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Sample records for 51st cold spring

  1. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  2. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  3. 51st MFC Successfully Held in Dornbirn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Engelhardt

    2012-01-01

    The 51st Man-Made Fibers Congress took place in Dornbirn from September 19 to 21. The Austrian town with around 48,000 inhabitants is near the borders to Switzerland, Germany and Liechtenstein. It is favourably situated with nearest airports in Altenrhein/St.Gallen, Friedrichshafen and Zurich.

  4. Human origins and evolution: Cold Spring Harbor, deja vu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T D

    2009-01-01

    The Cold Spring Harbor Symposia of the 1950s were key to integrating human evolutionary studies into biology. That integration provided a solid foundation for systematic and functional interpretations of an expanding base of fossil and molecular evidence during the latter half of the 20th century. Today, the paleontological record of human evolution amassed during the last 150 years illuminates the human clade on life's tree. However, the rise of Hennegian parsimony cladistics and punctuationalism during the end of the last century witnessed the partial abandonment of classificatory conventions cemented by Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and others at Cold Spring Harbor. This has led to an artificial, postmillennial amplification of apparent species diversity in the hominid clade. Work on a stratigraphically thick and temporally deep sedimentary sequence in the Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia's Afar Depression reveals an assembly order of hominid anatomies and behaviors that was impossible for Darwin to discern. Large parts of that record appear to reflect phyletic evolution, consistent with the lessons and expectations of Cold Spring Harbor in 1950. Molecular biology cannot reveal the assembly sequences or contexts of human origins and evolution without reference to adequate geological, geochronological, paleobiological, and archaeological records. Today's consilience of these disparate data sets would have impressed Charles Darwin.

  5. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  6. The finishing problem of stress on pipe with cold spring and hanger spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fluid temperature influence stream in piping from pump nozzle to tank nozzle will cause expansion or contraction. This condition will pull or press to the nozzle. The consequences of piping displacement, so will rise return force to piping. Because of that must calculated the displacement using Caesar 11.4.program so that force of rising can support by piping without fracture and break. From calculation, resulted displacement Dy = -30,224 mm, Restraint summary Fy = 75,851 kg and Stress = 5.026,9 kg/cm2 and then It done to cut of Dy with Cold Spring method, and so Running on Caesar 11.4 program, resulted that It not different with the first data namely that is Dy = -30,038 mm, Restraint Summary Fy = 75.562 kg dan stress = 5.006,7 kg/cm2. Because of data still stress on Piping Installation indicated by value of Restraint summary and stress were height. And then It has taken solution by consideration that pipe of ∅30 very rigid, namely to lose The support and change with the spring hanger, so program of Caesar II.4 has run and result of support displacement is 45,588 mm, Restraint summary Fy = -1.823 kg dan Stress 2.1178 kg/cm2 with allowable stress 2.121,1 kg/cm2. It see result of calculate with spring hanger, in fact The stress more little than allowable stress, so that this condition is safety to install. (author)

  7. 76 FR 41284 - Cold Springs and McKay Creek National Wildlife Refuges, Umatilla County, OR; Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... goals and objectives that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat... compliance with those laws and regulations. Cold Springs National Wildlife Refuge Cold Springs NWR covers 3... Canada geese and mallards, can be seen on the open water in winter. They move between the reservoir...

  8. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  9. Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Microbial Populations in Cold Perennial Springs of the High Arctic ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Nancy N.; Greer, Charles W.; Andersen, Dale T.; Tille, Stefanie; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Whyte, Lyle G.

    2008-01-01

    The saline springs of Gypsum Hill in the Canadian high Arctic are a rare example of cold springs originating from deep groundwater and rising to the surface through thick permafrost. The heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (up to 40% of the total microbial community) isolated from the spring waters and sediments were classified into four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) based on 16S rRNA gene analysis; heterotrophic isolates were primarily psychrotolerant, salt-tolerant, facultative anaerobes. Some of the isolates contained genes for thiosulfate oxidation (soxB) and anoxygenic photosynthesis (pufM), possibly enabling the strains to better compete in these sulfur-rich environments subject to long periods of illumination in the Arctic summer. Although leucine uptake by the spring water microbial community was low, CO2 uptake was relatively high under dark incubation, reinforcing the idea that primary production by chemoautotrophs is an important process in the springs. The small amounts of hydrocarbons in gases exsolving from the springs (0.38 to 0.51% CH4) were compositionally and isotopically consistent with microbial methanogenesis and possible methanotrophy. Anaerobic heterotrophic sulfur oxidation and aerobic autotrophic sulfur oxidation activities were demonstrated in sediment slurries. Overall, our results describe an active microbial community capable of sustainability in an extreme environment that experiences prolonged periods of continuous light or darkness, low temperatures, and moderate salinity, where life seems to rely on chemolithoautotrophy. PMID:18805995

  10. Regional Science trends through the analysis of the main facts of the 51st ERSA Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Royuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51st ERSA Conference held in Barcelona in 2011 was one of the largest ever. By examining the characteristics of the conference, this paper identifies the main trends in Regional Science and draws on a broad array of sources of information: the delegates’ demographic details, the conference program itself, a satisfaction survey conducted among delegates, a quality survey addressed to those chairing the sessions and, finally, a bibliometric database including each author signing a paper presented at the conference. We finally run a regression analysis from which we show that for ERSA delegates what matters most is quality, and this must be the direction that future conferences should move toward. Ultimately, ERSA conferences are comprehensive, all-embracing occasions, representing an ideal opportunity for regional scientists to present their work to each other and to network.

  11. "A Cold Spring Harbor in Europe." EURATOM, UNESCO and the Foundation of EMBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassata, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the problem of the foundation of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO), by reconstructing a broader institutional framework, which includes other international actors--EURATOM, UNESCO and the International Laboratory of Genetics and Biophysics (ILGB) in Naples--and a relevant, but still neglected figure, the Italian geneticist Adriano Buzzati-Traverso (1913-1983). The article considers the tension between centralized and federal models of organization in the field of life sciences not just as an EMBO internal controversy, but rather as a structural issue of European scientific cooperation in fundamental biology in the early 1960s. Along with EMBO, the article analyzes in particular the EURATOM Biology Division Program and the constitution of UNESCO International Cell Research Organization (ICRO). Adriano Buzzati-Traverso, as founder of ILGB and scientific consultant of EURATOM and UNESCO, played a crucial role in the complex negotiation which ultimately led to the foundation of EMBO. A synchronic treatment of ILGB, EURATOM, UNESCO-ICRO and EMBO opens a window on the early 1960s institutional configuration of molecular biology in Europe, showing how it basically incorporated the "Cold Spring Harbor" decentralized model rather than reproducing the "CERN" centralized model. PMID:25931208

  12. 59. Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology: Molecular genetics of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Investigation of the mechanistic aspects of cancer has its roots in the studies on tumor viruses and their effects on cell proliferation, function, and growth. This outstanding progress was well documented in previous Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. In the early to mid 1980s, progress on the development of chromosome mapping strategies and the accumulation of DNA probes that identified polymorphisms, encouraged by the international Human Genome Project, enabled the identification of other genes that contributed to familial inheritance of high susceptibility to specific cancers. This approach was very successful and led to a degree of optimism that one aspect of cancer, the multistep genetic process from early neoplasia to metastatic tumors, was beginning to be understood. It therefore seemed appropriate that the 59th Symposium on Quantitative Biology focus attention on the Molecular Genetics of Cancer. The concept was to combine the exciting progress on the identification of new genetic alterations in human tumor cells with studies on the function of the cancer gene products and how they go awry in tumor cells.

  13. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  14. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  15. Heavy carbon travertine related to methane generation: A case study of the Big Tarkhan cold spring, Kerch Peninsula, Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Svetlana N.; Shnyukov, Yevgeny F.; Sokol, Ella V.; Novikova, Sofya A.; Kozmenko, Olga A.; Semenova, Dina V.; Rybak, Elena N.

    2015-07-01

    The Big Tarkhan cold spring is located within the Bulganak zone of mud volcanism in the northern Kerch Peninsula (Crimea). The spring waters mainly have Cl-HCO3-Na-Ca chemistry and temperatures from 18 to 23 °C. Active travertine deposition at the site produces abundant calcite and minor amounts of siderite, halite, tincalconite, trona, gaylussite, northupite and amorphous iron hydroxides. Calcite contains the impurities of 0.26-2.16 wt.% MgO, up to 0.87 wt.% FeO, 0.15-0.73 wt.% SrO, 0.28-0.98 BaO, up to 0.43 wt.% MnO, and 0.09-0.60 Na2O. Active travertines are depleted in REE (ΣREE = 2.6-4.8 ppm) compared to the inactive ones. The Kerch travertine calcite shows unusual carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (+ 8.1 ÷ + 12.5‰ VPDB δ13C and + 10.1 ÷ + 12.9‰ VPDB δ18O). Their isotopic and trace element signatures (including REE patterns) suggest their relation to basinal waters and origin from the organic-rich clayey Maikop Fm., which is the principal source rock of the area. The Big Tarkhan travertine deposits are associated with thermogenic methane production.

  16. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase in Biofilms and Germinating Spores of Mucor hiemalis Strain EH5 from Cold Sulfidic Spring Waters▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Enamul; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Fritscher, Johannes; Wolf, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and activation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the GST activities in biofilms in cold sulfidic spring waters were compared to the occurrence and activation of GST and the GST activities of the aquatic fungal strains EH5 and EH7 of Mucor hiemalis isolated for the first time from such waters. Using fluorescently labeled polyclonal anti-GST antibodies and GST activity measurements, we demonstrated that a high level of GST occurred in situ in natural biofilms and pure cultur...

  17. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Michael J.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Julia Mackenzie; Shelley A Hinsley

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England – mi...

  18. Thermal Hazards in Cold Semester of the Year in the Mountain Area of Moldova River (Sector Between Vama and the Springs of Moldova River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol Liviu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the cold semester , most representative of climate risks are the thermal ones, specifically, on the base of a depression area, apprearance of thermal inversions. Amid this feature mentioned, the coldest temperatures were recorded in the lowlands,in the hearth's depression,as the municipe Câmpulung Moldovenesc, here being registered and the lowest temperature from the area studied,-31.7°C. All these thermal inversions that occur in transitional periods (spring and autumn are producing the early frosts,late respectively, these being the most damaging for local agriculture. This stability of the atmosphere, in conjunction with cold air, which is garrisoned on the’s hearth depression, leads to atmospheric pollution with pollutants, resulting from transport and heating, because we are talking about an area in woodland, and consequently, wood is the main source of heating, especially in outlying areas of the city Câmpulung Moldovenesc,where court houses predominate, with their own heating systems.

  19. Community Characterization of Microbial Populations Found at a Cold Water Sulfidic Spring in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, C.; Lau, G. E.; Templeton, A. S.; Grasby, S. E.; Spear, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The unique environment on Europa makes it an ideal target for astrobiological investigation. One such earth-based analogue to aid in this investigation is the sulfur-dominated glacial spring system found at Borup Fiord Pass (BFP), Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. In this system, subsurface microbial sulfate reduction produces hydrogen sulfide, which is transported through the glacier along spring channels [1]. As the surface oxidation of H2S occurs, resultant deposition of elemental sulfur (S0) and other minerals becomes visible (attached image). The energy released from these reactions can support potential microbial metabolisms and may be a valuable representation of microbial processes occurring on Europa. The resulting sulfur minerals provide sensitive records of dynamic atmospheric, geological, hydrological, chemical, and biological processes on planetary surfaces. Moreover, we expect that the S0-rich deposits of this glacial spring system will serve as a mineralogical record for biological activity and will provide a valuable tool for recognizing potential sulfur-based life on Europa. During a recent collaborative expedition (2014) to BFP, samples were taken from the toe of the glacier in an area called the 'Blister Crust' (attached image). At this location, glacial channels reach the surface, representing an active interface between subsurface and surface processes. Initial geochemical characterization at the site revealed high amounts of aqueous sulfide (1.8 mM) and hydrogen (29 nM), which likely serve as the electron donation potential in the system. Furthermore, preliminary 16S rRNA gene sequencing has shown a high abundance of the genus Sulfurimonas, which is a known sulfur metabolizer. Our research seeks to further characterize microbial communities found at this interface in order to elucidate information regarding in situ sulfur cycling and the potential to tie this into subsurface/surface processes on Europa. Continued work will provide guidance

  20. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Michael J; Harrison, Nancy M; Mackenzie, Julia; Hinsley, Shelley A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature) and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland. PMID:24058694

  1. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  2. Discussion on Techniques of Seedling Nursing and Transplanting of Spring Maize in Cold Areas of Shanxi Province%山西冷凉区春玉米育苗移栽技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of low accumulated temperature, less rainfall and short frost-free period in cold areas of Shanxi Province, seedling nursing and transplanting of spring maize techniques was introduced, including seedling, transplanting, field management and disease and insect control, etc. The results provided guidance for local spring maize production.%针对山西冷凉区积温低、降雨少、无霜期短的特点,介绍了春玉米育苗移栽技术,包括育苗、移栽、田间管理与病虫害防治等方面内容,为当地春玉米生产提供了指导。

  3. Analysis on the Spring Low Temperature Cold Damage Characteristic of Economic Fruit-tree in Linxia Area%临夏地区经济果木春季低温冻害特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡广珍; 王琨; 贾小琴; 张淑芳

    2012-01-01

    利用临夏地区1983—2012年的低温冻害资料,阐述了花椒、啤特果、大接杏春季低温冻害的特征,划分了低温冷害的类型,分析各类型冻害对林果业的影响,找出了低温冻害的气象指标,发现当地冻害的形成与大气环境形势、气象因素、地形具有密切的关系。%Based on the data of low temperature cold damage in Linxia Area in 1983--2012 ,the spring cold damage characteristic of prickly ash, beer-fruit ,big meet were elaborated ,the types of low temperature damage were divided ,and influence of each type of cold damage to horticulture in Linxia Area was analyzed, and the meteorological index under low temperature cold damage was found out. It was found they had the close relationship between the local frost formation and atmospheric environmental situation, the meteorological factors, the terrain.

  4. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  5. Boreal spring precipitation variability in the cold arid western Himalaya during the last millennium, regional linkages, and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Bräuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalayan region, largely under the influence of mid-latitude westerlies, is the dominant regional socioeconomic driver. Current knowledge of long-term regional precipitation variability is scarce due to spatially and temporally limited weather and high-resolution proxy climate records. We developed the first boreal spring precipitation reconstruction for the western Himalaya covering the last millennium (1030-2011 C.E.). The annually resolved reconstruction is based on a large tree-ring data set of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) and neoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) from 16 ecologically homogeneous moisture stressed settings in Kinnaur, western Indian Himalaya. The precipitation reconstruction revealed persistent long-term spring droughts from the 12th to early 16th century C.E. and pluvial from the late 16th century C.E. to recent decades. The late 15th and early 16th centuries (1490-1514 C.E.) displayed the driest episode, with precipitation being ∼15% lower than the long-term mean. The early 19th century (1820-1844 C.E.) was the wettest period of the past millennium, with mean precipitation ∼13% above the long-term mean. The reconstructed boreal spring precipitation from the western Himalaya revealed large-scale consistency with hydrological records from westerly dominated regions in Central Asia, indicating synoptic-scale changes in atmospheric circulation during the major part of the Medieval and Little Ice Age periods. Protracted droughts in Central Asia could have caused severe contraction of the regional economy, as indicated by striking coherence of reconstructed drought periods and historic social upheavals and invasions of India from Central and Western Asian invaders. Vulnerability to climatic extremes underpins the need to develop a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in regional hydroclimate in order to devise viable water resource management plans.

  6. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  7. Brief Communication: Trends in sea ice extent north of Svalbard and its impact on cold air outbreaks as observed in spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay Polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the last three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that typically was ice covered in the last decades. The change in ice cover can strongly influence local temperature conditions. Dropsonde measurements from March 2013 show that the unusual ice conditions generate extreme convective boundary layer heights that are larger than the regional values reported in previous studies.

  8. Brief Communication: Trends in sea ice extent north of Svalbard and its impact on cold air outbreaks as observed in spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that was typically ice-covered in the last decades. The change in ice cover can strongly influence local temperature conditions. Dropsonde measurements from March 2013 show that the unusual ice conditions generate extreme convective boundary layer heights that are larger than the regional values reported in previous studies.

  9. 基于寒地春小麦AquaCrop与WOFOST模型适应性验证分析%The Adaptability Test Analysis of AquaCrop and WOFOST Model Based on the Cold Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁楠; 付驰; 李晶; 顾万荣; 许为政; 芦玉双; 魏湜

    2013-01-01

    使用AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型对哈尔滨地区春小麦生长进行模拟,以春小麦的地上生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水量为指标,对比分析两个模型的模拟精度.结果表明:使用经过校正的两个模型均能够较为准确地模拟哈尔滨地区春小麦的生长发育情况及产量形成,观测值与模拟值一致性较好,误差均在合理范围内.在非正常年际AquaCrop模型模拟结果与实测结果偏差较大,说明该模型适合于正常年景的作物生长模拟,WOFOST模型适应性更强.在对201 1年土壤水分含量的模拟中,两个模型观测值与模拟值总体趋势相同,误差均在合理范围内.总体来说,经过修正和校准后的AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型均适合寒地春小麦的模拟研究.%The main object of the study was analyzing the accuracy of the two models AquaCrop and WOFOST which were used for simulating the growth of spring wheat in Harbin based on biomass,yield and soil volume moisture content.The results indicated that the spring wheat growth and yield formation could be simulated accurately with the two optimized models.What's more,the values of observation and simulation value were closer and the error was creditable.The simulation results of AquaCrop model exhibit more difference with the measured results in abnormal year which revealed that the model was suitable for the crop growth in normal year while the WOFOST model showed more adaptability.The observation values of soil moisture content in 2011 were consistent with the total trend in the two models used in the research,also the error was creditable.In general,the optimized models AquaCrop and WOFOST were suitable for the cold spring wheat simulation research.

  10. Study on Cold Resistance during Maize Seed Germination in Spring-sowing Early Maturing Area%春播早熟区玉米种子发芽期抗寒性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆瑞; 郭凤琴; 殷建军; 张小娟

    2013-01-01

    In order to study low-temperature treatment’s effect on the cold resistance of corn seeds during the germination period, 8 different corn breeds suited to be sown in early-maturing region were sown in spring, such as Bing Dan 6, Bing Dan16, Tong Yu158, Tong Yu162, Tong Dan 36, Chang Cheng799, Tong Yu 229, Tong Dan 38 as materials, the study of their germination rate, germination potential, seedling height, seedling health, and other germination characteristics being contrasted under the different temperatures of 8℃, 10℃, 15℃, 20℃ , 25℃ separately. The results demonstrate that germination rate and germination potential decrease as the temperature decreases when the temperature is between 8 - 25 ℃; there are differences among the 8 corn breeds: the cold resistance of Tong Yu 158, Bing Dan 6 and Tong Yu 162 is stronger; low-temperature treatment under 8℃is good for enhancing the germination uniformity, cold resistance and seedling strength.%为了研究低温处理对玉米种子萌发期间抗寒性影响,试验以适宜春播早熟区种植的8个玉米品种并单6号、并单16号、同玉158号、同玉162号、同单36号、长城799号、同玉229号、同单38号为材料,在8℃、10℃、15℃、20℃、25℃温度条件下对其发芽率、发芽势、苗高、苗色等特性进行了比较研究。结果表明:在8~25℃条件下发芽率、发芽势随温度的降低而降低;8个品种间存在差异,其中同玉158、并单6号和同玉162这3个品种的抗寒性强;8℃的低温处理有利于提高玉米种子的出苗整齐度、抗寒性和壮苗。

  11. Human heredity and politics: A comparative institutional study of the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor (United States), the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (Germany), and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute (USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark B; Allen, Garland E; Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that much has been written in recent years about the science of heredity under the Third Reich, there is as yet no satisfying analysis of two central questions: What, if anything, was peculiarly "Nazi" about human genetics under National Socialism? How, under whatever set of causes, did at least some of Germany's most well-known and leading biomedical practioners become engaged in entgrenzte Wissenschaft (science without moral boundaries)? This paper attempts to provide some answers to these two questions comparing three institutes that studied eugenics and human heredity in the 1920s and 1930s: the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, New York, directed by Charles B. Davenport; the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, in Berlin, directed by Eugen Fischer; and the Maxim Gorky Medical Genetics Institute in Moscow, directed by Solomon G. Levit. The institutes are compared on the basis of the kind and quality of their research in eugenics and medical genetics, organizational structure, leadership, patronage (private or state), and the economic-social-political context in which they functioned.

  12. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  13. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  14. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  15. Spring Spending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing housewife Jian An and her family spent 8,563 yuan($1,260)during the Spring Festival holiday(February 13-19),which was even higher than her monthly earnings.And half of the spending went on a new digital camera."It is reasonable because the Spring Festival-the Chinese Lunar New Year-is the most important festival of the year,"Jian said.

  16. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  17. Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium

  18. Study of the genetics of progeny, brothers and sisters of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday from lung cancer. Final report; Studie der Genetik bei Nachkommen und Geschwistern von Wismut-Mitarbeitern, die vor dem 51. Lebensjahr an Lungenkrebs verstorben sind. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, H. Erich [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie

    2012-02-15

    The project was aimed to reconstruct the genotype of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday due to lung cancer using genetic data from their children, brothers and sisters, in order to study the individual radiation sensitivity of the person and to develop a bio-sample data base. The final report includes the description of planning and realization of the project, investigation strategies, development and organization of a phenotype and bio-sample data base, preparation of data storage and genotype evaluation.

  19. Cold turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Coombes, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Highly popular cold remedies could be banned from sale because of their link to a dangerous drug epidemic that has yet to surface in the UK. Rebecca Coombes asks whether the authorities are over-reacting

  20. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  1. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  2. Cold resistance and botanical characteristics of the hybrid prgeny between winter and spring turnip rapes (Brassica campestris L .)%白菜型冬油菜和春油菜杂交后代抗寒性与植物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 杨宁宁; 刘自刚; 方彦; 武军艳; 杨刚; 孙万仓; 张正丽; 王月; 董红业; 赵艳宁; 孔德晶; 鲁美宏

    2015-01-01

    This study had carried on the preliminary analysis and research on temperature sensitivity (winterness and springness ) ,botanical characteristics , and overwintering rates of filial generations for hybrids between winter type turnip rape (Brassica rapa ,Longyou7 and Longyou9 strong in cold hardiness ) and spring type turnip rape (Brassica ra-pa ,Parkland) .The results showed that all of the F1 generation from hybridization between Longyou7 ,Longyou9 and Parkland presented winterness ,which meant winterness was dominant .And the winterness and springness were separated in F2 and BC1 generations .The separation ratio within F2 generation was 4∶1 and the ratio within BC1 generation when Parkland was used as the recurrent parent was 1∶1 .When Longyou7 and Longyou9 were used as the recurrent parents , the separate ratio was 4∶1 .Additionally ,while wintering rates were used as the indexes of cold hardiness ,the results in-dicated that cold resistance of filial generations from Longyou7 and Parkland was stronger than that from Longyou9 and Parkland ,which was consistent with winterness of parents .The cold resistance strength for each generation was in the following order :BC1 with winternss as recurrent parents>F2>F1>BC1 with springnss as recurrent parents .Moreover , correlation and grey correlation analyses showed that overwintering rates were closely related with the main biological char-acteristics ,and the related degree was as the follows :heart leaves>growth habit>winter and spring sex> leaf color . The analysis results showed that the plant morphological characteristics had close relations with cold hardiness .Generally speaking ,seedlings with purple heart leaves ,light green or dark green leaves ,and prostrate or erect growth ,were likely to possess the large wintering rates and strong cold resistance .%对强抗寒性白菜型冬油菜陇油7号和陇油9号与优质白菜型春油菜品种Parkland杂交后代群体的感温性(冬春性)、植

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  4. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159805.html Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold Healthy body temperature boosts ability of immune system ... proving Mom right: Your odds of avoiding a cold get better if you bundle up and stay ...

