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Sample records for 51sc effective charges

  1. Space-Charge Effect

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  2. An improved charge pump with suppressed charge sharing effect

    Na Bai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential charge pump with reduced charge sharing effect is presented. The current-steering topology is adopted for fast switching. A replica charge pump is added to provide a current path for the complementary branch of the master charge pump in the current switching. Through the replica charge pump, the voltage at the complementary node of the master charge pump keeps stable during switching, and the dynamic charge sharing effect is avoided. Apply the charge pump to a 4.8 GHz band integer-N PLL, the measured reference spur is -49.7dBc with a 4-MHz reference frequency.

  3. Screening Effect in Charge Qubit

    HUA Ming; XIAO Xiao; GAO Yi-Bo

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of screening effect on quantum decoherence for charge qubit and the process of quantum information storage. When the flux produced by the circulating current in SQUID loop is considered, screening effect is formally characterized by a LC resonator. Using large-detuning condition and Fr(o)hlich transformation in the qubit-cavity-resonator system, we calculate the decoherence factor for charge qubit and the effective qubit-cavity Hamiltonian. The decoherence factor owns a factorized structure, it shows that screening effect is a resource of decoherence for charge qubit. The effective Hamiltonian shows that the screening effect results in a frequency shift for charge qubit and a modified qubit-cavity coupling constant induced by a LC resonator.

  4. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  5. Analyzing Affect of Image Charge in Space Charge Effect

    ZhangXueying; XuHushan; JiaFei; LiWenfei

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing requirement of high injection current and highly charged ion beams for accelerators at many laboratories, such as CERN, GSI, GANIL and IMP, with the development of super-conducting ECR source in recent.years. In this case, the space charge effect becomes a major concern when the beam current is as high as tens of mA. In fact, the faradic field induced by the image charges will be come into the metallic surfaces while the beams are transported in a vacuum tube or in between two plates. In order to ensure studying the space charge effect in reason, it is necessary to investigate the effect from such a field.

  6. Effect of Zn Adsorption on Charge of Variable Charge Soils

    SUNHAN-YUAN

    1993-01-01

    The variation in appa rent carge of two typical variable charge soils resulting from Zn adsorption were studied by KCl saturation and NH4NO3 replacement methods.Results showed that zinc were adsorbed specifically to those sites with negative charge.As in different pH ranges,the percantages of specific and electrostatic adsorptions of zine and the mechanisms of specific adsorption were different,the effects of Zn adsorption on apparent charge were varied and could be characterized as:when 1 mmol Zn2+ was adsorbed,a change about 1 mmol in the apparent charge was observed in the low pH range(1),1.4 to 1.5mmol in the moderate pH range(II) and 0.55 to 0.6mmol in the high pH range (III).These experimental data,in terms of soil charge,proved once more author's conclusion in the preceding paper(Sun,1993) that in accordance with the behaviors of Zn adsorption by the variable charge soils in relation to pH,three pH ranges with different adsorption mechanisms were delineated;that is,in Range I,specific adsorption was the predominant mechanism,in Ranges II and III,specific and electrostatic adsorptions co-existed,but their specific adsorption mechanisms were not identical.

  7. Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain); Baltanas, J P [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-21

    In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster.

  8. Charge-regularization effects on polyelectrolytes

    Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2012-02-01

    When electrically charged macromolecules are dispersed in polar solvents, their effective net charge is generally different from their chemical charges, due to competition between counterion adsorption and the translational entropy of dissociated counterions. The effective charge changes significantly as the experimental conditions change such as variations in solvent quality, temperature, and the concentration of added small electrolytes. This charge-regularization effect leads to major difficulties in interpreting experimental data on polyelectrolyte solutions and challenges in understanding the various polyelectrolyte phenomena. Even the most fundamental issue of experimental determination of molar mass of charged macromolecules by light scattering method has been difficult so far due to this feature. We will present a theory of charge-regularization of flexible polyelectrolytes in solutions and discuss the consequences of charge-regularization on (a) experimental determination of molar mass of polyelectrolytes using scattering techniques, (b) coil-globule transition, (c) macrophase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions, (c) phase behavior in coacervate formation, and (d) volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels.

  9. Charge Exchange Effect on Space-Charge-Limited Current Densities in Ion Diode

    石磊

    2002-01-01

    The article theoretically studied the charge-exchange effects on space charge limited electron and ion current densities of non-relativistic one-dimensional slab ion diode, and compared with those of without charge exchange.

  10. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  11. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions...

  12. Ion specific effects on charged interfaces

    Medda, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The physico-chemical phenomena occurring at charged interfaces are specifically affected by the type and the concentration of electrolytes. This has implications both in living and in inorganic systems. The discovery of the ‘ion specific effects’ dates back to Hofmeister (1888), who observed the specific effect of salts in promoting egg white proteins precipitation. Nowadays we are aware that ion specific effects are ubiquitous in all fields of science and technology where electrolytes play a...

  13. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-05-28

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order

  14. Effective dynamics of a classical point charges

    Polonyi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham-Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out.

  15. The role of effective charges in the electrophoresis of highly charged colloids.

    Chatterji, Apratim; Horbach, Jürgen

    2010-12-15

    We study the variation of electrophoretic mobility μ of highly charged spherical colloidal macroions for varying surface charge density σ on the colloid using computer simulations of the primitive model for charged colloids. Hydrodynamic interactions between ions are incorporated by coupling the primitive model of charged colloids to the lattice Boltzmann model (LB) of the fluid. In the highly charged regime, the mobility μ of the colloid is known to decrease with the increase of bare charge Q of the colloid; the aim of this paper is to investigate the cause of this. We have identified that the two main factors contributing to the decrease of μ are counterion charge condensation on the highly charged colloid and an increase in effective friction of the macroion-counterion complex due to the condensed counterions. Thus the established O'Brien and White theory, which identified the dipolar force originating from distortion of the electric double layer as the cause of decreasing μ, seems to break down for the case of highly charged colloids with σ in the range of 30-400 µC cm (- 2). To arrive at our conclusions, we counted the number of counterions q0 moving along with the spherical macroion. We observe in our simulations that q0 increases with the increase of bare charge Q, such that the effective charge Qeff = Q - q0 remains approximately constant. Interestingly for our nanometer-sized charged colloid, we observe that, if surface charge density σ of the colloid is increased by decreasing the radius RM of the colloid but fixed bare charge Q, the effective charge Q - q0 decreases with the increase of σ. This behavior is qualitatively different when σ is increased by increasing Q keeping RM fixed. Our observations address a controversy about the effective charge of a strongly charged macroion: some studies claim that effective charge is independent of the bare charge (Alexander et al 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 80 5776; Trizac et al 2003 Langmuir 19 4027) whereas

  16. Introduction to Space Charge Effects in Semiconductors

    Böer, Karl W

    2010-01-01

    This book is the most comprehensive one to describe the basics of space-charge effects in semiconductors, starting from basic principles to advanced application in semiconducting devices. It uses detailed analyses of the transport, Poisson, and continuity equations to demonstrate the behavior of the solution curves of the complete set of field and current distributions, along with quantitative descriptions of the relevant band models of typical pn-junction and Schottky barrier devices. It emphasizes the relevance to actual devices and sets these results apart from more simple models of networks of diodes and resistors. The book is especially important for people interested in detail analysis of solar cells and their efficiencies.

  17. Effect of charge memory in organic composites

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Kotova, M. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of charge memory in composites based on polymer molecules has been investigated. Resistive switchings in sandwich samples prepared by lamination from commercially available polymers (polystyrene and poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxine)-poly(styrene sulphonate) are analyzed. It is shown that the characteristic switching times in the composite samples reach several nanoseconds and the number of switchings exceeds 106. Switchings are observed in electric fields much below the breakdown threshold, which indicates the absence of destructive processes in the polymer.

  18. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by $D_c = C v_B^2/ (2 \\pi T)$ where $v_B$ is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality, $C$, depends only on the scaling exponents of the infra-red theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  19. Charge conservation effects for high order fluctuations

    Begun, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The exact charge conservation significantly impacts multiplicity fluctuations. The result depends strongly on the part of the system charge carried by the particles of interest. Along with the expected suppression of fluctuations for large systems, charge conservation may lead to negative skewness or kurtosis for small systems.

  20. Discrete solvent effects on the effective interaction between charged colloids

    Allahyarov, E

    2000-01-01

    Using computer simulations of two charged colloidal spheres with their counterions in a hard sphere solvent, we show that the granular nature of the solvent significantly influences the effective colloidal interaction. For divalent counterions, the total effective force can become attractive generated by counterion hydration, while for monovalent counterions the forces are repulsive and well-described by a solvent-induced colloidal charge renormalization. Both effects are not contained in the traditional "primitive" approaches but can be accounted for in a solvent-averaged primitive model.

  1. The Effect of Ketone Defects on the Charge Transport and Charge Recombination in Polyfluorenes

    Kuik, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Ladde, Jurre G.; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Blom, Paul W. M.; Sweelssen, Jörgen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of on-chain ketone defects on the charge transport of the polyfluorene derivative poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is investigated. Using MoO3 as ohmic hole contact, the hole transport in a pristine PFO diode is observed to be limited by space-charge, whereas fluorenone contaminated PFO (P

  2. Effect of Charge Patterning on the Phase Behavior of Polymer Coacervates for Charge Driven Self Assembly

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sing, Charles E.

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo associative liquid-liquid phase separation when mixed under suitable conditions of ionic strength, temperature and pH to form what are known as `polymeric complex coacervates'. Polymer coacervates find use in diverse array of applications like microencapsulation, drug delivery, membrane filtration and underwater adhesives. The similarity between complex coacervate environments and those in biological systems has also found relevance in areas of bio-mimicry. Our previous works have demonstrated how local charge correlations and molecular connectivity can drastically affect the phase behavior of coacervates. The precise location of charges along the chain therefore dramatically influences the local charge correlations, which consequently influences the phase behavior of coacervates. We investigate the effect of charge patterning along the polymer chain on the phase behavior of coacervates in the framework of the Restricted Primitive Model using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that charge patterning dramatically changes the phase behavior of polymer coacervates, which contrasts with the predictions of the classical Voorn-Overbeek theory. This provides the basis for designing new materials through charge driven self assembly by controlling the positioning of the charged monomers along the chain.

  3. Study of the Charge Density Control Method Including the Space Charge Effect in the Proton Synchrotron

    Kato, Shinichi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Okabe, Kota; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

    For high intensity proton accelerators, one of the beam loss sources is the incoherent tune spread caused by the space charge force. In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, beams are injected sequentially and shifted slightly from the central orbit in order to increase the beam size intentionally and suppress the charge density and incoherent tune spread. This injection method has been adopted and suppressed the beam loss. However, simulations clarified that beams did not spread as much as expected because of the space charge effect in the high current case. As simulation results of the optimized beam shift pattern when the space charge effect is considered, it was obtained that the incoherent tune spread could be suppressed to an extent that has not been achieved previously.

  4. Understanding the effect of space charge on instabilities

    Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chao, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES); Chin, Y. H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-05-03

    The combined effect of space charge and wall impedance on transverse instabilities is an important consideration in the design and operation of high intensity hadron machines as well as an intrinsic academic interest. This study explores the combined effects of space charge and wall impedance using various simplified models in an attempt to produce a better understanding of their interplay.

  5. Effects of charged particles on human tumor cells

    Kathryn D Held

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of charged particle therapy in cancer treatment is growing rapidly, in large part because the exquisite dose localization of charged particles allows for higher radiation doses to be given to tumor tissue while normal tissues are exposed to lower doses and decreased volumes of normal tissues are irradiated. In addition, charged particles heavier than protons have substantial potential clinical advantages because of their additional biological effects including greater cell killing effectiveness, decreased radiation resistance of hypoxic cells in tumors and reduced cell cycle dependence of radiation response. These biological advantages depend on many factors such as endpoint, cell or tissue type, dose, dose rate or fractionation, charged particle type and energy, and oxygen concentration. This review summarizes the unique biological advantages of charged particle therapy and highlights recent research and areas of particular research needs, such as quantification of Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE for various tumor types and radiation qualities, role of genetic background of tumor cells in determining response to charged particles, sensitivity of cancer stem-like cells to charged particles, role of charged particles in tumors with hypoxic fractions and importance of fractionation, including use of hypofractionation, with charged particles.

  6. Effects of electric charges on hydrophobic forces. II.

    Bulone, D.; Martorana, V.; San Biagio, P. L.; Palma-Vittorelli, M. B.

    2000-11-01

    We study by molecular-dynamics simulations the effect of electric charges of either sign on hydrophobic interactions and on the dynamics of hydration water, using explicit water and very simplified solutes. Results show that the presence of a charged solute can disrupt the ``hydrophobic contact bond'' between two apolar solutes nearby, by forcing them towards a different configuration. As a consequence of different structural changes of the solvent caused by charges of opposite sign, the effect is markedly charge-sign-dependent. Analogous weaker effects appear to be induced by the presence of one additional apolar element. The dynamics of hydration water around each solute is also seen to be strongly influenced by the presence of other (charged or uncharged) nearby solutes. Comparison between our results on hydration water dynamics around charged solutes and available experimental data allows sorting out the effects of solute charge sign and size. Our results also offer a plain interpretation of the equivalence of the effects on water structure due to solute ions and to high pressures. These results reflect at a basic paradigmatic level the immensely more complex cases of well-known phenomena such as salting-in and salting-out, and of protein conformational changes caused, e.g., by the arrival of a charged or of an apolar group (phosphorilation or methylation). As it will be discussed, they help in the direction of Delbruck's desirable ``progress towards a radical physical explanation'' for this class of phenomena.

  7. Charges for plastic bags : Motivational and behavioral effects

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Steg, Linda; Mazzeo, Nadia; Caballero, Romina; Franco, Paul; Putrino, Natalia; Favara, Jesica

    2014-01-01

    Two field studies tested the effects of a charge for single-use plastic bags recently implemented in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Study 1 showed a greater increase in consumers' own bag use after the charge was introduced in supermarkets where the policy was introduced, in comparison to control sup

  8. The effect of conformal symmetry on charged wormholes

    Kuhfittig, Peter K F

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect that conformal symmetry can have on a charged wormhole. The analysis yields a physical interpretation of the conformal factor in terms of the electric charge. The rate of change of the conformal factor determines much of the outcome, which ranges from having no solution to wormholes having either one or two throats.

  9. Effect of Thermal Fluctuations on a Charged Dilatonic Black Saturn

    Pourhassan, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  10. Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn

    Behnam Pourhassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  11. Study on space charge effects of the CSNS/RCS

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) is a key component of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS).The space charge effect is one of the most important issues in the CSNS/RCS,which limits the maximum beam intensity,as well as the maximum beam power.Space charge effects are the main source of emittance growth and beam loss in the RCS.Space charge effects have been studied by simulation for the CSNS/RCS.By optimizing the painting orbit,the optimized painting distribution was obtained.The space charge effects during the acceleration are studied and dangerous resonances,which may induce emittance growth and beam loss,are investigated.The results are an important reference for the design and commissioning of the CSNS/RCS.

  12. Simulation of space charge effects in resistive plate chambers

    Lippmann, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Multigap resistive plate chambers with 0.3-mm gas gaps operated in avalanche mode at atmospheric pressure have reached timing accuracies below 50 ps (standard deviation) with efficiencies above 99% . The avalanches in high homogeneous electric fields of 100 kV/cm are strongly influenced by space charge effects which are the main topic of this paper. We extend a previously discussed Monte Carlo simulation model of avalanches in resistive plate chambers by the dynamic calculation of the electric field in the avalanches. We complete the previously presented results on time resolution and efficiency data with simulated charge spectra. The simulated data shows good agreement with measurements. The detailed simulation of the avalanche saturation due to the space charge fields explains the small observed charges, the shape of the spectra, and the linear increase of average charges with high voltage. (22 refs).

  13. Quantum Gravity Effects On Charged Micro Black Holes Thermodynamics

    Abbasvandi, N; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdullah, W A T Wan

    2016-01-01

    The charged black hole thermodynamics is corrected in terms of the quantum gravity effects. Most of the quantum gravity theories support the idea that near the Planck scale, the standard Heisenberg uncertainty principle should be reformulated by the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which provides a perturbation framework to perform required modifications of the black hole quantities. In this paper, we consider the effects of the minimal length and maximal momentum as GUP type I and the minimal length, minimal momentum, and maximal momentum as GUP type II on thermodynamics of the charged TeV-scale black holes. We also generalized our study to the universe with the extra dimensions based on the ADD model. In this framework, the effect of the electrical charge on thermodynamics of the black hole and existence of the charged black hole remnants as a potential candidate for the dark matter particles are discussed.

  14. Effect of Wall Charge on Striation in Plasma Display Cells

    HE Feng; OUYANG Jiting; CAO Jing; FENG Shuo; MIAO Jinsong; WANG Jianqi

    2007-01-01

    Different configurations and driving voltages have been employed to investigate the effect of the wall charge on the striations in macroscopic plasma display panel (PDP) cells.The experimental results show that a discharge channel near the dielectric layer is indispensable to striation occurring in the anode area during a discharge,while the pre-accumulated charge on the dielectric layer and the surface state are not important.The origin of the striation is related only to the physical process in the cell.The dielectric layer acts as a charge collector during a PDP discharge.

  15. Effect of radiative cooling on collapsing charged grains

    B P Pandey; Vinod Krishan; M Roy

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the radiative cooling of electrons on the gravitational collapse of cold dust grains with fluctuating electric charge is investigated. We find that the radiative cooling as well as the charge fluctuations, both, enhance the growth rate of the Jeans instability. However, the Jeans length, which is zero for cold grains and nonradiative plasma, becomes finite in the presence of radiative cooling of electrons and is further enhanced due to charge fluctuations of grains resulting in an increased threshold of the spatial scale for the Jeans instability.

  16. The effect of degassing on morphology and space charge

    Chong, Y L; Chen, G; Ho, Y F F

    2004-01-01

    It is believed that space charge buildup in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation is the main cause for premature failure of underground power cables. The space charge activities in XLPE depend on many factors such as additives, material treatment, ambient temperature, insulator/electrode interface, etc. Degassing is one of the material treatment process commonly employ in cable manufacturing to improve insulation performance. In this paper, investigation on the effect of degassing peri...

  17. Space Charge Effect in the Sheet and Solid Electron Beam

    Song, Ho Young; Kim, Hyoung Suk; Ahn, Saeyoung

    1998-11-01

    We analyze the space charge effect of two different types of electron beam ; sheet and solid electron beam. Electron gun simulations are carried out using shadow and control grids for high and low perveance. Rectangular and cylindrical geometries are used for sheet and solid electron beam in planar and disk type cathode. The E-gun code is used to study the limiting current and space charge loading in each geometries.

  18. Weak nonlinear surface-charging effects in electrolytic films.

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2003-11-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full nonlinear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the renormalization of the theory and apply it to a triple-layer model for a thin film with Stern layer of thickness h. For this model we give expressions for the surface charge sigma(L) and the disjoining pressure P(d)(L) and show their dependence on the parameters. The influence of image charges naturally arises in the formalism, and we show that predictions depend strongly on h because of their effects. In particular, we show that the surface charge vanishes as the film thickness L-->0. The fluctuation terms in this class of theories contribute a Casimir-like attraction across the film. Although this attraction is well known to be negligible compared with the mean-field component for model electrolytic films with no surface-charge regulation, in the model studied here these fluctuations also affect the surface-charge regulation leading to a fluctuation component in the disjoining pressure which has the same behavior as the mean-field component even for large film thickness.

  19. Effects of kinematic cuts on net-electric charge fluctuations

    Karsch, Frithjof; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of kinematic cuts on electric charge fluctuations in a gas of charged particles are discussed. We consider a very transparent example of an ideal pion gas with quantum statistics, which can be viewed as a multi-component gas of Boltzmann particles with different charges and masses. Cumulants of net-electric charge fluctuations $\\chi_n^Q$ are calculated in a static and expanding medium with flow parameters adjusted to the experimental data. We show that the transverse momentum cut, $p_{t_\\text{min}}\\leq p_t\\leq p_{t_\\text{max}}$, weakens the effects of Bose statistics, i.e. contributions of effectively multi-charged states to higher order moments. Consequently, cuts in $p_t$ modify the experimentally measured cumulants and their ratios. We discuss the influence of kinematic cuts on the ratio of mean and variance of electric charge fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas, in the light of recent data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations. We find that the different momentum cuts of $p_{t_\\text{min}}=0...

