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  8. Optical characterization of nonimaging focusing heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Keong

    2011-10-01

    A novel nonimaging focusing heliostat consisted of many small movable element mirrors that can be dynamically maneuvered in a line-tilting manner has been proposed for the astigmatic correction in a wide range of incident angle from 0° to 70°. In this article, a comprehensive optical characterization of the new heliostat with total reflective area of 25 m2 and slant range of 25 m using ray-tracing method has been carried to analyze the performance including solar concentration ratio, ratio of aberrated-to-ideal image area, intercept efficiency and spillage loss. The optical characterization of the heliostat in the application of solar power tower system has embraced the cases of 1×1, 9×9, 11×11, 13×13, 15×15, 17×17 and 19×19 arrays of concave mirrors provided that the total reflective area remains the same. The simulated result has shown that the maximum solar concentration ratio at a high incident angle of 65° can be improved from 1.76 suns (single mirror) to 104.99 suns (9×9 mirrors), to 155.93 suns (11×11 mirrors), to 210.44 suns (13×13 mirrors), to 246.21 suns (15×15 mirrors), to 259.80 suns (17×17 mirrors) and to 264.73 suns (19×19 mirrors).

  9. Focus on the origin of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of matter in the Universe is a fascinating cosmological puzzle that has triggered a formidable intellectual enterprise, started in 1967 with the prescient paper by Andrej Sakharov (1967 Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 5 32; 1967 JETP Lett. 52 4; 1991 Sov. Phys.—Usp. 34 392; 1991 Usp. Fiz. Nauk 161 61) aimed at relating a cosmological observation to the fundamental laws of physics, the goal of baryogenesis. A successful model of baryogenesis should ultimately identify the required source of charge parity violation and the origin of the cosmological matter–antimatter asymmetry. This focus issue is not only a review of the main ideas that have been proposed in baryogenesis but should also bear witness to the great vitality of the field and to show how future experimental results could bring a breakthrough in baryogenesis during the coming years. For this reason we selected, out of the multitude of proposed baryogenesis models, those that will more likely experience a significant experimental test during the coming years. (editorial)

  10. Focus on young men in pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.

  11. Why focus on mental health systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global situation for people with mental illness – in developing and developed countries – is dire. Legislative and human rights protections are frequently lacking. Mental health budgets are inadequate. There are insufficient numbers of skilled policy makers, managers and clinicians. Communities are poorly informed about mental health and illness and not well organised for purposes of advocacy. In most of the world, mental health services are inaccessible or of poor quality. Most people who would benefit from psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation do not have affordable access to such services. Leadership – at all levels – for mental health system development needs to be greatly strengthened. While mental health research attention and funds are devoted predominantly to neuroscience and clinical research, we believe that the highest global mental health research priority is mental health systems research. There is an urgent need to focus on the development of effective, appropriate, affordable mental health services. The evidence base for such development is currently weak. The International Journal of Mental Health Systems aims to stimulate greater attention to the central importance of building functioning mental health systems. Rapid publication and global reach through open access will make this journal a resource for all those who wish to contribute to such development.

  12. Literature in focus: A Berlin Romance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN staff have many hidden talents. Who knows, maybe a colleague you see every day is actually a virtuoso violinist, an accomplished sportsman or an internationally renowned collector. Mathilde Fontanet, a translator in the CERN Translation and Minutes Service, is a writer in her spare time. Those who read her first essays in the Graviton no doubt spotted her talent. Following the publication of four short stories, her first novel, 'Rabenstrasse 5', was published in Switzerland in May 2005. Its backdrop is the busy Berlin arts faculty in the early 1980s. Lydia, a student, meets a young woman who leads her into some rather unusual activities. In parallel, two friends, both professors of literature, each record their thoughts and emotions in a diary. The paths of Lydia and the two professors are to cross... The novel will be published in France on 14 October. Mathilde Fontanet will present it in the framework of a forthcoming 'Literature in Focus' event in the CERN Library. Mathilde Fontanet'Rabenstras...

  13. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  14. Focusing: coming to the point in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Guenneau, Sebastien; McPhedran, Ross

    2009-01-01

    The point of the paper is to show some limitations of geometrical optics in the analysis of subwavelength focusing. We analyze the resolution of the image of a line source radiating in the Maxwell fisheye and the Veselago-Pendry slab lens. The former optical medium is deduced from the stereographic projection of a virtual sphere and displays a heterogeneous refractive index n(r) which is proportional to the inverse of $1+r^2$. The latter is described by a homogeneous, but negative, refractive index. It has been suggested that the fisheye makes a perfect lens without negative refraction [Leonhardt, Philbin arxiv:0805.4778v2]. However, we point out that the definition of super-resolution in such a heterogeneous medium should be computed with respect to the wavelength in a homogenized medium, and it is perhaps more adequate to talk about a conjugate image rather than a perfect image (the former does not necessarily contains the evanescent components of the source). We numerically find that both the Maxwell fishe...