  5. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  6. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4He, 3He, 3H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  7. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  8. Coping with Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  9. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  10. Coil spring venting arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  11. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  12. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  13. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  14. 51st International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-standing conference bringing together researchers and students from various fields of subatomic physics. The conference location is Bormio, a beautiful mountain resort in the Italian Alps. Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields.

  15. Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain

  16. Cold symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  17. Cold confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  18. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  19. Introduction: Deep-Sea Hot Springs and Cold Seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M. Grant

    1984-01-01

    Describes: (1) various research studies of the mid-ocean ridges; (2) how money and facilities are made available for these studies; and (3) the prospect for future ocean floor studies. Indicates that a presidential proclamation (Exclusive Economic Zone) has extended United States boundaries 200 nautical miles seaward, adding new exploration sites.…

  20. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  1. Cold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, John P., E-mail: jpw@castinganalysis.com [Casting Analysis Corp., PO Box 52, Weyers Cave, VA 24486 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  2. Cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  3. Cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime

  4. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  5. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  6. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  7. Multicolored Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIWEN

    2005-01-01

    Far and away the most important holiday in China is Spring Festival, also known as Chinese New Year. It has the same significance for the Chinese people as Christmas has for people in the West. Spring Festival traditionally calls for a thorough house cleaning before pasting up Spring couplets, images of Gate-Gods, New Year Paintings and papercuts. Sacrifices are also offered to various gods and ancestors,and everyone dresses in their best clothes to see in the new year. All this is done in the hope of good fortune for the coming year.But would you prefer to experience Spring Festival with a difference? The following four destinations offer something for everyone.

  8. Springs of Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. B. W.

    1996-03-01

    Predictably, in a country such as Britain, with its preponderance of consolidated, sedimentary, mainly fissure-flow aquifers, there is a very large number of springs, many of which are, or have been, used for public supply. Migratory springs are a feature of the British (Ur. Cretaceous) Chalk, the most important British aquifer. The Chalk's low specific yield and high capillary moisture retention together give rise to very considerable fluctuations (more than 33 m in some areas) of the unconfined water table. Along the gentle dip slopes of the Chalk (North and South Downs of southern and southeastern England) springs may migrate laterally for several miles, giving rise to seasonal streams locally known as “bournes” or “lavants”. However, springs such as at Duncton, West Sussex, at the base of the much steeper scarp slopes of the Chalk, form point sources, the flows from which tend to be relatively steady; such springs commonly supply and are the original reason for the existence of many of the small towns and villages which nestle along the bases of the chalk scarps of Sussex and Kent. Where the Chalk forms coastal cliffs, a number of springs break out at the base of the cliff between high and low tide levels; there are major chalk coastal springs, for instance, at St. Margaret's Bay (Kent) and at Arish Mells, east of Lulworth Cove, Dorset. Such springs are not used for direct supply (their salinity is usually too high) but are indicators of the presence of local reserves of groundwater for possible future development.

  9. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  10. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  11. GREENPATCH® - Cold Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    GreenPatch® is environmentally friendly cold asphalt that is a direct replacement for traditional cold patch in repairing asphalt pavements. This revolutionary breakthrough in the cold asphalt industry contains no petroleum based softeners such as diesel, toluene, kerosene, and naphthalene found in conventional cold asphalt that pose serious threats to human health and the environment.

  12. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  13. Cold tolerance and cold hardening strategy of the Japanese pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Tian; Shu-Guang Hao; Wei-Na Kong; Rui-Yan Ma; Le Kang

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, is an important pine forest pest and vector transmitting the pine wilt nematode that causes pine wilt disease. Low temperatures in autumn, winter and spring often differentially affect mortality of M.alternatus larvae. In this paper, we mainly compared the differences of mortality and cold hardening of larvae from different seasons, based on supercooling point (SCP) and cumulative probability of individuals freezing (CPIF). The cold hardening of the larvae from autumn, winter and spring seasons were largely different. Correlations between mortality and CPIF of autumn and spring larvae were highest on day 1/4, and gradually decreased with prolonged exposure duration. This beetle's death mainly resulted from freezing in short exposure duration. However, the correlation between mortality and CPIF of winter larvae increased gradually with the prolonged exposure duration. Death did not mainly result from freezing in long exposure duration. Autumn larvae are more susceptible and adaptable than winter and spring larvae. Winter larvae have a slight freeze-tolerance trend. Our research showed that M. alternatus came into complex cold-hardening strategies under natural selection. Freeze avoidance is the primary strategy; with prolonged exposure duration to above SCP or < 0℃, chill tolerance is more important; this is followed by freeze tolerance during harsh winters.

  14. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin. PMID:26733417

  15. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin.

  16. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  17. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  18. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  19. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  20. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  1. Post irradiation examination of tight fit garter springs from Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garter springs play an important role in maintaining the annulus gap between hot pressure tubes and cold calandria tubes of PHWRs. Post irradiation examination (PIE) was carried out on the garter springs removed from Indian PHWR after around 8 and 15 Hot Operating Years (HOY). PIE studies included visual examination, dimensional measurements, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. The girdle wires of these garter springs were also examined and subjected to the tension and bend tests. This paper gives the results of the PIE investigations and discusses its relevance for continued performance of garter springs in PHWRs

  2. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  3. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海霞

    2008-01-01

    The Spring Festival(the Lunar New Year)is one of the most traditional(传统的)Chinese folk(民间的)festivals.Do you know the history of it?Do you know how the Chinese people celebrate(庆祝的)it?Do you know the English expressions(英语表达)about it?

  4. Spring Festival Cauplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times,Chnese peoplecustomarily hung peach wood to warnagmnst evil on their gates on lunar NewYear’s Eve—a pair of rectangular peachwood tablets inscribed with statues ofgods,and later on with a poetic couplet.and that was the beginning of SpringFestival couplets(also called

  5. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  6. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  7. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  8. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  9. Cold Region Pavements%寒区路面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuyDore

    2002-01-01

    The article mainly discusses several essential problems of cold region pavement, including thermal cracking of asphalt concrete, cracking deterioration and heaving, frost heave, seasonal and long term roughness induced by different frost heave, frost heave cracking, bearing capacity loss during spring thaw. The reason for these problems is that cold region pavements are subjected to intense solicitation by climatic and environmental factors. The author offers several models corresponding to the solicitation. Furthermore in conclusion of the article the author indicates future research for cold region.

  10. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  11. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  12. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  13. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Cold Weather Pet Safety Client Handout Available for download ... in hot cars , but did you know that cold weather also poses serious threats to your pets’ ...

  14. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000557.htm Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in ...

  15. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  16. Geochemistry of Geothermal Springs In Northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, S. R.; Smith, A. L.; Melchiorre, E. B.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles contains eight potentially active volcanoes, many of which are associated with geothermal springs. During the period 2003-2007 most of these springs were sampled and analyzed geochemically. The data presented here are for three groups of geothermal springs located in the northern part of the island. One group, the Penville Cold Soufrière, is located within the summit area of Morne Aux Diables volcano. The second group, Picard Warm Springs, is located on the northwestern flank of Morne Diablotins volcano. The third group is located in the Portsmouth area, including the adjacent Prince Rupert Bay, and consists of both subaerial and submarine springs. It is not known with which volcano these springs may be associated. The chemistry of each sample from the geothermal springs was compared to "reference standards" including three seawater samples (standard seawater and two surface samples from Prince Rupert Bay) and three fresh water samples (Emerald Pool and two rainwater samples). Of the more than 38 elements analyzed, 21 elements were consistently two or more orders of magnitude higher when compared to the "reference" standards. When these values were plotted on chemical variation diagrams, two trend lines were consistently developed. One included seawater and the submarine hot springs; the other, the fresh water samples and all the subaerial springs. The intersection of these trend lines is interpreted to represent the composition of a possible magmatic component prior to dilution with seawater and/or meteoric water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis of the springs for the whole island have also been undertaken. VSMOW graphs of δ 18O and δD indicate that all of the geothermal springs on Dominica lie on a trend between the meteoric water line (MWL) and a magmatic source. The compositions of the geothermal springs from northern Dominica are interpreted to represent mixing of variable amounts of freshwater or seawater with

  17. Exercising in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  18. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A Text Size ... the easiest sports around, snowshoeing can be excellent cold-weather cross-training for runners and cyclists — or ...

  19. Climate-induced warming imposes a threat to north European spring ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Marttila, Hannu; Rossi, Pekka M; Ala-Aho, Pertti; Olofsson, Bo; Nisell, Jakob; Backman, Birgitta; Ilmonen, Jari; Virtanen, Risto; Paasivirta, Lauri; Britschgi, Ritva; Kløve, Bjørn; Muotka, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Interest in climate change effects on groundwater has increased dramatically during the last decade. The mechanisms of climate-related groundwater depletion have been thoroughly reviewed, but the influence of global warming on groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) remains poorly known. Here we report long-term water temperature trends in 66 northern European cold-water springs. A vast majority of the springs (82%) exhibited a significant increase in water temperature during 1968-2012. Mean spring water temperatures were closely related to regional air temperature and global radiative forcing of the corresponding year. Based on three alternative climate scenarios representing low (RCP2.6), intermediate (RCP6) and high-emission scenarios (RCP8.5), we estimate that increase in mean spring water temperature in the region is likely to range from 0.67 °C (RCP2.6) to 5.94 °C (RCP8.5) by 2086. According to the worst-case scenario, water temperature of these originally cold-water ecosystems (regional mean in the late 1970s: 4.7 °C) may exceed 12 °C by the end of this century. We used bryophyte and macroinvertebrate species data from Finnish springs and spring-fed streams to assess ecological impacts of the predicted warming. An increase in spring water temperature by several degrees will likely have substantial biodiversity impacts, causing regional extinction of native, cold-stenothermal spring specialists, whereas species diversity of headwater generalists is likely to increase. Even a slight (by 1 °C) increase in water temperature may eliminate endemic spring species, thus altering bryophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages of spring-fed streams. Climate change-induced warming of northern regions may thus alter species composition of the spring biota and cause regional homogenization of biodiversity in headwater ecosystems.

  20. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  1. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  2. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  3. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  4. Studying springs in series using a single spring

    CERN Document Server

    Serna, Juan D

    2010-01-01

    Springs are used for any imaginable purpose and all sort of things in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of its most common uses is to study the real nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify the Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only a single spring is presented. The easy setup and accurate results makes this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

  5. Hydrogeochemical overview and natural arsenic occurrence in groundwater from alpine springs (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Reyes, Fredy Alexander; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations (up to 230 μg/L) have been historically observed (since 1999) in the upper Valtellina valley groundwater (UVV, central Italian Alps), and measured in samples collected during four campaigns of one full hydrological year (summer 2012-summer 2013). During these campaigns, water has been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by Ca-Mg and SO4-HCO3 main ions, with seasonal variations for the second end members; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) dominant oxidizing conditions have been observed for most of the cold and for the thermal springs; (5) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 μg/L; (6) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold ones. These conditions suggest that the latter belong to recent hydrochemical immature aquifers, where the presence of arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulfide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprising of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  6. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  7. The Beijing Spring 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Calhoun, Craig

    1989-01-01

    The climax of China's spring 1989 student protest movement is well known, at least outside of China. Troops acting to clear Tiananmen Square of protesters and enforce martial law succeeded in their charge, firing automatic assault weapons on unarmed citizens and sometimes wildly into neighboring buildings. People were crushed under the tracks of armored personnel carriers as they moved in to smash the statue of the "Goddess of Democracy" that had come almost overnight to symbolize the movemen...

  8. How cold is cold dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  9. How cold is cold dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T., E-mail: armen@phy.syr.edu, E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  10. Magnetic Spring Device

    CERN Document Server

    Hassam, A B

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an already stored strong magnetic field before release. The resulting parameter space is much broader. There are possible applications to momentum injectors for fusion and to plasma and rail guns.

  11. Experiment at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, T; Ejiri, H; Fujiwara, M; Hotta, T; Matsuoka, N; Matsumura, T; Mibe, T; Nomachi, M; Toki, H; Wang, C W; Wang, S C; Kawai, H; Ooba, T; Iwata, T; Miyachi, Y; Toyama, T; Wakai, A; Hicks, K; Akimune, H; Asano, Y; Sugaya, Y; Daté, S; Kumagai, N; Ohashi, Y; Toyokawa, H; Imai, K; Yosoi, M; Ichikawa, A; Kishimoto, T; Sakaguchi, A; Sumihama, M; Makino, S; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    The GeV photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. The maximum energy of the photon will be above 3 GeV, and the beam intensity will be 10 sup 7 photons/sec. Polarization of the photon beam will be 100 % at the maximum energy with fully polarized laser photons. We report the outline of the quark nuclear physics project with this high-quality high-intensity beam.

  12. Dynamic characteristics of spring sandstorms in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀骥; 徐祥德; 颜鹏; 翁永辉; 王建林

    2002-01-01

    Systematical analyses of spring sandstorms in 2000 affecting Beijing area are carried out. Results revealed the key dynamic mechanisms of dust storm during its mobilization, lifting, horizontal advection and deposition processes. It turns out that in the processes of sandstorms influencing Beijing area in March-April 2000, the dynamic conditions for dust mobilization are significantly correlated with phenomena, such as cold air-related climatic activities,clay soils area of North China and surface friction velocity anomaly. The characteristics of sandstorm can be described by composite mode of dust particles mobilization-lifting-long-range transport. This paper will provide scientific evidences for further studies,prediction and harness of sandstorms in China.

  13. Several Moments of the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they

  14. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  15. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  16. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  17. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of hot springs along the along the Neogene Malawi rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E. A.; Tsokonombwe, G. W.; Elsenbeck, J.; Wanless, V. D.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of major ions and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13CDIC), hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ18O) of hot springs along the Neogene Malawi rift. We compared the results with those of streams and a cold spring. We aimed to assess the hot springs for evidence of addition of mantle mass, specifically water and carbon and (2) determine the processes that control the chemical and isotopic evolution of the hot springs. Understanding the source(s) of heat for the springs and if the chemical and isotopic characteristics show evidence of mantle processes is an important goal of the Project for Rift Initiation, Development and Evolution (PRIDE). The temperature of the hot springs ranged from 35 to 80 ºC. High temperature anomalies are observed between latitudes 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 degrees south along the rift axis. The δD and δ18O for the cold spring, hot springs and streams had a similar range, were positively correlated and lie on the trend of the local meteoric water line. We suggest negligible contribution of water from a connate or magmatic source and limited oxygen exchange from water-rock interaction or CO2 exchange from deep sedimentary carbonates. The DIC concentrations of the hot springs are higher (5 to 61 mg C/L) than those of streams (2 to 28 mg C/L) indicating addition of carbon to the DIC pool during the circulation of some springs. The range in the δ13CDIC of the hot springs (-17 to -8‰) is broader and lower compared to streams (-12 to -5‰) due to addition of carbon with a δ13CDIC of -15‰ to the spring water during circulation. Our results indicate that (1) the source of water for the hot springs is meteoric, (2) the hot springs have not experienced extensive water-rock interaction due to fast circulation suggesting highly permeable fault zones, (3) the source of carbon in the DIC of the hot springs is mostly CO2(g) from the soil zone and (4) the springs are heated by normal

  18. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Snowstorms & Extreme Cold This page explains what actions to take when ... snowstorm or extreme cold. Before Snowstorms and Extreme Cold To prepare for a winter storm you should ...

  19. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections of the nose and throat caused by ... other products such as echinacea, eucalyptus, garlic, honey, lemon, menthol, zinc and vitamin C have received a ...

  20. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  1. Effect of temperature on the orthodontic clinical applications of niti closed-coil springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Llamas-Carreras, José M.; Barrera-Mora, José M.; Abalos-Lasbrucci, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    NiTi spring coils were used to obtain large deformation under a constant force. The device consists on a NiTi coil spring, superelastic at body temperature, in order to have a stress plateau during the austenitic retransformation during the unloading. The temperature variations induced changes in the spring force. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the temperature variations in the spring forces and corrosion behaviour simulating the ingestion hot/cold drinks and food. Study Design: The springs were subjected to a tensile force using universal testing machine MTS-Adamel (100 N load cell). All tests were performed in artificial saliva maintained at different temperatures. The corrosion tests were performed according to the ISO-standard 10993-15:2000. Results: The increase in temperature of 18oC induced an increase in the spring force of 30%. However, when the temperature returns to 37oC the distraction force recovers near the initial level. After cooling down the spring to 15oC, the force decreased by 46%. This investigation show as the temperature increase, the corrosion potential shifts towards negative values and the corrosion density is rising. Conclusions: The changes of the temperatures do not modify the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi closed-coil springs. The corrosion potential of NiTi in artificial saliva is decreasing by the rise of the temperatures. Key words:Superelasticity, NiTi, springs, orthodontic, coils, recovery, temperature. PMID:23722142

  2. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  3. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  4. A Cold Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2009, north China has been repeatedly struck by arctic-like blasts of cold weather. As temperatures have plummeted to historic lows, they have inflicted considerable suffering as well.

  5. A Cold Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the end of 2009, north China has been repeatedly struck by arctic-like blasts of cold weather. As temperatures have plummeted to historic lows, they have inflicted considerable suffering as well.

  6. LHC cold masses

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    In these pictures some 30 newly-arrived cold masses can be seen awaiting cryostating and subsequent intensive testing before they are installed in the LHC tunnel. Taken in September 2003, they mark the delivery of one-eighth of the total 1232 superconducting coils. These cold masses contain the cryogenics that allow the magnets to be cooled to 1.9 K (-271°C).

  7. Cold nuclear fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion be...

  8. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  9. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  10. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration.

  11. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration. PMID:23434279

  12. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  13. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  14. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  15. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)

  16. Shallow Analysis on the First Spring Soaking Rain Weather and Its Precipitation Enhancement Potential Forecast in Jinzhou Area in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the first spring soaking rain weather and its precipitation enhancement potential forecast in Jinzhou area in 2010. [Method] From the weather situation characteristics, main influence system, forecast service, artificial precipitation enhancement operation and so on, the first spring soaking rain weather process in Jinzhou area in 2010 was summarized comprehensively. [Result] The weather situation characteristics of soaking rain were that the high-altitude cold air wa...

  17. Warmer springs, laying date and clutch size of tree sparrows Passer montanus in Croatia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. DOLENEC; P. DOLENEC; A.P. MΦLER

    2011-01-01

    Global surface air temperatures increased during the past 100 years. Many long-term studies of birds have reported a climatic influence on breeding performance. We analysed long-term changes in first laying date and clutch size for first clutches of sedentary, hole-nesting and socially monogamous tree sparrows Passer montanus during 1980-2009 in northwestern Croatia. Laying date advanced and spring temperature increased significantly during the study. Date of laying was significantly correlated with mean air spring temperature and advanced by 8.6 days during the 30 years period. Laying date was delayed in extremely cold, but not in extremely warm springs compared to years with normal temperatures. These results suggest that current climate change including extreme change does not have negative effects on timing of laying or clutch size. In contrast to laying date, clutch size did not vary systematically during the study period or with mean spring air temperature changes.

  18. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  19. Modeling of seasonal soil cold storage using natural cold energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tao; ZHENG Mao-yu; WANG Xiao; KONG Fan-hong

    2010-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption on summer air conditioning,a novel seasonal soil cold storage mode using natural energy is presented and two-dimensional transient heat transfer model of U-tube is developed.The three processes of cold storage in winter,shut-down in transition season and cold extraction in summer are simulated by using sensitive heat capacity method with variable time step.The changing of U-tube outlet water temperature in different periods,daily cold storage and cold extraction are estimated.The temperature field of the U-tube and soil around the tube is investigated.Simulations show that seasonal soil cold storage using natural cold energy is feasible in the north to Changchun,which provides theoretical support for seasonal soil cold storage application.

  20. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  1. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  2. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  3. Cold War Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  4. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  5. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place…

  6. Finger cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    There are indications that subjects with a reduced finger CIVD response are more prone to get local cold injuries, but more epidemiological research is needed to establish a firm relationship. Although it was observed that an early CIVD onset was associated with initially superior manual performance

  7. What caused the 2009 cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic (TA) exhibits sea surface temperature (SST) variability on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. This variability is associated with changes of atmospheric dynamics, linking it to severe flooding or droughts in South America and West Africa. This study investigates processes in the TA that might have caused the extreme cold event in the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) region in 2009. During boreal spring, a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event developed in the TA associated with northwesterly wind anomalies along the equator. Contrary to what would be expected from ENSO-like dynamics, these wind anomalies did not lead to a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal summer. Instead, from May to August 2009, an abrupt cooling took place in the ACT region resulting in the coldest August ACT SST on record. In the literature, two processes - equatorial wave reflection and meridional advection of subsurface temperatures - are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Whereas previous studies are mainly based on satellite data, reanalysis products and model output, we here use in situ measurements (data from Argo floats, PIRATA buoys, and TACE moorings, as well as CTD data of various ship cruises) in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both processes to the strong surface cooling in the ACT region in 2009. Results based on the Argo float data confirm previous findings that equatorial wave reflection contributed to the cold event in the ACT region in 2009. They further indicate that higher baroclinic mode waves played an important role. The analysis of in situ and reanalysis temperature and velocity data does not suggest a significant contribution of meridional advection of subsurface temperatures for the onset of the 2009 cold event. The results indicate an asymmetry in the importance of meridional advection for non-ENSO-like cold and warm events with warm events more strongly affected

  8. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  9. Spring hydrology determines summer net carbon uptake in northern ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the normalized difference vegetation index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (⩾50° N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends. (letters)

  10. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  11. Be Spring to All Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKEPING

    2003-01-01

    ONE old saying that is particularly rooted in the Chinese consciousness is“Spring is the most meaningful season.” It has particular significance in rural regions,where spring is the time for plowing, and for planning the work for the coming year. In urban areas,peach and plum blossom and the fresh green shoots that clothe winter-denuded trees signify the time for outings and enjoyment of the warmer weather. One aspect of this season that adds greatly to the overall aesthetic is the sight of young girls, having finally put aside their warm winter wear,dressed in light colorful fabrics that display their maidenly charms to full effect. All in all, from the Chinese point of view, spring is a time of color, charm and cheer.

  12. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  13. Analysis of a Cold Wave Weather Process in Chengdu in March 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze one cold wave weather process in Chengdu in March in 2010.[Method] Based on the NCEP 1°×1° 6 h interval reanalysis data and daily observation data,using synoptic analysis and diagnosis methods,and combining with the cold wave forecast index in spring of Sichuan,a cold wave event covering the whole region between March 21 and 24,2010 was analyzed from the aspects of circulation background,influencing weather systems and weather causation.[Result] Results showed that the 500...

  14. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help to prevent colds or relieve cold symptoms. Andrographis ( Andrographis paniculata ) Chinese herbal medicines Green tea Guided imagery ... measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms ...