  20. Large Seebeck effect by charge-mobility engineering

    Sun, Peijie; Wei, Beipei; Zhang, Jiahao; Tomczak, Jan M.; Strydom, A. M.; Søndergaard, M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Steglich, Frank

    2015-06-01

    The Seebeck effect describes the generation of an electric potential in a conducting solid exposed to a temperature gradient. In most cases, it is dominated by an energy-dependent electronic density of states at the Fermi level, in line with the prevalent efforts towards superior thermoelectrics through the engineering of electronic structure. Here we demonstrate an alternative source for the Seebeck effect based on charge-carrier relaxation: a charge mobility that changes rapidly with temperature can result in a sizeable addition to the Seebeck coefficient. This new Seebeck source is demonstrated explicitly for Ni-doped CoSb3, where a marked mobility change occurs due to the crossover between two different charge-relaxation regimes. Our findings unveil the origin of pronounced features in the Seebeck coefficient of many other elusive materials characterized by a significant mobility mismatch. When utilized appropriately, this effect can also provide a novel route to the design of improved thermoelectric materials.

  1. Effect of Electrolytes on Surface Charge Characteristics of Red Soils

    SHAOZONG-CHEN; HEQUN; 等

    1992-01-01

    The zero point of charge (ZPC) and the remaining charge σp at ZPC are two important parameters characterizing surface charge of red soils.Fourteen red soil samples of different soil type and parent material were treated with dithionite-citrate-dicarbonate (DCB) and Na2CO3 respectively.ZPC and σp of the samples in three indifferent electrolytes (NaCl,Na2SO4,and NaH2PO4) were determined.Kaolinite was used as reference.The results showed that ZPC of red soils was affected by the composition of parent materials and clay minerals and in significantly positive correlation with the content of total iron oxide (Fet),free iron oxide (Fed),amorphous iron oxide (Feo),aluminum oxide (Alo) and clay,but it was negatively correlated with the content of total silica (Sit).The σp of red soils was also markedly influenced by mineral components.Organic components were also contributing factor to the value of σp.The surface charges of red soils were evidently affected by the constitution of the electrolytes.Specific adsorption of anions in the electrolytes tended to make the ZPC of red soils shift to a higher pH value and to increase positive surface charges of the soils,thus leading to change of the σp value and decrease of the remaining net negative charges,even to the soils becoming net positive charge carriers.The effect of phosphate anion was greater than that of sulfate ion.

  2. Comparison of effective charges derived in two different boson mappings

    Pittel, S.; Scholten, O.

    1988-01-01

    Boson effective charges that arise in a mapping recently proposed by Heyde and Sau are contrasted with those that arise in the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello procedure. We identify the source of the differences and show that they have no observable consequences if the mappings are implemented consistently fo

  3. Electron cloud and space charge effects in the Fermilab Booster

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The stable region of the Fermilab Booster beam in the complex coherent-tune-shift plane appears to have been shifted far away from the origin by its intense space charge making Landau damping appear impossible. Simulations reveal a substantial buildup of electron cloud in the whole Booster ramping cycle, both inside the unshielded combined-function magnets and the beam pipes joining the magnets, whenever the secondary-emission yield (SEY) is larger than {approx}1.6. The implication of the electron-cloud effects on the space charge and collective instabilities of the beam is investigated.

  4. Effect of Aperiodicity on the Charge Transfer Through DNA Molecules

    Ghosh, Angsula; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab

    The effect of aperiodicity on the charge transfer process through DNA molecules is investigated using a tight-binding model. Single-stranded aperiodic Fibonacci polyGC and polyAT sequences along with aperiodic Rudin-Shapiro poly(GCAT) sequences are used in the study. Based on the tight-binding model, molecular orbital calculations of the DNA chains are performed and ionization potentials compared, as this might be relevant to understanding the charge transfer process. Charges migrate through the sequences in a multistep hopping process. Results for current conduction through aperiodic sequences are compared with those for the corresponding periodic sequences. We find that dinucleotide aperiodic Fibonacci sequences decrease the current while tetranucleotide aperiodic Rudin-Shapiro sequences increase the current when compared with the corresponding periodic sequences. The conductance in all cases decays exponentially as the sequence length increases.

  5. Specific salt effects on thermophoresis of charged colloids.

    Eslahian, Kyriakos A; Majee, Arghya; Maskos, Michael; Würger, Alois

    2014-03-28

    We study the Soret effect of charged polystyrene particles as a function of temperature and electrolyte composition. As a main result we find that the Soret coefficient is determined by charge effects, and that non-ionic contributions are small. In view of the well-known electric-double layer interactions, our thermal field-flow fractionation data lead us to the conclusion that the Soret effect originates to a large extent from diffusiophoresis in the salt gradient and from the electrolyte Seebeck effect, both of which show strong specific-ion effects. Moreover, we find that thermophoresis of polystyrene beads is fundamentally different from proteins and aqueous polymer solutions, which show a strong non-ionic contribution.

  6. Effective dynamics of an electrically charged string with a current

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2005-08-01

    Equations of motion for an electrically charged string with a current in an external electromagnetic field with regard to the first correction due to the self-action are derived. It is shown that the reparametrization invariance of the free action of the string imposes constraints on the possible form of the current. The effective equations of motion are obtained for an absolutely elastic charged string in the form of a ring (circle). Equations for the external electromagnetic fields that admit stationary states of such a ring are revealed. Solutions to the effective equations of motion of an absolutely elastic charged ring in the absence of external fields as well as in an external uniform magnetic field are obtained. In the latter case, the frequency at which one can observe radiation emitted by the ring is evaluated. A model of an absolutely nonstretchable charged string with a current is proposed. The effective equations of motion are derived within this model, and a class of solutions to these equations is found.

  7. Effective dynamics of an electrically charged string with a current

    Kazinski, P O

    2005-01-01

    Equations of motion for an electrically charged string with a current in an external electromagnetic field with regard to the first correction due to the self-action are derived. It is shown that the reparametrization invariance of the free action of the string imposes constraints on the possible form of the current. The effective equations of motion are obtained for an absolutely elastic charged string in the form of a ring (circle). Equations for the external electromagnetic fields that admit stationary states of such a ring are revealed. Solutions to the effective equations of motion of an absolutely elastic charged ring in the absence of external fields as well as in an external uniform magnetic field are obtained. In the latter case, the frequency at which one can observe radiation emitted by the ring is evaluated. A model of an absolutely nonstretchable charged string with a current is proposed. The effective equations of motion are derived within this model, and a class of solutions to these equations ...

  8. Nonlinear effects on electrophoresis of a charged dielectric nanoparticle in a charged hydrogel medium

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, Simanta

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the solid polarization of a charged dielectric particle in gel electrophoresis is studied without imposing a weak-field or a thin Debye length assumption. The electric polarization of a dielectric particle due to an external electric field creates a non-uniform surface charge density, which in turn creates a non-uniform Debye layer at the solid-gel interface. The solid polarization of the particle, the polarization of the double layer, and the electro-osmosis of mobile ions within the hydrogel medium create a nonlinear effect on the electrophoresis. We have incorporated those nonlinear effects by considering the electrokinetics governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations. We have computed the governing nonlinear coupled set of equations numerically by adopting a finite volume based iterative algorithm. Our numerical method is tested for accuracy by comparing with several existing results on free-solution electrophoresis as well as results based on the Debye-Hückel approximation. Our computed result shows that the electrophoretic velocity decreases with the rise of the particle dielectric permittivity constant and attains a saturation limit at large values of permittivity. A significant impact of the solid polarization is found in gel electrophoresis compared to the free-solution electrophoresis.

  9. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    Gravier, L.; Fukushima, A.; Kubota, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yuasa, S.

    2006-12-01

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements.

  10. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    Gravier, L [Institut de Physique des Nanostructures, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL-SB-IPN station 3, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fukushima, A [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kubota, H [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yamamoto, A [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yuasa, S [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2006-12-21

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements.

  11. Amplified effect of surface charge on cell adhesion by nanostructures

    Xu, Li-Ping; Meng, Jingxin; Zhang, Shuaitao; Ma, Xinlei; Wang, Shutao

    2016-06-01

    Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration.Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM, KFM AFM, chemical modification and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00649c

  12. Effect of trapped charge accumulation on the retention of charge trapping memory

    Jin Rui; Liu Xiaoyan; Du Gang; Kang Jinfeng; Han Ruqi, E-mail: xyliu@ime.pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The accumulation process of trapped charges in a TANOS cell during P/E cycling is investigated via numerical simulation. The recombination process between trapped charges is an important issue on the retention of charge trapping memory. Our results show that accumulated trapped holes during P/E cycling can have an influence on retention, and the recombination mechanism between trapped charges should be taken into account when evaluating the retention capability of TANOS. (semiconductor devices)

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Effect of trapped charge accumulation on the retention of charge trapping memory

    Rui, Jin; Xiaoyan, Liu; Gang, Du; Jinfeng, Kang; Ruqi, Han

    2010-12-01

    The accumulation process of trapped charges in a TANOS cell during P/E cycling is investigated via numerical simulation. The recombination process between trapped charges is an important issue on the retention of charge trapping memory. Our results show that accumulated trapped holes during P/E cycling can have an influence on retention, and the recombination mechanism between trapped charges should be taken into account when evaluating the retention capability of TANOS.

  14. Membrane Permeabilization Induced by Sphingosine: Effect of Negatively Charged Lipids

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; Sot, Jesús; Viguera, Ana R.; Collado, M. Isabel; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Gómez-Fernández, J.C.; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine [(2S, 3R, 4E)-2-amino-4-octadecen-1, 3-diol] is the most common sphingoid long chain base in sphingolipids. It is the precursor of important cell signaling molecules, such as ceramides. In the last decade it has been shown to act itself as a potent metabolic signaling molecule, by activating a number of protein kinases. Moreover, sphingosine has been found to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers, giving rise to vesicle leakage. The present contribution intends to analyze the mechanism by which this bioactive lipid induces vesicle contents release, and the effect of negatively charged bilayers in the release process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy have been applied to observe the mechanism of sphingosine efflux from large and giant unilamellar vesicles; a graded-release efflux has been detected. Additionally, stopped-flow measurements have shown that the rate of vesicle permeabilization increases with sphingosine concentration. Because at the physiological pH sphingosine has a net positive charge, its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids (e.g., bilayers containing phosphatidic acid together with sphingomyelins, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol) gives rise to a release of vesicular contents, faster than with electrically neutral bilayers. Furthermore, phosphorous 31-NMR and x-ray data show the capacity of sphingosine to facilitate the formation of nonbilayer (cubic phase) intermediates in negatively charged membranes. The data might explain the pathogenesis of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. PMID:24940775

  15. Spin and charge thermopower effects in the ferromagnetic graphene junction

    Vahedi, Javad; Barimani, Fattaneh

    2016-08-01

    Using wave function matching approach and employing the Landauer-Buttiker formula, a ferromagnetic graphene junction with temperature gradient across the system is studied. We calculate the thermally induced charge and spin current as well as the thermoelectric voltage (Seebeck effect) in the linear and nonlinear regimes. Our calculation revealed that due to the electron-hole symmetry, the charge Seebeck coefficient is, for an undoped magnetic graphene, an odd function of chemical potential while the spin Seebeck coefficient is an even function regardless of the temperature gradient and junction length. We have also found with an accurate tuning external parameter, namely, the exchange filed and gate voltage, the temperature gradient across the junction drives a pure spin current without accompanying the charge current. Another important characteristic of thermoelectric transport, thermally induced current in the nonlinear regime, is examined. It would be our main finding that with increasing thermal gradient applied to the junction the spin and charge thermovoltages decrease and even become zero for non zero temperature bias.

  16. Plasma effect in silicon charge coupled devices (CCDs)

    Estrada, J., E-mail: estrada@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Molina, J., E-mail: jmolina@ing.una.py [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, Laboratorio de Mecanica y Energia, Campus de la UNA, San Lorenzo 2160 (Paraguay); Blostein, J.J., E-mail: jeronimo@cab.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Fernandez, G., E-mail: fmoroni.guillermo@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-02-11

    Plasma effect is observed in CCDs exposed to heavy ionizing {alpha}-particles with energies in the range 0.5-5.5 MeV. The results obtained for the size of the charge clusters reconstructed on the CCD pixels agree with previous measurements in the high energy region ({>=}3.5 MeV). The measurements were extended to lower energies using {alpha}-particles produced by (n,{alpha}) reactions of neutrons in a {sup 10}B target. The effective linear charge density for the plasma column is measured as a function of energy. The results demonstrate the potential for high position resolution in the reconstruction of {alpha} particles, which opens an interesting possibility for using these detectors in neutron imaging applications.

  17. Plasma effect in Silicon Charge Couple Devices (CCDs)

    Estrada, Juan; Blostein, J

    2011-01-01

    Plasma effect is observed in CCDs exposed to heavy ionizing alpha-particles with energies in the range 0.5 - 5.5 MeV. The results obtained for the size of the charge clusters reconstructed on the CCD pixels agrees with previous measurements in the high energy region (>3.5 MeV). The measurements were extended to lower energies using alpha-particles produced by (n,alpha) reactions of neutrons in a Boron-10 target. The effective linear charge density for the plasma column is measured as a function of energy. The results demonstrate the potential for high position resolution in the reconstruction of alpha particles, which opens an interesting possibility for using these detectors in neutron imaging applications.

  18. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by Dc=C vB2/(2 π T ), where vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  19. Program NAJOCSC and space charge effect simulation in C01

    Tang, J.Y.; Chabert, A.; Baron, E

    1999-03-10

    During the beam tests of the THI project at GANIL, it was found it difficult to increase the beam power above 2 kW at CSS2 extraction. The space charge effect (abbreviated as S.C. effect) in cyclotrons is suspected to play some role in the phenomenon, especially the longitudinal S.C. one and also the coupling between longitudinal and radial motions. The injector cyclotron C01 is studied, and the role played by the S.C. effect in this cyclotron in the THI case is investigated by a simulation method. (K.A.) 12 refs.

  20. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  1. The effect of polymer charge density and charge distribution on the formation of multilayers

    Voigt, U; Tauer, K; Hahn, M; Jäger, W; Klitzing, K V

    2003-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers which are built up by alternating adsorption of polyanions and polycations from aqueous solutions at a solid interface are investigated by reflectometry and ellipsometry. Below a degree of charge of about 70% the adsorption stops after a certain number of dipping cycles and no multilayer formation occurs. This indicates an electrostatically driven adsorption process. Below a charge density of 70% an adsorption can take place if the charged segments are combined as a block of the polymer.

  2. Charge Transport in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Field-Effect Transistors

    Jurchescu, Oana

    Hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite (HTP) materials exhibit a strong optical absorption, tunable band gap, long carrier lifetimes and fast charge carrier transport. These remarkable properties, coupled with their reduced complexity processing, make the HTPs promising contenders for large scale, low-cost thin film optoelectronic applications. But in spite of the remarkable demonstrations of high performance solar cells, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistor devices, all of which took place in a very short time period, numerous questions related to the nature and dynamics of the charge carriers and their relation to device performance, stability and reliability still remain. This presentation describes the electrical properties of HTPs evaluated from field-effect transistor measurements. The electrostatic gating of provides an unique platform for the study of intrinsic charge transport in these materials, and, at the same time, expand the use of HTPs towards switching electronic devices, which have not been explored previously. We fabricated FETs on SiO2 and polymer dielectrics from spin coating, thermal evaporation and spray deposition and compare their properties. CH3NH3PbI3-xClx can reach balanced electron and hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs upon tuning the thin-film microstructure, injection and the defect density at the semiconductor/dielectric interface. The work was performed in collaboration with Yaochuan Mei (Wake Forest University), Chuang Zhang, and Z. Valy Vardeny (University of Utah). The work is supported by ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2943.

  3. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    Adelmann, A

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  4. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  5. Magnetothermopower and Nernst effect in unconventional charge density waves

    Dóra, Balázs; Maki, Kazumi; Ványolos, András; Virosztek, Attila

    2003-12-01

    Recently we have shown that the striking angular dependent magnetoresistance in the low-temperature phase (LTP) of α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 is consistently described in terms of unconventional charge density wave (UCDW). Here we investigate theoretically the thermoelectric power and the Nernst effect in unconventional density wave (UDW). The present results account consistently for the recent data of magnetothermopower in α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 obtained by Choi et al. [Phys. Rev. B 65, 205119 (2002)]. This confirms further our identification of LTP in this salt as UCDW. We propose also that the Nernst effect provides a clear signature of UDW.

  6. Effect of Size Polydispersity on Melting of Charged Colloidal Systems

    陈勇

    2003-01-01

    We introduce simple prescriptions of the Yukawa potential to describe the effect of size polydispersity and macroion shielding effect in charged colloidal systems. The solid-liquid phase boundaries were presented with the Lindemann criterion based on molecular dynamics simulations. Compared with the Robbins-Kremer-Grest simulation results, a deviation of melting line is observed at small λ, which means large macroion screening length. This deviation of phase boundary is qualitatively consistent with the simulation result of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with full many-body interactions. It is found that this deviation of the solid-liquid phase behaviour is sensitive to the screening parameter.

  7. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) interaction in gases. For the noble gases argon, krypton, and xenon Eproxi>0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi neutral complexes into charged fragments. This phenomenon appears consistently in the TF theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that there are no electron fluxes through the outer boundary R3 ∝ n-1d of a Wigner-Seitz cell. Eproxi corresponds to the definition of the correlation energy in a gas of interacting particles. This review is written so as to enable comparison of the results of the TF formalism with the standard assumptions of the correlation theory for classical plasmas. The classic

  8. Effect of sample preparation on charged impurities in graphene substrates

    Burson, K. M.; Dean, C. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Hone, J.; Kim, P.; Cullen, W. G.; Fuhrer, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    The mobility of graphene as fabricated on SiO2 has been found to vary widely depending on sample preparation conditions. Additionally, graphene mobility on SiO2 appears to be limited to ~20,000 cm2/Vs, likely due to charged impurities in the substrate. Here we present a study of the effect of fabrication procedures on substrate charged impurity density (nimp) utilizing ultrahigh-vacuum Kelvin probe force microscopy. We conclude that even minimal SEM exposure, as from e-beam lithography, induces an increased impurity density, while heating reduces the number of charges for sample substrates which already exhibit a higher impurity density. We measure both SiO2 and h-BN and find that all nimp values observed for SiO2 are higher than those observed for h-BN; this is consistent with the observed improvement in mobility for graphene devices fabricated on h-BN over those fabricated on SiO2 substrates. This work was supported by the US ONR MURI program, and the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471.

  9. Bending elasticity of charged surfactant layers: the effect of mixing.

    Bergström, L Magnus

    2006-08-01

    Expressions have been derived from which the spontaneous curvature (H(0)), bending rigidity (k(c)), and saddle-splay constant (k(c)) of mixed monolayers and bilayers may be calculated from molecular and solution properties as well as experimentally available quantities such as the macroscopic hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfacial tension. Three different cases of binary surfactant mixtures have been treated in detail: (i) mixtures of an ionic and a nonionic surfactant, (ii) mixtures of two oppositely charged surfactants, and (iii) mixtures of two ionic surfactants with identical headgroups but different tail volumes. It is demonstrated that k(c)H(0), k(c), and k(c) for mixtures of surfactants with flexible tails may be subdivided into one contribution that is due to bending properties of an infinitely thin surface as calculated from the Poisson-Boltzmann mean field theory and one contribution appearing as a result of the surfactant film having a finite thickness with the surface of charge located somewhat outside the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. As a matter of fact, the picture becomes completely different as finite layer thickness effects are taken into account, and as a result, the spontaneous curvature is extensively lowered whereas the bending rigidity is raised. Furthermore, an additional contribution to k(c) is present for surfactant mixtures but is absent for k(c)H(0) and k(c). This contribution appears as a consequence of the minimization of the free energy with respect to the composition of a surfactant layer that is open in the thermodynamic sense and must always be negative (i.e., k(c) is generally found to be brought down by the process of mixing two or more surfactants). The magnitude of the reduction of k(c) increases with increasing asymmetry between two surfactants with respect to headgroup charge number and tail volume. As a consequence, the bending rigidity assumes the lowest values for layers formed in mixtures of two oppositely charged

  10. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  11. The Gravitational Effects of a Celestial Body with Magnetic Charge and Moment

    2001-01-01

    The gravitational effects (precession of charge-less particles and deflection of light) in the gravitational field of a celestial body with magnetic charge and moment (CM)are investigated. We found that the magnetic charge always weakens the pure Schwarzschild effects, while the magnetic dipole moment deforms the effects in a more complicated way.

  12. Space charge effects for multipactor in coaxial lines

    Sorolla, E., E-mail: eden.sorolla@xlim.fr [XLIM, UMR 7252, Université de Limoges/CNRS, 123 Av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Sounas, A.; Mattes, M. [Laboratoire d' Électromagnétisme et d' Acoustique (LEMA), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 11, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-03-15

    Multipactor is a hazardous vacuum discharge produced by secondary electron emission within microwave devices of particle accelerators and telecommunication satellites. This work analyzes the dynamics of the multipactor discharge within a coaxial line for the mono-energetic electron emission model taking into account the space charge effects. The steady-state is predicted by the proposed model and an analytical expression for the maximum number of electrons released by the discharge presented. This could help to link simulations to experiments and define a multipactor onset criterion.