  15. Coping focus counselling in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Eamon; Jubb-Shanley, Maureen

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe a newly-developed system of mental health nurse counselling (coping focus counselling (CFC)) for people with serious and complex mental health needs. The system is based on the recovery alliance theory (RAT) of mental health nursing. The paper identifies shortcomings in current practices in psychotherapy and counselling in the exclusive use of techniques from a single approach, for example, cognitive behaviour therapy, client-centred therapy, attachment theory, or Gestalt theory. It also discusses the opposite dangers of the use of many techniques from different approaches, without a clear rationale for their selection. CFC was developed to avoid these practices. It accommodates the selective use of techniques from different approaches. Techniques selected are viewed as deriving their meanings from the theoretical framework into which they are assimilated, namely RAT, and no longer take the same meaning from the theory from which they originated. Central to this integrative process is the use of the concept of coping. Other distinguishing features of CFC are the use of everyday language in using the system and the reaffirmation of the nurse-client relationship within a working alliance as the basis in which the CFC operates. PMID:22640173

  16. Improved cathodes for a dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of modified cathodes have been tested in our ultra-high vacuum dense plasma focus (DPF) device in an effort to improve both neutron output and shot-to-shot reproducibility. Inspiration for these modifications originated from time resolved photographs of the initial current sheet as it approaches the cathode. In particular, the current sheet develops a slight annular protrusion, or ''bump'', that contacts the inside wall of the cathode at a distance from the breach approximately coincident with the end of the insulator. In an attempt to take advantage of this protrusion, a series of modified cathodes was provided with a decreased waist diameter in the vicinity of the end of the insulator. As previously discussed, this DPF device is constructed from high vacuum components using metal-to-metal and ceramic (Al2O3)-to-metal seals; the entire assembly is given a vacuum bake at 2500C resulting in a pre-fill vacuum of approx. =5 x 10-9 Torr. The DPF is powered by a 7 μf capacitor bank. The short circuit ringing frequency is 412 kHz corresponding to a free circuit inductance of 21 nH. With the DPF in operation at 20 kV, a current peak of 200 kA occurs at 0.8 μs. Neutron output was measured side on with a silver activation counter, and end on with an arsenic activation counter

  17. A process for risks focused maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as technical support for a proposed Maintenance Rule. A risk-centered approach for identifying equipment to be included within the purview of such a rule (critical equipment) was developed, along with a stylized Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach that would be specified for such equipment. Maintenance of equipment not classified as critical would be left to the discretion of the plant. The processes defined were demonstrated through a series of trial applications with cooperating Utilities. The five trial applications were: identifying critical equipment using a PRA; identifying critical equipment when a PRA is not available; RCM on standby equipment using the prescribed steps; RCM on normally operating equipment using the prescribed steps; and RCM on passive equipment using the prescribed steps. The conclusion was that a risk-focused maintenance approach could be specified that was usable, presented only a small additional burden to the plant, and was regulatable. 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Linear collider IR and final focus introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.; Burke, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Linear Collider subgroup of the Accelerator Physics working group concerned itself with all aspects of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design from the end of the accelerating structure to and through the interaction region. Within this region are: (1) a collimation section, (2) muon protection (of the detector from the collimator), (3) final focus system, (4) interaction point physics, and (5) detector masking from synchrotron radiation and beam-beam pair production. These areas of study are indicated schematically in Fig. 1. The parameters for the Next Linear Collider are still in motion, but attention has settled on a handful of parameter sets. Energies under consideration vary from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV in the center of mass, and luminosities vary from 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. To be concrete we chose as a guide for our studies the parameter sets labeled F and G, Table 1 from Palmer. These cover large and small crossing angle cases and 0.4 m to 1.8 m of free length at the interaction point.

  19. Linear collider IR and final focus introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linear Collider subgroup of the Accelerator Physics working group concerned itself with all aspects of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) design from the end of the accelerating structure to and through the interaction region. Within this region are: (1) a collimation section, (2) muon protection (of the detector from the collimator), (3) final focus system, (4) interaction point physics, and (5) detector masking from synchrotron radiation and beam-beam pair production. These areas of study are indicated schematically in Fig. 1. The parameters for the Next Linear Collider are still in motion, but attention has settled on a handful of parameter sets. Energies under consideration vary from 0.5 to 1.5 TeV in the center of mass, and luminosities vary from 1033 to 1034 cm-2s-1. To be concrete we chose as a guide for our studies the parameter sets labeled F and G, Table 1 from Palmer. These cover large and small crossing angle cases and 0.4 m to 1.8 m of free length at the interaction point

  20. Self-focusing of few-cycle light pulses in dielectric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various scenarios of self-focusing of axisymmetric few-cycle light pulses in optical media with nonresonant dispersion and nonlinearity are investigated numerically. It is shown that the spatiotemporal dynamics leads to the formation of complex light structures like dumbbells or bubbles depending on the initial intensity. The bubble includes a center area with emptiness, where the electrical field is practically nullified. An analysis is made of the characteristics of spectral supercontinuum generation accompanying the dispersive self-focusing. The development of a broad blueshifted spectral wing during the breakdown of a shock wave of the pulse profile is considered in detail