  15. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  16. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  17. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant K Singh; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; G Trupti; B Singh; Aref Lashin; Nassir Al Arifi

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than ∼130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (∼160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  19. Trace metal contamination of mineral spring water in an historical mining area in regional Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim

    2013-11-01

    Significant global consumption of spring and mineral water is fuelled by perceived therapeutic and medicinal qualities, cultural habits and taste. The Central Victorian Mineral Springs Region, Australia comprises approximately 100 naturally effervescent, cold, high CO2 content springs with distinctive tastes linked to a specific spring or pump. The area has a rich settlement history. It was first settled by miners in the 1840s closely followed by the first commercial operations of a health resort 1895. The landscape is clearly affected by gold mining with geographically proximal mine waste, mullock heaps or tailings. Repeated mineral springs sampling since 1985 has revealed elevated arsenic concentrations. In 1985 an arsenic concentration five times the current Australian Drinking Water Guideline was recorded at a popular tourist spring site. Recent sampling and analyses have confirmed elevated levels of heavy metals/metalloids, with higher concentrations occurring during periods of low rainfall. Despite the elevated levels, mineral water source points remain accessible to the public with some springs actively promoting the therapeutic benefits of the waters. In light of our analysis, the risk to consumers (some of whom are likely to be negatively health-affected or health-compromised) needs to be considered with a view to appropriate and verified analyses made available to the public.

  20. Hydrogeochemistry and geothermometry of Changal thermal springs, Zagros region, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Z.; Bagheri, R.; Jahanshahi, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    This study addresses the hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs that emerge from the Asmari limestone in a gorge at Changal Anticline in the vicinity of the Salman-Farsi dam. The Changal thermal springs vary in temperature between 28 and 40 C. Chemical and isotopic compositions of the thermal waters suggest two distinct hydrogeological systems: a deep, moderate-temperature ({proportional_to}40 C) geothermal system recharged by deeply circulating meteoric waters, and a shallow cold aquifer system related to local groundwater. The source geothermal fluid temperature was calculated using different geothermometers and mineral saturation indexes. Based on chemical and isotopic data, it is hypothesized that: (1) mixing occurs between the ascending geothermal water and shallow cold water; (2) the resulting thermal waters reaching surface are a mixture of 80% local, shallow meteoric water and 20% geothermal water; and (3) the circulation depth of the meteoric water is about 1500 m. The thermal reservoir temperature is estimated to be between 70 and 80 C according to calculations using different geothermometers and computation of saturation indices for different solid phases. (author)

  1. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  2. Engineering carpel-specific cold stress tolerance: a case study in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freezing temperatures during winter generally do not injure floral buds of horticulturally important crops. Entry into dormancy coupled with cold acclimation provides adequate protection unless the temperatures are exceptionally low. This measure of protection is lost in spring when the floral bud...

  3. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Jonasson, S.;

    2007-01-01

    While substantial cold-season respiration has been documented in most arctic and alpine ecosystems in recent years, the significance of cold-season photosynthesis in these biomes is still believed to be small. In a mesic, subartic heath during both the cold and warm season, we measured in situ...... ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis with a chamber technique at ambient conditions and at artificially, increased frequency of freeze-thaw (FT) cycles during fall and spring. We fitted the measured ecosystem exchange rates to respiration and photosynthesis models with R-2-values ranging from 0.81 to 0.......85. As expected, estimated cold-season (October, November, April and May) respiration was significant and accounted for at least 22% of the annual respiratory CO2 flux. More surprisingly, estimated photosynthesis during this period accounted for up to 19% of the annual gross CO2 uptake, suggesting that cold...

  4. A Laboratory of Spring. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Witold Wachowski

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to a special issue published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the premiere of 'The Rite of Spring' by Igor Stravinsky. The articles cover the field of musicology as well as history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, ethnography and cognitive science of music.

  5. CSSA Spring Festival Gala 2004

    OpenAIRE

    CSSA, UK; CSSA, Cambridge; Yan, Xiaoxiao

    2004-01-01

    This is a 1 hour 37 minutes film recording exacts of Chinese Spring Festival Gala held in Corn Exchange Theatre in Cambridge on 16th January 2004. The occasion organiser was CSSA and audience were about 1000 people coming from all over UK in that evening.

  6. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  7. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  8. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  9. The CMS COLD BOX

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  10. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  11. Cold heteromolecular dipolar collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Brian C.; Stuhl, Benjamin K.; Yeo, Mark; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Hummon, Matthew T.; Xia, Yong; Klos, Jacek; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We present the first experimental observation of cold collisions between two different species of neutral polar molecules, each prepared in a single internal quantum state. Combining for the first time the techniques of Stark deceleration, magnetic trapping, and cryogenic buffer gas cooling allows the enhancement of molecular interaction time by 10$^5$. This has enabled an absolute measurement of the total trap loss cross sections between OH and ND$_3$ at a mean collision energy of 3.6 cm$^{-...

  12. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  13. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Sharon E.; Melendez, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aid researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials to maintain temperature. Details of these current technologies are provided along with operational experience gained to date. This paper discusses the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  14. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  15. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Laist

    Full Text Available To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively. The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively. A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down.

  16. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laist, David W; Taylor, Cynthia; Reynolds, John E

    2013-01-01

    To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins) statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively) with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively). The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively). A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down.

  17. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  18. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  19. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would...

  20. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  1. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  2. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  3. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  4. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  5. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  6. Guangzhou,The Spring City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Guangzhou is an ancient city with a history of 2800 years.It is named "the spring city" because with long summer the city is always with green plants and blooming with fresh flowers all years round.Myth legend tells of Guangzhou was founded by Five Immortals riding five rams, each ram planted a stalks of rice grain which symbolizes abundant of harvest or prosperity.And this is how Guangzhou got its nickname, "Yang Cheng" literally means "Goat City".

  7. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  8. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  9. Exception in Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  10. The Isis cold moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, G. M.; Broome, T. A.; Burridge, R. A.; Cragg, D.; Hall, R.; Haynes, D.; Hirst, J.; Hogston, J. R.; Jones, H. H.; Sexton, J.; Wright, P.

    1997-09-01

    ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.

  11. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  12. Chemical and thermal constraints on models of Thermal Springs Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, R. P.; Keith, T. E. C.

    1991-08-01

    Thermal (15-30°C) springs issuing from 1912 ash-flow tuff in the mid-valley region of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes consist of meteoric water that may have been heated by an incompletely cooled lens of welded tuff upvalley from the springs. Conductive cooling of the thermal waters along the flow path is the likely cause for the difference between the observed spring temperatures and the source temperature inferred from chemical geothermometry. Conductive cooling alone can not easily account for the seasonal fluctuations in spring temperatures, however. Mixing of the thermal waters with cold meteoric waters would seem a likely possibility; but thermal water chemistry is constant, indicating that mixing does not occur after the water leaves the zone of heating. Even if mixing occurred, simple mixing models do not account totally for the observed temperature differences of the springs from late spring to summer. The geochemical and thermal data argue for a complex hydrological and thermal regime.

  13. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  14. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  15. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  16. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  17. Cold nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dorso, C O; Nichols, J I; López, J A

    2012-01-01

    We study the behavior of cold nuclear matter near saturation density (\\rho 0) and very low temperature using classical molecular dynamics. We used three different (classical) nuclear interaction models that yield `medium' or `stiff' compressibilities. For high densities and for every model the ground state is a classical crystalline solid, but each one with a different structure. At subsaturation densities, we found that for every model the transition from uniform (crystal) to non-uniform matter occurs at \\rho ~ 0.12 fm^(-3) = 0.75 \\rho 0. Surprisingly, at the non-uniform phase, the three models produce `pasta-like' structures as those allegedly present in neutron star matter but without the long-range Coulomb interaction and with different length scales.

  18. Sonluminescence and cold fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TVPrevenslik

    1996-01-01

    A theory of sonoluminescence(SL) proposed asserts bubbles collapse in a pancake shape almost isothermally at constant volume.SL induced hot fusion at -107℃is most likely impossible.By the proposed theory,the bubbles are treated as miniature IRasers with the dimension between pancake faces equal to the half wavelength of the standing wave in resonance with the IRaser cavity dimensions.Before collapse,the IRasers are filled with 5-10eV of IR radiation from the Plank energy in the ambient surroundings.During collapse,the IUR radiation is trapped within the IRaser by the high IR reflectivity of the bubble wall water molecules.As the IRaser cavity dimension dercreases,the cavity resonant frequency increases.The bubble wall molecules undergo a continuous population inversion by always being pumped to higher energy states that favor stimulated emission instead of absorption.IRaser resonant intensification produces 5-10MeV,i.e.,-106UV photons with 5-10eV.On average,SL induced cold fuison does not occur although a few X-ray photons are produced.If the IR thermal energy before collapse is enhanced to a total energy of 10keV.say by exciting the vibration modes of the water molecules at 2.73um with a HF laser,collapse produces an average X-ray energy of about 10keV.unlike hot fusion ,Sl induced cold fusion is not impossible.

  19. Cold Crystal Reflector Filter Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical concept of a cold crystal reflector filter will be presented. The aim of this concept is to balance the shortcoming of the traditional cold polycrystalline reflector filter, which lies in the significant reduction of the neutron flux right above (in energy space) or right below (wavelength space) the first Bragg edge.

  20. Give Someone the Cold Shoulder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程炜

    2002-01-01

    The snowman in this illustration is happy to allow a bird to rest on its cold shoulder.., but that's not what this idiom means.To give someone the cold shoulder is to be un-friendly, usually by ignoring them.

  1. The status of cold fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  2. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation and its influence on East Asian climate during boreal winter and spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Ke; WANG; Huijun

    2006-01-01

    The interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and its influence on East Asian climate during both boreal winter and spring are addressed. The results show that the positive AAO anomaly decreases the cold activity over East Asia during both boreal winter and spring. AAO-related barotropic meridional teleconnection from Antarctic to Arctic is found through analysis of mean meridional circulations. This meridional teleconnection is remarkable over Eurasia during boreal winter and over the Pacific Ocean during boreal spring. The results also show that zonal mean zonal wind at high latitudes in Southern Hemisphere has well positive correlation with that of Eurasia during boreal winter and has negative correlation with Pacific North American teleconnection (PNA) during boreal spring, which again display the meridional teleconnection. Thus, local meridional teleconnection is a possible linkage for interaction of circulations at mid-high latitudes between both hemispheres.

  4. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like structures called turbinates, ... which cold viruses attach. CAT Scan of the Nose and Sinuses The maxillary sinus (black) is surrounded ...

  5. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold, ... matter how much white stuff piles up outside. Cold-Weather Hazards Certain injuries are more common in ...

  6. Common cold - how to treat at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use the ... green snot, and sneezing Sore throat Treating your Cold Treating your symptoms will not make your cold ...

  7. Difference between Sinusitis and a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share The Difference Between Sinusitis and a Cold Page Content Article Body Sinusitis is an inflammation ... a cold or allergy . General Characteristics of Viral Colds It is often difficult to tell if an ...

  8. Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Spring Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kainulainen, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this final project was to make an the fracture analysis for a parabolic leaf spring. The leaf spring type is used in a mining machine. The machine is designed for personnel and equipment transportation in a mine environment. The objectives were to gather information about effects of the improvement in the spring’ structure and study phenomena which eventually lead to the fracture of the spring. The project was divided into theoretical and experimental sections. The theoreti...

  9. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy. PMID:22149075

  10. Microbial community composition and endolith colonization at an Arctic thermal spring are driven by calcite precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Verena; Kirshtein, Julie; Fogel, Marilyn L; Steele, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions shape community composition. Arctic thermal springs provide an opportunity to study how environmental gradients can impose strong selective pressures on microbial communities and provide a continuum of niche opportunities. We use microscopic and molecular methods to conduct a survey of microbial community composition at Troll Springs on Svalbard, Norway, in the high Arctic. Microorganisms there exist under a wide range of environmental conditions: in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll Springs has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, together in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping each microbial community. Periphyton are entrapped during precipitation of calcium carbonate from the spring's waters, providing microbial populations that serve as precursors for the development of endolithic communities. This process differs from most endolith colonization, in which the rock predates the communities that colonize it. Community composition is modulated as environmental conditions change within the springs. At Troll, the aquatic environments show a small number of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to each sample. The terrestrial environments show a more even distribution of OTUs common to multiple samples. PMID:24115614

  11. Zitterbewegung in Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Poliana; Egues, J. Carlos

    2013-03-01

    In condensed matter systems, the coupling between spatial and spin degrees of freedom through the spin-orbit (SO) interaction offers the possibility of manipulating the electron spin via its orbital motion. The proposal by Datta and Das of a `spin transistor' for example, highlights the use of the SO interaction to control the electron spin via electrical means. Recently, arrangements of crossed lasers and magnetic fields have been used to trap and cool atoms in optical lattices and also to create light-induced gauge potentials, which mimic the SO interactions in real solids. In this work, we investigate the Zitterbewegung in cold atoms by starting from the effective SO Hamiltonian derived in Ref.. Cross-dressed atoms as effective spins can provide a proper setting in which to observe this effect, as the relevant parameter range of SO strengths may be more easily attainable in this context. We find a variety of peculiar Zitterbewegung orbits in real and pseudo-spin spaces, e.g., cycloids and ellipses - all of which obtained with realistic parameters. This work is supported by FAPESP, CAPES and CNPq.

  12. Friendly units for coldness

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  13. Phonon forces and cold denaturatio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Protein unfolds upon temperature reduction as Well as upon In increase in temperature, These phenomena are called cold denaturation and hot denaturation, respectively. The contribution from quantum mode forces to denaturation is estimated using a simple phenomenological model describing the...... molecule Is a continuum. The frequencies of the vibrational modes depend on the molecular dimensionality; hence, the zero-point energies for the folded and the denatured protein are estimated to differ by several electron volts. For a biomolecule such an energy is significant and may contribute to cold...... denaturing. This is consistent with the empirical observation that cold denaturation is exothermic anti hot denaturation endothermic....

  14. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  15. The characteristics of sea fog with different airflow over the Huanghai Sea in boreal spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; HUANG Huijun; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Faxiu

    2010-01-01

    Using the observations from ICOADS datasets and contemporaneous NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets during 1960-2002, the study classifies the airflows in favor of sea fog over the Huang-hai (Yellow) Sea in boreal spring (April-May) with the method of trajectory analysis, and analyzes the changes of proportions of warm and cold sea fogs along different paths of airflow. According to the heat balance equation, we investigate the relationships between the marine meteorological conditions and the proportion of warm and cold sea fog along different airflow paths. The major results are summarized as follows. (1) Sea fogs over the Huanghai Sea in spring are not only warm fog but also cold fog. The proportion of warm fog only accounts for 44% in April, while increases as high as 57% in May. (2) Four primary airflow paths leading to spring sea fog are identified. They are originated from the northwest, east, southeast and southwest of the Huanghai Sea, respectively. The occurrence ratios of the warm sea fog along the east and southeast airflow paths are high of 55% and 70%, while these along the southwest and northwest airflow paths are merely 17.9% and 50%. (3) The key physical processes governing the warm/cold sea fog are heat advection transport, longwave radiation cooling at fog top, solar shortwave warming and latent heat flux between air-sea interfaces. (4) The characteristics of sea fog along the four airflow paths relate closely to the conditions of water vapor advection, and the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  16. Blessing at an Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhengkun

    2012-01-01

    The Spring Festival will come on January 23,2012.It is relatively earlier than that in common years.For Chinese people,the year 2012 is the lucky year,the Year of the Dragon.Dragon has been the totem of Chinese people since the very ancient time,which symbolizes auspiciousness and hope.At this exciting moment,I would like to give my blesssing to eveery member of CAS,every person who supports CAS,every people working in standardization,and especially to senior experts,old colleagues,sonior leaders and old friends! I would also like to give my New Year"Dragon" blessing to friends from ISO,IEC and other intemational standardization organizations and friends from standardization organizations in different countries!

  17. Cold nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  18. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  19. Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  20. Quantifying Groundwater Recharge During Dynamic Seasonality in Cold Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, E.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating groundwater recharge in cold climates, during periods of dynamic seasonality such as winter and spring freshets is challenging due to subsurface heterogeneities and the complexity of vadose zone processes under partially frozen conditions. In order to obtain robust recharge estimates, numerical models simulating these complex processes need to be based on reliable parameter estimates and closely calibrated to field observations. This study focuses on quantifying recharge under an ephemeral stream that develops in the vicinity of a municipal well field during spring and winter freshets at a site in Southern Ontario. Temperature and moisture content profiles in the vadose zone were obtained during the 2015 spring melt at three different locations, using a variety of hydrogeological instruments. Temperature thermisters and Tid-Bit transducers were both installed at 15-30 cm spacings to the depth of the water table in order to compare and calibrate the results. Similarly, Time Domain Reflectometry probes were placed to the depth of the water table and the results were calibrated to daily moisture content readings taken with a Neutron Probe. Water table fluctuations were monitored and regular water samples were taken for analysis of geochemistry and isotope fractionation. This data provided the boundary conditions for the numerical model (Hydrus 1D) and allowed for its calibration and validation. Regions of rapid infiltration were observed at the site, as well as steep temperature gradients that could be used as a tracer for estimating recharge in cold climates. The geochemistry and isotope fractionation results provided support of surface water groundwater interaction within event based time periods predicted by the numerical models. Furthermore, the surface water samples were found to have high concentrations of microbial indicator species, and therefore the intense recharge phenomena observed at the site has significant implications to groundwater

  1. Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Designing Spring Brake Orthosis – Part I: Spring Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Huq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spring brake orthosis (SBO concentrates purely on the knee to generate the swing phase of the paraplegic gait with the required hip flexion occurring passively as a consequence of the ipsilateral knee flexion, generated by releasing the torsion spring mounted at the knee joint. Electrical stimulation then drives the knee back to full extension, as well as restores the spring potential energy. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA and its variant multi-objective GA (MOGA is used to perform the search operation for the ‘best’ spring parameters for the SBO spring mounted on an average sized subject simulated in the sagittal plane. Conventional torsion spring is tested against constant torque type spring in terms of swing duration as, based on first principles, it is hypothesized that constant torque spring would be able to produce slower SBO swing phase as might be preferred in assisted paraplegic gait. In line with the hypothesis, it is found that it is not possible to delay the occurrence of the flexion peak of the SBO swing phase further than its occurrence in the natural gait. The use of conventional torsion spring causes the swing knee flexion peak to appear rather faster than that of the natural gait, resulting in a potentially faster swing phase and hence gait cycle. The constant torque type spring on the other hand is able to stretch duration of the swing phase to some extent, rendering it the preferable spring type in SBO.

  2. Low viral predation pressure in cold hypersaline Arctic sediments and limits on lytic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo-Lillis, Jesse; Wing, Boswell A; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-04-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous drivers of microbial ecology and evolution and contribute to biogeochemical cycling. Attention to these attributes has been more substantial for marine viruses than viruses of other environments. Microscopy-based investigation of the viral communities from two cold, hypersaline Arctic springs was undertaken to explore the effects of these conditions on microbe-viral ecology. Sediments and water samples were collected along transects from each spring, from anoxic spring outlets through oxygenated downstream channels. Viral abundance, virus-microbe ratios and modelled virus-microbe contact rates were lower than comparable aqueous and sedimentary environments and most similar to deep subsurface sediments. No individual cell from either spring was visibly infected. Viruses in these springs appear to play a smaller role in controlling microbial populations through lytic activity than in marine water column or surface sedimentary environments. Relief from viral predation indicates the microbial communities are primarily controlled by nutrient limitation. The similarity of these springs to deep subsurface sediments suggests a biogeographic divide in viral replication strategy in marine sediments. PMID:26743115

  3. Mars: South Polar Spring Recession as observed by CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Roush, T. L.; Wiseman, S.; McGuire, P.; Wolff, M.; Smith, M.

    2007-12-01

    We are creating a seasonal mosaic of CRISM multispectral data for each MSP (multispectral) image obtained in the south polar region (all regions poleward of 55 deg S) since the start of the MRO primary mission. This effort compliments high resolution targeted observations of the South Polar Cryptic Region (Titus et al., 2007) and OMEGA observations of the south polar cap during spring recession (Langevin et al., 2007). Langevin et al. presented similar maps at 1-10km/pixel - CRISM multispectral observations used here have a nominal resolution of 200m (Seelos, 2007). A similar CRISM multispectral mosaic has been constructed for the north polar region by Seelos et al. (Seelos et al., 2007). Science objectives of this investigation include: 1. High resolution (200m/pixel) multispectral observations of CO2 and H2O seasonal distribution, 2. Observing the point where Cap Recession Observations indicate CO2 has Ultimately Sublimated (CROCUS) line (Kieffer et al., 2000) as a function of solar longitude (ls), 3. Observations of changes in CO2 grain size linked to seasonal brightening of the polar high latitude areas (Langevin et al., 2007), and 200m/pixel observations of dust cover linked to cold jets in the Cyptic Region (Kieffer et al., 2000; Langevin et al., 2007), 4. Observations of small water ice patches in late southern spring (Langevin et al., 2007), 5. Development of climate-based atmospheric correction for use with multispectral data based on TES climatology and DISORT. We will report on the progress of our investigation and present high resolution multispectral mosaics of the south polar cap during spring recession and compare them to data from previous years. References Kieffer, H., et al., 2000. Mars south polar spring and summer behavior observed by TES: Seasonal cap evolution controlled by frost grain size. JGR 105, 9653-9700. Langevin, Y., et al., 2007. Observations of the south seasonal cap of Mars during recession in 2004-2006 by the OMEGA visible

  4. Amway suffering" another spring cold"%安利遭遇"倒春寒"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华军

    2002-01-01

    @@ 南国早春,春寒乍起.骤来的寒意让总部位于广州的安利(中国)日用品有限公司再度陷入惴惴不安之中. 农历新年前的一周,国家工商行政管理总局、对外贸易经济合作部、国家经济贸易委员会联合发出"关于执行中有关问题的规定"(工商公字[2002]第31号,下简称"31号文").对于正欣喜盘点着去年进账--销售业绩比前年增长5成,保守估计达40亿元人民币的安利(中国)来说,收到的可不是一份政府赶在马年春节前"派发"的"大红利是".

  5. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  6. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  7. Finger and toe temperature response to cold water and cold air exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, N.R. van der; Es, E.M. van; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however,

  8. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  9. Cold and lonely: does social exclusion literally feel cold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chen-Bo; Leonardelli, Geoffrey J

    2008-09-01

    Metaphors such as icy stare depict social exclusion using cold-related concepts; they are not to be taken literally and certainly do not imply reduced temperature. Two experiments, however, revealed that social exclusion literally feels cold. Experiment 1 found that participants who recalled a social exclusion experience gave lower estimates of room temperature than did participants who recalled an inclusion experience. In Experiment 2, social exclusion was directly induced through an on-line virtual interaction, and participants who were excluded reported greater desire for warm food and drink than did participants who were included. These findings are consistent with the embodied view of cognition and support the notion that social perception involves physical and perceptual content. The psychological experience of coldness not only aids understanding of social interaction, but also is an integral part of the experience of social exclusion. PMID:18947346

  10. New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Glashan, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

  11. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Abele, Hartmut; Konrad, Gertrud

    2014-01-01

    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the \\RB drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron $\\beta$-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10$^{-4}$ level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  12. Cold Fronts in CDM clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, D; Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters (Vikhlinin et. al., 2001). These features, called ``cold fronts'', are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >2 over 10-50 kpc, accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM), if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter (CDM) models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging sub-cluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the ...