  13. Charging of heated colloidal particles using the electrolyte Seebeck effect.

    Majee, Arghya; Würger, Alois

    2012-03-16

    We propose a novel actuation mechanism for colloids, which is based on the Seebeck effect of the electrolyte solution: Laser heating of a nonionic particle accumulates in its vicinity a net charge Q, which is proportional to the excess temperature at the particle surface. The corresponding long-range thermoelectric field E is proportional to 1/r(2) provides a tool for controlled interactions with nearby beads or with additional molecular solutes. An external field E(ext) drags the thermocharged particle at a velocity that depends on its size and absorption properties; the latter point could be particularly relevant for separating carbon nanotubes according to their electronic band structure.

  14. Free charge localization and effective dielectric permittivity in oxides

    Maglione, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This review will deal with several types of free charge localization in oxides and their consequences on the effective dielectric spectra of such materials. The first one is the polaronic localization at the unit cell scale on residual impurities in ferroelectric networks. The second one is the collective localization of free charge at macroscopic interfaces like surfaces, electrodes and grain boundaries in ceramics. Polarons have been observed in many oxide perovskites mostly when cations having several stable electronic configurations are present. In manganites, the density of such polarons is so high as to drive a net lattice of interacting polarons. On the other hand, in ferroelectric materials like BaTiO3 and LiNbO3, the density of polarons is usually very small but they can influence strongly the macroscopic conductivity. The contribution of such polarons to the dielectric spectra of ferroelectric materials is described. Even residual impurities as for example Iron can induce well-defined anomalies at very low temperatures. This is mostly resulting from the interaction between localized polarons and the highly polarizable ferroelectric network in which they are embedded. The case of such residual polarons in SrTiO3 will be described in more detail, emphasizing the quantum polaron state at liquid helium temperatures. Recently, several nonferroelectric oxides have been shown to display giant effective dielectric permittivity. It is first shown that the frequency/temperature behavior of such parameters is very similar in very different compounds (donor-doped BaTiO3, CaCu3Ti4O12, LuFe2O4, Li-doped NiO, etc.). This similarity calls for a common origin of the giant dielectric permittivity in these compounds. A space charge localization at macroscopic interfaces can be the key for such extremely high dielectric permittivity.

  15. Effects of reliability screens of MOS charge trapping

    Shanneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Schwank, J.R.; Reber, R.A. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation elevated-temperature bias stresses on the radiation hardness of field-oxide transistors have been investigated as a function of stress temperature, time, and bias. Both the stress temperature and time are found to have a significant impact on radiation-induced charge buildup in these transistors. Specifically, an increase in either the stress temperature or time causes a much larger negative shift (towards depletion) in the I-V characteristics of the n-channel field-oxide transistors. This increased shift in the transistor I-V characteristics with stress temperature and time suggests that the mechanisms responsible for the stress effects are thermally activated. An activation energy of {approximately}0.38 eV was measured. The stress bias was found to have no impact on radiation-induced charge buildup in these transistors. The observed stress temperature, time, and bias dependencies appears to be consistent with the diffusion of molecular hydrogen during a given stress period. These results have important implications for the development of hardness assurance test methods.

  16. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  17. Non-equilibration of topological charge and its effects

    Bernard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    In QCD simulations at small lattice spacings, the topological charge Q evolves very slowly and, if this quantity is not properly equilibrated, we could get incorrect results for physical quantities, or incorrect estimates of their errors. We use the known relation between the dependence of masses and decay constants on the QCD vacuum angle theta and the squared topological charge Q^2 together with chiral perturbation theory results for the dependence of masses and decay constants on theta to estimate the size of these effects and suggest strategies for dealing with them. For the partially quenched case, we sketch an alternative derivation of the known $\\chi$PT results of Aoki and Fukaya, using the nonperturbatively correct chiral theory worked out by Golterman, Sharpe and Singleton, and by Sharpe and Shoresh. With the MILC collaboration's ensembles of lattices with four flavors of HISQ dynamical quarks, we measure the $Q^2$ dependence of masses and decay constants and compare to the $\\chi$PT forms. The observ...

  18. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Hervier, Antoine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-12-21

    the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady-state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO2 films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO2, F was found to act as an n-type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO2 films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO2 as the support, F-doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO2. With non-stoichiometric TiO2, F-doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to investigate this F-doping effect in reaction conditions. In O2 alone, and in

  19. Charge Stripper Effects on Beam Optics in 180-degree Bending Section of RISP Linac

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Song, Jeong Seog

    2016-01-01

    The RAON, a superconducting linear accelerator for RISP (Rare Isotope Science Project), will use a charge stripper in order to increase the charge states of the heavy ions for effective acceleration in the higher energy part of the linac. The charge stripper affects the beam qualities by scattering when the heavy ions go through the charge stripper. Moreover we have to select and accelerate proper charge states between 77+ and 81+ for uranium beam case in order to satisfy the beam power requirement at an IF (Inflight Fragmentation) target. This work focuses on the beam optics affected by the charge stripper in the 180-dgree bending section.

  20. Charge uncovering effects on flute instabilities in hot electron plasmas

    Spong, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements and concurrent theoretical equilibrium models of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) edge plasma region (as described by E. F. Jaeger et al. in Magnetic Well Depth in EBT and Sensitivity to Hot Electron Ring Geometry, ORNL/TM-9185 (1984)) have indicated that the hot electron ring beta ..beta../sub hot/ at the C-T transition may not always be sufficient to produce the local minimum in the magnetic field thought to be necessary for MHD stability. This has led to the examination of other mechanisms that could account for the observed stability of the T-mode. In this report, an effect known as charge uncovering, which depends not on the value of ..beta../sub hot/ but rather on the ratio n/sub hot//n/sub core/, is studied.

  1. Effects of dispersive wave modes on charged particles transport

    Schreiner, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The transport of charged particles in the heliosphere and the interstellar medium is governed by the interaction of particles and magnetic irregularities. For the transport of protons a rather simple model using a linear Alfv\\'en wave spectrum which follows the Kolmogorov distribution usually yields good results. Even magnetostatic spectra may be used. For the case of electron transport, particles will resonate with the high-k end of the spectrum. Here the magnetic fluctuations do not follow the linear dispersion relation, but the kinetic regime kicks in. We will discuss the interaction of fluctuations of dispersive waves in the kinetic regime using a particle-in-cell code. Especially the scattering of particles following the idea of Lange et al. (2013) and its application to PiC codes will be discussed. The effect of the dispersive regime on the electron transport will be discussed in detail.

  2. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Lucas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity - a speed at which quantum information propagates - may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  3. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Hervier, Antoine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-12-21

    the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady-state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO2 films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO2, F was found to act as an n-type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO2 films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO2 as the support, F-doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO2. With non-stoichiometric TiO2, F-doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was

  4. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds.

    Aramesh, M; Shimoni, O; Ostrikov, K; Prawer, S; Cervenka, J

    2015-03-19

    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.

  5. Effects of charged sand on electromagnetic wave propagation and its scattering field

    HE; Qinshu; ZHOU; Youhe; ZHENG; Xiaojing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Rayleigh's scattering theory, the effects of sandstorms on the propagation of electromagnetic wave with different visibilities are presented by solving the scattering field of charged sand particles. Because of the electric charges on the sand surface, the theoretical attenuation will be large enough to match the measured value under certain conditions. And the results show that the effect of sand with electric charges all over its surface on electromagnetic wave attenuation is the same as that of sand without charge, which proves that electric charges distribute on partial surface of the sand in fact.

  6. The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a Li-ion battery

    Zhang, Sheng Shui

    The effect of the charging protocol on the cycle life of a commercial 18650 Li-ion cell was studied using three methods: (1) constant current (CC) charging, (2) constant power (CP) charging, and (3) multistage constant current (MCC) charging. The MCC-charging consists of two CC steps, which starts with a low current to charge the initial 10% capacity followed by a high current charging until the cell voltage reaches 4.2 V. Using these methods, respectively, the cell was charged to 4.2 V followed by a constant voltage (CV) charging until the current declined to 0.05 C. Results showed that the cycle life of the cell strongly depended on the charging protocol even if the same charging rate was used. Among these three methods, the CC-method was found to be more suitable for slow charging (0.5 C) while the CP-method was better for fast charging (1 C). Impedance analyses indicated that the capacity loss during cycling was mainly attributed to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as a result of the progressive growth of surface layers on the surface of two electrodes. Fast charging resulted in an accelerated capacity fading due to the loss of Li + ions and the related growth of a surface layer, which was associated with metallic lithium plating onto the anode and a high polarization at the electrolyte-electrode interface. Analyses of the cell electrochemistry showed that use of a reduced current to charge the initial 10% capacity and near the end of charge, respectively, was favorable for long cycle life.

  7. Screening effects on structure and diffusion in confined charged colloids.

    Kittner, Madeleine; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2007-04-21

    Using molecular dynamics computer simulations we investigate structural and dynamic (diffusion) properties of charged colloidal suspension confined to narrow slit pores with structureless, uncharged walls. The system is modeled on an effective level involving only the macroions, which interact via a combination of a soft-sphere and a screened Coulomb potential. The aim of our study is to identify the role of the range of the macroion-macroion interaction controlled by the inverse Debye screening length, kappa. We also compare to bulk properties at the same chemical potential as determined in parallel grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Our results reveal a significant influence of the interaction range which competes, however, with the influence of density. At liquidlike densities a decrease of range yields a decreasing mobility (and a corresponding enhancement of local structure) in the bulk system, whereas the reverse effect occurs in narrow slits with thickness of a few particle diameter. These differences can be traced back to the confinement-induced, and kappa-dependent, reduction of overall density compared to the bulk reservoir. We also show that an increase of kappa softens the oscillations in the normal pressure as function of the wall separation, which is consistent with experimental observations concerning the influence of addition of salt.

  8. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins

  9. Two rods confined by positive plates: effective forces and charge distribution profiles

    Odriozola, G; Jimenez-Angeles, F; Lozada-Cassou, M [Programa de IngenierIa Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-09-13

    The effect of confinement on the interaction force between two negatively charged rods is studied through Monte Carlo simulations. Confinement is produced by two parallel, charged or uncharged plates. The system is immersed in a 0.1 M 1-1 restricted primitive model electrolyte. The effect on the rod-rod effective force by the plate charge distribution is analysed. A strong modification of the rod-rod effective force due to confinement is found, as compared to the bulk case. In particular, rod-rod attraction was found for plates having a charge equal to that of fully charged bilipid bilayers. In spite of the simplicity of the model, these results agree with some DNA-phospholipid experimental observations. On the other hand, for a model having the plate charges fixed on a grid, very long range, oscillatory rod-rod effective forces were obtained.

  10. Space Charge Effects and Limitations in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    Wasef, R; Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Hernalsteens, C; Huschauer, A; Schmidt, F; Franchetti, G

    2013-01-01

    Space charge produces a large incoherent tune-spread which, in presence of betatronic resonances, could lead to beam losses and emittance growth. In the CERN Proton Synchrotron, at the current injection kinetic energy (1.4 GeV) and even at the future kinetic energy (2 GeV), space charge is one of the main limitations for high brightness beams and especially for the future High- Luminosity LHC beams. Several detailed studies and measurements have been carried out to improve the understanding of space charge limitations to determine the maximum acceptable tune spread and identify the most important resonances causing losses and emittance growth.

  11. Particles inside electrolytes with ion-specific interactions, their effective charge distributions, and effective interactions

    Ding, Mingnan; Liang, Yihao; Xing, Xiangjun

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we explore the statistical physics of colloidal particles that interact with electrolytes via ion-specific interactions. Firstly we study particles interacting weakly with electrolyte using linear response theory. We find that the mean potential around a particle is linearly determined by the effective charge distribution of the particle, which depends both on the bare charge distribution and on ion-specific interactions. We also discuss the effective interaction between two such particles and show that, in the far field regime, it is bilinear in the effective charge distributions of two particles. We subsequently generalize the above results to the more complicated case where particles interact strongly with the electrolyte. Our results indicate that in order to understand the statistical physics of non-dilute electrolytes, both ion-specific interactions and ionic correlations have to be addressed in a single unified and consistent framework. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174196 and 91130012).

  12. Mechano-chemical effects in weakly charged porous media.

    Zholkovskij, Emiliy K; Yaroshchuk, Andriy E; Koval'chuk, Volodymyr I; Bondarenko, Mykola P

    2015-08-01

    The paper is concerned with mechano-chemical effects, namely, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions that can be observed when a charged porous medium is placed between two electrolyte solutions. The study is focused on porous systems with low equilibrium interfacial potentials (about 30 mV or lower). At such low potentials, osmosis and pressure-driven separation of ions noticeably manifest themselves provided that the ions in the electrolyte solutions have different diffusion coefficients. The analysis is conducted by combining the irreversible thermodynamic approach and the linearized (in terms of the normalized equilibrium interfacial potential) version of the Standard Electrokinetic Model. Osmosis and the pressure-driven separation of ions are considered for an arbitrary mixed electrolyte solution and various porous space geometries. It is shown that the effects under consideration are proportional to a geometrical factor which, for all the considered geometries of porous space, can be expressed as a function of porosity and the Λ- parameter of porous medium normalized by the Debye length. For all the studied geometries, this function turns out to be weakly dependent on both the porosity and the geometry type. The latter allows for a rough evaluation of the geometrical factor from experimental data on electric conductivity and hydraulic permeability without previous knowledge of the porous space geometry. The obtained results are used to illustrate how the composition of electrolyte solution affects the mechano-chemical effects. For various examples of electrolyte solution compositions, the obtained results are capable of describing positive, negative and anomalous osmosis, positive and negative rejection of binary electrolytes, and pressure-driven separation of binary electrolyte mixtures.

  13. Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls.

    Campbell, M P; McConville, J P V; McQuaid, R G P; Prabhakaran, D; Kumar, A; Gregg, J M

    2016-12-12

    Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ∼1 × 10(16) cm(-3) is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of∼50 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.

  14. Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls

    Campbell, M. P.; McConville, J. P. V.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Prabhakaran, D.; Kumar, A.; Gregg, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ~1 × 1016 cm-3 is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of~50 cm2V-1s-1 is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.

  15. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    2016-08-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9689 Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing ...PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration Neil S. Spinner,* Katherine M. Hinnant...geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available

  16. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Coupler Designs of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Dynamic Charging

    Weitong Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of coupler designs for wireless power transfer (WPT, meant for electric vehicle (EV dynamic charging. The design comparison of three common types of couplers is first based on the raw material cost, output power, transfer efficiency, tolerance of horizontal offset, and flux density. Then, the optimal cost-effectiveness combination is selected for EV dynamic charging. The corresponding performances of the proposed charging system are compared and analyzed by both simulation and experimentation. The results verify the validity of the proposed dynamic charging system for EVs.

  18. Measurements of Charge Sharing Effects in Pixilated CZT/CdTe Detectors

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Te pixel detector samples. The results are used for the development of the large area X-ray and Gamma ray detector for the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) planned for the ISS ESA Columbus module. Charge sharing measurements on detector samples with identical size and pixel geometry......In this paper, charge sharing and charge loss effects in pixilated CZT/CdTe detectors are investigated by measurements. We measured charge sharing effects function of the inter-pixel gap (with same pixel pitch), the photon energy and the detector bias voltage for a large numbers of CZT and Cd...

  19. Weak non-linear surface charging effects in electrolytic films

    Dean, D. S.; Horgan, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full non-linear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the reno...

  20. Effects of charging and electric field on graphene functionalized with titanium.

    Gürel, H Hakan; Ciraci, S

    2013-07-10

    Titanium atoms are adsorbed to graphene with a significant binding energy and render diverse functionalities to it. Carrying out first-principles calculations, we investigated the effects of charging and static electric field on the physical and chemical properties of graphene covered by Ti adatoms. When uniformly Ti covered graphene is charged positively, its antiferromagnetic ground state changes to ferromagnetic metal and attains a permanent magnetic moment. Static electric field applied perpendicularly causes charge transfer between Ti and graphene, and can induce metal-insulator transition. While each Ti adatom adsorbed to graphene atom can hold four hydrogen molecules with a weak binding, these molecules can be released by charging or applying electric field perpendicularly. Hence, it is demonstrated that charging and applied static electric field induce quasi-continuous and side specific modifications in the charge distribution and potential energy of adatoms absorbed to single-layer nanostructures, resulting in fundamentally crucial effects on their physical and chemical properties.

  1. Electric field confinement effect on charge transport in organic field-effect transistors

    Li, X.; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I.I.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Broer, D.J.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Bässler, H.

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that the charge-carrier mobility in organic semiconductors is only weakly dependent on the electric field at low fields, the experimental mobility in organic field-effect transistors using silylethynyl-substituted pentacene is found to be surprisingly field dependent at low source-

  2. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France); Dellis, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)

    2013-09-23

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  3. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  4. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how...

  5. The effect of dc poling duration on space charge relaxation in virgin XLPE cable peelings

    Tzimas, Antonios; Rowland, Simon M [University of Manchester, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Dissado, Leonard A [University of Leicester, Department of Engineering, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fu, Mingli [AREVA T and D UK Limited, St Leonards Avenue, Stafford, ST17 4LX (United Kingdom); Nilsson, Ulf H, E-mail: Antonios.Tzimas@manchester.ac.u [Borealis AB, SE-444 86, Stenungsund (Sweden)

    2010-06-02

    The effect of dc poling time upon the time-dependent decay of space charge in insulation peelings of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable that had not previously experienced either electrical or thermal stressing is investigated. Two dc poling durations were used, 2 h and 26 h at an electric field of 50 kV mm{sup -1} and at ambient temperature. Space charge was measured in the two samples investigated both during space charge accumulation and throughout its subsequent decay. The results show that the length of dc poling plays an important role in the subsequent decay. Despite the fact that both samples have had the same amount of space charge by the end of both short and long poling durations the time dependence of the space charge decay is different. Most of the charge stored in the sample that had experienced the short time poling decays rapidly after voltage removal. On the other hand, the charge that is stored in the sample with the long dc poling duration decays slowly and its decay occurs in two stages. The data, which are analysed by means of the de-trapping theory of space charge decay, imply that the charge stored in the material has occupied energy states with different trap depth ranges. The two poling durations lead to different relative amounts of charge in each of the two trap depth ranges. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  6. The effect of dc poling duration on space charge relaxation in virgin XLPE cable peelings

    Tzimas, Antonios; Rowland, Simon M.; Dissado, Leonard A.; Fu, Mingli; Nilsson, Ulf H.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of dc poling time upon the time-dependent decay of space charge in insulation peelings of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable that had not previously experienced either electrical or thermal stressing is investigated. Two dc poling durations were used, 2 h and 26 h at an electric field of 50 kV mm-1 and at ambient temperature. Space charge was measured in the two samples investigated both during space charge accumulation and throughout its subsequent decay. The results show that the length of dc poling plays an important role in the subsequent decay. Despite the fact that both samples have had the same amount of space charge by the end of both short and long poling durations the time dependence of the space charge decay is different. Most of the charge stored in the sample that had experienced the short time poling decays rapidly after voltage removal. On the other hand, the charge that is stored in the sample with the long dc poling duration decays slowly and its decay occurs in two stages. The data, which are analysed by means of the de-trapping theory of space charge decay, imply that the charge stored in the material has occupied energy states with different trap depth ranges. The two poling durations lead to different relative amounts of charge in each of the two trap depth ranges. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  7. Electrostatic Charge Effects on Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition in Human Nasal–Laryngeal Airways

    Jinxiang Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic charging occurs in most aerosol generation processes and can significantly influence subsequent particle deposition rates and patterns in the respiratory tract through the image and space forces. The behavior of inhaled aerosols with charge is expected to be most affected in the upper airways, where particles come in close proximity to the narrow turbinate surface, and before charge dissipation occurs as a result of high humidity. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the deposition of charged aerosols in an MRI-based nasal–laryngeal airway model. Particle sizes of 5 nm–30 µm and charge levels ranging from neutralized to ten times the saturation limit were considered. A well-validated low Reynolds number (LRN k–ω turbulence model and a discrete Lagrangian tracking approach that accounted for electrostatic image force were employed to simulate the nasal airflow and aerosol dynamics. For ultrafine aerosols, electrostatic charge was observed to exert a discernible but insignificant effect. In contrast, remarkably enhanced depositions were observed for micrometer particles with charge, which could be one order of magnitude larger than no-charge depositions. The deposition hot spots shifted towards the anterior part of the upper airway as the charge level increased. Results of this study have important implications for evaluating nasal drug delivery devices and for assessing doses received from pollutants, which often carry a certain level of electric charges.

  8. Particle and substrate charge effects on colloidal self-assembly in a sessile drop.

    Yan, Qingfeng; Gao, Li; Sharma, Vyom; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Wong, C C

    2008-10-21

    By direct video monitoring of dynamic colloidal self-assembly during solvent evaporation in a sessile drop, we investigated the effect of surface charge on the ordering of colloidal spheres. The in situ observations revealed that the interaction between charged colloidal spheres and substrates affects the mobility of colloidal spheres during convective self-assembly, playing an important role in the colloidal crystal growth process. Both ordered and disordered growth was observed depending on different chemical conditions mediated by surface charge and surfactant additions to the sessile drop system. These different self-assembly behaviors were explained by the Coulombic and hydrophobic interactions between surface-charged colloidal spheres and substrates.