  13. Cold fronts in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghizzardi, Simona; Molendi, Silvano

    2010-01-01

    Cold fronts have been observed in a large number of galaxy clusters. Understanding their nature and origin is of primary importance for the investigation of the internal dynamics of clusters. To gain insight on the nature of these features, we carry out a statistical investigation of their occurrence in a sample of galaxy clusters observed with XMM-Newton and we correlate their presence with different cluster properties. We have selected a sample of 45 clusters starting from the B55 flux limited sample by Edge et al. (1990) and performed a systematic search of cold fronts. We find that a large fraction of clusters host at least one cold front. Cold fronts are easily detected in all systems that are manifestly undergoing a merger event in the plane of the sky while the presence of such features in the remaining clusters is related to the presence of a steep entropy gradient, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Assuming that cold fronts in cool core clusters are triggered by minor merger events, we esti...

  14. Characterizing Hot Spring Connectivity Using Aqueous Geochemistry in the River Group Springs, Yellowstone NP, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, M. M.; Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the aqueous geochemical components of 11 springs in the River Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. For the springs sampled, we found pHs ranging from a low of ˜4.8 to a high of ˜9.6; TDS (as inferred from electrical conductivity measurements) was roughly correlated to pH, with the lowest pH spring being the most dilute (373 µS) and the highest pH spring having the second highest conductivity (1384 µS). In combination with a shallow ground temperature survey and visual observations of the relative water levels in the springs, the spring chemistries support a conceptual model of fracture-controlled fluid flow in which individual springs demonstrate a surprising level of flowpath isolation. We hypothesize that variations in flowpath permeability lead to steam-heating of low-pH springs, while nearby circumneutral springs are heated by upwelling liquid hydrothermal fluids, high in chlorid and other dissolved components. If our hypothesis is correct, it implies that vaporand liquid-dominated zones of Model III hydrothermal systems can coexist in close proximity, resulting in a complex surface expression of acid-sulfate and chloride-rich circum-neutral springs.

  15. Spring Enterprise Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Spring Framework is a widely adopted enterprise and general Java framework. The release of Spring Framework 3.0 has added many improvements and new features for Spring development. Written by Gary Mak of the best-selling Spring Recipes and Josh Long, an expert Spring user and developer, Spring Enterprise Recipes is one of the first books on the new Spring 3. This key book focuses on Spring Framework 3.0, the latest version available, and a framework-related suite of tools, extensions, plug-ins, modules, and more-all of which you may want and need for building three-tier Java EE application

  16. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  17. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  18. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Borri, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent results in high-resolution spectroscopy on cold molecules. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules addresses issues of symmetry violation, like in the search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and the studies on energy differences in enantiomers of chiral species; tries to improve the precision to which fundamental physical constants are known and tests for their possible variation in time and space; tests quantum electrodynamics, and searches for a fifth force. Further, we briefly review the recent technological progresses in the fields of cold molecules and mid-infrared lasers, which are the tools that mainly set the limits for the resolution that is currently attainable in the measurements.

  19. Warm summers during Younger Dryas cold reversal over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Frederik; Muschitiello, Francesco; Heikkilä, Miaja; Väliranta, Minna; Tarasov, Lev; Brandefelt, Jenny; Johansson, Arne; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The Younger Dryas cold reversal (GS-1) sticks out as a major stadial interrupting the mid to late deglaciation with a sharp temperature drop of several degrees around the North Atlantic with global teleconnections. The abrupt return to a very cold glacial-like ocean state introduces a strong temperature anomaly to the climate system contrasting the high solar radiation received by northern summers. Here we show that, in contrast to earlier coarse resolution climate simulations of the Younger Dryas, these competing factors result in rather warm summer conditions over Eurasia comparable to the preceding warm period of the late Allerød (GI-1a). Despite up to 10 K colder sea-surface-temperatures in summer, our high resolution simulation with the Community Earth System Model 1 (CESM1.0.5) suggests that the presence of large ice sheets over Scandinavia, Spitsbergen and the Kara Sea significantly modifies atmospheric flow in summer preventing cold westerly winds from the Atlantic to impact the continent. Instead, fluid dynamics around ice sheets deflect winds to the north or south along the coasts supported by divergent flow from ice domes, stratification and increased tendency to high pressure and atmospheric blocking. Consistent with our model simulation, we show that temperature reconstructions derived from an extended compilation of multi-proxy lake records (chironomids, aquatic pollen, macrofossils) suggest warm July conditions of 13-17° C for continental Europe with exception of coastal and high elevation sites. The analysis of simulated growing degree days, season length and first results from paleo lake modelling driven by climate model output suggests that severe winter to spring conditions significantly delay and shorten the vegetation season but do not produce cold summers as previously simulated.

  20. Origin of Mineral Springs on the East Coast, North Island, NZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, T.M.; Glover, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Strongly mineralized waters emerge as warm and cold springs from parts of a Cenozoic accretionary prism which extends along the East Coast of the North Island. The chemistry of these waters is consistent with them having been derived from connate sea water in deeply-buried marine sediments and is distinct from springs in other parts of the prism and elsewhere in New Zealand. Most of these mineral springs are associated with three, long-wavelength, magnetic anomalies which modeling suggests are caused by deeply-buried ophiolite bodies within the prism or by seamounts on the top of the subducted Pacific Plate underlying the prism. It is postulated that these deep-seated bodies have facilitated the dewatering of marine sediments from deep within the prism or from the subducted plate. This ''devolved sea water'' has then risen, been modified by contact with overlying sediments and mixed with near-surface meteoric waters, before emerging at the mineral springs.

  1. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  2. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  3. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  4. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  5. Phase 1 spring and seep report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the overall objective of the WSSRAP to characterize the potential environmental and health impacts posed by the Weldon Spring Site, the Phase I Spring and Seep sampling effort was undertaken to evaluate the migration of site-related contaminants through conduit type groundwater flow. Samples were collected from springs during both high and low flow stages. Samples were analyzed for uranium, nitroaromatic compounds, CLP metals, and inorganic anions. Eight of the 27 springs which were sampled in a 2 mile radius of the site were found to contain levels of contaminants above calculated background levels. This report details the rationale, sampling and analytical methodologies, the analytical results, and the interpretation of transport mechanisms for each of the positive results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  6. EASTER- a floating holiday in spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雷生

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 260 million North Americans(85%) are Christians. As in other Christian lands,the greatest religious festival of the year in Canada and the United States is Easter. Easter is a joyous spring day commemorating the res-

  7. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  8. Low-temperature geothermal potential of the Ojo Caliente warm springs area, northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.D.; Stix, J.; Goff, F.; Pearson, C.F.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 17 waters (thermal and cold, mineralized and dilute) was performed in the Ojo Caliente-La Madera area. Two types of thermomineral waters have separate and distinctive geologic, geochemical, and geothermal characteristics. The water from Ojo Caliente Resort emerges with temperatures less than or equal to 54/sup 0/C from a Precambrian metarhyolite. Its chemistry, typically Na-HCO/sub 3/, has a total mineralization of 3600 mg/l. Isotopic studies have shown that the thermal water emerges from the springs and a hot well without significant mixing with the cold shallow aquifer of the valley alluvium. However, the cold aquifer adjacent to the resort does contain varying amounts of thermal water that originates from the warm spring system. Geothermometry calculations indicate that the thermal water may be as hot as 85/sup 0/C at depth before its ascent toward surface. Thermodynamic computations on the reaction states of numerous mineral phases suggest that the thermal water will not cause major scaling problems if the hot water is utilized for direct-use geothermal applications. By means of a network of very shallow holes, temperature and electrical conductivity anomalies have been found elsewhere in the valley around Ojo Caliente, and resistivity soundings have confirmed the presence of a plume of thermal water entering the shallow aquifer. The group of lukewarm springs around La Madera, with temperatures less than or equal to 29/sup 0/C, chemical type of NaCaMg-HCO/sub 3/Cl and with a total mineralization less than or equal to 1500 mg/l behaves as a different system without any apparent relation to the Ojo Caliente system. Its temperature at depth is not believed to exceed 35 to 40/sup 0/C.

  9. The Affective Legacy of Silent Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    In the fiftieth year since the publication of Silent Spring, the importance of Rachel Carson’s work can be measured in its affective influence on contemporary environmental writing across the humanities. The ground broken by Silent Spring in creating new forms of writing has placed affect at the very centre of contemporary narratives that call for pro-environmental beliefs and behaviours. A critical public-feelings framework is used to explore these issues and trace their passage from the pri...

  10. Present status of SPring-8 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPring-8 (Super Photon ring- 8 GeV) is the facility of a 'third generation' synchrotron radiation source in the X-ray region. The facility consists of an accelerator complex and 61 photon beamlines, and is under construction in Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The commissioning of the storage ring is expected in spring 1997 and 10 beamlines will be installed by FY 1998. The present status is described in this paper. (author)

  11. Preparation of biomimetic photoresponsive polymer springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Supitchaya; Villemin, Elise; Lancia, Federico; Aβhoff, Sarah-Jane; Fletcher, Stephen P; Katsonis, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Polymer springs that twist under irradiation with light, in a manner that mimics how plant tendrils twist and turn under the effect of differential expansion in different sections of the plant, show potential for soft robotics and the development of artificial muscles. The soft springs prepared using this protocol are typically 1 mm wide, 50 μm thick and up to 10 cm long. They are made from liquid crystal polymer networks in which an azobenzene derivative is introduced covalently as a molecular photo-switch. The polymer network is prepared by irradiation of a twist cell filled with a mixture of shape-persistent liquid crystals, liquid crystals having reactive end groups, molecular photo-switches, some chiral dopant and a small amount of photoinitiator. After postcuring, the soft polymer film is removed and cut into springs, the geometry of which is determined by the angle of cut. The material composing the springs is characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength measurements. The springs operate at ambient temperature, by mimicking the orthogonal contraction mechanism that is at the origin of plant coiling. They shape-shift under irradiation with UV light and can be pre-programmed to either wind or unwind, as encoded in their geometry. Once illumination is stopped, the springs return to their initial shape. Irradiation with visible light accelerates the shape reversion. PMID:27583641

  12. Leaf spring puller for nuclear fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, J.L.

    1981-11-03

    A fuel rod puller in the form of a collet for pulling fuel rods from a storage area into grids of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. The rod puller moves longitudinally through the grids to a storage area where projections on the end of leaf springs grasp onto an end plug in a fuel rod. Drive apparatus then pulls the rod puller and connected fuel rod from the storage area into the fuel assembly grids. The rod puller includes an outer tube having leaf springs on one end thereof in one modification, mounted within the outer tube is a movable plunger which acts to urge the leaf springs outwardly to a position to permit passing or with the end of a end plug. Upon withdrawal of the plunger, the leaf springs move into a groove formed in the end of a fuel rod end plug, and the fuel rod subsequently is pulled into the fuel assembly grids. In another modification, the leaf springs on the outer rod are biased in an outward direction and a longitudinally movable tube on the outer rod is moved in a direction to contract the leaf springs into a position where the projections thereof engage the groove formed in a fuel rod end plug.

  13. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  14. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  15. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  16. 扩展Spring MVC模块的Web应用%Web Application of Extended Spring MVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖福保

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the application of Spring MVC framework. It analyzed the controller, model, and view of MVC framework. To compensate for the deficiency of Spring MVC, it introduced the AJAX technology into Spring MVC to have it extended. The extended Spring MVC is easier to maintain, and has been proved to be feasible and valid in a typical Web application.%叙述了Spring MVC模块的应用,对MVC模块中的控制器、模型和视图进行了分析,然后针对目前Spring MVC模块的不足,对此模块进行了扩展,并将AJAX技术引入到Spring MVC模块中,具有易维护性.在扩展Spring MVC模块的基础上设计了1个典型的Web应用,表明了扩展Spring MVC模块的可行性和有效性.

  17. Establishment of a Spring Design Formula for Low Temperature Use of Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Yadav

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Normally the springs are designed for room temperature conditions and the equations of elasticity are used to correlate the spring parameters. However, when the spring are required for use at low temperatures, these equations do not hold fairly good for design purpose. In this paper the establishment of new formula, that can be used for designing the springs for use at low temperature conditions has been discussed. Tests have been carried out at 20 degree calcius and -40 degree calcius to check the reliability of this formula. The formula has given satisfactory results.

  18. Zeaxanthin-independent energy quenching and alternative electron sinks cause a decoupling of the relationship between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthesis in an evergreen conifer during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Wong, Christopher Y S; Junker, Laura Verena; Chang, Christine Yao-Yun; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In evergreen conifers, the winter down-regulation of photosynthesis and its recovery during spring are the result of a reorganization of the chloroplast and adjustments of energy-quenching mechanisms. These phenological changes may remain undetected by remote sensing, as conifers retain green foliage during periods of photosynthetic down-regulation. The aim was to assess if the timing of the spring recovery of photosynthesis and energy-quenching characteristics are accurately monitored by the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) in the evergreen conifer Pinus strobus. The recovery of photosynthesis was studied using chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange, leaf spectral reflectance, and photosynthetic pigment measurements. To assess if climate change might affect the recovery of photosynthesis, seedlings were exposed to cold spring conditions or warm spring conditions with elevated temperature. An early spring decoupling of the relationship between photosynthesis and PRI in both treatments was observed. This was caused by differences between the timing of the recovery of photosynthesis and the timing of carotenoid and chlorophyll pool size adjustments which are the main factors controlling PRI during spring. It was also demonstrated that zeaxanthin-independent NPQ mechanisms undetected by PRI further contributed to the early spring decoupling of the PRI-LUE relationship. An important mechanism undetected by PRI seems to involve increased electron transport around photosystem I, which was a significant energy sink during the entire spring transition, particularly in needles exposed to a combination of high light and cold temperatures. PMID:26386258

  19. Zeaxanthin-independent energy quenching and alternative electron sinks cause a decoupling of the relationship between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthesis in an evergreen conifer during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Wong, Christopher Y S; Junker, Laura Verena; Chang, Christine Yao-Yun; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In evergreen conifers, the winter down-regulation of photosynthesis and its recovery during spring are the result of a reorganization of the chloroplast and adjustments of energy-quenching mechanisms. These phenological changes may remain undetected by remote sensing, as conifers retain green foliage during periods of photosynthetic down-regulation. The aim was to assess if the timing of the spring recovery of photosynthesis and energy-quenching characteristics are accurately monitored by the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) in the evergreen conifer Pinus strobus. The recovery of photosynthesis was studied using chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange, leaf spectral reflectance, and photosynthetic pigment measurements. To assess if climate change might affect the recovery of photosynthesis, seedlings were exposed to cold spring conditions or warm spring conditions with elevated temperature. An early spring decoupling of the relationship between photosynthesis and PRI in both treatments was observed. This was caused by differences between the timing of the recovery of photosynthesis and the timing of carotenoid and chlorophyll pool size adjustments which are the main factors controlling PRI during spring. It was also demonstrated that zeaxanthin-independent NPQ mechanisms undetected by PRI further contributed to the early spring decoupling of the PRI-LUE relationship. An important mechanism undetected by PRI seems to involve increased electron transport around photosystem I, which was a significant energy sink during the entire spring transition, particularly in needles exposed to a combination of high light and cold temperatures.

  20. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  1. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Dijk

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  2. Gating ratchet for cold atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gommers, R.; Lebedev, V.; Brown, M.; Renzoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a gating ratchet with cold rubidium atoms in a driven near-resonant optical lattice. A single-harmonic periodic modulation of the optical potential depth is applied, together with a single-harmonic rocking force. Directed motion is observed as a result of the breaking of the symmetries of the system.

  3. The Cultural Impact on the Traditional Spring Festival Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳

    2015-01-01

    Spring Festival will surely be considered as the most important festival among Chinese colorful occasions.This study attempts to analyze several typical rituals of Spring Festival from the cultural aspects,digging out the cultural factors and cultur-al connotation from the activity like the Family Reunion Dinner,Spring Couplets,the Spring Festival Gala,etc.

  4. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > ... things once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the ...

  5. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  6. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  7. Experimental Investigation Of Polymeric Compound Cross Section Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayas Al-Mahasne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the characteristic of the compound cross section springs on models made from polymeric materials (organic glass. Two constructive variants of the compound spring sections were specified with the help of criteria of similarity. The criterion of similarity of natural and model springs was determined by the simulation method at particular spring deflection. The problem of simulation was brought to accurate determination of the magnitudes that characterize the physical and mechanical properties of materials for natural and model springs. It was experimentally proved that the use of the proposed new type of springs significantly increases the spring stiffness.

  8. SCIENCES IN COLD AND ARID REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aims and Scope Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, an international Engiish-language journal, is devoted to publishing the latest research achievements on the process and the pattern of Earth surface system in cold and arid regions. Researches in cold regions 1) emphasize particularly on the cold-region-characterized physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions, and on the response of Cryosphere to Global change and Human activities as well as its effect to environment and the acclimatizable

  9. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of burping in irradiated cold solid methane

  10. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of ''burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The cold equation of state of tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudin, Sven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Corckett, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wills, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In high-pressure isentropic compression experiments (ICE), the pressure is dominated by the cold curve. In order to obtain an accurate semi-empirical cold curve for Ta, we calculate the thermal pressure from ab initio phonon and electronic excitation spectra. The cold curve is then inferred from ultrasonic and shock data. Our empirical cold pressure is compared to density functional calculations and found to be closer to GGA results at low pressure and to approach LDA at high pressure.

  12. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  13. Finger cold-induced vasodilation : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5-10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes prece

  14. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  15. Simulation of double cold cores of the 35°N section in the Yellow Sea with a wave-tide-circulation coupled model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长水; 乔方利; 张勐宁; 杨永增; 袁业立

    2004-01-01

    Based on the MASNUM wave-tide-circulation coupled numerical model, the temperature structure along 35°N in the Yellow Sea was simulated and compared with the observations. One of the notable features of the temperature structure along 35°N section is the double cold cores phenomena during spring and summer. The double cold cores refer to the two cold water centers located near 122°E and 125°E from the depth of 30m to bottom. The formation, maintenance and disappearance of the double cold cores are discussed. At least two reasons make the temperature in the center (near 123°E) of the section higher than that near the west and east shores in winter. One reason is that the water there is deeper than the west and east sides so its heat content is higher. The other is invasion of the warm water brought by the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) during winter.This temperature pattern of the lower layer (from 30m to bottom) is maintained through spring and summer when the upper layer (0 to 30m) is heated and strong thermocline is formed. Large zonal span of the 35°N section (about 600 km) makes the cold cores have more opportunity to survive. The double cold cores phenomena disappears in early autumn when the west cold core vanishes first with the dropping of the thermocline position.

  16. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  17. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  18. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  19. Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Schou, Mads F; Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance in field-caught Drosophila subobscura is high in early spring and lower during summer and whether this transition is associated with seasonal changes in the capacity of flies to preserve water and ion balance during cold stress. Indeed, flies caught during summer were less cold tolerant, and exposure of these flies to sub-zero temperatures caused a loss of haemolymph water and increased the concentration of K(+) in the haemolymph (as in laboratory-reared insects). This pattern of ion and water balance disruption was not observed in more cold-tolerant flies caught in early spring. Thus, we here provide a field verification of hypotheses based on laboratory studies and conclude that the ability to maintain ion homeostasis is important for the ability of free-ranging insects to cope with chilling. PMID:27165627

  20. Climate field reconstruction of East Asian spring temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ohyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a first attempt of dendroclimatic field reconstruction, based upon five ring-width chronologies from living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March–May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM3 between 35–40° E and 125–140° N was reconstructed for the period of 1784–1990 AD. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in China and Japan. The west-Japan temperature series recovered also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. These comparisons revealed that climatic field reconstruction using tree-ring chronologies in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for East Asia.

  1. Changes in the East Asian Cold Season since 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ke; CHEN Wen; ZHOU Wen

    2011-01-01

    Using NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data and observational data from meteorological stations in China, the evolution of the East Asian cold season (EACS) and its long-term changes after 2000 were studied. A monsoon tendency index (MTI), defined as the temporal difference of the East Asian monsoon index, indicates that the winter monsoon setup has been postponed in autumn, while the setup has quickened in early winter. In mid winter, the EACS breakdown process has accelerated, while it has lingered in late winter.The authors suggest that the postponement of monsoon setup in autumn may be caused by strong global warming at the lower levels, which further limits the setup time period and leads to the quickening of the setup process in early winter. Meanwhile, a north-south seesaw of temperature tendency change in China can be observed in December and February, which may be related to large-scale circulation changes in the stratosphere, characterized by a polar warming in mid winter and polar cooling in early spring. This linkage is possibly caused by the dynamical coupling between stratosphere and troposphere, via the variation of planetary wave activities. In spring, the speed of the EACS breakdown has decreased, which favors the revival of the EACS in East Asia.

  2. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Selection of material is based on the cost and strength of material. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy, storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio compared to steel. This paper briefs about the research carried out for the part of three decades on design, analysis, and selection of material, experiments and fabrication of composite leaf spring.   Keywords: Composite Leaf Spring, Composite Materials, Finite Element Analysis, Weight Reduction, Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP.

  3. Cold dark matter heats up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio

    2014-02-13

    A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities.

  4. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  5. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  6. Investigation of the microbial community in the Odisha hot spring cluster based on the cultivation independent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archana; Subudhi, Enketeswara; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Gaur, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Deulajhari hot spring is located in the Angul district of Odisha. The significance of this hot spring is the presence of the hot spring cluster adjacent to the cold spring which attracts the attention of microbiologists to understand the role of physio-chemical factors of these springs on bacterial community structure. Next-generation sequencing technology helps us to depict the pioneering microflora of any ecological niche based on metagenomic approach. Our study represents the first Illumina based metagenomic study of Deulajhari hot spring DH1, and DH2 of the cluster with temperature 65 °C to 55 °C respectively establishing a difference of 10 °C. Comprehensive study of microbiota of these two hot springs was done using the metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA of V3‐V4 region extracting metagenomic DNA from the two hot spring sediments. Sequencing community DNA reported about 28 phyla in spring DH1 of which the majority were Chloroflexi (22.98%), Proteobacteria (15.51%), Acidobacteria (14.51%), Chlorobi (9.52%), Nitrospirae (8.54%), and Armatimonadetes (7.07%), at the existing physiochemical conditions like; temperature 65 °C, pH 8.06, electro conductivity 0.020 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 3.76%. About 40 phyla were detected in cluster DH2 at the existing physiochemical parameters like temperature 55 °C, pH 8.10, electro conductivity 0.019 dSm− 1, and total organic carbon (TOC) 0.58% predominated with Chloroflexi (41.98%), Proteobacteria (10.74%), Nitrospirae (10.01%), Chlorobi (8.73%), Acidobacteria (6.73%) and Planctomycetes (3.73%). Approximately 68 class, 107 order, 171 genus and 184 species were reported in cluster DH1 but 102 class, 180 order, 375 genus and 411 species in cluster DH2. The comparative metagenomics study of the Deulajhari hot spring clusters DH1, and DH2 depicts the differential profile of the microbiota. Metagenome sequences of these two hot spring clusters are deposited to the SRA database and are available in

  7. The numerical investigation of seasonal variation of the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf and its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhenhua; QIAO Fangli; XIA Changshui; WANG Gang

    2015-01-01

    A wave-tide-circulation coupled model based on the Princeton Ocean Model is established to explore the seasonal variation of the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf and its mechanisms. The results show that the cold water mass starts forming in March, reaches the maximum strength during June and July, and fades away since October. Strong mixing in winter transports the cold water from sea surface to bottom. The cold water mass remains in the bottom layer as the thermocline strengthens during spring, except for the shallow water where the themocline is broken by strong tidal mixing, which gradually separate the cold water mass from its surrounding warm water. Further analysis on the ocean current and stream function confirms that the cold water mass in the Beibu Gulf is locally developed, with an anticlockwise circulation caused by a strong temperature gradient. Sensitivity experiments reveal that the cold water mass is controlled by the sea surface heat flux, while the terrain and tidal mixing also play important roles.