  9. Within-Individual Variation in Preferences Equity Effects of Congestion Charges

    Borjesson, Maria; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    collected in Switzerland, a revealed stated preference logit mode choice model was estimated. The model was applied to simulate how VTT and change in consumer surplus vary across trips within and between individuals over the 6 weeks in response to a hypothetical congestion-charging scheme. The variation...... equity effects of congestion charges are likely to be overestimated....

  10. Effect of frequency variation on electromagnetic pulse interaction with charges and plasma

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Goor, van F.A.; Verschuur, J.W.J.; Boller, K.-J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of frequency variation (chirp) in an electromagnetic (EM) pulse on the pulse interaction with a charged particle and plasma is studied. Various types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In vacuum, a charged particle receives a kick in the polarization direction after interaction

  11. Effect of dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of displacement damage and dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy irradiated to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE).

  12. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo exploration of charge effects on aerosol evolution

    Palsmeier, John F.

    Aerosols are potentially generated both during normal operations in a gas cooled Generation IV nuclear reactor and in all nuclear reactors during accident scenarios. These aerosols can become charged due to aerosol generation processes, radioactive decay of associated fission products, and ionizing atmospheres. Thus the role of charge on aerosol evolution, and hence on the nuclear source term, has been an issue of interest. There is a need for both measurements and modeling to quantify this role as these effects are not currently accounted for in nuclear reactor modeling and simulation codes. In this study the role of charge effects on the evolution of a spatially homogenous aerosol was explored via the application of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The primary mechanisms explored were those of coagulation and electrostatic dispersion. This technique was first benchmarked by comparing the results obtained from both monodisperse and polydisperse DSMC evolution of charged aerosols with the results obtained by respectively deterministic and sectional techniques. This was followed by simulation of several polydisperse charged aerosols. Additional comparisons were made between the evolutions of charged and uncharged aerosols. The results obtained using DSMC in simple cases were comparable to those obtained from other techniques, without the limitations associated with more complex cases. Multicomponent aerosols of different component densities were also evaluated to determine the charge effects on their evolution. Charge effects can be significant and further explorations are warranted.

  13. Incoherent effect of space charge and electron cloud

    Franchetti, G.; Hofmann, I.; Fischer, W.; Zimmermann, F.

    2009-12-01

    Trapping by resonances or scattering off resonances induced by space charge (SC) or electron cloud (EC) in conjunction with synchrotron motion can explain observations of slow beam loss and emittance growth, which are often accompanied by changes in the longitudinal beam profile. In this paper we review the recent progress in understanding and modeling of the underlying mechanisms, highlight the differences and similarities between space charge and electron cloud, and discuss simulation results in the light of experimental observations, e.g., at GSI, CERN, and BNL. In particular, we address the role of the pinched electrons and describe in detail the complexity of the electron pinch formation. We present simulation results within a dipole or in a field-free region of the beam pipe, which reveal the morphology and main features of this phenomenon, explain the physical origin of the complex electron structures like stripe in either field configuration, and discuss the dependence on some key parameters.

  14. Incoherent Effect of Space Charge and Electron Cloud

    Franchetti, G; Fischer, W; Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    Trapping by resonances or scattering off resonances induced by space charge (SC) or electron cloud (EC) in conjunction with synchrotron motion can explain observations of slow beam loss and emittance growth, which are often accompanied by changes in the longitudinal beam profile. In this paper we review the recent progress in understanding and modeling of the underlying mechanisms, highlight the differences and similarities between space charge and electron cloud, and discuss simulation results in the light of experimental observations, e.g., at GSI, CERN, and BNL. In particular, we address the role of the pinched electrons and describe in detail the complexity of the electron pinch formation. We present simulation results within a dipole or in a field-free region of the beam pipe, which reveal the morphology and main features of this phenomenon, explain the physical origin of the complex electron structures like stripe in either field configuration, and discuss the dependence on some key parameters.

  15. The charge memory effect in polystyrene-based composite structures

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Kotova, M. S.; Dronov, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that the addition of light-sensitive particles to a polystyrene matrix enables control over processes of resistive voltage switching in the composite material, which involve photoinduced transitions between states with different conductivities. This specific feature of polymeric composite materials based on polystyrene and heterocyclic rings can be accounted for in terms of the model of charge accumulation and that of conducting channels.

  16. Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides

    Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia

    We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.

  17. Transverse Space-Charge Effects in Circular Accelerators

    Sacherer, Frank James

    1968-10-30

    The particles in an accelerator interact with one another by electromagnetic forces and are held together by external focusing forces. Such a many-body system has a large number of transverse modes of oscillation (plasma oscillations) that can be excited at characteristic frequencies by errors in the external guide field. In Part I we examine one mode of oscillation in detail, namely the quadrupole mode that is excited in uniformly charged beams by gradient errors. We derive self-consistent equations of motion for the beam envelope and solve these equations for the case in which the space-charge force is much less than the external focusing force, i.e., for strong-focusing synchrotrons. We find that the resonance intensity is shifted from the value predicted by the usual transverse incoherent space-charge limit; moreover, because the space-charge force depends on the shape and size of the beam, the beam growth in always limited. For gradient errors of the magnitude normally present in strong-focusing synchrotrons, the increase in beam size is small provided the beam parameters are properly chosen; otherwise the growth may be large. Thus gradient errors need not impose a limit on the number of particles that can be accelerated. In Part II we examine the other modes of collective oscillation that are excited by machine imperfections. For simplicity we consider only one-dimensional beams that are confined by harmonic potentials, and only small-amplitude oscillations. The linearized Vlasov and Poisson equations are used to find the twofold infinity of normal modes and eigenfrequencies for the stationary distribution that has uniform charge density in real space. In practice, only the low-order modes (the dipole, quadrupole, sextupole, and one or two additional modes) will be serious, and the resonant conditions for these modes are located on a tune diagram. These results, which are valid for all beam intensities, are compared with the known eigenfrequencies for the

  18. High temperature thermocline TES - effect of system pre-charging on thermal stratification

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Pedretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach, the effect of performing an initial charging, or pre-charging, on thermal stratification of an industrial-scale thermocline TES unit, based on a packed bed of river pebbles. The 1 GWhth TES unit under investigation is exploited to fulfill the energy requirement of a reference 80 MWe concentrating solar power plant which uses air as heat transfer fluid. Three different scenarios, characterized by 4 h, 6 h and 8 h of pre-charging, were compared with the reference case of TES system operating without pre-charging. For each of these four scenarios, a total of 30 consecutive charge/discharge cycles, of 12 h each, were simulated and the effect of TES pre-charging on thermal stratification was qualitatively evaluated, by means of a stratification efficiency, based on the second-law of thermodynamics. On the basis of the simulations results obtained, the effect of pre-charging, more pronounced during the first cycles, is not only relevant in reducing the time required by the TES to achieve a stable thermal stratification into the packed bed but also to improve the performance at startup when the system is charged for the first time.

  19. Schwinger Effect in (A)dS and Charged Black Hole

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In an (Anti-) de Sitter space and a charged black hole the Schwinger effect is either enhanced by the Hawking radiation or suppressed by the negative curvature. We use the contour integral method to calculate the production of charged pairs in the global (A)dS space. The charge emission from near-extremal black hole is found from the AdS geometry near the horizon and interpreted as the Schwinger effect in a Rindler space with the surface gravity for the acceleration as well as the Schwinger effect in AdS space.

  20. Effective potentials for charge-helium and charge-singly-ionized helium interactions in a dense plasma

    Ramazanov, T.S.; Amirov, S.M.; Moldabekov, Zh.A. [Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-06-15

    The effective electron (proton)-He and electron (proton)-He{sup +} screened pair interaction potentials arising as a result of partial screening of the helium nucleus field by bound electrons, taking into account both screening by free charged particles and quantum diffraction effect in dense plasmas were derived. The impact of quantum effects on screening was analyzed. It was shown that plasma polarization around the atom leads to the additional repulsion (attraction) between the electron (proton) and the helium atom. The method of constructing the full electron (proton)-He and electron (proton)-He{sup +} screened pair interaction potentials as the sum of the derived potentials with the polarization potential and exchange potential is discussed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. The effect of surface transport on water desalination by porous electrodes undergoing capacitive charging

    Shocron, Amit N

    2016-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a technology in which water is desalinated by ion electrosorption into the electric double layers (EDLs) of charging porous electrodes. In recent years significant advances have been made in modeling the charge and salt dynamics in a CDI cell, but the possible effect of surface transport within diffuse EDLs on these dynamics has not been investigated. We here present theory which includes surface transport in describing the dynamics of a charging CDI cell. Through our numerical solution to the presented models, the possible effect of surface transport on the CDI process is elucidated. While at some model conditions surface transport enhances the rate of CDI cell charging, counter-intuitively this additional transport pathway is found to slow down cell charging at other model conditions.

  2. Charge Penetration Effects in Rare-Earth Crystal Fields.

    1982-06-01

    Interactions, 3. Three-Parameter Theory of Crystal Fields, Harry Diamond Laboratories HDL-TR-1673 (June 1975). 2R. M. Sternheimer , Phys. Rev., 84 (1951...R. M. Sternheimer , Phys. Rev., 84 (1951), 244. (3) R. E. Watson and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev., 135 (1964), A1209. (4) D. Sengupta and J. 0. Artman...A RARE-EARTH ION INTO THE CHARGE DI! THE RESULTS ARE CAST INTO A FORM REMINISCENT OF THE STERNHEIMER SHIELDING FA( A PRIME NM(R TO THE NTH POWER) TO

  3. Measurement of charge with an active integrator in the presence of noise and pileup effects. A choice of parameters in the charge division method

    Fanet, H.; Lugol, J.C. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire)

    1991-03-01

    In the presence of electronics noise and pileup effects it is possible to measure charge with an active integrator. The subject of this paper is to deal with the choice of measurement parameters. An application of position sensing with the charge division method is studied and results are compared to those obtained with POMME polarimeter electronics. (orig.).

  4. Space-charge effects in liquid argon ionization chambers

    Rutherfoord, J. P.; Walker, R. B.

    2015-03-01

    We have uniformly irradiated liquid argon ionization chambers with betas from high-activity 90Sr sources. The radiation environment is similar to that in the liquid argon calorimeters which are part of the ATLAS detector installed at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We measured the resulting ionization current over a wide range of applied potential for two different source activities and for three different chamber gaps. These studies provide operating experience at exceptionally high ionization rates. In particular they indicate a stability at the 0.1% level for these calorimeters over years of operation at the full LHC luminosity when operated in the normal mode at an electric field E = 1.0 kV / mm. We can operate these chambers in the normal mode or in the space-charge limited regime and thereby determine the transition point between the two. This transition point is parameterized by a positive argon ion mobility of μ+ = 0.08 ± 0.02mm2 / V s at a temperature of 88.0±0.5 K and at a pressure of 1.02±0.02 bar. In the space-charge limited regime the ionization currents are degraded and show signs of instability. At the highest electric fields in our study (6.7 kV/mm) the ionization current is still slowly rising with increasing electric field.

  5. Fouling control mechanisms of demineralized water backwash: Reduction of charge screening and calcium bridging effects

    Li, Sheng

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the ionic environment on the charge of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (charge screening effect) and the calcium adsorption/bridging on new and fouled membranes (calcium bridging effect) by measuring the zeta potentials of membranes and colloidal NOM. Fouling experiments were conducted with natural water to determine whether the reduction of the charge screening effect and/or calcium bridging effect by backwashing with demineralized water can explain the observed reduction in fouling. Results show that the charge of both membranes and NOM, as measured by the zeta potential, became more negative at a lower pH and a lower concentration of electrolytes, in particular, divalent electrolytes. In addition, calcium also adsorbed onto the membranes, and consequently bridged colloidal NOM and membranes via binding with functional groups. The charge screening effect could be eliminated by flushing NOM and membranes with demineralized water, since a cation-free environment was established. However, only a limited amount of the calcium bridging connection was removed with demineralized water backwashes, so the calcium bridging effect mostly could not be eliminated. As demineralized water backwash was found to be effective in fouling control, it can be concluded that the reduction of the charge screening is the dominant mechanism for this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Topological effects of charge transfer in telomere G-quadruplex: Mechanism on telomerase activation and inhibition

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    We explore charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4(CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 ~ 0.3eV energy gap. Charges transfers favorably in the consecutive TG4, but are trapped in the non-consecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly ~ 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  7. Topological Effects of Charge Transfer in Telomere G-Quadruplex Mechanism on Telomerase Activation and Inhibition

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-02-01

    We explore the charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of the charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4 (CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 0.3 eV energy gap. Charges transfer favorably in the CTG4, but are trapped in the nonconsecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  8. Multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping for charge separation and mobility analysis in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Djara, V.; Cherkaoui, K.; Negara, M. A.; Hurley, P. K., E-mail: paul.hurley@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-11-28

    An alternative multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping (MFICP) technique was developed to directly separate the inversion charge density (N{sub inv}) from the trapped charge density in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach relies on the fitting of the frequency response of border traps, obtained from inversion-charge pumping measurements performed over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature on a single MOSFET, using a modified charge trapping model. The obtained model yielded the capture time constant and density of border traps located at energy levels aligned with the InGaAs conduction band. Moreover, the combination of MFICP and pulsed I{sub d}-V{sub g} measurements enabled an accurate effective mobility vs N{sub inv} extraction and analysis. The data obtained using the MFICP approach are consistent with the most recent reports on high-k/InGaAs.

  9. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    Graf, N; Abrams, R J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bujak, A; Carey, D; Dukes, C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Gülmez, E; Günaydın, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L; Hartouni, E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Heffner, M; Johnstone, C; Kaplan, D; Kamaev, O; Kilmer, J; Klay, J; Kostin, M; Lange, D; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Paley, J M; Park, H K; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Raja, R; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Solomey, N; Soltz, R; Swallow, E; Schmitt, R; Subbarao, P; Torun, Y; Tope, T E; Wilson, K; Wright, D; Wu, K

    2009-01-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 +/- 1.7 MeV/c^2, which is within 1.4 sigma of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  10. Self-interaction effects on charge-transfer collisions

    Quashie, Edwin E; Andrade, Xavier; Correa, Alfredo A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of the self-interaction error in the simulation of collisions using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Ehrenfest dynamics. We compare many different approximations of the exchange and correlation potential, using as a test system the collision of $\\mathrm{H^+ + CH_4}$ at $30~\\mathrm{eV}$. We find that semi-local approximations, like PBE, and even hybrid functionals, like B3LYP, produce qualitatively incorrect predictions for the scattering of the proton. This discrepancy appears because the self-interaction error allows the electrons to jump too easily to the proton, leading to radically different forces with respect to the non-self-interacting case. From our results, we conclude that using a functional that is self-interaction free is essential to properly describe charge-transfer collisions between ions and molecules in TDDFT.

  11. Effects of dielectric charging on the output voltage of a capacitive accelerometer

    Qu, Hao; Yu, Huijun; Zhou, Wu; Peng, Bei; Peng, Peng; He, Xiaoping

    2016-11-01

    Output voltage drifting observed in one typical capacitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer is discussed in this paper. Dielectric charging effect is located as one of the major determinants of this phenomenon through a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. A theoretical model for the electromechanical effects of the dielectric surface charges within the electrode gap is established to analyze the dielectric charge effect on the output voltage. Observations of output voltage drift against time are fitted to this model in order to estimate the possible dielectric layer thickness. Meanwhile, Auger electron spectroscopy is carried out to analyze the electrode surface material composition and confirms a mixture layer of dielectric SiO2 and Si with a thickness about 5 nm, which is very close to the model estimation. In addition, observation of time-varing output drift in the variable bias voltage experiment indicates the movement of dielectric charge can be controlled by the applied electric field.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of charge-reduction effect in cluster constituent ions passing through a foil

    Chiba, A., E-mail: chiba.atsuya@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Narumi, K.; Yamada, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, kita-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Swift cluster ions, which cause characteristic irradiation effects on a solid surface, have a possibility of establishing a new ion irradiation technique for high-sensitivity surface analysis and innovative surface modification. However, the mechanism of cluster irradiation effects has not been understood completely. We have focused on the charge reduction effect in some physical phenomena and performed a quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the charge state and the interatomic distance of the constituent ions moving in the solid. This technique is based on the refined analysis of the divergence angle of the constituent ions resulting from the foil-induced dissociation of the two-atomic molecular ion. The results derived from this analytical approach clearly showed the correlation between the average charge and the interatomic distance of the constituent ions and implied that the average charge of the constituent ions emerging from the foil varies according to the interatomic distance at the instant of cluster dissociation.

  13. Effect of design parameters on enhancement of hydrogen charging in metal hydride reactors

    Kaplan, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    The effects of heat transfer mechanisms on the charging process in metal hydride reactors are studied under various charging pressures. Three different cylindrical reactors with the same base dimensions are designed and manufactured. The first one is a closed cylinder cooled with natural convection, the fins are manufactured around the second reactor and the third reactor is cooled with water circulating around the reactor. The temperatures of the reactor at several locations are measured during charging with a range of pressure of 1-10 bar. The third reactor shows the lowest temperature increase with the fastest charging time under all charging pressures investigated. The effective heat transfer coefficients of the reactors are also calculated according to the experimental results and they are found to be 5.5 {+-} 1 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}, 35 {+-} 2 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} and 113 {+-} 1 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}, respectively. The experimental results showed that the charging of hydride reactors is mainly heat transfer dependent and the reactor with better cooling exhibits the fastest charging characteristics. (author)

  14. Effects of Charge Location on the Absorptions and Lifetimes of Protonated Tyrosine Peptides in Vacuo

    Kelly, O.; Calvert, C.R.; Greenwood, J.B.;

    2012-01-01

    Nearby charges affect the electronic energy levels of chromophores, with the extent of the effect being determined by the magnitude of the charge and degree of charge-chromophore separation. The molecular configuration dictates the charge–chromophore distance. Hence, in this study, we aim to assess......-crown-6-ether (CE). The CE targets the ammonium group by forming internal ionic hydrogen bonds and limits the folding of the peptide. In the tripeptide, the distance between the chromophore and the backbone ammonium is enlarged relative to that in the dipeptide. Experiments were performed...

  15. Effect of topological defects and Coulomb charge on the low energy quantum dynamics of gapped graphene

    Chakraborty, Baishali; Sen, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    We study the combined effect of a conical topological defect and a Coulomb charge impurity on the dynamics of Dirac fermions in gapped graphene. Beyond a certain strength of the Coulomb charge, quantum instability sets in, which demarcates the boundary between sub and supercritical values of the charge. In the subcritical regime, for certain values of the system parameters, the allowed boundary conditions in gapped graphene cone can be classified in terms of a single real parameter. We show that the observables such as local density of states, scattering phase shifts and the bound state spectra are sensitive to the value of this real parameter, which is interesting from an empirical point of view. For a supercritical Coulomb charge, we analyze the system with a regularized potential as well as with a zigzag boundary condition and find the effect of the sample topology on the observable features of the system.

  16. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte

    González-Mozuelos, P. [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav del I. P. N., Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C. P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2016-02-07

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  17. Numerical Investigation of Effective Heat Conductivity of Fluid in Charging Process of Thermal Storage Tank

    Taheri, H.; Schmidt, F. P.; Gabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical case study of heat transfer mechanisms during the charging process of a stratified thermal storage tank applied in a specific adsorption heat pump cycle. The effective thermal conductivity of the heat transfer fluid during the charging process is analyzed through CFD simulations using Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS). The aim of the study is to provide an equivalent thermal conductivity for a one-dimensional storage tank model to be us...

  18. A General Four-Fermion Effective Lagrangian for Dirac and Majorana Neutrino-Charged Matter Interactions

    Mendy, J E B; Mendy, Jean El Bachir; Govaerts, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Given the most general Lorentz invariant four-fermion effective interaction possible for two neutrinos and two charged fermions, whether quarks or leptons, all possible 2-to-2 processes involving two neutrinos, whether Dirac or Majorana ones, and two charged fermions are considered. Explicit and convenient expressions are given for the associated differential cross-sections. Such a parametrization should help assess the sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model of neutrino beam experiments which are in the design stage at neutrino factories.

  19. EFFECT OF SPACE CHARGE ON STABILITY OF BEAM DISTRIBUTION IN THE SNS RING.

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; WEI, J.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2001-06-18

    In the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring, multi-turn injection is employed to obtain a large transverse beam size which significantly reduces the space-charge tune shift of the accumulated beam. Careful choice of the painting scheme and bump function is required to obtain the desired beam profile together with low beam loss. In this paper we examine, both analytically and numerically, the effect of the space charge on the beam profile during multi-turn injection painting.