  8. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers w...

  9. Acclimatization to cold in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a cold environment in mammals, with specific reference to human beings. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activities. Hibernation, heat production, heat loss, vascular responses, body insulation, shivering thermogenesis, water immersion, exercise responses, and clinical symptoms and hypothermia in the elderly are discussed.

  10. Cold denaturation of staphylococcal nuclease.

    OpenAIRE

    Griko, Y. V.; Privalov, P L; Sturtevant, J M; Venyaminov SYu

    1988-01-01

    Denaturation of staphylococcal nuclease was studied in a temperature range from -7 to 70 degrees C by scanning microcalorimetry and spectropolarimetry. It was found that the native protein is maximally stable at about 20 degrees C and is denatured upon heating and cooling from this temperature. The heat and cold denaturation processes are approximated rather well by a two-state transition showing that the molecule is composed of a single cooperative system. The main difference between these t...

  11. A Cold Strontium Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Lyon, Mary; Blaser, Kelvin; Harper, Stuart; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-03-01

    We present a cold ion source for strontium 87. The source is based off of a standard Low-Velocity-Intense-Source (LVIS) for strontium using permanent magnets in place of anti-Helmholtz coils. Atoms from the LVIS are then ionized in a two photon process as they pass a 20kV anode plate. The result is a mono-energetic beam of ions whose velocity is tunable. Applications for the ions include spectroscopy and ion interferometry.

  12. Quantum synapse for cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kouzaev, G A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the quantum synaptic effect is studied that arisen in the system of two crossed wires excited by the static (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) currents. The potential barrier between the two orthogonal atom streams is controlled electronically and the atoms can be transferred from one wire to another under certain critical values of the RF and DC currents. The results are interesting in the study of quantum interferometry and quantum registering of cold atoms.

  13. Cold and Slow Molecular Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Julia; Patterson, Dave; Lu, Hsin-I; Wright, Matthew; Doyle, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Employing a two-stage cryogenic buffer gas cell, we produce a cold, hydrodynamically extracted beam of calcium monohydride molecules with a near effusive velocity distribution. Beam dynamics, thermalization and slowing are studied using laser spectroscopy. The key to this hybrid, effusive-like beam source is a “slowing cell” placed immediately after a hydrodynamic, cryogenic source [Patterson et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 126, 154307]. The resulting CaH beams are created in two regimes. In on...

  14. Cold ion-neutral reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Felix Henry Joynson

    2013-01-01

    Cold ion-neutral reactive processes were studied in an hybrid trap down to average collision energies /k_B > 20 mK. The atomic ion-neutral systems Ca^+ + Rb and Ba^+ + Rb were studied, and the results interpreted with high-level quantum chemical and quantum scattering calculations. Three reactive processes were found to be in competition, namely non-radiative charge transfer induced by non-adiabatic couplings between potential energy surfaces, radiative charge transfer, and radiative associat...

  15. The status of 'cold fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called 'cold fusion', are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would yield information germane to accepted areas of scientific inquiry and technological utility

  16. Superheavy nuclei – cold synthesis and structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj K Gupta

    2001-08-01

    The quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), given for the cold synthesis of new and superheavy elements, is reviewed and the use of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) and targets (RNT) is discussed. The QMFT is a complete theory of cold nuclear phenomena, namely, the cold fission, cold fusion and cluster radioactivity. Also, the structure calculations based on the axially deformed relativistic mean field (DRMF) approach are presented which predict new regions of spherical magicity, namely = 120 and = 172 or 184, for superheavy nuclei. This result is discussed in the light of recent experiments reporting the cold synthesis of = 118 element.

  17. The COLD-SAT program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite is an experimental spacecraft launched from an expendable launch vehicle which is designed to investigate the systems and technologies required for efficient and reliable management of cryogenic fluid in the reduced-gravity space environment. Future applications such as Space Station, Space Transportation Vehicle (STV), external tank (ET), aft cargo carrier (ACC) propellant scavenging, storage depots, and lunar and interplanetary missions, among others, have provided the impetus to pursue this technology in a timely manner to support the design efforts. A refined conceptual approach has been developed and an overview of the COLD-SAT program is described which includes the following: (1) a definition of the technology needs and the accompanying experimental six-month baseline mission; (2) a description of the experiment subsystem, major features, and rationale for satisfaction of primary and secondary experiment requirements using LH2 as the test fluid; and (3) a presentation of the conceptual design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft subsystems which support the on-orbit experiment with emphasis on those areas which posed the greatest technical challenge.

  18. Micro-Kelvin cold molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique for direct production of cold molecules using a combination of techniques from atomic optical and molecular physics and physical chemistry. The ability to produce samples of cold molecules has application in a broad spectrum of technical fields high-resolution spectroscopy, remote sensing, quantum computing, materials simulation, and understanding fundamental chemical dynamics. Researchers around the world are currently exploring many techniques for producing samples of cold molecules, but to-date these attempts have offered only limited success achieving milli-Kelvin temperatures with low densities. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project is to develops a new experimental technique for producing micro-Kelvin temperature molecules via collisions with laser cooled samples of trapped atoms. The technique relies on near mass degenerate collisions between the molecule of interest and a laser cooled (micro-Kelvin) atom. A subset of collisions will transfer all (nearly all) of the kinetic energy from the 'hot' molecule, cooling the molecule at the expense of heating the atom. Further collisions with the remaining laser cooled atoms will thermally equilibrate the molecules to the micro-Kelvin temperature of the laser-cooled atoms.

  19. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  20. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  1. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  2. Novel electrostatic trap for cold polar molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xue-Yan; Ma Hui; Yin Jian-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme in which cold polar molecules are trapped by an electrostatic field generated by the combination of a pair of parallel transparent electrodes (i.e., two infinite transparent plates) and a ring electrode (i.e., a ring wire). The spatial distributions of the electrostatic fields from the above charged wire and the charged plates and the corresponding Stark potentials for cold CO molecules are calculated; the dependences of the trap centre position on the geometric parameters of the electrode are analysed. We also discuss the loading process of cold molecules from a cold molecular beam into our trap. This study shows that the proposed scheme is not only simple and convenient to trap, manipulate and control cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states, but also provides an opportunity to study cold collisions and collective quantum effects in a variety of cold molecular systems, etc.

  3. Rapid cold hardening increases cold and chilling tolerances more than acclimation in the adults of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Xiao, Yu-Yu; Li, Bo

    2011-11-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata is a new, invasive pest of Platanus trees in China. Although C. ciliata is often subjected to acute low temperatures in early winter and spring in northern and eastern China, the cold tolerance of C. ciliata has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to determine whether adults of C. ciliata are capable of rapid cold hardening (RCH), and to compare the benefits of RCH vs. cold acclimation (ACC) in the laboratory. When the adult females incubated at 26°C were transferred directly to the discriminating temperature (-12°C) for 2 h, survival was only 22%. However, exposure to 0°C for 4 h before transfer to -12°C for 2 h induced RCH, i.e., increased survival to 68%. RCH could also be induced by gradual cooling of the insects at rates between 0.1 and 0.25°C min(-1). The protection against cold shock obtained through RCH at 0°C for 4 h was lost within 1h if the adults were returned to 26°C before exposure to -12°C. Survival at both -12 and -5°C was greater for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults (for ACC, adults were kept at 15°C for 5 days), and the lethal temperature (2 h exposure) was lower for RCH-treated than for ACC-treated adults. The results suggest that RCH may help C. ciliata survive the acute low temperatures that often occur in early winter and early spring in northern and eastern China.

  4. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  5. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  6. Keqiao Spring Expo: More Professional, More Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009 (China-Keqiao) International Textile Fabrics & Accessories Exhibition (here named "Spring Expo" for short), organized by Shaoxing County People's Government, China Textile City Exhibition & Convention Co., Ltd., Shanghai Gehua Exhibition Plan Co.,Ltd. as well as Shaoxing City Xingji Exhibition Co.,Ltd., was held during May 8-10, 2009at the China Textile City International Convention & Exhibition Center.

  7. Failure Analysis of Aviation Torsional Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Weiguo; ZHANG Weifang; LIU Xiao; WANG Zongren; DING Meili

    2011-01-01

    Cracks and fractures occur during the assembly process to a type of torsional springs used in the aviation mechanism.Besides visual examination,other experimental techniques used for the investigation are:1) fracture characteristics,damage morphology and ffactography by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),2) spectrum analysis of covering,3) metallographic observation of cracks and 4) hydrogen content testing.The results are obtained through the analysis of manufacture process and experimental data.Since no changes of microstructure are found,failures are irrelevant to the material.The cracks and fractures initiate on the inner surface,cracks initiate before the cadmium plating and after the winding.No obvious stress corrosion cracks are found near the crack source region.The opening direction of cracks is consistent with the residual tensile stress of the spring inner surface,and the springs are easy to contact hydrogen media between the spring winding and the cadmium plating.The cracks are caused by hydrogen-induced delayed cracking under the action of the residual tensile stress and hydrogen.

  8. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  9. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  10. Transient behaviour of a vehicle leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Bester; M. C. van Schoor

    1994-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic force transfer characteristics of an asymmetric tapered leafspring of a South African truck were experimentally determined by measuring the direction dependent stiffnesses and lowest natural frequency. The test results were also used to verify and modify a Rayleigh-Ritz dynamic model of the spring.

  11. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a numerical approach for analyzing parameter excited vibrations on a gas compressor, induced by the nonlinear characteristic of the arc spring feature of certain designs of squeeze film dampers, SFDs. The behavior of the journal is studied in preparation ...

  12. Isotopic, chemical and dissolved gas constraints on spring water from Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico): evidence of gas water interaction between magmatic component and shallow fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguaggiato, S.; Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L.; Aguayo, A.; Capasso, G.; Favara, R.

    2005-03-01

    Geochemical research was carried out on cold and hot springs at Popocatepetl (Popo) volcano (Mexico) in 1999 to identify a possible relationship with magmatic activity. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluids is compatible with strong gas-water interaction between deep and shallow fluids. In fact, the isotopic composition of He and dissolved carbon species is consistent with a magmatic origin. The presence of a geothermal system having a temperature of 80-100° C was estimated on the basis of liquid geothermometers. A large amount of dissolved CO 2 in the springs was also detected and associated with high CO 2 degassing.

  13. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  14. Effects of extreme spring temperatures on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Extreme events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on extreme events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by temperatures. An arising question is how plants respond to an extreme warm spell when following an extreme cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This extreme weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced temperature difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of extreme warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to extreme warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.

  15. Cold adaptation increases rates of nutrient flow and metabolic plasticity during cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; McCue, Marshall D; Sunny, Nishanth E; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J; Allison, David B; Hahn, Daniel A

    2016-09-14

    Metabolic flexibility is an important component of adaptation to stressful environments, including thermal stress and latitudinal adaptation. A long history of population genetic studies suggest that selection on core metabolic enzymes may shape life histories by altering metabolic flux. However, the direct relationship between selection on thermal stress hardiness and metabolic flux has not previously been tested. We investigated flexibility of nutrient catabolism during cold stress in Drosophila melanogaster artificially selected for fast or slow recovery from chill coma (i.e. cold-hardy or -susceptible), specifically testing the hypothesis that stress adaptation increases metabolic turnover. Using (13)C-labelled glucose, we first showed that cold-hardy flies more rapidly incorporate ingested carbon into amino acids and newly synthesized glucose, permitting rapid synthesis of proline, a compound shown elsewhere to improve survival of cold stress. Second, using glucose and leucine tracers we showed that cold-hardy flies had higher oxidation rates than cold-susceptible flies before cold exposure, similar oxidation rates during cold exposure, and returned to higher oxidation rates during recovery. Additionally, cold-hardy flies transferred compounds among body pools more rapidly during cold exposure and recovery. Increased metabolic turnover may allow cold-adapted flies to better prepare for, resist and repair/tolerate cold damage. This work illustrates for the first time differences in nutrient fluxes associated with cold adaptation, suggesting that metabolic costs associated with cold hardiness could invoke resource-based trade-offs that shape life histories. PMID:27605506

  16. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  17. Contaminant discharge in habitat springs of the Barton Springs Salamander during storm rainfall events

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic habitat of the endangered Barton Springs salamander, Eurycea sosorum, in Travis County, Texas can potentially be impacted by contaminants in surface runoff...

  18. Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinke, Patrick Thomas (Inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (Inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

  19. Probing cold dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars

  20. The Herschel Cold Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Andras

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel "DUst around NEarby Stars (DUNES)" survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue we carefully examine the alternative explanation, that the detections arise from confusion with IR cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground star. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  1. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  2. Probing cold dense nuclear matter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, R.; Monaghan, P.; Shneor, R.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Arrington, J.; Physics; Kent State Univ.; Tel Aviv Univ.; California State Univ. Los Angeles

    2008-06-13

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  3. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  4. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Subedi, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; De Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X -C; Zhu, L; 10.1126/science.1156675

    2009-01-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, where a proton is knocked-out of the nucleus with high momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in 12C the neutron-proton pairs are nearly twenty times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  5. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  6. Cold stream stability during minor mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liang; Feng, Longlong; Macciò, Andrea V; Chang, Jiang; Kang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We use high-resolution Eulerian simulations to study the stability of cold gas flows in a galaxy size dark matter halo (10^12 Msun) at redshift z=2. Our simulations show that a cold stream penetrating a hot gaseous halo is stable against thermal convection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We then investigate the effect of a satellite orbiting the main halo in the plane of the stream. The satellite is able to perturb the stream and to inhibit cold gas accretion towards the center of the halo for 0.5 Gyr. However, if the supply of cold gas at large distances is kept constant, the cold stream is able to re-establish itself after 0.3 Gyr. We conclude that cold streams are very stable against a large variety of internal and external perturbations.

  7. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources

  8. Archaeological resources of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...

  9. On the Usefulness of Radioactive Hot Springs in Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J. C.; Bywaters, K. F.; Magnuson, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a systematic characterization of the radiation environment, water temperatures, and microbial systems of Worswick Hot Springs, as a model for future characterization of polar hot spring environments.

  10. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  12. The Spring Festival(高二适用)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳璠

    2002-01-01

    The Spring Festival, the traditional Chinese New Year's Day, is China's most important national holiday. Almost everyone in China's cities enjoy sat least three days off work to celebrate the Spring Festival. The celebration lasts even longer in the countryside,

  13. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  14. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  15. Cold atom Clocks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bize, S; Abgrall, M; Marion, H; Maksimovic, I; Cacciapuoti, L; Gruenert, J; Vian, C; Dos Santos, F P; Rosenbusch, P; Lemonde, P; Santarelli, G; Wolf, P; Clairon, A; Luiten, A; Tobar, M; Salomon, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes advances in microwave frequency standards using laser-cooled atoms at BNM-SYRTE. First, recent improvements of the $^{133}$Cs and $^{87}$Rb atomic fountains are described. Thanks to the routine use of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator as an ultra-stable local frequency reference, a fountain frequency instability of $1.6\\times 10^{-14}\\tau^{-1/2}$ where $\\tau $ is the measurement time in seconds is measured. The second advance is a powerful method to control the frequency shift due to cold collisions. These two advances lead to a frequency stability of $2\\times 10^{-16}$ at $50,000s for the first time for primary standards. In addition, these clocks realize the SI second with an accuracy of $7\\times 10^{-16}$, one order of magnitude below that of uncooled devices. In a second part, we describe tests of possible variations of fundamental constants using $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs fountains. Finally we give an update on the cold atom space clock PHARAO developed in collaboration with CNES. This ...

  16. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong Huei Lee; Cher Siang Tan; Shahrin Mohammad; Mahmood Md. Tahir; Poi Ngian Shek

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connection...

  17. Very Cold Gas and Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, F.; Pfenniger, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new candidate for baryonic dark matter: very cold molecular gas, in near-isothermal equilibrium with the cosmic background radiation at 2.73 K. The cold gas, of quasi-primordial abundances, is condensed in a fractal structure, resembling the hierarchical structure of the detected interstellar medium. We present some perspectives of detecting this very cold gas, either directly or indirectly. The H$_2$ molecule has an "ultrafine" structure, due to the interaction be...

  18. Rapid habituation of the cold shock response

    OpenAIRE

    Eglin, Clare M.; Butt, George; Howden, Stephen; Nash, Thomas; Costello, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Sudden immersion into cold water initiates a series of cardio-respiratory responses collectively known as the cold shock response (CSR) which may increase an individual's risk of drowning. The CSR is stimulated by a rapid fall in skin temperature and includes tachycardia, a reflex inspiratory gasp followed by uncontrollable hyperventilation. Repeated cold water immersions conducted over several days have been shown to reduce the magnitude of the CSR [1]. This study investigated whether an hab...

  19. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Ryan L.; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in ...

  20. Vitamin C and the common cold

    OpenAIRE

    HemilÀ Harri

    2008-01-01

    The effect of vitamin C on the common cold has been the subject of several studies. These studies do not support a considerable decrease in the incidence of the common cold with supplemental vitamin C. However, vitamin C has consistently decreased the duration of cold episodes, and the severity of symptoms. The benefits that have been observed in different studies show a large variation and, therefore, the clinical significance may not be clearly inferred from them. The biochemical explan...

  1. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  2. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    V.POZHILARASU; Dr. T.PARAMESHWARAN PILLAI

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carryin...

  3. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Huei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  4. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  5. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  7. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  8. Relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation in the finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) in the finger. Nine males and 34 females participated in the following 2 tests: a CIVD test and a self-reported survey. The CIVD test was conducted 30-min cold-water immersion (3.8 ± 0.3 °C) of the middle finger at an air temperature of 27.9 ± 0.1 °C. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about whole and local body cold and heat tolerances. By a cluster analysis on the survey results, the participants were divided into two groups: high self-identified cold tolerance (HSCT, n = 25) and low self-identified cold tolerance (LSCT, n = 18). LSCT had lower self-identified cold tolerance ( P predict physiological cold tolerance.

  9. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  10. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  11. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... the Hualapai Tribe, proposing to amend the Table of Allotments by allotting Channel 265A at Peach... second potential service at Peach Springs. Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona,...

  12. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  13. Deceptively Simple Harmonic Motion: A Mass on a Spiral Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, F. Alan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the oscillatory motion of a mass on a spiral (nonhelical) spring, and calculates the lowest eigenfrequency and the associated effective spring mass for a range of values of the attached mass. Analytic and numerical comparisons are made to the helical spring problem. (HM)

  14. Behavioural thermoregulation and bioenergetics of riverine smallmouth bass associated with ambient cold-period thermal refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Ettinger-Dietzel, Sarah; Dodd, H.R.; Siepker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous streams may behaviourally thermoregulate during the cold period (i.e., groundwater temperature greater than river water temperature) by inhabiting warm areas in the stream that result from high groundwater influence or springs. Our objectives were to determine movement of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) that use thermal refuge and project differences in growth and consumption among smallmouth bass exhibiting different thermal-use patterns. We implanted radio transmitters in 29 smallmouth bass captured in Alley Spring on the Jacks Fork River, Missouri, USA, during the winter of 2012. Additionally, temperature archival tags were implanted in a subset of nine fish. Fish were tracked using radio telemetry monthly from January 2012 through January of 2013. The greatest upstream movement was 42.5 km, and the greatest downstream movement was 22.2 km. Most radio tagged fish (69%) departed Alley Spring when daily maximum river water temperature first exceeded that of the spring (14 °C) and during increased river discharge. Bioenergetic modelling predicted that a 350 g migrating smallmouth bass that used cold-period thermal refuge would grow 16% slower at the same consumption level as a fish that did not seek thermal refuge. Contrary to the bioenergetics models, extrapolation of growth scope results suggested migrating fish grow 29% more than fish using areas of stream with little groundwater influence. Our results contradict previous findings that smallmouth bass are relatively sedentary, provide information about potential cues for migratory behaviour, and give insight to managers regarding use and growth of smallmouth bass in thermally heterogeneous river systems.

  15. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters.

  16. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  17. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    strip theory is an efficient tool for load calculation that has been validated and proven to give satisfactory results in the range of rigid body wave-induced loads. The present results from the linear analysis show very good agreement with other computer programmes for wave-induced loads calculation...... leads to the conclusion that the sea surface is rarely unidirectional and that two main wave directions usually can distinguish. This could be explained by existence of wind waves and swell in the ocean, or sudden change in wind direction that could create a wave system from the new direction while...... in rigid body response. This thesis should, hopefully, contribute to the better understanding of the springing response and it's excitation, recommend the way to include this new and very important excitation source and, finally, it should highlight the need to consider springing loads already in predesign...

  18. Effects of Autumn and Spring Heat Waves on Seed Germination of High Mountain Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsenigo, Simone; Abeli, Thomas; Rossi, Graziano; Bonasoni, Paolo; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gandini, Maurizia; Mondoni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change and related extreme episodes, such as heat waves. Despite growing interest in the impact of heat waves on alpine plants, knowledge about their effects on regeneration is still fragmentary. Recruitment from seeds will be crucial for the successful migration and survival of these species and will play a key role in their future adaptation to climate change. In this study, we assessed the impacts of heat waves on the seed germination of 53 high mountain plants from the Northern Apennines (Italy). The seeds were exposed to laboratory simulations of three seasonal temperature treatments, derived from real data recorded at a meteorological station near the species growing site, which included two heat wave episodes that occurred both in spring 2003 and in autumn 2011. Moreover, to consider the effect of increasing drought conditions related to heat waves, seed germination was also investigated under four different water potentials. In the absence of heat waves, seed germination mainly occurred in spring, after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, heat waves resulted in a significant increase of spring germination in c. 30% of the species and elicited autumn germination in 50%. When heat waves were coupled with drought, seed germination decreased in all species, but did not stop completely. Our results suggest that in the future, heat waves will affect the germination phenology of alpine plants, especially conditionally dormant and strictly cold-adapted chorotypes, by shifting the emergence time from spring to autumn and by increasing the proportion of emerged seedlings. The detrimental effects of heat waves on recruitment success is less likely to be due to the inhibition of seed germination per se, but rather due to seedling survival in seasons, and temperature and water conditions that they are not used to experiencing. Changes in the proportion and timing of emergence

  19. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  20. Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of

  1. Managing instability after the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    December 11-13, 2012 Washington, D.C. - CCMR's Collaborative and Adaptive Security Initiative (CASI) convened officials from the armed forces, government civilian agencies, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, think tanks and academic institutions to a workshop discussing the political, social and security implications of the regional transition commonly referred to as the "Arab Spring". By exploring the challenges faced by the region during this transition, part...

  2. Virus Silicification under Simulated Hot Spring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, James R.; Stedman, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Silicification of organisms in silica-depositing environments can impact both their ecology and their presence in the fossil record. Although microbes have been silicified under laboratory and environmental conditions, viruses have not. Bacteriophage T4 was successfully silicified under laboratory conditions that closely simulated those found in silica-depositing hot springs. Virus morphology was maintained, and a clear elemental signature of phosphorus was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS).

  3. Ozone measurements in Ushuaia: Austral spring 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafanelli, C.; Di Menno, M.

    1995-09-01

    The preliminary results of the Brewer spectrophotometric measurements in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego (Arg), during the 1994 austral spring (September - November) are reported. During this period with an automatic measuring program, the total Ozone, NO2 and SO2 concentrations were determined; Umkehr ozone profile was also evaluated. The comparison with the satellite TOMS data shows a very good agreement. The UV-B spectra obtained were useful to study the dangerous dose (DUV).

  4. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  5. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, S; S. Nakkeran; GB. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Se...

  6. Environmental toxicology: the legacy of Silent Spring

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The period immediately following the Second World War brought great hopes of continuing benefits from widespread use of organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides and other pesticides whilst the health risks of pre-war and other later practices were largely ignored. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962) coincided with the adoption of a more cautious approach to the use of pesticides, and the ensuing decades have been characterized by continued identification of both natural and man-made ...

  7. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  8. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  9. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  10. Elliptical Leaf Spring Shock and Vibration Mounts with Enhanced Damping and Energy Dissipation Capabilities Using Lead Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa Leblouba; Salah Altoubat; Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman; Balaji Palani Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    We present an enhancement to the existing elliptical leaf spring (ELS) for improved damping and energy dissipation capabilities. The ELS consists of a high tensile stainless steel elliptical leaf spring with polymer or rubber compound. This device is conceived as a shock and vibration isolator for equipment and lightweight structures. The enhancement to the ELS consists of a lead spring plugged vertically between the leaves (referred to as lead-rubber elliptical leaf spring (LRELS)). The lead...

  11. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  12. Cold-induced vasodilatation in cold-intolerant rats after nerve injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E. S.; Duraku, L. S.; Niehof, S. P.; Daanen, H. A. M.; Hovius, S. E. R.; Selles, R. W.; Walbeehm, E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) is a cyclic regulation of blood flow during prolonged cooling of protruding body parts. It is generally considered to be a protective mechanism against local cold injuries and cold intolerance after peripheral nerve injury. The aim of this study was to det

  13. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Alonso-Peral

    Full Text Available The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1 gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare. A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops.

  14. Cold and Slow Molecular Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hsin-I; Wright, Matthew J; Patterson, Dave; Doyle, John M

    2011-01-01

    Employing a two-stage cryogenic buffer gas cell, we produce a cold, hydrodynamically extracted beam of calcium monohydride molecules with a near effusive velocity distribution. Beam dynamics, thermalization and slowing are studied using laser spectroscopy. The key to this hybrid, effusive-like beam source is a "slowing cell" placed immediately after a hydrodynamic, cryogenic source [Patterson et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2007, 126, 154307]. The resulting CaH beams are created in two regimes. One modestly boosted beam has a forward velocity of vf = 65 m/s, a narrow velocity spread, and a flux of 10^9 molecules per pulse. The other has the slowest forward velocity of vf = 40 m/s, a longitudinal temperature of 3.6 K, and a flux of 5x10^8 molecules per pulse.

  15. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror;

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  16. Cold Injury and Perniosis (Chilblain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perniosis (chilblain is inflammatory cutaneous lesions located on acral surfaces (fingers, toes, nose, aurikula which present in association with cold exposure. They can appear as an idiopathic (primary dermatosis or with an underlying autoimmune disease (secondary. The primary or idiopathic form is not associated with an underlying disease and is clinically indistinguishable from the secondary form. The secondary form is associated with an underlying condition such as connective tissue disease, monoclonal gammopathy, cryoglobulinemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Histopathology cannot accurately help distinguish the primary from secondary forms of chilblains. This review aims to raise the awareness of perniosis to avoid excessive investigation and anxiety and to help patients with only appropriate simple advice and treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 463-471

  17. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  18. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  19. Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158584.html Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings Evidence favors hot water or hot packs to ease pain ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- If you're unlucky enough to suffer a jellyfish sting, new research says that heat is better than cold for easing the pain. ...

  20. Cold head maintenance with minimal service interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovinsky, A. L.; Michael, P. C.; Zhukovsky, A.; Forton, E.; Paradis, Y.; Nuttens, V.; Minervini, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    Turn-key superconducting magnet systems are increasingly conduction-cooled by cryogenerators. Gifford-McMahon systems are reliable and cost effective, but require annual maintenance. A usual method of servicing is replacing the cold head of the cryocooler. It requires a complicated design with a vacuum chamber separate from the main vacuum of the cryostat, as well as detachable thermal contacts, which add to the thermal resistance of the cooling heat path and reduce the reliability of the system. We present a rapid warm-up scheme to bring the cold head body, which remains rigidly affixed to the cold mass, to room temperature, while the cold mass remains at cryogenic temperature. Electric heaters thermally attached to the cold head stations are used to warm them up, which permits conventional cold head maintenance with no danger of contaminating the inside of the cold head body. This scheme increases the efficiency of the cooling system, facilitates annual maintenance of the cold head and returning the magnet to operation in a short time.

  1. Axon reflexes in human cold exposed fingers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ducharme, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of fingers to severe cold induces cold induced vasodilation (CIVD). The mechanism of CIVD is still debated. The original theory states that an axon reflex causes CIVD. To test this hypothesis, axon reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of the middle fingers of hands immersed in wat

  2. Cold and trapped metastable noble gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassen, W.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.; Leduc, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C.I.; Truscott, A.; Baldwin, K.; Birkl, G.; Cancio, P.; Trippenbach, M.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental work on cold, trapped metastable noble gases is reviewed. The aspects which distinguish work with these atoms from the large body of work on cold, trapped atoms in general is emphasized. These aspects include detection techniques and collision processes unique to metastable atoms. Sever

  3. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... solitary solid cold thyroid nodule in patients who cannot or will not undergo surgery....

  4. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...

  5. The Origins of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

  6. Dynamic simulation on rubber spring supporting equipment of vibrating screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rong-hua; PENG Chen-yu

    2011-01-01

    By ANSYS, dynamic simulation analysis of rubber spring supporting equipment used in vibrating screen was made. The modal frequency, mode, and harmonic displacement under working frequency were obtained. Variation of rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance was discussed first, which is under the condition of existing spring stiffness difference and exciting force bias. Also, the quantitative calculation formulas were given. The results indicate that the performance of vibrating screen is closely related with rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance. Differences of springs' stiffness coefficients reduce the modal frequency reduced, decrease the dynamic stiffness, and increase vibration displacement. Exciting force bias induces a larger lateral displacement. When rubber springs' stiffness coefficients exist, differences and lateral force accounts for 5% in total exciting force; rubber spring supporting equipment's side swing is larger than 1 mm, exceeding the side swing limit.

  7. EFFECTS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC COLD SOURCE OVER THE TIBETAN PLATEAU ON THE QUASI 4-YEAR OSCILLATION OF OCEAN-ATMOSPHERIC-LAND INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; CHEN Long-xun; ZHOU Xiu-ji; ZHAO Bin

    2009-01-01

    Using correlation analyses,composite analyses,and singular value decomposition,the relationship between the atmospheric cold source over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and atmospheric/ocean circulation is discussed. In winter,the anomaly of the strong (weak) atmospheric cold source over the eastern plateau causes low-level anomalous north (south) winds to appear in eastern China and low-level anomaly zonal west (east) winds to prevail in the equatorial Pacific from spring to autumn. This contributes to the anomalous warm (cold) sea surface temperature the following autumn and winter. In addition,the anomalous variation of sea surface temperature over the equatorial middle and eastern Pacific in winter can influence the snow depth and intensity of the cold source over the plateau in the following winter due to variation of the summer west Pacific subtropical high.

  8. Cold Resistant Properties of High Modulus Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minghua; XIA Ru; ZHANG Yuchuan; HUANG Zhifang; YAO Heping; HUANG Wanli; WANG Yifeng; HUI Jianqiang; WU Chunyu

    2009-01-01

    Six kinds of polyurethane(PU)elastomers were prepared based on different poly-esters,polyethers and chain extenders.The structure,mechanical properties and cold resistant proper-ties of PU were systematically investigated by FTIR,XRD,DMTA,universal testing machine and flex ductility machine.The results show that T_g of soft segment is the main factor of the cold resistant properties of polyurethane elastomer.Compared with the same relative molecular mass of the polyester and the polyether,the polyether flexibility is better,the glass transition temperature(T_g)is lower and the cold resistant properties is remarkable,for example the cold resistant properties of PU based on poly(tetramethylene glycol),1,4-BG and MDI achieves the fifth level.The physics performances of polyurethane elastomers,such as breakdown strength,Young's modulus and the cold resistant prop-erties,are all superior.

  9. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning. PMID:23564985

  10. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  11. Cognitive Egocentrism Differentiates Warm and Cold People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ryan L; Bresin, Konrad; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Warmth-coldness is a fundamental dimension of social behavior. Cold individuals are egocentric in their social relations, whereas warm individuals are not. Previous theorizing suggests that cognitive egocentrism underlies social egocentrism. It was hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal coldness would predict greater cognitive egocentrism. Cognitive egocentrism was assessed in basic terms through tasks wherein priming a lateralized self-state biased subsequent visual perceptions in an assimilation-related manner. Such effects reflect a tendency to assume that the self's incidental state provides meaningful information concerning the external world. Cognitive egocentrism was evident at high, but not low, levels of interpersonal coldness. The findings reveal a basic difference between warm and cold people, encouraging future research linking cognitive egocentrism to variability in relationship functioning.

  12. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulasi Satyanarayana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review.

  13. A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 μm region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 μm. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using

  14. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

    1992-10-01

    Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

  16. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  17. Proceedings of the KNS 2015 Spring Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    This proceedings contains articles of 2015 spring meeting of the Korean Nuclear Society. It was held on May 6-8 in Jeju, Korea. This proceedings is comprised of 11 sessions. The main subject titles of session are as follows: Reactor system technology, Nuclear data, reactor physics and computational science, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear fuel and materials, Thermal hydraulics and safety, Radiation utilization and protection, Quantum engineering and nuclear fusion, Nuclear power plant construction and operation technology, Nuclear policy, human resources and cooperation, Nuclear I and C and automatic remote systems, Competition Session. (Yi, J. H.)

  18. K+ photoproduction at SPring-8/LEPS

    CERN Document Server

    Sumihama, M

    2003-01-01

    A series of experiments have been carried out by using a linearly polarized photon beam at the SPring-8/LEPS facility from December 2000 to June 2001. The photon beam asymmetries and differential cross sections of the p(gamma,K+)Lambda and p(gamma,K+)Sigma^0 reactions have been measured in the photon energy range from 1.5 GeV to 2.4 GeV at forward angles, 0 deg. < Theta_cm < 60 deg.. We report preliminary results of the photon beam asymmetries.

  19. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    OpenAIRE

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-01-01

    The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое) and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominan...

  20. Alpha activity in Indian thermal springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dissolved radon is contained in natural water due to primordial uranium in rocks and soils with which it comes in contact. There is dual exposure from radon in water i.e. due to inhalation of the radon released from the water into the ambient air and through ingestion when water is used for drinking. As radon contaminated water adversely affects the health, it is therefore fundamental from health and hygiene point of view to measure radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in water.Materials and Methods: LR-115, Type-II plastic track detectors were used to measure the radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in water samples collected from various thermal springs. The alpha tracks registered were counted by optical microscope at suitable magnification and converted into radium concentration and subsequently radon exhalation rates were measured. Results: The radon concentration emanated from water samples(air borne) varied from 84 Bqm-3 to 827 Bqm-3 with an average of 429± 12.72 Bqm-3 and the dissolved radon concentration varied from 5.65 Bq 1-1 to 55.66 Bq 1-1 with an average of 28.88± 0.85 Bq 1-1. The radon mass exhalation rates varied from 2.37 m Bq kg-1 hr-1 to 23.39 mBq kg-1 hr-1 with an average of 12.14 ±0.36 mBq kg-1 hr-1 and surface exhalation rates from 52.34 mBq m-2 hr-1 to 515.29 mBq m-2 hr-1 with an average of 267.36 ± 7.93 from different thermal spring water samples. The radium concentration varied from 0.3 0 Bq 1-1 to 2.93 Bq 1-1 with an average of 1.52 ± 0.045 Bq 1-1. Results indicate that the thermal spring water, which is also being used for drinking, is safe as far as radium concentration is concerned with the exception of a few isolated thermal spring sources

  1. Protection of feet in cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklane, Kalev

    2009-07-01

    The paper summarizes the research on cold protection of feet. There exist several conflicting requirements for the choice of the best suited footwear for cold exposure. These conflicts are related to various environmental factors, protection needs and user comfort issues. In order to reduce such conflicts and simplify the choice of proper footwear the paper suggests dividing the cold into specific ranges that are related to properties and state of water and its possibility to penetrate into, evaporate from or condensate in footwear. The thermo-physiological background and reactions in foot are briefly explained, and main problems and risks related to cold injuries, mechanical injuries and slipping discussed. Footwear thermal insulation is the most important factor for protection against cold. The issues related to measuring the insulation and the practical use of measured values are described, but also the effect of socks, and footwear size. Other means for reducing heat losses, such as PCM and electrical heating are touched. The most important variable that affects footwear thermal insulation and foot comfort is moisture in footwear. In combination with motion they may reduce insulation and thus protection against cold by 45%. The paper includes recommendations for better foot comfort in cold.

  2. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  3. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF COLD STORAGE USING ENERGYPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHISH S. UTAGE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the study of cold storage refrigeration plant and simulation of refrigeration system to evaluate the cooling load and annual energy consumption for cold storage applications. The specific temperature and humidity range is required for properly storing any particular food and thus facilitates its preservation for a longer duration of time. The present cold storage capacity in India is grossly inadequate and with a positive future outlook for the agro, food processing, retail and pharmaceutical industry there is urgent need to scale up and develop integrated cold chain facilities across the country. In this view, a simple methodology is presented to obtain the cooling load and energy consumption for a cold storage using an energy simulation tool “EnergyPlus”. Also the attempt has been made to minimize energy consumption of cold store by replacing the Expanded Polystyrene (EPS with Poly-urethane Foam (PUF insulation. The methodology has been validated against the actual data obtained from Penguin cold storage situated in Pune, India. It is found from the simulation results that the average reduction of cooling load for summer design day is 9.78 % while for winter design day it is 9.26 %, when 150 mm thick insulation of EPS is replaced by 100 mm PUF insulation. Due to this replacement the annual cooling energy is saved by Rs. 63875 with pay-back period of 6.8 years.

  4. Neutron interferometry with cold stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, Taisiya; Arif, M.; Huber, M. G.; Shahi, C. B.; Clark, C. W.; Cory, D. G.; Nsofini, J.; Sarenac, D.; Pushin, D. A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is amongst the most precise methods for characterizing neutron interactions by measuring the relative difference between two neutron paths, one of which contains a sample-of-interest. Because neutrons carry magnetic moment and are deeply penetrating, they are excellent probes to investigate properties of magnetic materials. The advantage of NI is its unique sensitivity which allows to directly measure magnetic and structural transitions in materials. Up to now NI has been sparingly used in material research due to its sensitivity to environmental noise. However, recent successes in implementing Quantum Error Correction principles lead to an improved NI design making it robust against mechanical vibrations. Following these advances, a new user facility at the National Institute for Standards and Technology was built to study condensed matter applications, biology and quantum physics. Incorporating cold sample stage inside NI is the first of its kind experiment which can be carried out on large range of temperatures down to 4K. Upon successful realization, it will open new frontiers to characterize magnetic domains, phase transitions and spin properties in a variety of materials such as, for example, iron-based superconductors and spintronic materials. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  5. Cold dust in hot regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm–2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 103 M ☉. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r –2.36±0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  6. Surpassing the Cold War Mentality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Mingjie

    2006-01-01

    @@ Five years have passed since September 11. What has been the influence of these events on international relations? What has changed in the world since then? The majority of scholars hold that the September 11 terrorist attacks were essentially a key event, a "turning point" in the international strategy transformation after the Cold War.Yet some others believe that the September 11 terrorist attacks cannot have had so profound an impact on international relations. For example, in America's Foreign Policy, most articles commemorating the fifth anniversary of September 11 fall into the second category. These articles suggest that, five years after September 11, security issues have not slowed down the pace of globalization; potential strategic competition among the big powers has not been weakened due to their cooperation in counter-terrorism and international terrorist organizations, represented by Al Qaeda, still exist. Meanwhile, many proturning-point scholars think that, after September 11, terrorism has become the main threat to international security and that the strategic focuses of major powers have also undergone a big adjustment, valuing cooperation over competition. There is even a saying that "the central content of international relations is to meet challenges from the non-state actors represented by terrorism."

  7. Application of cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis in environmental studies of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the use of cold-neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) to determine carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the aquatic plant Typha domingensis, commonly known as cattail, during spring and fall seasons. According to studies of the Florida Everglades, cattail replaces sawgrass as a result of nutrient enrichment from farm water runoff. Nutrient enrichment, especially phosphorus, in sediment and the water column can lead to undesirable expansion. Early signs of this expansion are apparent in the Apalachicola River floodplain near Apalachicola, Florida, USA. This research project is designed to use cattails as biomonitors of nutrient enrichment in the lower Apalachicola River floodplain. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation has been developed in our previous studies at the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. The results of numerous field samples, collected from the study area during spring and fall seasons in 2002, will be presented in this paper. (author)

  8. ThermoTecSpring {sup registered}. High-strength lightweight spring as a contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction; ThermoTecSpring {sup registered}. Hochfeste Leichtbau-Feder als Beitrag zur CO{sub 2}-Reduzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Marcel [ThyssenKrupp Bilstein Suspension GmbH, Hagen-Hohenlimburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    By adapting the thermomechanical forming process to the requirements of coil spring manufacturing, ThyssenKrupp Bilstein Suspension has succeeded in changing the properties of the material to produce higher-strength springs. This clears the way for lighter springs with smaller wire diameters and shorter spring designs with the same level of performance. Compared with normal-strength suspension springs, the ThermoTecSpring {sup registered} technology permits weight savings of 15 to 20% per spring depending on application. The ThermoTecSpring {sup registered} therefore contributes to lowering fuel consumption and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.)

  9. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone

  10. Study on Physical Basis of Cold Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家全; 沈丽如; 李国盛; 李炯

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand questions about the study on cold fusion in these years, we have studied physical basis of cold fusion. Results show that even though the cold fusion is feasible theoretically in the view of physics, but its reaction ratio is too small to be detected, so that it has no prospect for practical usage at present. However, in order to tackle urgent problem of being poor in energy resources, we have no choice but to pay more attention to controlled thermal nuclear fusion in a considerably long period of time.

  11. Development of a model system to identify differences in spring and winter oat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Chawade

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa. To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding.

  12. Spring-mediated mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Tufaro, Anthony P; Vander Kolk, Craig A; Manson, Paul N

    2003-09-01

    Successful performance of distraction osteogenesis requires rigorous patient compliance with a daily activation regimen of a percutaneous screw. Previous clinical studies have found that failure of patient compliance with this regimen is the most common complication leading to technical failure of the distraction process. The authors have developed an internalized spring-mediated device for mandibular distraction osteogenesis that can potentially abrogate the risks associated with patient compliance by allowing for automated distraction across an osteotomy. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A segment of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy reinforced at both ends with a pinball was fashioned into an inferiorly based arc and secured to the mandible with stainless steel wire. On postoperative day 12, spring activation commenced by cutting a wire binding the two pinballs to one another. Animals were observed for 6 weeks before they were killed. Radiographic studies and decalcified histologic analysis were performed on extracted mandibles. Temperature- and displacement-dependent properties of the shape memory alloy were also examined. Five animals were excluded from the study due to infection, nonunion, or device failure. A mean distraction of 1.2 mm in the distracted hemimandible relative to the nonoperated hemimandible was found (P development of devices will incorporate technology that permits fully internalized and automated distraction to occur. PMID:14501343

  13. Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  15. The Egyptian Arab Spring and Political Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El ashkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborates and analyzes the phenomenon and concept of political Islam, the reasons of the increased role of the Islamists and their political and reformist tendencies in the light of the Egyptian revolution of Arab Spring, reasons and the main factors that have contributed on their advent into power and their influence in that time, the issue of the application of Islamic Sharia and complex realities about this dilemma. The revolutions of Arab Spring, including the Egyptian revolution, are considered one of the most important and most dangerous events in the XXI century after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, not only in the Middle East but throughout the world because of their impact on peace and global security. The growth of the phenomenon of political Islam and the advent of Islamists into power in Egypt has represented one of the most remarkable features of this sudden revolution. No doubt that the issue of the relationship between Islam and the state's political system raises many confusing questions for many people. In this sense the importance of this study will directly identify the fact that the leadership of Islamists in Egypt is not the implementation of Islamic Sharia but their movements and ideology.

  16. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LENCIONI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of

  17. Numerical simulation of Tibetan Plateau heating anomaly influence on westerly jet in spring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Xinzhou; Liu Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    The intensity and location of the westerly jet (WJ) in the mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been closely related to weather and climate changes in Eurasia. In this paper, we analyzed the seasonal and inter-annual variations in the strength and position of the WJ, using the NCEP-DOE reanalysis II (NCEP) data. Spring is the period that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) transits from a cold to a warm condition, and at the same time the WJ weakens and moves northward. Correlation analysis showed that the westerly wind over the north (south) of the TP has a significant positive (negative) correlation with the TP surface temperature in spring during 1979–2013 (99.9% significance level). In spring, surface sensible heat release dominates thermal conditions of the TP, while the contribution of latent heat becomes important in summer. We conducted three numerical experiments to determine the effects of the TP surface sensible heat flux anomaly in spring on the intensity and location of the WJ using the community atmosphere model 5 (CAM5). Experimental results indicated that changing the TP surface sensible heat flux can produce changes in the TP heat sources.When the TP sensible heat flux is switched off (TPSHL), the TP surface has a lower temperature and no longer heats up the middle and upper troposphere, and leads to a maximum cooling of –1.2°C at 200 hPa over the TP with a significance level of 95%. In spring, the abnormal low temperature over the TP caused the WJ to strengthen and move southward compared with the control experiment (CTL), and this results in a westerly (easterly) wind anomaly over the south (north) of the TP with a significance level of 95%. We obtained the opposite conclusion from the comparison of the enhanced TP surface sensible heat flux (TPSHH) with CTL test results. In TPSHL, the WJ is still steadily located near 30°N in May as well as April, i.e., the first northward jump occurs from May to June which is a delay of one month compared to

  18. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chen

    2012-11-01

    mainly been driven by physical process(es. To conclude, these results indicate that organic carbon consumption (i.e. CR in the ECS in spring might be controlled by the magnitude of planktonic activities and physical factor (e.g. temperature, and that the latter is especially important during a cold spring season. This further suggests that the high intraseasonal variability of organic carbon consumption needs to be kept in mind when budgeting the annual carbon balance.

  19. The large variation in organic carbon consumption in spring in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of organic carbon respired by plankton communities has been found in summer in the East China Sea (ECS, and this rate has been significantly correlated with fluvial discharge from the Changjiang River. However, respiration data has rarely been collected in other seasons. To evaluate and reveal the potential controlling mechanism of organic carbon consumption in spring in the ECS, two cruises covering almost the entire ECS shelf were conducted in the spring of 2009 and 2010. These results showed that although the fluvial discharge rates were comparable to the high riverine flow in summer, the plankton community respiration (CR varied widely between the two springs. In 2009, the level of CR was double that of 2010, with mean (± SD values of 111.7 (±76.3 and 50.7 (±62.9 mg C m−3 d−1, respectively. The CR was positively correlated with concentrations of particulate organic carbon and/or chlorophyll a (Chl a in 2009 (all p 2 (fCO2 in the surface waters, even with a significant amount of inorganic carbon regenerated via CR. In 2010, even more riverine runoff nutrients were measured in the ECS than in 2009. Surprisingly, the growth of phytoplankton in 2010 was not stimulated by enriched nutrients, and its growth was likely limited by low water temperature and/or low light intensity. Low temperature might also suppress planktonic metabolism, which could explain why the CR was lower in 2010. During this period, lower surface water fCO2 may have been driven mainly by physical process(es. To conclude, these results indicate that high organic carbon consumption (i.e. CR in the spring of 2009 could be attributed to high planktonic biomasses, and the lower CR rate during the cold spring of 2010 might be likely limited by low temperature in the ECS. This further suggests that the high inter-annual variability of organic carbon consumption needs to be kept in mind when budgeting the annual carbon balance.