  20. Effect of Molecular Packing and Charge Delocalization on the Nonradiative Recombination of Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells

    Chen, Xian Kai

    2016-09-05

    In organic solar cells, a major source of energy loss is attributed to nonradiative recombination from the interfacial charge transfer states to the ground state. By taking pentacene–C60 complexes as model donor–acceptor systems, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of how molecular packing and charge delocalization impact these nonradiative recombination rates at donor–acceptor interfaces is provided.

  1. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes.

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J

    2012-10-15

    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-).

  2. Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid

    Capozza, R.; Benassi, A.; Vanossi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-10-01

    Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.

  3. Electrical charging effects on the sliding friction of a model nano-confined ionic liquid

    Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Benassi, A. [CNR-IOM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Tosatti, E. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM Democritos National Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-10-14

    Recent measurements suggest the possibility to exploit ionic liquids (ILs) as smart lubricants for nano-contacts, tuning their tribological and rheological properties by charging the sliding interfaces. Following our earlier theoretical study of charging effects on nanoscale confinement and squeezout of a model IL, we present here molecular dynamics simulations of the frictional and lubrication properties of that model under charging conditions. First, we describe the case when two equally charged plates slide while being held together to a confinement distance of a few molecular layers. The shear sliding stress is found to rise strongly and discontinuously as the number of IL layers decreases stepwise. However, the shear stress shows, within each given number of layers, only a weak dependence upon the precise value of the normal load, a result in agreement with data extracted from recent experiments. We subsequently describe the case of opposite charging of the sliding plates and follow the shear stress when the charging is slowly and adiabatically reversed in the course of time, under fixed load. Despite the fixed load, the number and structure of the confined IL layers change with changing charge, and that in turn drives strong friction variations. The latter involves first of all charging-induced freezing of the IL film, followed by a discharging-induced melting, both made possible by the nanoscale confinement. Another mechanism for charging-induced frictional changes is a shift of the plane of maximum shear from mid-film to the plate-film interface, and vice versa. While these occurrences and results invariably depend upon the parameters of the model IL and upon its specific interaction with the plates, the present study helps identifying a variety of possible behavior, obtained under very simple assumptions, while connecting it to an underlying equilibrium thermodynamics picture.

  4. EFFECT OF NaOH CHARGE ON FIBER CHARACTERISTICS OF P-RC APMP PULP

    Fangong Kong; Jiachuan Chen; Guihua Yang; Zhaocheng Li; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Fiber screen analysis, fiber quality analysis and SEM observation were used to investigate the effects of NaOH charge on fiber characteristics in Triploid Populus Tomentosa P-RC APMP pulping in this paper. The results showed that increasing NaOH charge in P-RC APMP process could reduce energy consumption and fines percent, increase the mean fiber length and long fiber percent and make the curl index and kink index of fiber ascend. The results from SEM observation illustrated that the fiber with high NaOH charge had higher softness degree, better cutting resistant ability and better inter-fiber bonding ability. With increasing of NaOH charge, the surface of handsheets became more and more smooth, and there were less and less gaps and holes on the paper surface.

  5. Relaxation of charge in monolayer graphene: Fast nonlinear diffusion versus Coulomb effects

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine monolayer graphene exhibits very poor screening because the density of states vanishes at the Dirac point. As a result, charge relaxation is controlled by the effects of zero-point motion (rather than by the Coulomb interaction) over a wide range of parameters. Combined with the fact that graphene possesses finite intrinsic conductivity, this leads to a regime of relaxation described by a nonlinear diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that diverges at zero charge density. Some consequences of this fast diffusion are self-similar superdiffusive regimes of relaxation, the development of a charge depleted region at the interface between electron- and hole-rich regions, and finite extinction times for periodic charge profiles.

  6. The porous membrane with tunable performance for vanadium flow battery: The effect of charge

    Zhao, Yuyue; Yuan, Zhizhang; Lu, Wenjing; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-02-01

    Porous membranes with different charge on the surface and internal pore walls are prepared via the solvent-responsive layer-by-layer (SR-LBL) method. The effect of charge on the transport properties of different ions through the membranes is investigated in detail. The charge property of prepared membranes is tuned by assembling different charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) on the pore walls and the surface of the porous membranes. The results show that in a vanadium flow battery (VFB), the PE layers assembled on the surfaces (including pore walls) are capable to construct excellent ion transport channels to increase proton conductivity and to tune the ion selectivity via Donnan exclusion effect. Compared with the porous membrane with negative charges (7 bilayers), a VFB single cell assembled with a positively charged membrane (7.5 bilayers) yields a higher coulombic efficiency (98%). The water and ion transfer behavior exhibits a similar tendency. In the negative half-cell, the amount of V3+ gradually increases as cycles proceed and the amount of V2+ stays at a low and stable level. In the positive half-cell, the amount of VO2+ decreases; while VO2+ is accumulated. The imbalance of vanadium ions at both sides induces the discharge capacity fade.

  7. A Procedure to Obtain the Effective Nuclear Charge from the Atomic Spectrum of Sodium

    Sala*, O.; Araki, Koiti; Noda, L. K.

    1999-09-01

    The penetration of the valence electron orbitals of the alkali metals into their inner shells and its effect on the energy levels can be considered through two methods that take into account modifications of the hydrogen formula (one-electron system). One of them considers the quantum defect, modifying the quantum number n; the other considers the effective nuclear charge Z* replacing the nuclear charge Z. The method using the quantum defect is widely used because this quantity is practically constant for a given angular momentum quantum number l. However, the method using effective nuclear charge is more realistic because it explains many atomic and molecular properties - but the effective nuclear charge depends on l as well as on the principal quantum number n. This article describes a relatively simple graphical procedure to calculate the effective nuclear charges experienced by the sodium valence electron from its atomic spectrum. A relation of Z* with n for a given l is obtained and the Z* values for all states of the valence electron are found; the energy terms can also be determined. The calculations can be performed by using common spreadsheet software.

  8. Comparative Analysis and Approximations of Space -Charge Formation in Langmuir Electrodes Including Temperature Effects.

    Valdeblànquez, Eder

    2001-10-01

    Eder Valdeblànquez,Universidad del Zulia,Apartado 4011-A 526,Maracaibo,Venezuela. ABSTRACT: In this paper by space charge effect in Langmuir probes are compared for different kind of symmetries; plane, cylindrical and spherical. A detailed analysis is performed here including temperature effects, and therefore kinetic theory is used instead of fluid equations as other authors. The strongly non-linear equations obtained here have been solved first by numerical analysis and later by approximations using Bessel functions. The accuracy of each approximaton is also discussed. Space Charge effects are important in plane geometries than in the case of cylindrical or spherical symmetries.

  9. Infrared light irradiation diminishes effective charge transfer in slow sodium channel gating system

    Plakhova, Vera B.; Bagraev, Nikolai T.; Klyachkin, Leonid E.; Malyarenko, Anna M.; Romanov, Vladimir V.; Krylov, Boris V.

    2001-02-01

    Effects of infrared light irradiation (IR) on cultured dorsal root ganglia cells were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The IR field is demonstrated to diminish the effective charge transfer in the activation system from 6.2 +-0.6 to 4.5 +-0.4 in units of electron charge per e-fold change in membrane potential. The effects was blocked with ouabain. Our data is the first indication that sodium pump might be the molecular sensor of infrared irradiation in animal kingdom.

  10. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  11. Investigation of Laser Peening Effects on Hydrogen Charged Stainless Steels

    Zaleski, Tania M. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-10-30

    Hydrogen-rich environments such as fuel cell reactors can exhibit damage caused by hydrogen permeation in the form of corrosion cracking by lowering tensile strength and decreasing material ductility. Coatings and liners have been investigated, but there were few shot-peening or laser peening studies referenced in the literature with respect to preventing hydrogen embrittlement. The surface compressive residual stress induced by laser peening had shown success in preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for stainless steels in power plants. The question arose if the residual stresses induced by laser peening could delay the effects of hydrogen in a material. This study investigated the effect of laser peening on hydrogen penetration into metal alloys. Three areas were studied: laser peening, hydrogenation, and hydrogen detection. This study demonstrated that laser peening does not reduce the hydrogen permeation into a stainless steel surface nor does it prevent hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of laser peening to reduce hydrogen-assisted fatigue was unclear.

  12. Gravitational effect of centre mass with electric charge and a large number of magnetic monopoles

    Gong Tian-Xi; Li Ai-Gen; Wang Yong-Jiu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, using an elegant mathematical method advanced by us, we calculate the orbital effect in the gravitational field of the centre mass with electric charge and a large number of magnetic monopoles. Generalizing the effect in the Schwarzschild field, we obtain interesting results by discussing the parameters of the celestial body that provide a feasible experimental verification of the general relativity.

  13. Analysing degradation effects in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Aging-sensitive technology nodes that are resulting in performance degradations in their electronic system implementations require aging simulations in advance for a more dependable design. Simulating time-domain aging effects in these electronic systems, especially in complex analog and mixed-signa

  14. Effect of Conductive Inorganic Fillers on Space Charge Accumulation Characteristics in Cross-linked Polyethylene

    Harada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Takashi; Mizuno, Takehiko; Takahashi, Tohru

    We have observed space charge profiles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) under dc high electric field using the PEA (pulsed electro-acoustic) system to study the relationship between space charge behavior and dielectric breakdown. In our previous research work, we have found that a large amount of, so called, packet-like charge generates in low density polyethylene (LDPE) under high dc electric field of more than 100 kV/mm. The packet-like charge enhances the electric field locally in bulk of the sample, and then finally it leads a breakdown. On the other hand, a new type of XLPE which was made through adding conductive inorganic fillers, shows a good dc dielectric breakdown characteristic and high volume resistivity under dc stress. In this report, we tried to observe the space charge behavior under high dc electric field in this material. From the results, it is found that the charge injection is effectively suppressed by adding only a small amount of conductive inorganic fillers to XLPE.

  15. Effect of substrate bias on deposition behaviour of charged silicon nanoparticles in ICP-CVD process

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Seong, Dae-Jin; Seo, Byong-Hoon; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a substrate bias on the deposition behaviour of crystalline silicon films during inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) was analysed by consideration of non-classical crystallization, in which the building block is a nanoparticle rather than an individual atom or molecule. The coexistence of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles in the plasma and their role in Si film deposition are confirmed by applying bias voltages to the substrate, which is sufficiently small as not to affect the plasma potential. The sizes of positively and negatively charged nanoparticles captured on a carbon membrane and imaged using TEM are, respectively, 2.7-5.5 nm and 6-13 nm. The film deposited by positively charged nanoparticles has a typical columnar structure. In contrast, the film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has a structure like a powdery compact with the deposition rate about three times higher than that for positively charged nanoparticles. All the films exhibit crystallinity even though the substrate is at room temperature, which is attributed to the deposition of crystalline nanoparticles formed in the plasma. The film deposited by negatively charged nanoparticles has the highest crystalline fraction of 0.84.

  16. Effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of anti-VEGF proteins determined by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Li, S Kevin; Liddell, Mark R; Wen, He

    2011-06-01

    Macromolecules such as therapeutic proteins currently serve an important role in the treatment of eye diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Particularly, bevacizumab and ranibizumab have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Iontophoresis can be employed to enhance ocular delivery of these macromolecules, but the lack of information on the properties of these macromolecules has hindered its development. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and model compound polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) using capillary zone electrophoresis. Salicylate, lidocaine, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which have known electrophoretic mobilities in the literature, were also studied to validate the present technique. The hydrodynamic radii and diffusion coefficients of BSA, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and PSS were measured by dynamic light scattering. The effective charges were calculated using the Einstein relation between diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility and the Henry equation. The results show that bevacizumab and ranibizumab have low electrophoretic mobilities and are net negatively charged in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 and 0.16M ionic strength. PSS has high negative charge but the electrophoretic mobility in PBS is lower than that expected from the polymer structure. The present study demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis could be used to characterize the mobility and charge properties of drug candidates in the development of iontophoretic drug delivery.

  17. Gate-Sensing Coherent Charge Oscillations in a Silicon Field-Effect Transistor.

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Shevchenko, Sergey N; Barraud, Sylvain; Johansson, J Robert; Ferguson, Andrew J; Nori, Franco; Betz, Andreas C

    2016-03-09

    Quantum mechanical effects induced by the miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology hamper the performance and scalability prospects of field-effect transistors. However, those quantum effects, such as tunneling and coherence, can be harnessed to use existing CMOS technology for quantum information processing. Here, we report the observation of coherent charge oscillations in a double quantum dot formed in a silicon nanowire transistor detected via its dispersive interaction with a radio frequency resonant circuit coupled via the gate. Differential capacitance changes at the interdot charge transitions allow us to monitor the state of the system in the strong-driving regime where we observe the emergence of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference on the phase response of the resonator. A theoretical analysis of the dispersive signal demonstrates that quantum and tunneling capacitance changes must be included to describe the qubit-resonator interaction. Furthermore, a Fourier analysis of the interference pattern reveals a charge coherence time, T2 ≈ 100 ps. Our results demonstrate charge coherent control and readout in a simple silicon transistor and open up the possibility to implement charge and spin qubits in existing CMOS technology.

  18. Effect of film nanostructure on in-plane charge transport in organic bulk heterojunction materials

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2013-09-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells are a promising alternative energy technology, but a thorough understanding of charge transport behavior in BHJ materials is necessary in order to design devices with high power conversion efficiencies. Parameters such as carrier mobilities, carrier concentrations, and the recombination coefficient have traditionally been successfully measured using vertical structures similar to organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. We have developed a lateral BHJ device which complements these vertical techniques by allowing spatially resolved measurement along the transport direction of charge carriers. This is essential for evaluating the effect of nanoscale structure and morphology on these important charge transport parameters. Nanomorphology in organic BHJ films has been controlled using a variety of methods, but the effect of these procedures has been infrequently correlated with the charge transport parameter of the BHJ material. Electron beam lithography has been used to create lateral device structures with many voltage probes at a sub-micron resolution throughout the device channel. By performing in-situ potentiometry, we can calculate both carrier mobilities and determine the effect of solvent choice and annealing procedure on the charge transport in BHJ system. Spin coated P3HT:PCBM films prepared from solutions in chloroform and o-xylene are characterized using this technique.

  19. History of the Shaped Charge Effect: The First 100 Years

    1990-03-22

    transferred, inasmuch as 10 Part 1 both originators of the effect were in proximiy - southern Gernmany and Switzerland border each other. Dr. Mohaupt’s...Mistel ( Mistletoe ) referred to the parasitic mounting of the top aircraft on the host aircraft. In the tactical version, the bomber’s nose was replaced...16) in the patents (Ref. 32) issued in France in 1940 and in Australia in 1941, wherein the inventors (Mohaupt and his two associates) had claimed the

  20. The dust-acoustic mode in two-temperature electron plasmas with charging effects

    Zhong Xijuan; Chen Hui; Liu Nianhua; Liu Sanqiu

    2016-04-01

    Dust charging in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma with two-temperature electrons was investigated based on the orbital motion limited theory, where the two-temperature electrons and ions are modelled by the Maxwellian distributions. Then by taking into account the effects of two-temperature electron and the associated charging fluctuations, the dispersion peculiarities of dust-acoustic waves are studied based on dust fluid dynamics. The present results show that the effect will introduce a dissipation on the mode, and the dispersion and the dissipation depend on the temperature ratio and number density ratio of hot and cold electrons.

  1. Mitigation of charged impurity effects in graphene field-effect transistors with polar organic molecules (Presentation Recording)

    Worley, Barrett C.; Kim, Seohee; Akinwande, Deji; Rossky, Peter J.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in monolayer graphene production allow its use as the active layer in field-effect transistor technology. Favorable electrical characteristics of monolayer graphene include high mobility, operating frequency, and good stability. These characteristics are governed by such key transport physical phenomena as electron-hole transport symmetry, Dirac point voltage, and charged impurity effects. Doping of graphene occurs during device fabrication, and is largely due to charged impurities located at or near the graphene/substrate interface. These impurities cause scattering of charge carriers, which lowers mobility. Such scattering is detrimental to graphene transistor performance, but our group has shown that coating with fluoropolymer thin films or exposure to polar organic vapors can restore favorable electrical characteristics to monolayer graphene. By partially neutralizing charged impurities and defects, we can improve the mobility by approximately a factor of 2, change the Dirac voltage by fairly large amounts, and reduce the residual carrier density significantly. We hypothesize that this phenomena results from screening of charged impurities by the polar molecules. To better understand such screening interactions, we performed computational chemistry experiments to observe interactions between polar organic molecules and monolayer graphene. The molecules interacted more strongly with defective graphene than with pristine graphene, and the electronic environment of graphene was altered. These computational observations correlate well with our experimental results to support our hypothesis that polar molecules can act to screen charged impurities on or near monolayer graphene. Such screening favorably mitigates charge scattering, improving graphene transistor performance.

  2. Effects of different blasting materials on charge generation and decay on titanium surface after sandblasting.

    Guo, Cecilia Yan; Hong Tang, Alexander Tin; Hon Tsoi, James Kit; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-04-01

    It has been reported that sandblasting titanium with alumina (Al2O3) powder could generate a negative electric charge on titanium surface. This has been proven to promote osteoblast activities and possibly osseointegration. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of different blasting materials, in terms of the grit sizes and electro-negativity, on the generation of a negative charge on the titanium surface. The aim was also to make use of these results to deduct the underlying mechanism of charge generation by sandblasting. Together 60 c.p. 2 titanium plates were machine-cut and polished for sandblasting, and divided into 6 groups with 10 plates in each. Every plate in the study groups was sandblasted with one of the following 6 powder materials: 110µm Al2O3 grits, 50µm Al2O3 grits, 150-300µm glass beads, 45-75µm glass beads, 250µm Al powder and 44µm Al powder. The static voltage on the surface of every titanium plate was measured immediately after sandblasting. The static voltages of the titanium plates were recorded and processed using statistical analysis. The results suggested that only sandblasting with 45-75µm glass beads generated a positive charge on titanium, while using all other blasting materials lead to a negative charge. Furthermore, blasting grits of the same powder material but of different sizes might lead to different amount and polarity of the charges. This triboelectric effect is likely to be the main mechanism for charge generation through sandblasting.

  3. Thermodynamics of R-charged Black Holes in AdS(5) From Effective Strings

    Gubser, S S; Gubser, Steven S.; Heckman, Jonathan J.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the thermodynamics of certain near-extremal black holes in asymptotically flat space can be lifted to an effective string description created from the intersection of D-branes. In this paper we present evidence that the semiclassical thermodynamics of near-extremal R-charged black holes in AdS(5)xS(5) is described in a similar manner by effective strings created from the intersection of giant gravitons on the S(5). We also present a free fermion description of the supersymmetric limit of the one-charge black hole, and we give a crude catalog of the microstates of the two and three-charge black holes in terms of operators in the dual conformal field theory.

  4. A charge density analysis on the proximity effect in dicyanoalkanes

    López, José Luis; Mandado, Marcos; González Moa, María J.; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2006-05-01

    QTAIM atomic and bond properties of 21 linear alkyl dicyanoalkanes of formula NC(CH 2) nCN ( n = 0-20), and three larger molecules: C 32H 66, NC(CH 2) 30CH 3, and NC(CH 2) 30CN, indicate that cyano groups can be considered statistically equivalent to those of a large cyanoalkane when they are separated by at least 14 methylene groups. When n < 19 there is at least one methylene group in the dicyanoalkane that differs significantly from those of NC(CH 2) 30CH 3 or NC(CH 2) 30CN. Every cyano group produces an effect on the methylenes that is nearly independent of the position of the other one, hydrogens being more sensitive than carbons.

  5. Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge

    Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

    2012-02-01

    NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

  6. Effective charges in nuclei in the vicinity of $^{100}SN$

    Ekström, Andreas

    The shell structure of atomic nuclei far from the line of beta-stability and the properties of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in exotic isotopes are not well known. The development of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) puts certain unexplored regions of the nuclear chart within reach of detailed experimental investigations. The low-energy nuclear structure of the unstable isotopes 106,108,110Sn, 100,102,104Cd, and 106,108In have been studied using sub-barrier Coulomb excitation of postaccelerated RIBs. The experiments were carried out at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. The deduced transition probabilities - B(E2) values - provide a detailed benchmark of modern models of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The B(E2) values between the 0+ ground states and the first excited 2+ states in the Sn and Cd isotopes were compared with shell-model calculations. These are based on effective interactions derived from renormalized multi-meson and QCD-based nucleon-nucleon potentials. In order to reproduce the experimental result...