  20. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  1. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  2. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  3. Calcite Precipitation at an Arctic Geothermal Spring Leads to Endolith Colonization and Ecological Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, V.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.

    2012-12-01

    A critical question in microbial ecology concerns how environmental conditions affect community makeup. Troll Springs, a geothermal spring at 79°23'N, 13°26'E on Svalbard in the high Arctic, provides an opportunity to study microbial communities and succession along steep environmental gradients that impose strong selective pressures. At Troll, warm water is released into cold, dry climate conditions. Precipitation of calcite from the spring's waters has built terraces that host a range of microbial communities. Microorganisms exist in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll therefore has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping their microbial communities. We use microscopic and phylogeny-based molecular methods to study microbial community makeup at Troll Springs. Periphyton are entrapped by precipitation of calcite, becoming precursors for endolithic communities. Much of the pore space originally occupied by periphyton becomes inhabited either by organisms that were already present in minor quantities in the periphyton, or by new organisms that colonized an environment for which they were well suited. This process differs from most endolith colonization, where rock predates the communities that colonize it. In the aquatic environments, the strongest dependence of community makeup is on pH and temperature, with gradual changes in community makeup along a pH/temperature gradient among the pools. Illumination (as limited by calcite precipitation) and thermal stability also appear to exert influence. In contrast, in the granular and endolithic terrestrial environments, where water is scarce and therefore exerts selective pressure, there is a strong relationship between community makeup and water content. The richness, evenness, and diversity of microbial taxa are all strongly correlated at Troll Springs. These parameters all

  4. Effects of springs on a pendulum electromechanical energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Notué Kadjie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a model of energy harvester that consists of an electromechanical pendulum system subjected to nonlinear springs. The output power is analyzed in terms of the intrinsic parameters of the device leading to optimal parameters for energy harvesting. It is found that in an appropriate range of the springs constant, the power attains higher values as compared to the case without springs. The dynamical behavior of the device shows transition to chaos.

  5. Characterization of Water from LaVerkin Springs, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    1983-01-01

    Analytical water data obtained from two separate test programs at the LaVerkin Springs site, Washington County, southwestern Utah, were evaluated. During the first analyses, from February 11 through November 6, 1972, water samples were obtained weekly from 14 atmospheric springs. During the second analyses from November 1, 1979 through August 27, 1980, water samples were obtained weekly at aquifer pressure by pumping from a well representative of the 14 springs. Acquired data included char...

  6. Design and Analysis of Leaf Spring with Composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Tharigonda Niranjan Babu

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector tends to increasing competition and innovation in design and tends to modify the existing products by new and advanced materials. Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to ...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. JADHAO,; DR. R.S DALU

    2011-01-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011) can be used which was more economical this will reduce ...

  8. PREDICTION OF LEAF SPRING PARAMETERS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.D.V.V.KRISHNA PRASAD; J.P.KARTHIK

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to predict the optimum design parameters using artificial neural networks. For this static and dynamic analysis on various leaf spring configuration is carried out by ANSYS and is used as training data for neural network. Training data includes cross section of the leaf, load on the leaf spring, stresses, displacement and natural frequencies. By creating a network using thickness and width of the leaf, load on the leaf spring as input parameters and stresses, ...

  9. Commodification of nature : social construction of bottled spring water

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the social processes that are involved in constructing a commodity and a consumer need in a commercial society. In Norway bottled spring water is a symbol of nature while representing the power of marketing and consumer culture. The study explores how spring water has been transformed into a commodity without loosing its symbolic value. Ringnes launched Imsdal in 1994, and is regarded as the first successful brand within bottled spring water in this country. I ...

  10. Biogeographic Congruency among Bacterial Communities from Terrestrial Sulfidic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eHeadd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial sulfidic springs support diverse microbial communities by serving as stable conduits for geochemically diverse and nutrient-rich subsurface waters. Microorganisms that colonize terrestrial springs likely originate from groundwater, but may also be sourced from the surface. As such, the biogeographic distribution of microbial communities inhabiting sulfidic springs should be controlled by a combination of spring geochemistry and surface and subsurface transport mechanisms, and not necessarily geographic proximity to other springs. We examined the bacterial diversity of seven springs to test the hypothesis that occurrence of taxonomically similar microbes, important to the sulfur cycle, at each spring is controlled by geochemistry. Complementary Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved five proteobacterial classes, and Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes phyla from all springs, which suggested the potential for a core sulfidic spring microbiome. Among the putative sulfide-oxidizing groups (Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, up to 83% of the sequences from geochemically similar springs clustered together. Abundant populations of Hydrogenimonas-like or Sulfurovum-like spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with abundant Thiothrix and Thiofaba spp. (Gammaproteobacteria, but Arcobacter-like and Sulfurimonas spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria occurred with less abundant gammaproteobacterial populations. These distribution patterns confirmed that geochemistry rather than biogeography regulates bacterial dominance at each spring. Potential biogeographic controls were related to paleogeologic sedimentation patterns that could control long-term microbial transport mechanisms that link surface and subsurface environments. Knowing the composition of a core sulfidic spring microbial community could provide a way to monitor diversity changes if a system is threatened by anthropogenic processes or

  11. Photosynthetic microorganisms in cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Elster, Josef; Bartak, Milos; Vaczi, Peter; Nedbalova, Linda

    and their physiological processes are inactive. If hydrated, they are physiologically active even at subzero temperatures (Kappen et al., 1996). Although living in cold environments, the growth optimum temperature of typical phycobiont Trebouxia (Chlorophyta) sp. is above 15 ° C, so these algae are considered to be rather psychrotolerant. Acknowledgement The work was supported from projects GA AS CR Nos. KJB 601630808 and KJ KJB600050708, CAREX and long-term institutional research plan of the Institute of Botany AS CR AV0Z600050516 and the Masaryk University. Prof. Martin Backor (Safarik University in Kosice) is kindly ac-knowledged for providing the strains Trebouxia erici and T. glomerata (Backor). References Elster, J. , Benson, E.E. Life in the polar terrestrial environment with a focus on algae and cyanobacteria, in Fuller, B.J., Lane, N. , Benson, E.E. (Eds), Life in the Frozen State. CRC Press, pp. 111-150, 2004. Kappen, L., Schroeter, B., Scheidegger, C., Sommerkorn, M. , Hestmark, G. Cold resistance and metabolic activity of lichens below 0 ° C. Adv. Space Res. 18, 119-128, 1996. Kviderova, J. Characterization of the community of snow algae and their photochemical performance in situ in the Giant Mountains, Czech Republic. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. accepted, 2010. Nedbalova, L., Kocianova, M. , Lukavsky, J. Ecology of snow algae in the Giant Mountains and their relation to cryoseston in Europe. Opera Corcontica 45, 59-68, 2008.

  12. The impact of winter and spring temperatures on temperate tree budburst dates: results from an experimental climate manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshuo H Fu

    Full Text Available Budburst phenology is a key driver of ecosystem structure and functioning, and it is sensitive to global change. Both cold winter temperatures (chilling and spring warming (forcing are important for budburst. Future climate warming is expected to have a contrasting effect on chilling and forcing, and subsequently to have a non-linear effect on budburst timing. To clarify the different effects of warming during chilling and forcing phases of budburst phenology in deciduous trees, (i we conducted a temperature manipulation experiment, with separate winter and spring warming treatments on well irrigated and fertilized saplings of beech, birch and oak, and (ii we analyzed the observations with five temperature-based budburst models (Thermal Time model, Parallel model, Sequential model, Alternating model, and Unified model. The results show that both winter warming and spring warming significantly advanced budburst date, with the combination of winter plus spring warming accelerating budburst most. As expected, all three species were more sensitive to spring warming than to winter warming. Although the different chilling requirement, the warming sensitivity was not significantly different among the studied species. Model evaluation showed that both one- and two- phase models (without and with chilling, respectively are able to accurately predict budburst. For beech, the Sequential model reproduced budburst dates best. For oak and birch, both Sequential model and the Thermal Time model yielded good fit with the data but the latter was slightly better in case of high parameter uncertainty. However, for late-flushing species, the Sequential model is likely be the most appropriate to predict budburst data in a future warmer climate.

  13. Origin and palaeo-environmental significance of the Berrazales carbonate spring deposit, North of Gran Canaria Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuera, Jon; Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    The Berrazales carbonate spring deposit is a small outcrop constituted mainly by cascade-like geometries. Four main facies have been identified: fibrous dense macrocrystalline formed by rapid degassing under high-flow conditions; framestones of coated plant moulds formed in moderate energy flow favoured by the presence of biogenic support; micrite/microsparite are primary precipitates in which crystalline aggregates nucleated on organic filaments and/or EPS; banded micrite-coarse crystalline were the result of alternating physically, chemically and biologically induced precipitation in areas of varying flow-velocities. Most facies underwent different degrees of micritization processes. Micrite is distributed as thin lines penetrating the crystals, as irregular patches or as micrite layers. In the first case organic filaments penetrate crystals, suggesting that micritization is mainly biogenically driven. In the latter cases micritization is caused mostly by partial dissolution. Microbe participation in micrite formation increased micrite MgCO3 content in comparison with coarse crystalline facies. Isotopic analyses show positive δ13C values (+ 2.63 and + 4.29‰ VPDB) and negative δ18O (- 5.65 and - 4.48‰ VPDB) values. Positive δ13C values clearly indicate "deep-sourced" fluids. The Berrazales spring deposit studied here very probably is a small part of a larger carbonate building that was largely eroded by fluvial incision. Calculations of spring water temperature give a range from 20 °C to 35 °C, characteristic of a cold to warm spring favouring precipitation of calcite and important biogenic activity (framestones). Although the study deposit has textural characteristics of tufas, proving that the CO2 sourced from deep fluids, it should be considered as thermogene travertine, being one more example of the difficulty of using those terms for ancient sedimentary deposits. Carbonate spring deposits, very rare in the Canary Islands, are good archives of recent

  14. Soap Bubbles on a Cold Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiveris, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effects of blowing bubbles in extremely cold weather. Describes the freezing conditions of the bubbles and some physical properties. Suggests using the activity with all ages of students. (MVL)

  15. A comprehensive overview of the Cold Spot

    CERN Document Server

    Vielva, P

    2010-01-01

    The report of a significant deviation of the CMB temperature anisotropies distribution from Gaussianity (soon after the public release of the WMAP data in 2003) has become one of the most solid WMAP anomalies. This detection grounds on an excess of the kurtosis of the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet coefficients at scales of around 10 degrees. At these scales, a prominent feature --located in the southern Galactic hemisphere-- was highlighted from the rest of the SMHW coefficients: the Cold Spot. This article presents a comprehensive overview related to the study of the Cold Spot, paying attention to the non-Gaussianity detection methods, the morphological characteristics of the Cold Spot, and the possible sources studied in the literature to explain its nature. Special emphasis is made on the Cold Spot compatibility with a cosmic texture, commenting on future tests that would help to give support or discard this hypothesis.

  16. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  17. Cold-induced changes in amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelier, N.; Moreau, N.A.; N' Da, E.A.; Lautredou, N.F. (Centre de Biologie Cellulaire, Ivry-sur-Seine (France))

    1989-08-01

    Female Pleurodeles waltl newts (Amphibia, urodele), usually raised at 20 degrees C, were submitted to low temperatures; oocytes responded to this cold stress by drastic changes both in lampbrush chromosome structure and in protein pattern. Preexisting lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes were reduced in size and number, while cold-induced loops which were tremendously developed, occurred on defined bivalents of the oocyte at constant, reproducible sites. A comparison of protein patterns in control and stressed oocytes showed two main differences: in stressed oocytes, overall protein synthesis was reduced, except for a set of polypeptides, the cold-stress proteins; second, there was a striking inversion of the relative amount of beta- and gamma-actin found in the oocyte nucleus before and after cold stress. Whereas beta-actin was the predominant form in control oocytes, gamma-actin became the major form in stressed oocytes.

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  19. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  20. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  1. The Cold War: A Yearbook Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graebner, William

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the photographs, valedictorian addresses, nicknames, cartoons and other material contained in high school yearbook can yield information regarding the world views of Americans at the start of the Cold War. (JDH)

  2. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabinet. Keep an eye out not only for traditional-looking cough and cold remedies in your teen's ... Understanding Medications and What They Do Dealing With Addiction Drugs: What to Know Contact Us Print Resources ...

  3. Winter-spring precipitation reconstructions from tree rings for northeast Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva-Diaz, J.; Cerano-Paredes, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias, Centro Nacional de Investigacion Disciplinarioa en Relacion Agua, Suelo, Planta. Km 6.5 Margen Derecha del Canal Sacramento Gomez Palacio, Durango, 35140 (Mexico); Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K. [Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, University of Arkansas, fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Luckman, B.H. [Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A5C3 (Canada); Therrell, M.D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 29904 (United States); Cornejo-Oviedo, E. [Departamento Forestal, Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic for planning proper management of limited water resources in northeastern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies to reconstruct hydroclimate variability in northeastern Mexico and to analyze the influence of large-scale circulation patterns, such as ENSO. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir were developed in mountain ranges of the Sierra Madre Oriental and used to produce winter-spring precipitation reconstructions for central and southern Nuevo Leon, and southeastern Coahuila. The seasonal winter-spring precipitation reconstructions are 342 years long (1659-2001) for Saltillo, Coahuila and 602 years long (1400-2002) for central and southern Nuevo Leon. Both reconstructions show droughts in the 1810s, 1870s, 1890s, 1910s, and 1970s, and wet periods in the 1770s, 1930s, 1960s, and 1980s. Prior to 1800s the reconstructions are less similar. The impact of ENSO in northeastern Mexico (as measured by the Tropical Rainfall Index) indicated long-term instability of the Pacific equatorial teleconnection. Atmospheric circulation systems coming from higher latitudes (cold fronts or 'nortes') and others developed in the Gulf of Mexico (tropical storms, hurricanes) also influence the climatic conditions characterizing this region. The recent development of new and longer tree-ring chronologies for the region will contribute to a better understanding of the interannual and multidecadal climatic variability of northeastern Mexico.

  4. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  5. Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Spring 2008 Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Garbak, J.

    2008-04-01

    Conference paper presented at the 2008 National Hydrogen Association Meeting that describes the spring, 2008 results of the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project.

  6. Assessment of Cold Stress and Its Effects on Workers in a Cold-Storage Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh; Mohammad–Hossein Sajadi; Keramat Nouri Jelyani; Farideh Golbabaei

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to cold work environment is an occupational health hazard and poses adverse effect on workers health, performance and productivity. This study was performed in a cold food-storage warehouse complex in Tehran-Iran in order to evaluate the workers' exposure to cold stress. Twenty nine exposed workers and 33 non-exposed workers as control subject were included in this study. Climatic factors were measured based on ISO 7996 at the three levels of workers height. Physiological factor...

  7. Setting parameters in the cold chain

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Rodríguez; Itaxaso Amorrortu; María Jesús Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Breaks in the cold chain are important economic losses in food and pharmaceutical companies. Many of the failures in the cold chain are due to improper adjustment of equipment parameters such as setting the parameters for theoretical conditions, without a corresponding check in normal operation. The companies that transport refrigeratedproducts must be able to adjust the parameters of the equipment in an easy and quick to adapt their functioning to changing environmental conditions. This arti...

  8. Cold and trapped metastable noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Vassen, Wim; Leduc, Michèle; Boiron, Denis; Westbrook, Christoph I; Truscott, Andrew; Baldwin, Ken; Birkl, Gerhard; Cancio, Pablo; Trippenbach, Marek

    2011-01-01

    We review experimental and theoretical work on cold, trapped metastable noble gases. We emphasize the aspects which distinguish work with these atoms from the large body of work on cold, trapped atoms in general. These aspects include detection techniques and collision processes unique to metastable atoms. We describe several experiments exploiting these unique features in fields including atom optics and statistical physics. We also discuss precision measurements on these atoms including fine structure splittings, isotope shifts, and atomic lifetimes.

  9. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    OpenAIRE

    X. H. Zhong; Li, L.; Ning, P. Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  10. Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Afsar

    1995-01-01

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  11. The chemistry of cold, dark interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years the nearby cold, dark clouds have been shown to possess a rich chemistry, with interesting differences with respect to warmer massive-star-forming regions and also among the cold clouds themselves. Thirty-nine molecular species are now known in these regions. Recent molecular detections and upper limits in dark clouds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the tricarbon species C3O, C3H, and C3H2.

  12. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  13. Cold fusion reactors and new modern physics

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    The author of the "modern physics classical particle quantization orbital motion model general solution", referred to as the “new modern physics” a book. “The nuclear force constraint inertial guidance cold nuclear fusion collides” patent of invention referred to as the “cold nuclear fusion reactor” detailed technical data. Now provide to you, hope you help spread and the mainstream of modern physics of academic and fusion engineering academic communication. We work together to promote the c...

  14. Tight Binding Models in Cold Atoms Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J.

    2007-05-01

    Cold atomic gases placed in optical lattice potentials offer a unique tool to study simple tight binding models. Both the standard cases known from the condensed matter theory as well as novel situations may be addressed. Cold atoms setting allows for a precise control of parameters of the systems discussed, stimulating new questions and problems. The attempts to treat disorder in a controlled fashion are addressed in detail.

  15. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.G.; Green, S.; Blake, D.; Valley, J.; Kita, N.; Treiman, A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2008-10-01

    Mars appears to have experienced little compositional differentiation of primitive lithosphere, and thus much of the surface of Mars is covered by mafic lavas. On Earth, mafic and ultramafic rocks present in ophiolites, oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been obducted onto land, are therefore good analogs for Mars. The characteristic mineralogy, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities of cold-water alkaline springs associated with these mafic and ultramafic rocks represent a particularly compelling analog for potential life-bearing systems. Serpentinization, the reaction of water with mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, yields fluids with unusual chemistry (Mg-OH and Ca-OH waters with pH values up to {approx}12), as well as heat and hydrogen gas that can sustain subsurface, chemosynthetic ecosystems. The recent observation of seeps from pole-facing crater and canyon walls in the higher Martian latitudes supports the hypothesis that even present conditions might allow for a rockhosted chemosynthetic biosphere in near-surface regions of the Martian crust. The generation of methane within a zone of active serpentinization, through either abiogenic or biogenic processes, could account for the presence of methane detected in the Martian atmosphere. For all of these reasons, studies of terrestrial alkaline springs associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks are particularly timely. This study focuses on the alkaline Adobe Springs, emanating from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the California Coast Range, where a community of novel bacteria is associated with the precipitation of Mg-Ca carbonate cements. The carbonates may serve as a biosignature that could be used in the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  16. Mapping caribou habitat north of the 51st parallel in Québec using Landsat imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Chalifoux

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images and vegetation typology, based on lichens as the principal component of caribou winter diet, was developed to map caribou habitat over a large and diversified area of Northern Québec. This approach includes field validation by aerial surveys (helicopter, classification of vegetation types, image enhancement, visual interpretation and computer assisted mapping. Measurements from more than 1500 field sites collected over six field campaigns from 1989 to 1996 represented the data analysed in this study. As the study progressed, 14 vegetation classes were defined and retained for analyses. Vegetation classes denoting important caribou habitat included six classes of upland lichen communities (Lichen, Lichen-Shrub, Shrub-Lichen, Lichen-Graminoid-Shrub, Lichen-Woodland, Lichen-Shrub-Woodland. Two classes (Burnt-over area, Regenerating burnt-over area are related to forest fire, and as they develop towards lichen communities, will become important for caribou. The last six classes are retained to depict remaining vegetation cover types. A total of 37 Landsat TM scenes were geocoded and enhanced using two methods: the Taylor method and the false colour composite method (bands combination and stretching. Visual inter¬pretation was chosen as the most efficient and reliable method to map vegetation types related to caribou habitat. The 43 maps produced at the scale of 1:250 000 and the synthesis map (1:2 000 000 provide a regional perspective of caribou habitat over 1200 000 km2 covering the entire range of the George river herd. The numerical nature of the data allows rapid spatial analysis and map updating.

  17. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Virgin River contributes a substantial amount of dissolved solids (salt) to the Colorado River at Lake Mead in the lower Colorado River Basin. Degradation of Colorado River water by the addition of dissolved solids from the Virgin River affects the suitability of the water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use within the basin. Dixie Hot Springs in Utah are a major localized source of dissolved solids discharging to the Virgin River. The average measured discharge from Dixie Hot Springs during 2009–10 was 11.0 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the average dissolved-solids concentration was 9,220 milligrams per liter (mg/L). The average dissolved-solids load—a measurement that describes the mass of salt that is transported per unit of time—from Dixie Hot Springs during this period was 96,200 tons per year (ton/yr). Annual dissolved-solids loads were estimated at 13 monitoring sites in the Virgin River Basin from streamflow data and discrete measurements of dissolved-solids concentrations and (or) specific conductance. Eight of the sites had the data needed to estimate annual dissolved-solids loads for water years (WYs) 1999 through 2010. During 1999–2010, the smallest dissolved-solids loads in the Virgin River were upstream of Dixie Hot Springs (59,900 ton/yr, on average) and the largest loads were downstream of Littlefield Springs (298,200 ton/yr, on average). Annual dissolved-solids loads were smallest during 2002–03, which was a period of below normal precipitation. Annual dissolved-solids loads were largest during 2005—a year that included a winter rain storm that resulted in flooding throughout much of the Virgin River Basin. An average seepage loss of 26.7 ft3/s was calculated from analysis of monthly average streamflow from July 1998 to September 2010 in the Virgin River for the reach that extends from just upstream of the Utah/Arizona State line to just above the Virgin River Gorge Narrows. Seepage losses from three river reaches

  18. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  19. Cold HI in faint dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Karachentsev, Igor D; Kaisin, Serafim S; Begum, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the amount and distribution of cold atomic gas, as well its correlation with recent star formation in a sample of extremely faint dwarf irregular galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) and its extension, FIGGS2. We use two different methods to identify cold atomic gas. In the first method, line-of-sight HI spectra were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components and narrow Gaussian components were identified as cold HI. In the second method, the brightness temperature (T_B) is used as a tracer of cold HI. We find that the amount of cold gas identified using the T_B method is significantly larger than the amount of gas identified using Gaussian decomposition. We also find that a large fraction of the cold gas identified using the T_B method is spatially coincident with regions of recent star formation, although the converse is not true. That is only a small fraction of the regions with recent star formation are also covered by col...

  20. Identification of Cold Tolerance of Rice Germplasm Resource at Germinating Stage in Cold Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hualong; SUN Shiche; WANG Jingguo; ZOU Detang

    2008-01-01

    Total 75 rice varieties (lines) in Heilongiiang Province (or cold region) as germplasm resources were identified for cold tolerance at germinating stage by controlling temperature in artificial incubator. The results showed that the shooting seed rate at the germinating stage could be used as the evaluation index of cold tolerance. The cold tolerance was recorded on 1-9 scale and could be identified by the criteria of five indexes such as highly tolerant (HT), tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), susceptible (S), highly susceptible (HS).

  1. Fracture Behavior of Cold Sprayed 304 Stainless Steel Coating During Cold Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-ming; ZHANG Jun-bao; HAN Wei; ZHAO Jie

    2012-01-01

    The fracture behavior of cold sprayed 304 stainless steel coating in cold rolling process was studied. The 304 stainless steel coatings were deposited on low carbon steel substrate by cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) and then cold rolled, respectively. The fracture morphology of the coatings was observed and analyzed, and the crack distri- butions along the longitudinal rolling direction of the coatings were also investigated and discussed. The results showed that the cohesive strength of the cold sprayed 304 stainless steel coating was too low to be cold rolled. Mi crocracks were formed in the as-sprayed coatings and ran perpendicularly to the rolling direction. The spacing dis- tance between these cracks decreased with the increase of the cold rolling reduction. In addition, it was also found that the initial crack generated at the surface of the coating and propagated from the surface to the interface along the weakly bonded particles. A theoretical analysis was developed for the coating fracture. It gave a critical minimum cohesive bonding strength of the coating for non-breaking in cold rolling process. The crack propagation manner of the cold rolled coatings was also discussed.

  2. Physiological changes of leaves in response to cold in Phyllostachys propinqua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiao-ling; Yang Qing; Guo Shou-hua; Liu Yan-fang; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    There are no previous records about planting bamboo in Changli, Hebei Province, north China. Since they were introduced in 2004, the propinquity bamboo (Phyllostachys propinqua McClure) has demonstrated good adaptability to the cold climate in Changli. The overwintering status of the bamboo and some of its physiological changes after the winter have been studied to ascertain the adaptability of the bamboo to the cold weather in Changli and to establish a firm basis for growing the plants in larger areas in northern China. The bamboo lived through the winter without any protection. The leaves of windward bamboos growing at various intervals have been studied for their viability and health after the winter. The changes in some physiological indices of the leaves were measured in the following spring. Results showed that the bamboo is partly green even at a temperature as low as -22.3℃ in Changli. During the winter, some leaves died and some partly died. Leaves are light in color and turn gradually to a dark green when the temperature increases in the following spring. As new leaves develop, the contents of chlorophyll and water and the ratio of free and bound water in the old leaves increase as does transpiration. At the same time the contents of free amino acid, proline, soluble sugar, malondialdehede (MDA), permeability of the membrane, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities decrease. The direction of these physiological indices changes when the new leaves begin to sprout. The old leaves reduce their rate of photosynthesis, their blade functions decline gradually and the leaves fall off towards the middle of June. The cold wind affects the survival of bamboo leaves in winter, but has little effect on new leaves growing at the start of the following year. The results indicate that the propinquity bamboo can survive the winter in Changli quite well.

  3. Magnetically coupled magnet-spring oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, G; Ladera, C L; Martin, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: clladera@usb.ve, E-mail: pmartin@usb.ve

    2010-05-15

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of mechanical, and easily adjustable by the experimenter. The coupling of this new coupled oscillator system is determined by the currents that the magnets induce in two coils connected in series, one to each magnet. It is an interesting case of mechanical oscillators with field-driven coupling, instead of mechanical coupling. Moreover, it is both a coupled and a damped oscillating system that lends itself to a detailed study and presentation of many properties and phenomena of such a system of oscillators. A set of experiments that validates the theoretical model of the oscillators is presented and discussed.

  4. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  5. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  6. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  7. The Siding Spring Hazard at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin; Stevenson, Rachel; Tricarico, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 136,000 km in Oct 2014, giving Mars orbiting spacecraft an up-close and unprecedented view of this dynamically new comet. However, 100 minutes after the closest approach to the nucleus, Mars passes within 30,000 km of the comet's orbit. Here, large dust grains may be found on impacting trajectories, potentially posing a fatal hazard to the spacecraft. Such large grains must be ejected from the comet nucleus well before the time of encounter. Therefore, we propose IRAC imaging of this comet to assess the present-day gas production rate, which will aid dust impact hazard assessment.

  8. Best Student Papers for 1987 Spring Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    As they did at previous national meetings, several AGU sections selected Best Student Papers at the 1987 Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., during May 1987 as a means of encouraging student participation.Pal Wessel was selected by the Geodesy Section to receive their Best Student Paper Award for his paper entitled “Global Gravity Crossover Corrections: Implications and Applications,” which was coauthored by A. B. Watts (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), Palisades, N.Y.). Wessel received his B.Sc. (1982) and M.S. (1984) from the University of Oslo, Norway, in applied geophysics, while working on inversion of gravity anomalies over a continental rift (Oslo Graben). He is currently a Ph.D. candidate at LDGO. Wessel's research in gravity includes statistical analysis of shipboard gravity data, gridding algorithms, and computation of gravimetric geoids. He is also working on flexre of young oceanic lithosphere caused by thermal stresses.

  9. Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? Print A A ... if he has allergies or just a lingering cold? – Michelle Seasonal allergies and the common cold can ...

  10. Heat shock protection against cold stress of Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, V; Mitchell, H K; Young, P.; Petersen, N S

    1988-01-01

    Heat shock protein synthesis can be induced during recovery from cold treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Survival of larvae after a cold treatment is dramatically improved by a mild heat shock just before the cold shock. The conditions which induce tolerance to cold are similar to those which confer tolerance to heat.

  11. Does winter warming enhance cold CO2 emission from temperate continental soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganova, Irina; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Khoroshaev, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    revealed during the early spring FTC. They corresponded to a rapid thawing of frozen soils due to the customary rise of air temperature at the beginning of March. These CO2 emission pulses during early spring contributed between 43% and 70% to the total cold CO2 fluxes from frozen soils ('Ref" and "NoSn" variants). The contribution of spring fluxes from unfrozen soils ("NoFr" treatment) to the total cold CO2 emission was about 25%. Our findings produce evidence that winter warming in temperate continental regions has resulted in a reduction in the permanent snow pack, an increase in the frequency of freezing-thawing events and can be followed by a prolongation of the period when soils remain frozen. Soil respiration fluxes were greatly reduced owing to an increase in frost stress both for plants and for the soil microbial community. Therefore, winter warming in temperate continental areas decreases cold CO2 emissions from soils into the atmosphere and is expected thereby to lead to a rise in the annual carbon sink in ecosystems. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (14-14-00625) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 15-04-05156a).

  12. Winter severity and phenology of spring emergence from the nest in freshwater turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Patrick Joseph; Iverson, John B.; Lee, Richard E.; Costanzo, Jon P.

    2010-07-01

    Although many species of freshwater turtles emigrate to water soon after hatching, the offspring of some species overwinter on land and move to aquatic habitats in the following spring. Timing of emigration can affect the hatchlings’ fitness, but the factors underlying phenology of nest emergence are incompletely understood. We tested the supposition that cold stress imposed during hibernation can influence the timing of nest emergence in three species of turtles in the central USA. In each year of the 6-year study, Chrysemys picta emerged in late March and early April and, on average, these hatchlings left their nests 2 weeks earlier than those of Graptemys geographica and 4 weeks earlier than those of Trachemys scripta. Emergence of conspecific hatchlings from different nests usually occurred over 3-7 weeks, but in some years lasted several additional weeks. Relatively few nests had siblings that emerged on the same day (i.e., synchronously); complete emergence of the typical sibling group required 1 to 2 weeks. In winter, subzero cold occurred with regularity in the nests of all species, though C. picta experienced the lowest temperatures owing to their shallower nests. However, for no species did emergence date or length of the emergence period correlate with winter minimum temperature and, at the level of the individual nest, neither did emergence synchrony or duration. Despite encountering lower temperatures, hatchlings of C. picta emigrated from their nests before those of sympatric species, suggesting that the fitness benefits of early emergence may lead to the improvement of cold-hardiness adaptations in northern populations of turtles.

  13. New description of Io's cold plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Floyd; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Dessler, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite more than 25 years of study of the Io plasma torus, its generation, dynamics, and even its spatial structure are still poorly understood, especially in the case of the inner, cold region of the torus. To remedy this lack, we analyzed ground-based coronagraphic images of the torus in S+ 6371 Å emission. We derived cold torus properties by modeling and removing these images' inherent line-of-sight integration and atmospheric blurring, using new deconvolution techniques, obtaining high-spatial-resolution estimates of the three-dimensional (3-D) S+ distributions. From these 3-D distributions, we discovered that the cold torus is washer-shaped, with a roughly constant vertical thickness ≤0.25 Jovian radius (RJ), and a radial width that varies from 0.6 to 0.9 RJ. The cold torus is separated by a 0.1-0.2 RJ-wide low-density region, or "gap," from the "ribbon" region which lies just outside it. The small, approximately constant washer height implies an ion parallel temperature (T∥) of ˜3 eV, compared with a ribbon T∥ that varies from about 20 to 50 eV as a function of Jovian magnetic longitude (λIII). The washer has a distinct inner edge, not seen before, whose jovicentric distance varies with λIII so as to create the variable cold torus width. Thus this inner edge is concentric with neither Jupiter nor the rest of the torus. We also confirm the existence of a tilt between the midplanes of the ribbon and cold torus, with an orientation that cannot be produced by the magnetic mirror force acting on ion temperature anisotropy. The structure and composition of the gap and cold torus are best explained by a model in which a small amount of warm S+ plasma diffuses inwards while radiatively cooling. While still warm, its distribution over a large scale height keeps its density small, forming the gap. After sufficient cooling, it collapses to the centrifugal equator, where its higher density and continued inward diffusion make it more visible as the cold torus

  14. Relationship Between the Number of Summer Typhoons Engendered over the Northwest Pacific and South China Sea and Main Climatic Conditions in the Preceding Winter and Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ziniu; LIANG Hongli; LI Chongyin

    2010-01-01

    spring, anomalous convergence will appear over the warm SST region and inspire the positive feedback between the large-scale moisture flux at low levels and the latent heat release in the atmosphere, which benefits the typhoon genesis in summer. Otherwise, if cold SST maintains over the northwestern Pacific during the preceding winter and spring, the convergence in the troposphere is disfavored and the water vapor supply to the cold SST region is reduced, which will bring about weaker ITCZ activities and the perturbation is lacking in the following spring. It then results in fewer summer typhoons.

  15. Feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program, is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Weldon Spring site, which is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), became contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildlife Area and is near a well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk waste contained therein. 105 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs

  16. Arab Spring vs. Zero Problems Policy Impact of the Arab Spring on Trade Expansion of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkey has historically concentrated its trade with the European Union (EU it has diversified its trade markets with the neighbouring regions and different group of countries during the last decade. Among them, Arab countries have come into prominence. Especially, following the “zero problems with neighbours” policy (ZPN, pursued by Turkey since 2002, the trade volume with the Middle Eastern neighbours has increased faster than that with its traditional partners. Nevertheless so called “Arab Spring” has started to manifest its effects on this trend. It deteriorates not only the economies of the concerned countries but also Turkey’s trade expansion. This paper aims: (i to test through a gravity model the positive impacts of the ZPN policy and the negative impact of the Arab Spring on the trade expansion with the Spring Countries; and (ii to reveal the positive impact of the policy change and the negative impact of the uprising movements on the realization of trade potential by Turkey in the Spring Countries.

  17. An investigation of contaminant impacts to watercress darter, Etheostama nuchale, habitat at Roebuck Springs, Thomas' Spring, and Glenn Springs, Jefferson Country, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. Roebuck Springs was the only site found with contaminant loading with PAH's at levels suspected of...

  18. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  19. The Design of Reactor Internals Hold-Down Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hold down spring(HDS, clamped between the upper support plate flange and the core barrel flange inside a pressurized reactor vessel, is used to provide a downward force to keep the core barrel stable and from being lifted off from the vessel ledge during reactor normal operation. Spring designer used to think under certain extreme operating conditions, the spring could be lifted off from the ledge because the spring is not stiff enough to prevent the “lift-off”. Therefore, the spring was designed as stiff as it practically can be. However, finite element study indicated that the magnitude of preload is a strong function of friction coefficient. To find the magnitude of the friction coefficient, a series of tests were conducted on 1/10 scale hold down spring samples of three different spring designs. From the test results, it was found that the friction coefficient increases rapidly as the number of loading cycles increases. This implies that the spring preload would increase rapidly during plant operation. Therefore, it is concluded that, because of the strong frictional effect, not only the current design is more than adequate, but also should be made even softer.

  20. 36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section 7.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a)...

  1. The Motion Of A Spring Released From Uniform Circular Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Dooling, Thomas; Carnaghi, Matthew; Titus, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A weak spring is connected at one end to a rotor turning at constant angular velocity. The spring extends to a stretched length as determined by the spring mass, rest length, spring constant, rotor radius and rotor angular velocity. When released from the rotor, the inner end of the spring pulls away as expected, causing a wave to travel down the spring as it collapses. During this time interval, the outer end of the spring continues to move along its original circular path in uniform circular motion, as if the spring were still connected to the rotor. This is analogous to the effect of a hanging Slinky released from rest whose bottom end remains at a fixed position above the ground until a wave from the top of the Slinky reaches the bottom of the Slinky. Values from a numerical model and measurements from video analysis show that upon release the inner end travels along a circle of similar radius as the outer end. The effect appears as a series of alternating semi-circles. In addition, the simulation and dat...

  2. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Channel 265A as a first Tribal Allotment and a potential second local transmission service at Peach....) Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, consistent with the minimum distance...

  3. Stiffness analysis of parallel leaf-spring flexures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Meijaard, J.P.; Jonker, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Approximate straight displacements are often made using a parallel leaf-spring flexure. This flexure serves as a typical case for studying the influence of shear and the compliance of the reinforced mid sections of the leaf-springs in the support stiffnesses cz and cy. The conclusions drawn, however

  4. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn;

    2015-01-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7...

  5. Influences of the El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the Timing of the North American Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Ault, Toby R.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Detrended, modelled first leaf dates for 856 sites across North America for the period 1900-2008 are used to examine how the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) separately and together might influence the timing of spring. Although spring (mean March through April) ENSO and PDO signals are apparent in first leaf dates, the signals are not statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level (p Nino and positive PDO conditions. An analysis of the spatial distributions of first leaf dates for separate and combined ENSO/PDO conditions features a northwest-southeast dipole that is significantly (at p <0.05) different than the distributions for neutral conditions. The nature of the teleconnection between Pacific SST's and first leaf dates is evident in comparable composites for detrended sea level pressure (SLP) in the spring months. During positive ENSO/PDO, there is an anomalous flow of warm air from the southwestern US into the northwestern US and an anomalous northeasterly flow of cold air from polar regions into the eastern and southeastern US. These flow patterns are reversed during negative ENSO/PDO. Although the magnitudes of first leaf date departures are not necessarily significantly related to ENSO and PDO, the spatial patterns of departures are significantly related to ENSO and PDO. These significant relations and the long-lived persistence of SSTs provide a potential tool for forecasting the tendencies for first leaf dates to be early or late.

  6. Ion-atom cold collision: Formation of cold molecular ion by radiative processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rakshit, Arpita; Deb, Bimalendu

    2010-01-01

    We discuss theoretically ion-atom collisions at low energy and predict the possibility of formation of cold molecular ion by photoassociation. We present results on radiative homo- and hetero-nuclear atom-ion cold collisions that reveal threshold behaviour of atom-ion systems.

  7. Seismic performance of isolation system of rolling friction with springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏标; 戴公连; 文颖; 夏烨

    2014-01-01

    In order to study an isolation system of rolling friction with springs, computer programs were compiled to evaluate the seismic performance based on its movement characteristics. Through the programs, the influences of various seismic performance factors, e.g., rolling friction coefficient, spring constant, were systematically investigated. Results show that by increasing the rolling friction coefficient, the structural relative displacement due to seismic load effectively decreases, while the structural response magnitude varies mainly depending on the correlations between the following factors:the spring constant, the earthquake intensity, and the rolling friction coefficient. Furthermore, increasing the spring constant can decrease the structural relative displacement, as well as residual displacement, however, it increases the structural response magnitude. Finally, based on the analyses of various seismic performance factors subjected to the scenario earthquakes, optimized theoretical seismic performance can be achieved by reasonably combining the spring constant and the rolling friction coefficient.

  8. Cold plasma inactivation of chronic wound bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, N; Lee, B K; Yap, S S; Thong, K L; Yap, S L

    2016-09-01

    Cold plasma is partly ionized non-thermal plasma generated at atmospheric pressure. It has been recognized as an alternative approach in medicine for sterilization of wounds, promotion of wound healing, topical treatment of skin diseases with microbial involvement and treatment of cancer. Cold plasma used in wound therapy inhibits microbes in chronic wound due to its antiseptic effects, while promoting healing by stimulation of cell proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells. In this study, two types of plasma systems are employed to generate cold plasma: a parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge and a capillary-guided corona discharge. Parameters such as applied voltage, discharge frequency, treatment time and the flow of the carrier gas influence the cold plasma chemistry and therefore change the composition and concentration of plasma species that react with the target sample. Chronic wound that fails to heal often infected by multidrug resistant organisms makes them recalcitrant to healing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are two common bacteria in infected and clinically non-infected wounds. The efficacies of the cold plasma generated by the two designs on the inactivation of three different isolates of MRSA and four isolates of P. aeruginosa are reported here.

  9. Cold-atom Inertial Sensor without Deadtime

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Bess; Savoie, Denis; Venon, Bertrand; Alzar, Carlos L Garrido; Geiger, Remi; Landragin, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    We report the operation of a cold-atom inertial sensor in a joint interrogation scheme, where we simultaneously prepare a cold-atom source and operate an atom interferometer in order to eliminate dead times. Noise aliasing and dead times are consequences of the sequential operation which is intrinsic to cold-atom atom interferometers. Both phenomena have deleterious effects on the performance of these sensors. We show that our continuous operation improves the short-term sensitivity of atom interferometers, by demonstrating a record rotation sensitivity of $100$ nrad.s$^{-1}/\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ in a cold-atom gyroscope of $11$ cm$^2$ Sagnac area. We also demonstrate a rotation stability of $1$ nrad.s$^{-1}$ after $10^4$ s of integration, improving previous results by an order of magnitude. We expect that the continuous operation will allow cold-atom inertial sensors with long interrogation time to reach their full sensitivity, determined by the quantum noise limit.

  10. Two cold-season derechoes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzen, Christoph; Púčik, Tomas; Ryva, David

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we apply for the first time the definition of a derecho (Johns and Hirt, 1987) to European cold-season convective storm systems. These occurred on 18 January 2007 and 1 March 2008, respectively, and they are shown to fulfill the criteria of a derecho. Damaging winds were reported over a distance of 1500 km and locally reached F3 intensity. Synoptic analysis for the events reveal strongly forced situations that have been described for cold-season derechoes in the United States. A comparison of swaths of damaging winds, radar structures, detected lightning, cold pool development, and cloud-top temperatures indicates that both derechoes formed along cold fronts that were affected by strong quasi-geostrophic forcing. It seems that the overlap of the cold front position with the strong differential cyclonic vorticity advection at the cyclonic flank of mid-level jet streaks favoured intense convection and high winds. The movement and path width of the two derechoes seemed to be related to this overlap. The wind gust intensity that was also different for both events is discussed and could be related to the component of the mid-level winds perpendicular to the gust fronts.

  11. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  12. Cold plasma inactivation of chronic wound bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, N; Lee, B K; Yap, S S; Thong, K L; Yap, S L

    2016-09-01

    Cold plasma is partly ionized non-thermal plasma generated at atmospheric pressure. It has been recognized as an alternative approach in medicine for sterilization of wounds, promotion of wound healing, topical treatment of skin diseases with microbial involvement and treatment of cancer. Cold plasma used in wound therapy inhibits microbes in chronic wound due to its antiseptic effects, while promoting healing by stimulation of cell proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells. In this study, two types of plasma systems are employed to generate cold plasma: a parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge and a capillary-guided corona discharge. Parameters such as applied voltage, discharge frequency, treatment time and the flow of the carrier gas influence the cold plasma chemistry and therefore change the composition and concentration of plasma species that react with the target sample. Chronic wound that fails to heal often infected by multidrug resistant organisms makes them recalcitrant to healing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are two common bacteria in infected and clinically non-infected wounds. The efficacies of the cold plasma generated by the two designs on the inactivation of three different isolates of MRSA and four isolates of P. aeruginosa are reported here. PMID:27046340

  13. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Ann Stepp, Mary [Medical School, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony [Childrens National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010 (United States); Trink, Barry [Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  14. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  15. Flip-flop between soft-spring and hard-spring bistabilities in the approximated Toda oscillator analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Goswami

    2011-11-01

    We study theoretically the effect of truncating the nonlinear restoring force (exp $()−1 = \\Sum^{∞}_{n=1} ^n/n!$) in the bistability pattern of the periodically driven, damped one-degree-of-freedom Toda oscillator that originally exhibits soft-spring bistability with counterclockwise hysteresis cycle. We observe that if the truncation is made third order, the harmonic bistability changes to hard-spring type with a clockwise hysteresis cycle. In contrast, for the fourth-order truncation, the bistability again becomes soft-spring type, overriding the effect of third-order nonlinearity. Furthermore, each higher odd-order truncation attempts to introduce hard-spring nature while each even-order truncation turns to soft-spring type of bistability. Overall, the hard-spring effect of every odd-order nonlinear term is weaker in comparison to the soft-spring effect of the next even-order nonlinear term. As a consequence, higher-order approximations ultimately converge to the soft-spring nature. Similar approximate analysis of Toda lattice has in recent past revealed remarkably similar flip-flop pattern between stochasticity (chaotic behaviour) and regularity (integrability).

  16. Note: Determination of torsional spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers: Combining normal spring constant and classical beam theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power...

  17. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  18. Shocks and cold fronts in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Markevitch, M L; Markevitch, Maxim; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2007-01-01

    The currently operating X-ray imaging observatories provide us with an exquisitely detailed view of the Megaparsec-scale plasma atmospheres in nearby galaxy clusters. At z < 0.05, the Chandra's 1" angular resolution corresponds to linear resolution of less than a kiloparsec, which is smaller than some interesting linear scales in the intracluster plasma. This enables us to study the previously unseen hydrodynamic phenomena in clusters: classic bow shocks driven by the infalling subclusters, and the unanticipated "cold fronts," or sharp contact discontinuities between regions of gas with different entropies. The ubiquitous cold fronts are found in mergers as well as around the central density peaks in "relaxed" clusters. They are caused by motion of cool, dense gas clouds in the ambient higher-entropy gas. These clouds are either remnants of the infalling subclusters, or the displaced gas from the cluster's own cool cores. Both shock fronts and cold fronts provide novel tools to study the intracluster plasm...

  19. Normal modes of confined cold ionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, J.P.; Dubin, D.H. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The normal modes of a cloud of confined ions forming a strongly-correlated plasma were investigated. The results of molecular-dynamics simulations were compared to predictions of a cold fluid mode. Mode frequencies are observed to shift slightly compared to the cold fluid predictions, and the modes are also observed to damp in time. Simulations also reveal a set of torsional oscillations which have no counterpart in cold fluid theory. The frequency shift, damping, and torsional effects are compared to a model that treats trapped plasmas as a visco-elastic spheroid. It may be possible to measure high-frequency bulk and shear moduli of a strongly-correlated plasma from mode excitation experiments on trapped non-neutral plasmas. An example of the results of the calculation is presented.

  20. Radio frequency field assisted cold collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yijue; D'Incao, Jose; Greene, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The radio frequency (RF) field is a promising but less developed tool to control cold collisions. From the few-body perspective, we study cold atom collisions in an external magnetic field and a single-color RF field. We employ the multi-channel quantum defect theory and the hyperspherical toolkit to solve the two-body and three-body Schrödinger equations. Our results show that RF fields can effectively control the two-body scattering length through Feshbach resonances. Such RF induced Feshbach resonances can be applied to quenching experiments or spinor condensates. Analogous to photo association, RF fields can also associate cold atoms into molecules with a reasonable rate. Moreover, we will discuss the feasibility of using RF fields to control three-body recombination, which may improve the experimental timescale by suppressing three-body losses. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.