  7. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A. [Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ryabchenko, S. [Northern (Arctic) Federal University, 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., 163002 Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation); Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP160/09, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Vaeck, N. [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP160/09, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  8. Effects of Confinement on Microstructure and Charge Transport in High Performance Semicrystalline Polymer Semiconductors

    Himmelberger, Scott

    2012-11-23

    The film thickness of one of the most crystalline and highest performing polymer semiconductors, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), is varied in order to determine the effects of interfaces and confinement on the microstructure and performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Crystalline texture and overall film crystallinity are found to depend strongly on film thickness and thermal processing. The angular distribution of crystallites narrows upon both a decrease in film thickness and thermal annealing. These changes in the film microstructure are paired with thin-film transistor characterization and shown to be directly correlated with variations in charge carrier mobility. Charge transport is shown to be governed by film crystallinity in films below 20 nm and by crystalline orientation for thicker films. An optimal thickness is found for PBTTT at which the mobility is maximized in unannealed films and where mobility reaches a plateau at its highest value for annealed films. The effects of confinement on the morphology and charge transport properties of poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) are studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction and field-effect transistor measurements. Polymer crystallinity is found to limit charge transport in the thinnest films while crystalline texture and intergrain connectivity modulate carrier mobility in thicker films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND ACTIVATION OF SHS-CHARGE ON THE FINAL PRODUCT

    V. V. Klubovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of ultrasound activation of dolomite, which is used for producing refractory material by the SHS method, on the final product. X-ray investigation has demonstrated that ultrasound activation of the initial charge brings about changes in the phase composition of the synthesized product.

  10. Wide-bandwidth charge sensitivity with a radio-frequency field-effect transistor

    Nishiguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Fujiwara, A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed charge detection at room temperature with single-electron resolution by using a radio-frequency field-effect transistor (RF-FET). The RF-FET combines a nanometer-scale silicon FET with an impedance-matching circuit composed of an inductor and capacitor. Driving the RF-FET w

  11. Sorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) and its cationic derivative on silica oxide: effect of charge

    Liesiene, J.; Matulioniene, J.; Aniulyte, J.; Keizer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based cationic polyelectrolyte (DEAE-PVA) as well as unmodified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) onto silica oxide surface was studied by means of reflectometry. The study was focused on the effect of charge of polymer segments on their adsorption on silica oxide. The resu

  12. Predicting and rationalizing the effect of surface charge distribution and orientation on nano-wire based FET bio-sensors

    De Vico, L.; Iversen, L.; Sørensen, Martin Hedegård

    2011-01-01

    A single charge screening model of surface charge sensors in liquids (De Vico et al., Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 706-717) is extended to multiple charges to model the effect of the charge distributions of analyte proteins on FET sensor response. With this model we show that counter-intuitive signal...... changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969...

  13. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Wada, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  14. Charge-state distribution and Doppler effect in an expanding photoionized plasma.

    Foord, M E; Heeter, R F; van Hoof, P A M; Thoe, R S; Bailey, J E; Cuneo, M E; Chung, H-K; Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Chandler, G A; Jonauskas, V; Kisielius, R; Mix, L P; Ramsbottom, C; Springer, P T; Keenan, F P; Rose, S J; Goldstein, W H

    2004-07-30

    The charge state distributions of Fe, Na, and F are determined in a photoionized laboratory plasma using high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Independent measurements of the density and radiation flux indicate unprecedented values for the ionization parameter xi=20-25 erg cm s(-1) under near steady-state conditions. Line opacities are well fitted by a curve-of-growth analysis which includes the effects of velocity gradients in a one-dimensional expanding plasma. First comparisons of the measured charge state distributions with x-ray photoionization models show reasonable agreement.

  15. Interplay between the orbital quantization and Pauli effect in a charge-density-wave organic conductor

    Kartsovnik, Mark; Andres, Dieter; Grigoriev, Pavel; Biberacher, Werner; Müller, Harald

    2004-04-01

    The interlayer magnetoresistance of the low-dimensional organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4 under pressure shows features which are likely associated with theoretically predicted field-induced charge-density-wave (FICDW) transitions. At ambient pressure, a magnetic field strongly tilted towards the conducting layers induces a series of hysteretic anomalies. We attribute these anomalies to a novel kind of FICDW originating from a superposition of the orbital quantization of the nesting vector and Pauli effect on the charge-density wave.

  16. Interplay between the orbital quantization and Pauli effect in a charge-density-wave organic conductor

    Kartsovnik, Mark; Andres, Dieter; Grigoriev, Pavel; Biberacher, Werner; Mueller, Harald

    2004-04-30

    The interlayer magnetoresistance of the low-dimensional organic metal {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} under pressure shows features which are likely associated with theoretically predicted field-induced charge-density-wave (FICDW) transitions. At ambient pressure, a magnetic field strongly tilted towards the conducting layers induces a series of hysteretic anomalies. We attribute these anomalies to a novel kind of FICDW originating from a superposition of the orbital quantization of the nesting vector and Pauli effect on the charge-density wave.

  17. An effective lagrangian description of charged Higgs decays H^+ -> Wg, WZ and Wh

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Toscano, J J

    2001-01-01

    Charged Higgs decays are discussed within an effective lagrangian extension of the two-higgs doublet model, assuming new physics appearing in the Higgs sector of this model. Low energy constrains are used to imposse bounds on certain dimension -six operators that describe the modified charged Higgs interactions. These bounds are used then to study the decays H^+ -> Wg, WZ and Wh, which can have branching ratios of order 10^-5, 10^-1 and O(1), respectively; thse modes are thus sensitive probes of the symmetries of the Higgs sector that could be tested at future colliders.

  18. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  19. Charge of interstellar dust in dense molecular clouds: Effect of cosmic rays

    Ivlev, Alexei; Galli, Daniele; Caselli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The local cosmic-ray (CR) spectra are calculated for typical characteristic regions of a cold dense molecular cloud, to investigate two so far neglected mechanisms of dust charging: collection of suprathermal CR electrons and protons by grains, and photoelectric emission from grains due to the UV radiation generated by CRs. The two mechanisms add to the conventional charging by ambient plasma, produced in the cloud by CRs. We show that the CR-induced photoemission can dramatically modify the charge distribution function for submicron grains. We demonstrate the importance of the obtained results for dust coagulation: While the charging by ambient plasma alone leads to a strong Coulomb repulsion between grains and inhibits their further coagulation, the combination with the photoemission provides optimum conditions for the growth of large dust aggregates in a certain region of the cloud, corresponding to the densities $n(\\mathrm{H_2})$ between $\\sim10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and $\\sim10^6$ cm$^{-3}$. The charging effect o...

  20. Effect of Negatively Charged Ions on the Formation of Microarc Oxidation Coating on 2024 Aluminium Alloy

    Wei Yang; Bailing Jiang; Aiying Wang; Huiying Shi

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of negatively charged ions on the ceramic coating formation on 2024 aluminium alloy during microarc oxidation (MAO) process. On the basis of the experimental results, two steps (the formation of an incipient film without arc presence and the growth of a ceramic coating with arc discharge) of MAO process have been observed. For comparison, four different negatively charged ions studied. It is proved that negatively charged ions strongly participated in the formation of an incipient film with high impedance value at the first step. The growth of ceramic coating depends on the combination between AI of the substrate and O from the electrolyte, and the negatively charged ions are little consumed. As an anodic oxide coating is prepared on the sample surface instead of the incipient film, the first step occurs easily and the growth of ceramic coating is accelerated. Furthermore, the mechanism of negatively charged ions in the formation of the MAO coating has been proposed.

  1. The effects of charge cloud size and digitisation on the SPAN anode

    Breeveld, A. A.; Edgar, M. L.; Lapington, J. S.; Smith, Alan

    1992-10-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are often used with charge division anode readouts, such as the spiral-anode (SPAN) anode, to provide high position resolution. This paper discusses the effect on image quality, of digitization (causing fixed patterning), electronic noise, pulse height distribution (PHD) and charge cloud size. The discussion is supported by experimental data obtained from a 1D SPAN anode. Results from a computer model of this detector, and from a charge cloud simulation model, are also included. The SPAN anode normally has three sinusoidal electrodes with phase differences of 120 deg. An alternative configuration is to use a phase difference of 90 deg. This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of these arrangements.

  2. Space Charge Effects and Advanced Modelling for CERN Low Energy Machines

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088716; Rumolo, Giovanni

    The strong space charge regime of future operation of CERN’s circular particle accelerators is investigated and mitigation strategies are developed in the framework of the present thesis. The intensity upgrade of the injector chain of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prepares the particle accelerators to meet the requirements of the High-Luminosity LHC project. Producing the specified characteristics of the future LHC beams imperatively relies on injecting brighter bunches into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the downstream Proton Synchrotron (PS) and eventually the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The increased brightness, i.e. bunch intensity per transverse emittance, entails stronger beam self-fields which can lead to harmful interaction with betatron resonances. Possible beam emittance growth and losses as a consequence thereof threaten to degrade the beam brightness. These space charge effects are partly mitigated by the upgrade of the PSB and PS injection energies. Nevertheless, the space charge tune ...

  3. STM visualisation of counterions and the effect of charges on self-assembled monolayers of macrocycles.

    Kudernac, Tibor; Shabelina, Natalia; Mamdouh, Wael; Höger, Sigurd; De Feyter, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance in self-assembly processes, the influence of charged counterions on the geometry of self-assembled organic monolayers and their direct localisation within the monolayers has been given little attention. Recently, various examples of self-assembled monolayers composed of charged molecules on surfaces have been reported, but no effort has been made to prove the presence of counterions within the monolayer. Here we show that visualisation and exact localisation of counterions within self-assembled monolayers can be achieved with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The presence of charges on the studied shape-persistent macrocycles is shown to have a profound effect on the self-assembly process at the liquid-solid interface. Furthermore, preferential adsorption was observed for the uncharged analogue of the macrocycle on a surface.

  4. Effects of Rotation and Relativistic Charge Flow on Pulsar Magnetospheric Structure

    Muslimov, A G; Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2005-01-01

    We propose an analytical 3-D model of the open field-line region of a neutron star (NS) magnetosphere. We construct an explicit analytic solution for arbitrary obliquity (angle between the rotation and magnetic axes) incorporating the effects of magnetospheric rotation, relativistic flow of charges (e.g. primary electron beam) along the open field lines, and E X B drift of these charges. Our solution employs the space-charge-limited longitudinal current calculated in the electrodynamic model of Muslimov & Tsygan (1992) and is valid up to very high altitudes nearly approaching the light cylinder. We assume that in the innermost magnetosphere, the NS magnetic field can be well represented by a static magnetic dipole configuration. At high altitudes the open magnetic field lines significantly deviate from those of a static dipole and tend to focus into a cylindrical bundle, swept back in the direction opposite to the rotation, and also bent towards the rotational equator. We briefly discuss some implications...

  5. EFFECT OF NaOH CHARGE ON FIBER CHARACTERISTICS OF P-RC APMP PULP

    FangongKong; JiachuanChen; GuihlmYang; EhaochengLi; HuaiyuZha~

    2004-01-01

    Fiber screen analysis, fiber quality analysis and SEMobservation were used to investigate the effects ofNaOH charge on fiber characteristics in TriploidPopulus Tomentosa P-RC APMP pulping in thispaper. The results showed that increasing NaOHcharge in P-RC APMP process could reduce energyconsumption and fines percent, increase the meanfiber length and long fiber percent and make the curlindex and kink index of fiber ascend. The resultsfrom SEM observation illustrated that the fiber withhigh NaOH charge had higher softness degree, bettercutting resistant ability and better inter-fiber bondingability. With increasing of NaOH charge, the surfaceof handsheets became more and more smooth, andthere were less and less gaps and holes on the papersurface.

  6. Oxaliplatin neurotoxicity – no general ion channel surface-charge effect

    Ehrsson Hans

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug. Neurotoxicity is the dose-limiting side effect. Previous investigations have reported that acute neurotoxicity could be mediated via voltage-gated ion channels. A possible mechanism for some of the effects is a modification of surface charges around the ion channel, either because of chelation of extracellular Ca2+, or because of binding of a charged biotransformation product of oxaliplatin to the channel. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, we investigated the effects of oxaliplatin and its chloride complex [Pt(dachoxCl]- on the voltage-gated Shaker K channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The recordings were made with the two-electrode and the cut-open oocyte voltage clamp techniques. Conclusion To our surprise, we did not see any effects on the current amplitudes, on the current time courses, or on the voltage dependence of the Shaker wild-type channel. Oxaliplatin is expected to bind to cysteines. Therefore, we explored if there could be a specific effect on single (E418C and double-cysteine (R362C/F416C mutated Shaker channels previously shown to be sensitive to cysteine-specific reagents. Neither of these channels were affected by oxaliplatin. The clear lack of effect on the Shaker K channel suggests that oxaliplatin or its monochloro complex has no general surface-charge effect on the channels, as has been suggested before, but rather a specific effect to the channels previously shown to be affected.

  7. Combined effects of space charge and energetic disorder on photocurrent efficiency loss of field-dependent organic photovoltaic devices

    Yoon, Sangcheol; Park, Byoungchoo; Hwang, Inchan

    2015-11-01

    The loss of photocurrent efficiency by space-charge effects in organic solar cells with energetic disorder was investigated to account for how energetic disorder incorporates space-charge effects, utilizing a drift-diffusion model with field-dependent charge-pair dissociation and suppressed bimolecular recombination. Energetic disorder, which induces the Poole-Frenkel behavior of charge carrier mobility, is known to decrease the mobility of charge carriers and thus reduces photovoltaic performance. We found that even if the mobilities are the same in the absence of space-charge effects, the degree of energetic disorder can be an additional parameter affecting photocurrent efficiency when space-charge effects occur. Introducing the field-dependence parameter that reflects the energetic disorder, the behavior of efficiency loss with energetic disorder can differ depending on which charge carrier is subject to energetic disorder. While the energetic disorder that is applied to higher-mobility charge carriers decreases photocurrent efficiency further, the efficiency loss can be suppressed when energetic disorder is applied to lower-mobility charge carriers.

  8. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  9. Investigation of External Charges Effects on Piezoelectric ZnO Nanogenerator

    Samira Fathi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Piezopotential generation in semiconductive ZnO nanowire (NW, oriented along the c-axis [0001], is significantly affected by free charge carriers within the ZnO NW. In this paper, the effect of free carriers’ distribution in semiconductive ZnO nanowire is investigated, using a Finite Element Method (FEM. The mentioned effect leads to modification of the conduction band variation, carrier concentration profiles, and eventually, the magnitude and distribution of the piezoelectric potential. The impact of free charge carriers shows that the negative potential distributed at the tip of ZnO NW is decreased from V = – 270 mv for the donor concentration ND = 1 × 1015 C/m3 to the V = – 25 mV, in presence of the donor concentration of ND = 1 × 1018 C/m3. With selecting the appropriate electrical boundary conditions and applying the surface charges density at the top of the nanowire, the potential reduction is compensated. The electrostatic effect leads to a significant enhancement of the piezoelectric potential. The results are well shown the interplay of volume and surface charges and their influence on performance of nanogenerator, and so are crucial for designing of nanogenerators with high piezoelectric potential and good efficiency.

  10. Spreading of Electrolyte Drops on Charged Surfaces: Electric Double Layer Effects on Drop Dynamics

    Bae, Kyeong; Sinha, Shayandev; Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-11-01

    Drop spreading is one of the most fundamental topics of wetting. Here we study the spreading of electrolyte drops on charged surfaces. The electrolyte solution in contact with the charged solid triggers the formation of an electric double layer (EDL). We develop a theory to analyze how the EDL affects the drop spreading. The drop dynamics is studied by probing the EDL effects on the temporal evolution of the contact angle and the base radius (r). The EDL effects are found to hasten the spreading behaviour - this is commensurate to the EDL effects causing a ``philic'' tendency in the drops (i.e., drops attaining a contact angle smaller than its equilibrium value), as revealed by some of our recent papers. We also develop scaling laws to illustrate the manner in which the EDL effects make the r versus time (t) variation deviate from the well known r ~tn variation, thereby pinpointing the attainment of different EDL-mediated spreading regimes.

  11. Effect of surface mechanical finishes on charging ability of electron irradiated PMMA in a scanning electron microscope

    Rondot, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.rondot@univ-reims.fr [Groupe de Recherche en Sciences pour l' Ingenieur, EA4301, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Jbara, Omar [Groupe de Recherche en Sciences pour l' Ingenieur, EA4301, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Fakhfakh, Slim [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Belkorissat, Redouane; Patat, Jean Marc [Groupe de Recherche en Sciences pour l' Ingenieur, EA4301, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-10-01

    Charging of Polymethyl Methacrylate insulators (PMMA), in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is studied owing to a time resolved current method. This method allows the evolution of trapped charge versus time and the charging time constant to be deduced. The effect of surface roughness change on the ability of PMMA to trapped charge is highlighted. The results show that the trapped charge at the steady state decreases when the roughness increases in the micrometer range while the time constant of charging increases with surface roughness. This behaviour is due to the increase of leakage current and/or enhanced secondary electron emission (SEE). On the one hand, surface mechanical finishes allows, the build up charge in insulators submitted to an electron bombardment to be lowered. On the other hand this treatment allows the secondary electron emission to be raised for some specific applications.

  12. Infrared study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2008-03-01

    We present a systematic infrared (IR) spectroscopic study of charge injection in organic field-effect transistors (FET). These experiments have revealed new unexpected aspects of both polymers and molecular crystals. IR spectromicroscopy was employed to image the charges in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) FETs. The charge density profile in the conducting channel uncovers a density-dependent mobility in P3HT due to disorder effects. Our IR studies of single crystal rubrene based FETs show that charge transport in these devices at room temperature is governed by light quasiparticles in molecular orbital bands. This result is at variance with the common beliefs of polaron formation in molecular solids. The above experiments have demonstrated the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for investigating physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices. This work is in collaboration with G. M. Wang, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger (UCSB), V. Podzorov, M.E. Gershenson (Rutgers), Z. Hao, M. C. Martin (ALS), N. Sai, A. D. Meyertholen, M. M. Fogler, M. Di Ventra and D. N. Basov (UCSD).

  13. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  14. Two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate tunnel FETs with interface trapped charges including effects of channel mobile charge carriers

    Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.

  15. Effect of Sulfate on Adsorption of Zinc and Cadmium by Variable Charge Soils

    ZHANGGANGYA; G.W.BRUMMER; 等

    1998-01-01

    SO42- and Zn2+ or Cd2+ were added to three variable charge soils in different sequences.In one sequence sulfate was added first ,and in the other,Zn2+ or Cd2+ first.The addition of sulfate to the system invariably caused an increase in adsorption of the heavy metal added,with the effect more remarkable whn the soil reacted with the sulfate prior to the metal.the shift in pH50 for both Zn and Cd adsorption was aslo comparatively larger in the first sequence of reactions .It was suggested that the increase in negative charge density and the resultant negative potential of the soil were the primary cause of the pronounced effect of sulfate on adsorption of Zn or Cd,and the formaiton of the ternary surface complex-S-SO4-M might also play a role in the effect.

  16. Effects of the Coastal Park Environment Attributes on Its Admission Fee Charges

    Wang Erda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effect of those recognized nature-and-activity-based attributes on the level of park’s admission fee charges using a panel data of 29 coastal recreation parks in Dalian city of China. A total of seven different Hedonic pricing model specifications are used in the estimating process. The results indicate that a numerous attributes have statistically significant effects (α≤ 0.10 on the level of park admission fee charges. In terms of the economic valuation, the marine sightseeing results in the highest value of Marginal Willingness to Pay (MWTP of $6.4 as its quality rank improves to a designated higher level. As expected that the park congestion has a negative effect on the MWTP (-$0.47 and overall park’s rankings have a positive effect ($0.05 on park’s MWTP. However, many recreation activities accommodated by the park sites exhibit a relatively weak effect on the park entrance fee charges. One possible reason is perhaps owing to the single admission package fee policy adopted by the park management..

  17. Effect of trapped ions and nonequilibrium electron-energy distribution function on dust-particle charging in gas discharges.

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V; Antipov, S N; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E

    2009-03-01

    Dust-particles charging in a low-pressure glow discharge was investigated theoretically. The dust-particle charge was found on the basis of a developed self-consistent model taking into account the nonequilibrium character of electron distribution function and the formation of an ionic coat composed of bound or trapped ions around the dust particle. The dust-particle charge, the radial distributions of electron density, free and trapped ions densities, and the distribution of electrostatic potential were found. It was shown that the non-Maxwellian electron distribution function and collisional flux of trapped ions both reduce the dust-particle charge in comparison with that received with the help of the conventional orbital motion limited (OML) model. However, in rare collisional regimes in plasma when the collisional flux is negligible, the formation of ionic coat around a particle leads to a shielding of the proper charge of a dust particle. In low-pressure experiments, it is only possible to detect the effective charge of a dust particle that is equal to the difference between the proper charge of the particle and the charge of trapped ions. The calculated effective dust particle charge is in fairly good agreement with the experimental measurements of dust-particle charge dependence on gas pressure.

  18. Microscopic and macroscopic characterization of the charging effects in SiC/Si nanocrystals/SiC sandwiched structures.

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Yunqing; Li, Wei; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Kunji

    2014-02-07

    Microscopic charge injection into the SiC/Si nanocrystals/SiC sandwiched structures through a biased conductive AFM tip is subsequently characterized by both electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The charge injection and retention characteristics are found to be affected by not only the band offset at the Si nanocrystals/SiC interface but also the doping type of the Si substrate. On the other hand, capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements investigate the macroscopic charging effect of the sandwiched structures with a thicker SiC capping layer, where the charges are injected from the Si substrates. The calculated macroscopic charging density is 3-4 times that of the microscopic one, and the possible reason is the underestimation of the microscopic charging density caused by the averaging effect and detection delay in the KPFM measurements.

  19. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  20. Signal modeling of charge sharing effect in simple pixelated CdZnTe detector

    Kim, Jae Cheon; Kaye, William R.; He, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    In order to study the energy resolution degradation in 3D position-sensitive pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, a detailed detector system modeling package has been developed and used to analyze the detector performance. A 20 × 20 × 15 mm3 CZT crystal with an 11 × 11 simple-pixel anode array and a 1.72 mm pixel pitch was modeled. The VAS UM/TAT4 Application Specific Integrated Circuitry (ASIC) was used for signal read-out. Components of the simulation package include gamma-ray interactions with the CZT crystal, charge induction, electronic noise, pulse shaping, and ASIC triggering procedures. The charge induction model considers charge drift, trapping, diffusion, and sharing between pixels. This system model is used to determine the effects of electron cloud sharing, weighting potential non-uniformity, and weighting potential cross-talk which produce non-uniform signal responses for different gamma-ray interaction positions and ultimately degrade energy resolution. The effect of the decreased weighting potential underneath the gap between pixels on the total pulse amplitude of events has been studied. The transient signals induced by electron clouds collected near the gap between pixels may generate false signals, and the measured amplitude can be even greater than the photopeak. As the number of pixels that collect charge increases, the probability of side-neighbor events due to charge sharing significantly increases. If side-neighbor events are not corrected appropriately, the energy resolution of pixelated CZT detectors in multiple-pixel events degrades rapidly.

  1. Signal modeling of charge sharing effect in simple pixelated CdZnTe detector

    Kim, Jae C.; Kaye, William R.; He, Zhong [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-05-15

    In order to study the energy resolution degradation in 3D position-sensitive pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, a detailed detector system modeling package has been developed and used to analyze the detector performance. A 20 x 20 x 15 mm{sup 3} CZT crystal with an 11 x 11 simple-pixel anode array and a 1.72 mm pixel pitch was modeled. The VAS UM/TAT4 Application Specific Integrated Circuitry (ASIC) was used for signal read-out. Components of the simulation package include gamma-ray interactions with the CZT crystal, charge induction, electronic noise, pulse shaping, and ASIC triggering procedures. The charge induction model considers charge drift, trapping, diffusion, and sharing between pixels. This system model is used to determine the effects of electron cloud sharing, weighting potential non-uniformity, and weighting potential cross-talk which produce non-uniform signal responses for different gamma-ray interaction positions and ultimately degrade energy resolution. The effect of the decreased weighting potential underneath the gap between pixels on the total pulse amplitude of events has been studied. The transient signals induced by electron clouds collected near the gap between pixels may generate false signals, and the measured amplitude can be even greater than the photopeak. As the number of pixels that collect charge increases, the probability of side-neighbor events due to charge sharing significantly increases. If side-neighbor events are not corrected appropriately, the energy resolution of pixelated CZT detectors in multiple-pixel events degrades rapidly.

  2. Charge Effect on the Quantum Dots-Peptide Self-Assembly Using Fluorescence Coupled Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Wang, Jianhao; Li, Jingyan; Teng, Yiwan; Bi, Yanhua; Hu, Wei; Li, Jinchen; Wang, Cheli; Qiu, Lin; Jiang, Pengju

    2016-04-01

    We present a molecular characterization of metal-affinity driven self-assembly between CdSe-ZnS quantum dots and a series of hexahistidine peptides with different charges. In particular, we uti- lized fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis to test the self-assembly process of quantum dots with peptides in solution. Four peptides with different charges can be efficiently separated by fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis. The migration time appeared to be influenced by the charges of the peptide. In addition, the kinetics of self-assembly process of quantum dots with one of the peptides manifested a bi-phasic kinetics followed by a saturating stage. This work revealed that there exist two types of binding sites on the surface of quantum dots for peptide 1: one type termed "high priority" binding site and a "low priority" site which is occupied after the first binding sites are fully occupied. The total self-assembly process finishes in solution within 80 s. Our work represents the systematic investigation of the details of self-assembly kinetics utilizing high-resolution fluorescence coupled capillary electrophoresis. The charge effect of peptide coating quantum dots provides a new way of preparing bioprobes.

  3. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a "base" load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  4. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  5. Negative Resistance Effect and Charge Transfer Mechanisms in the lon Beam Deposited Diamond Like Carbon Superlattices

    Andrius VASILIAUSKAS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study DLC:SiOx/DLC/DLC:SiOx/nSi and DLC:SiOx/DLC/DLC:SiOx/pSi structures were fabricated by ion beam deposition using a closed drift ion source. Current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the multilayer samples were measured at room temperature. The main charge transfer mechanisms were considered. Unstable negative resistance effect was observed for some DLC:SiOx/DLC/DLC:SiOx/nSi and DLC:SiOx/DLC/DLC:SiOx/pSi structures. In the case of the diamond like carbon superlattices fabricated on nSi it was observed only during the first measurement. In the case of the some DLC:SiOx/DLC/DLC:SiOx/pSi negative resistance "withstood" several measurements. Changes of the charge carrier mechanisms were observed along with the dissapear of the negative resistance peaks. It seems, that in such a case influence of the bulk related charge transfer mechanisms such as Poole-Frenkel emission increased, while the influence of the contact limited charge transfer mechanisms such as Schottky emission decreased. Observed results were be explained by current flow through the local microconducting channels and subsequent destruction of the localized current pathways as a result of the heating by flowing electric current.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.240

  6. The Effect of the Charge Fluctuation of Dust Particles on Ion-acoustic Wave Excited Through Ioniza tion Instability

    华建军; 刘金远; 马腾才

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the charge fluctuation of dust particles on ion acoustic wave (IAW) excited through ionization instability was investigated. The hydrodynamic equations and linear time-dependent perturbation theory served as the starting point of theory, by which the dispersion relation and growth rate of the IAW were given. By comparing the results with the case of constant dust charges, it was found that the charge fluctuation of dust particles reduces the instability of the wave mode.

  7. The MicroBooNE Experiment and the Impact of Space Charge Effects

    Mooney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    MicroBooNE is an experiment designed to both probe neutrino physics phenomena and develop the LArTPC (Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber) detector technology. The MicroBooNE experiment, which began taking data this year, is the first large LArTPC detector in the U.S. This experiment is the beginning of a path of detectors (both on the surface and underground) envisioned for the U.S. SBL (Short-BaseLine) and LBL (Long-BaseLine) programs. In order to interpret the data from the experiments on the surface, the impact of space charge effects must be simulated and calibrated. The space charge effect is the build-up of slow-moving positive ions in a detector due to, for instance, ionization from cosmic rays, leading to a distortion of the electric field within the detector. This effect leads to a displacement in the reconstructed position of signal ionization electrons in LArTPC detectors. The LArTPC utilized in the MicroBooNE experiment is expected to be modestly impacted from the space charge effect, with the e...

  8. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions.

  9. Investigation of asymmetric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) reduction of acetophenone derivatives: effect of charge density.

    Naik, Hemantkumar G; Yeniad, Bahar; Koning, Cor E; Heise, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    In an effort to study the effect of substituent groups of the substrate on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) reductions of aryl-alkyl ketones, several derivatives of acetophenone have been evaluated against ADHs from Lactobacillus brevis (LB) and Thermoanaerobacter sp. (T). Interestingly, ketones with non-demanding (neutral) para-substituents were reduced to secondary alcohols by these enzymes in enantiomerically pure form whereas those with demanding (ionizable) substituents could not be reduced. The effect of substrate size, their solubility in the reaction medium, electron donating and withdrawing properties of the ligand and also the electronic charge density distribution on the substrate molecules have been studied and discussed in detail. From the results, it is observed that the electronic charge distribution in the substrate molecules is influencing the orientation of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme and hence the ability to reduce the substrate.

  10. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    Massen, S E; Grypeos, M E

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fluctuations of the nuclear surface on the harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei, while simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation ~factor. Inclusion of surface-fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of ^{16}O and ^{40}Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that the surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behavior of the point-proton form factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const. \\cdot q^{-4}) at large values of the momentum transfer q.

  11. A Model of Charge Transfer Excitons: Diffusion, Spin Dynamics, and Magnetic Field Effects

    Lee, Chee Kong; Willard, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we explore how the microscopic dynamics of charge transfer (CT) excitons are influenced by the presence of an external magnetic field in disordered molecular semiconductors. This influence is driven by the dynamic interplay between the spin and spatial degrees of freedom of the electron-hole pair. To account for this interplay we have developed a numerical framework that combines a traditional model of quantum spin dynamics with a coarse-grained model of stochastic charge transport. This combination provides a general and efficient methodology for simulating the effects of magnetic field on CT state dynamics, therefore providing a basis for revealing the microscopic origin of experimentally observed magnetic field effects. We demonstrate that simulations carried out on our model are capable of reproducing experimental results as well as generating theoretical predictions related to the efficiency of organic electronic materials.

  12. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H.; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R.; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA+ cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages. PMID:28138550

  13. Space charge effect on parametric resonances of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap

    Mandal, P; De Munshi, D; Dutta, T; Mukherjee, M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a finite number of ions on their parametric resonances inside a Paul trap has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Coulomb coupling among the charged particles results in two distinct phenomena: one is the frequency shift of the trapped ion oscillators and second is the collective oscillation of the trapped ion cloud. We observe both in a linear trap configuration. It is found that the strength and the secular frequency of individual ion-oscillation decrease while the strength of the collective oscillation increases with increasing number of trapped ions. The observation has been modeled by considering the space charge potential as an effective dc potential inside the trap. It describes the observations well within the experimental uncertainties.

  14. Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai

    2016-01-01

    We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.

  15. Charge Transport in Field-Effect Transistors based on Layered Materials and their Heterostructures

    Kumar, Jatinder

    In the quest for energy efficiency and device miniaturization, the research in using atomically thin materials for device applications is gaining momentum. The electronic network in layered materials is different from 3D counterparts. It is due to the interlayer couplings and density of states because of their 2D nature. Therefore, understanding the charge transport in layered materials is fundamental to explore the vast opportunities these ultra-thin materials offer. Hence, the challenges targeted in the thesis are: (1) understanding the charge transport in layered materials based on electronic network of quantum and oxide capacitances, (2) studying thickness dependence, ranging from monolayer to bulk, of full range-characteristics of field-effect transistor (FET) based on layered materials, (3) investigating the total interface trap charges to achieve the ultimate subthreshold slope (SS) theoretically possible in FETs, (4) understanding the effect of the channel length on the performance of layered materials, (5) understanding the effect of substrate on performance of the TMDC FETs and studying if the interface of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/hexagonalboron nitride (h-BN) can have less enough trap charges to observe ambipolar behavior, (6) Exploring optoelectronic properties in 2D heterostructures that includes understanding graphene/WS2 heterostructure and its optoelectronic applications by creating a p-n junction at the interface. The quality of materials and the interface are the issues for observing and extracting clean physics out of these layered materials and heterostructures. In this dissertation, we realized the use of quantum capacitance in layered materials, substrate effects and carrier transport in heterostructure.

  16. Longitudinal Space Charge Effects in the JLAB IR FEL SRF Linac

    Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Behre, Chris; Benson, S V; Herman-Biallas, George; Boyce, James; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred; Evans, Richard; Grippo, A; Gubeli, Joe; Hardy, David; Jordan, Kevin; Merminga, Lia; Neil, George; Preble, Joe; Shinn, Michelle D; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Shukui

    2004-01-01

    Observations of energy spread asymmetry when operating the Linac on either side of crest and longitudinal emittance growth have been confirmed by extending PARMELA simulations from the injector to the end of the first SRF Linac module. The asymmetry can be explained by the interaction of the accelerating electric field with that from longitudinal space charge effects within the electron bunch. This can be a major limitation to performance in FEL accelerators.

  17. Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.

  18. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    Hao, Jian; Chen, George; Liao, R

    2011-01-01

    Oil-paper insulation system is widely used in power transformers and cables. Moisture is recognized to the ?enemy number one? for transformer insulation except for temperature [1]. Moisture is not only one of the most important factor which can accelerate the transformer paper insulation aging, but also has great effect on the dielectric properties of oil-paper insulation. In this paper, dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with three different moistur...

  19. Molecular dynamics investigation into the electric charge effect on the operation of ion-based carbon nanotube oscillators

    Ansari, R.; Ajori, S.; Sadeghi, F.

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoscale oscillators working in the gigahertz (GHz) range and beyond has now become the focal center of interest to many researchers. Motivated by this issue, this paper proposes a new type of nano-oscillators with enhanced operating frequency in which both the inner core and outer shell are electrically charged. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the mechanical oscillatory behavior of ions, and in particular chloride ion, tunneling through electrically charged carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It is assumed that the electric charges with similar sign and magnitude are evenly distributed on two ends of nanotube. The interatomic interactions between carbon atoms and van der Waals (vdW) interactions between ion and nanotube are respectively modeled by Tersoff-Brenner and Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential functions, whereas the electrostatic interactions between ion and electric charges are modeled by Coulomb potential function. A comprehensive study is conducted to get an insight into the effects of different parameters such as sign and magnitude of electric charges, nanotube radius, nanotube length and initial conditions (initial separation distance and velocity) on the oscillatory behavior of chloride ion-charged CNT oscillators. It is shown that, the chloride ion frequency inside negatively charged CNTs is lower than that inside positively charged ones with the same magnitude of electric charge, while it is higher than that inside uncharged CNTs. It is further observed that, higher frequencies are generated at higher magnitudes of electric charges distributed on the nanotube.

  20. Charge density and particle size effects on oligonucleotide and plasmid DNA binding to nanosized hydrotalcite.

    Sanderson, Brian A; Sowersby, Drew S; Crosby, Sergio; Goss, Marcus; Lewis, L Kevin; Beall, Gary W

    2013-12-01

    Hydrotalcite (HT) and other layered double metal hydroxides are of great interest as gene delivery and timed release drug delivery systems and as enteric vehicles for biologically active molecules that are sensitive to gastric fluids. HT is a naturally occurring double metal hydroxide that can be synthesized as a nanomaterial consisting of a brucite structure with isomorphous substitution of aluminum ions. These positively charged nanoparticles exhibit plate-like morphology with very high aspect ratios. Biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins form strong associations with HT because they can associate with the positively charged layers. The binding of nucleic acids with HT and other nanomaterials is currently being investigated for potential use in gene therapy; however, the binding of specific nucleic acid forms, such as single- and double-stranded DNA, has been little explored. In addition, the effects of charge density and particle size on DNA adsorption has not been studied. In this paper, the binding of different forms of DNA to a series of HTs prepared at different temperatures and with different anion exchange capacities has been investigated. Experiments demonstrated that HTs synthesized at higher temperatures associate with both single- and double-stranded oligomers and circular plasmid DNA more tightly than HTs synthesized at room temperature, likely due to the hydrothermal conditions promoting larger particle sizes. HT with an anion exchange capacity of 300 meq/100 g demonstrated the highest binding of DNA, likely due to the closer match of charge densities between the HT and DNA. The details of the interaction of various forms of DNA with HT as a function of charge density, particle size, and concentration are discussed.

  1. pH and Salt Effects on the Associative Phase Separation of Oppositely Charged Polyelectrolytes

    Prateek K. Jha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical Voorn-Overbeek thermodynamic theory of complexation and phase separation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes is generalized to account for the charge accessibility and hydrophobicity of polyions, size of salt ions, and pH variations. Theoretical predictions of the effects of pH and salt concentration are compared with published experimental data and experiments we performed, on systems containing poly(acrylic acid (PAA as the polyacid and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA or poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC as the polybase. In general, the critical salt concentration below which the mixture phase separates, increases with degree of ionization and with the hydrophobicity of polyelectrolytes. We find experimentally that as the pH is decreased below 7, and PAA monomers are neutralized, the critical salt concentration increases, while the reverse occurs when pH is raised above 7. We predict this asymmetry theoretically by introducing a large positive Flory parameter (= 0.75 for the interaction of neutral PAA monomers with water. This large positive Flory parameter is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which show much weaker hydrogen bonding between neutral PAA and water than between charged PAA and water, while neutral and charged PDMAEMA show similar numbers of hydrogen bonds. This increased hydrophobicity of neutral PAA at reduced pH increases the tendency towards phase separation despite the reduction in charge interactions between the polyelectrolytes. Water content and volume of coacervate are found to be a strong function of the pH and salt concentration.

  2. Effective charges, the valence p-n interaction, and the IBM

    Casten, R.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Wolf, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1992-01-01

    There are three recent themes in nuclear structure that come together in an interesting and useful way via the concept of effective charges and the framework of the IBM. These three concepts are the importance of dynamical symmetries in describing nuclear structure and the benefits that accrue from their exploitation, secondly, the critical role of the p-n interaction in the onset and development of collectivity in nuclei, and, thirdly, the importance of the valence nucleons in determining structure and its evolution. We will illustrate this by showing that the interpretation of measured B(E2) values in the context of the dynamical symmetries of the IBM leads to new insights into the meaning of effective charges and offers new avenues to understand the role of the proton-neutron (p-n) interaction in modulating the nature of the valence space and the growth of collectivity. In particular, we will show that effective charges in valence models, such as the IBM, can be interpreted in terms of derivatives of the collectivity of the low lying levels, that is, as measures of the rate of change of collectivity as the proton and neutron numbers vary. This paper is based on recent work by the authors.

  3. Effective charges, the valence p-n interaction, and the IBM

    Casten, R.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wolf, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1992-10-01

    There are three recent themes in nuclear structure that come together in an interesting and useful way via the concept of effective charges and the framework of the IBM. These three concepts are the importance of dynamical symmetries in describing nuclear structure and the benefits that accrue from their exploitation, secondly, the critical role of the p-n interaction in the onset and development of collectivity in nuclei, and, thirdly, the importance of the valence nucleons in determining structure and its evolution. We will illustrate this by showing that the interpretation of measured B(E2) values in the context of the dynamical symmetries of the IBM leads to new insights into the meaning of effective charges and offers new avenues to understand the role of the proton-neutron (p-n) interaction in modulating the nature of the valence space and the growth of collectivity. In particular, we will show that effective charges in valence models, such as the IBM, can be interpreted in terms of derivatives of the collectivity of the low lying levels, that is, as measures of the rate of change of collectivity as the proton and neutron numbers vary. This paper is based on recent work by the authors.

  4. Long-range charge-density-wave proximity effect at cuprate/manganate interfaces

    Frano, A.; Blanco-Canosa, S.; Schierle, E.; Lu, Y.; Wu, M.; Bluschke, M.; Minola, M.; Christiani, G.; Habermeier, H. U.; Logvenov, G.; Wang, Y.; van Aken, P. A.; Benckiser, E.; Weschke, E.; Le Tacon, M.; Keimer, B.

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between charge density waves (CDWs) and high-temperature superconductivity is currently under intense investigation. Experimental research on this issue is difficult because CDW formation in bulk copper oxides is strongly influenced by random disorder, and a long-range-ordered CDW state in high magnetic fields is difficult to access with spectroscopic and diffraction probes. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering in zero magnetic field to show that interfaces with the metallic ferromagnet La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 greatly enhance CDW formation in the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ (δ ~ 1), and that this effect persists over several tens of nanometres. The wavevector of the incommensurate CDW serves as an internal calibration standard of the charge carrier concentration, which allows us to rule out any significant influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry, and to attribute the observed phenomenon to a genuine electronic proximity effect. Long-range proximity effects induced by heterointerfaces thus offer a powerful method to stabilize the charge-density-wave state in the cuprates and, more generally, to manipulate the interplay between different collective phenomena in metal oxides.

  5. Long-range charge-density-wave proximity effect at cuprate/manganate interfaces.

    Frano, A; Blanco-Canosa, S; Schierle, E; Lu, Y; Wu, M; Bluschke, M; Minola, M; Christiani, G; Habermeier, H U; Logvenov, G; Wang, Y; van Aken, P A; Benckiser, E; Weschke, E; Le Tacon, M; Keimer, B

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between charge density waves (CDWs) and high-temperature superconductivity is currently under intense investigation. Experimental research on this issue is difficult because CDW formation in bulk copper oxides is strongly influenced by random disorder, and a long-range-ordered CDW state in high magnetic fields is difficult to access with spectroscopic and diffraction probes. Here we use resonant X-ray scattering in zero magnetic field to show that interfaces with the metallic ferromagnet La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 greatly enhance CDW formation in the optimally doped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+δ (δ ∼ 1), and that this effect persists over several tens of nanometres. The wavevector of the incommensurate CDW serves as an internal calibration standard of the charge carrier concentration, which allows us to rule out any significant influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry, and to attribute the observed phenomenon to a genuine electronic proximity effect. Long-range proximity effects induced by heterointerfaces thus offer a powerful method to stabilize the charge-density-wave state in the cuprates and, more generally, to manipulate the interplay between different collective phenomena in metal oxides.

  6. The effect of trapped charge on silicon nanowire pseudo-MOSFETs.

    Nam, Incheol; Kim, Minsuk; Najam, Syed Faraz; Lee, Eunhong; Hwang, Sungwoo; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-09-01

    The effects of organic molecules grafted on top of silicon nanowires are modeled as the oxide trap charges (Qot) and interface trap charges (Qit). The device investigated here is a pseudo-MOSFET with a thick bottom oxide (200 nm) and only a thin native oxide (5 nm) on top. With Qot = -5.0 x 10(11) cm(-2) and the U-shaped distribution of interface trap density (Dit) as a function of trap energy (Et), the structures are reproduced through the conventional technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation tool, and the channel is imaginarily divided into several sections (5 x 5 regions) to apply the localized traps. The electrical parameters are extracted from the each part to quantitatively compare their effectiveness. The local position of the grafted molecules, modeled by these charges, is shown to result in strong variations in the relative change in the threshold voltage and subthreshold swing. These variations are explained by the surface depletion and scattering near the edges of the etched device and the series resistance effect.

  7. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization.

    Monterroso, Begoña; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring.

  8. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization.

    Begoña Monterroso

    Full Text Available We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring.

  9. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of negatively charged NH.N systems

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Grech, Eugeniusz

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are investigated in anions of 1,8-bis(4-toluenesulphonamido)naphthalenes together with N,N-(naphthalene-1,8-diyl)bis(2,2,2-trifluoracetamide) all with bis(1,8-dimethylamino)napthaleneH+ as counter ion. These compounds represent both “static......” and equilibrium cases. NMR assignments of the former have been revised. The NH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts are rather unusual in these strongly hydrogen bonded systems between a NH and a negatively charged nitrogen atom. The formal four-bond effects are found to be negative...

  10. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds (a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  11. Effects of Cylindrical Charge Geometry and Secondary Combustion Reactions on the Internal Blast Loading of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Price, Matthew A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An understanding of the detonation phenomenon and airblast behavior for cylindrical high-explosive charges is essential in developing predictive capabilities for tests and scenarios involving these charge geometries. Internal tests on reinforced concrete structures allowed for the analysis of cylindrical charges and the effect of secondary reactions occurring in confined structures. The pressure profiles that occur close to a cylindrical explosive charge are strongly dependent on the length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of the charge. This study presents a comparison of finite-element code models (i.e., AUTODYN) to empirical methods for predicting airblast behavior from cylindrical charges. Current finite element analysis (FEA) and blast prediction codes fail to account for the effects of secondary reactions (fireballs) that occur with underoxidized explosives. Theoretical models were developed for TNT and validated against literature. These models were then applied to PBX 9501 for predictions of the spherical fireball diameter and time duration. The following relationships for PBX 9501 were derived from this analysis (units of ft, lb, s). Comparison of centrally located equivalent weight charges using cylindrical and spherical geometries showed that the average impulse on the interior of the structure is ~3%–5% higher for the spherical charge. Circular regions of high impulse that occur along the axial direction of the cylindrical charge must be considered when analyzing structural response.

  12. Importance of temperature effect on the electrophoretic behavior of charge-regulated particles.

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tai, Yi-Hsuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2012-01-10

    The Joule heating effect is inevitable in electrophoresis operations. To assess its influence on the performance of electrophoresis, we consider the case of a charge-regulated particle in a solution containing multiple ionic species at temperatures ranging from 298 to 308 K. Using an aqueous SiO(2) dispersion as an example, we show that an increase in the temperature leads to a decrease in both the dielectric constant and the viscosity of the liquid phase, and an increase in both the diffusivity of ions and the particle surface potential. For a particle having a constant surface potential, its electrophoretic mobility is most influenced by the variation in the liquid viscosity as the temperature varies, but for a charged-regulated particle both the liquid viscosity and the surface potential can play an important role. Depending upon the level of pH, the degree of increase in the mobility can be on the order of 40% for a 5 K increase in the temperature. The presence of double-layer polarization, which is significant when the surface potential is sufficiently high, has the effect of inhibiting that increase in the mobility. This implies that the influence of the temperature on the mobility of the particle is most significant when the pH is close to the point of zero charge.

  13. Arsenic removal from groundwater using iron electrocoagulation: effect of charge dosage rate.

    Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Srinivasan, Venkat; Kowolik, Kristin; Muller, Marc; Huang, Jessica; Kostecki, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes can reduce arsenic below 10 μg/L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater and in real groundwater from Bangladesh and Cambodia, while investigating the effect of operating parameters that are often overlooked, such as charge dosage rate. We measure arsenic removal performance over a larger range of current density than in any other single previous EC study (5000-fold: 0.02 - 100 mA/cm(2)) and over a wide range of charge dosage rates (0.060 - 18 Coulombs/L/min). We find that charge dosage rate has significant effects on both removal capacity (μg-As removed/Coulomb) and treatment time and is the appropriate parameter to maintain performance when scaling to different active areas and volumes. We estimate the operating costs of EC treatment in Bangladesh groundwater to be $0.22/m(3). Waste sludge (~80 - 120 mg/L), when tested with the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Protocol (TCLP), is characterized as non-hazardous. Although our focus is on developing a practical device, our results suggest that As[III] is mostly oxidized via a chemical pathway and does not rely on processes occurring at the anode. Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the free supplemental file.

  14. Exploring relativistic many-body recoil effects in highly charged ions.

    Orts, R Soria; Harman, Z; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Artemyev, A N; Bruhns, H; Martínez, A J González; Jentschura, U D; Keitel, C H; Lapierre, A; Mironov, V; Shabaev, V M; Tawara, H; Tupitsyn, I I; Ullrich, J; Volotka, A V

    2006-09-08

    The relativistic recoil effect has been the object of experimental investigations using highly charged ions at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. Its scaling with the nuclear charge Z boosts its contribution to a measurable level in the magnetic-dipole (M1) transitions of B- and Be-like Ar ions. The isotope shifts of 36Ar versus 40Ar have been detected with sub-ppm accuracy, and the recoil effect contribution was extracted from the 1s(2)2s(2)2p 2P(1/2) - 2P(3/2) transition in Ar13+ and the 1s(2)2s2p 3P1-3P2 transition in Ar14+. The experimental isotope shifts of 0.00123(6) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00120(10) nm (Ar14+) are in agreement with our present predictions of 0.00123(5) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00122(5) nm (Ar14+) based on the total relativistic recoil operator, confirming that a thorough understanding of correlated relativistic electron dynamics is necessary even in a region of intermediate nuclear charges.

  15. Relationship between the adjuvant and cytotoxic effects of the positive charges and polymerization in liposomes.

    Gasparri, Julieta; Speroni, Lucía; Chiaramoni, Nadia Silvia; del Valle Alonso, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Vaccine development today encounters a main obstacle, which is the need for effective adjuvants suitable for clinical trials. Aluminum salts, discovered 70 years ago and, very recently, MF59, are the only types of adjuvants currently used in vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Liposomes represent an alternative approach to vaccine adjuvants. In this article, we describe the inflammatory response and biological effect of polymerization and the addition of positive charges in liposome formulations. Nonpolymerized cationic (NP(+)) liposomes significantly reduce metabolism in Vero cells after 24 hours. Correspondingly, both NP(+) and polymerized cationic (P(+)) liposomes reduce cell viability following a 48-hour incubation. Similar results were obtained with cells from the peritoneal cavities of mice. Paradoxically, those liposomes that presented clearly cytostatic or cytotoxic effects in vitro stimulated metabolism and had a mitogenic effect in vivo. Finally, the adjuvant effect was tested by immunization in BALB/c mice. The major effect was obtained with NP(+) liposomes. Accordingly, we also demonstrated that NP(+) liposomes injected into the dermis produced an outstanding inflammatory reaction, showing the histopathological characteristics of an inoculation granuloma. Thus, positive charge would play an important role in the immunoadjuvant effect of liposomes by conferring them cytotoxic capacity.

  16. Effect of the charged Higgs bosons in the radiative leptonic decays of B- and D- mesons

    Yang, Ji-Chong; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of B- and D- mesons in the Standard Model (SM) and two-Higgs-doublet-model (2HDM) Type II. The results are obtained using the factorization procedure, and the contribution of the order O(ΛQCD/mQ) is included. The numerical results are calculated using the wave function obtained in relativistic potential model. As a result, the decay mode B → γτντ is found to be sensitive to the effect of the charged Higgs boson. Using the constraint on the free parameters of 2HDM given in previous works, we find the contribution of the charged Higgs boson in the decay mode B → γτντ can be as large as about 13%.

  17. Interplay of electronic and geometry shell effects in properties of neutral and charged Sr clusters

    Lyalin, Andrey; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2007-01-01

    that the size evolution of structural and electronic properties of strontium clusters is governed by an interplay of the electronic and geometry shell closures. Influence of the electronic shell effects on structural rearrangements can lead to violation of the icosahedral growth motif of strontium clusters......The optimized structure and electronic properties of neutral, singly, and doubly charged strontium clusters have been investigated using ab initio theoretical methods based on density-functional theory. We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral, singly, and doubly...... charged strontium clusters consisting of up to 14 atoms, average bonding distances, electronic shell closures, binding energies per atom, the gap between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and spectra of the density of electronic states (DOS). It is demonstrated...

  18. Evidence of surface charge effects in T-branch nanojunctions using microsecond-pulse testing

    Iniguez-de-la-Torre, I; Mateos, J; Gonzalez, T [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Roelens, Y; Gardes, C; Bollaert, S [Institut d' Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Universite de Lille 1, Avenue Poincare BP60069, 59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq CEDEX (France)

    2011-11-04

    The understanding of the influence of surface charge effects on the electrical properties of nanostructures is a key aspect for the forthcoming generations of electronic devices. In this paper, by using an ultrafast electrical pulse characterization technique, we report on the room-temperature time response of a T-branch nanojunction which allows us to identify the signature of surface states. Different pulse widths from 500 ns to 100 {mu}s were applied to the device. For a given pulse width, the stem voltage is measured and compared with the DC result. The output value in the stem is found to depend on the pulse width and to be related to the characteristic charging time of the interface states. As expected, the results show that the well-known nonlinear response of T-branch junctions is more pronounced for long pulses, beyond such a characteristic time.

  19. Central charge from adiabatic transport of cusp singularities in the quantum Hall effect

    Can, Tankut

    2016-01-01

    We study quantum Hall (QH) states on a punctured Riemann sphere. We compute the Berry curvature under adiabatic motion in the moduli space in the large N limit. The Berry curvature is shown to be finite in the large N limit and controlled by the conformal dimension of the cusp singularity, a local property of the mean density. Utilizing exact sum rules obtained from a Ward identity, we show that for the Laughlin wave function, the dimension of a cusp singularity is given by the central charge, a robust geometric response coefficient in the QHE. Thus, adiabatic transport of curvature singularities can be used to determine the central charge of QH states. We also consider the effects of threaded fluxes and spin-deformed wave functions. Finally, we give a closed expression for all moments of the mean density in the integer QH state on a punctured disk.

  20. Environment effect on spectral and charge distribution characteristics of some drugs of folate derivatives

    Khadem Sadigh, M.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.; Johari-Ahar, M.; Zare Haghighi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular surrounding media as an important factor can effect on the operation of wide variety of drugs. For more study in this paper, spectral properties of Methotrexate and Folinic acid have been studied in various solvents. Our results show that the photo-physical of solute molecules depend strongly on solute-solvent interactions and active groups in their chemical structures. In order to investigate the contribution of specific and nonspecific interactions on the various properties of drug molecules, the linear solvation energy relationships concept is used. Moreover, charge distribution characteristics of used samples with various resonance structures in solvent environments were calculated by means of solvatochromic method. The high value of dipole moments in excited state show that local intramolecular charge transfer can occur by excitation. These results about molecular interactions can be extended to biological systems and can indicate completely the behaviors of Methotrexate and Folinic acid in polar solvents such as water in body system.

  1. Combined effect of salt concentration and pressure gradients across charged membranes

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The combined effect of both concentration and pressure differences on electrical potential (Deltaphi) for two ion-exchanger membranes, one positively charged (AE) and another negatively charged (CE), measured with the membranes in contact with NaCl solutions was studied. Results show a linear...... dependence between Deltaphi and pressure, independently if DeltaC and DeltaP have the same or opposite directions. The ratio of the streaming potential for cation/anion exchange membranes is r = (2.1+/-0.4). A "bipolar" membrane (BM) was obtained by joining together both ion-exchanger membranes. In order...... to correlate the behaviour of the BP membrane with that corresponding to each sublayer, the same kind of measurements was carried out for both opposite external conditions, this means, applying the pressure on the cation exchanger (CABM) or on the anion exchanger membrane (ACBM), respectively. From values...

  2. Bifurcation of space-charge wave in a plasma waveguide including the wake potential effect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-09-01

    The wake potential effects on the propagation of the space-charge dust ion-acoustic wave are investigated in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma with the ion flow. The results show that the wake potential would generate the double frequency modes in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma. It is found that the upper mode of the wave frequency with the root of higher-order is smaller than that with the root of lower-order in intermediate wave number domains. However, the lower mode of the scaled wave frequency with the root of higher-order is found to be greater than that with the root of lower-order. It is found that the influence in the order of the root of the Bessel function on the wave frequency of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave in a cylindrically confined dusty plasma decreases with an increase in the propagation wave number. It is also found that the double frequency modes increase with increasing Mach number due to the ion flow in a cylindrical dusty plasma. In addition, it is found that the upper mode of the group velocity decreases with an increase in the scaled radius of the plasma cylinder. However, it is shown that the lower mode of the scaled group velocity of the space-charge dust ion acoustic wave increases with an increase in the radius of the plasma cylinder. The variation of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave due to the wake potential and geometric effects is also discussed.

  3. Binding of chloroquine to ionic micelles: Effect of pH and micellar surface charge

    Souza Santos, Marcela de, E-mail: marcelafarmausp77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Perpétua Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria, E-mail: mpemdel@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Siuiti Ito, Amando, E-mail: amandosi@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); and others

    2014-03-15

    The pharmacological action of chloroquine relies on its ability to cross biological membranes in order to accumulate inside lysosomes. The present work aimed at understanding the basis for the interaction between different chloroquine species and ionic micelles of opposite charges, the latter used as a simple membrane model. The sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence of chloroquine to changes in its local environment was used to probe its interaction with cetyltrimethylammonium micelles presenting bromide (CTAB) and sulfate (CTAS) as counterions, in addition to dodecyl sulfate micelles bearing sodium (SDS) and tetramethylammonium (TMADS) counterions. Counterion exchange was shown to have little effect on drug–micelle interaction. Chloroquine first dissociation constant (pKa{sub 1}) shifted to opposite directions when anionic and cationic micelles were compared. Chloroquine binding constants (K{sub b}) revealed that electrostatic forces mediate charged drug–micelle association, whereas hydrophobic interactions allowed neutral chloroquine to associate with anionic and cationic micelles. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that monoprotonated chloroquine is inserted deeper into the micelle surface of anionic micelles than its neutral form, the latter being less exposed to the aqueous phase when associated with cationic over anionic assemblies. The findings provide further evidence that chloroquine–micelle interaction is driven by a tight interplay between the drug form and the micellar surface charge, which can have a major effect on the drug biological activity. -- Highlights: • Chloroquine (CQ) pKa{sub 1} increased for SDS micelles and decreased for CTAB micelles. • CQ is solubilized to the surface of both CTAB and SDS micelles. • Monoprotonated CQ is buried deeper into SDS micelles than neutral CQ. • Neutral CQ is less exposed to aqueous phase in CTAB over SDS micelles. • Local pH and micellar surface charge mediate interaction of CQ with

  4. Effect of surface charge convection and shape deformation on the dielectrophoretic motion of a liquid drop

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-04-01

    The dielectrophoretic motion and shape deformation of a Newtonian liquid drop in an otherwise quiescent Newtonian liquid medium in the presence of an axisymmetric nonuniform dc electric field consisting of uniform and quadrupole components is investigated. The theory put forward by Feng [J. Q. Feng, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4438 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.54.4438] is generalized by incorporating the following two nonlinear effects—surface charge convection and shape deformation—towards determining the drop velocity. This two-way coupled moving boundary problem is solved analytically by considering small values of electric Reynolds number (ratio of charge relaxation time scale to the convection time scale) and electric capillary number (ratio of electrical stress to the surface tension) under the framework of the leaky dielectric model. We focus on investigating the effects of charge convection and shape deformation for different drop-medium combinations. A perfectly conducting drop suspended in a leaky (or perfectly) dielectric medium always deforms to a prolate shape and this kind of shape deformation always augments the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. For a perfectly dielectric drop suspended in a perfectly dielectric medium, the shape deformation leads to either increase (for prolate shape) or decrease (for oblate shape) in the dielectrophoretic drop velocity. Both surface charge convection and shape deformation affect the drop motion for leaky dielectric drops. The combined effect of these can significantly increase or decrease the dielectrophoretic drop velocity depending on the electrohydrodynamic properties of both the liquids and the relative strength of the electric Reynolds number and electric capillary number. Finally, comparison with the existing experiments reveals better agreement with the present theory.

  5. Ultrafast charge-transfer in organic photovoltaic interfaces: geometrical and functionalization effects.

    Santos, Elton J G; Wang, W L

    2016-09-21

    Understanding the microscopic mechanisms of electronic excitation in organic photovoltaic cells is a challenging problem in the design of efficient devices capable of performing sunlight harvesting. Here we develop and apply an ab initio approach based on time-dependent density functional theory and Ehrenfest dynamics to investigate photoinduced charge transfer in small organic molecules. Our calculations include mixed quantum-classical dynamics with ions moving classically and electrons quantum mechanically, where no experimental external parameter other than the material geometry is required. We show that the behavior of photocarriers in zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60 systems, an effective prototype system for organic solar cells, is sensitive to the atomic orientation of the donor and the acceptor units as well as the functionalization of covalent molecules at the interface. In particular, configurations with the ZnPc molecules facing on C60 facilitate charge transfer between substrate and molecules that occurs within 200 fs. In contrast, configurations where ZnPc is tilted above C60 present extremely low carrier injection efficiency even at longer times as an effect of the larger interfacial potential level offset and higher energetic barrier between the donor and acceptor molecules. An enhancement of charge injection into C60 at shorter times is observed as binding groups connect ZnPc and C60 in a dyad system. Our results demonstrate a promising way of designing and controlling photoinduced charge transfer on the atomic level in organic devices that would lead to efficient carrier separation and maximize device performance.

  6. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-07-18

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  7. Hydrogen binding effect on charged P2 ( = 1-7) clusters

    Zhicong Fang; Xiangjun Kuang

    2013-11-01

    An all-electron (AE) calculation of the hydrogen binding effect on charged phosphorus clusters has been performed under the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Compared with the P$^{\\pm}_{2n}$ ( = 1-7) clusters, the HP$^{\\pm}_{2n}$ ( = 1-7), cluster has shorter average P-P bond length, larger binding energy and HOMOLUMO gap (HLG), higher chemical hardness and frequency of P-P mode. After binding with one hydrogen atom, the electronic structure is changed from open electronic shell to closed electronic shell. Geometrical stability, chemical stability and electronic stability are strengthened. These stability enhancements may be simply understood considering the electron pairing effect.

  8. Spatial profile of charge storage in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory using polymer electret

    She, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Spatial profile of the charge storage in the pentacene-based field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories using poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) electret is probed. The electron trapping into the electret after programming can be space dependent with more electron storage in the region closer to the contacts, and reducing the channel length is an effective approach to improve the memory performance. The deficient electron supply in pentacene is proposed to be responsible for the inhomogeneous electron storage in the electret. The hole trapping into the electret after erasing is spatially homogeneous, arising from the sufficient hole accumulation in the pentacene channel.

  9. Collision states and scar effects in charged three-body problems

    Vilela-Mendes, R

    1997-01-01

    Semiclassical methods form a bridge between classical systems and their quantum counterparts. An interesting phenomenon discovered in this connection is the scar effect, whereby energy eigenstates display enhancement structures resembling the path of unstable periodic orbits. This paper deals with collision states in charged three-body problems, in periodic media, which are scarred by unstable classical orbits. The scar effect has a potential for practical applications because orbits corresponding to zero measure classical configurations may be reached and stabilized by resonant excitation. It may be used, for example, to induce reactions that are favoured by unstable configurations.

  10. Current voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with charge-imbalance effect

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2007-09-01

    The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions are numerically calculated taking into account the quasiparticle charge-imbalance effect. We solve numerically the full set of the equations including second order differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations for a stack of Josephson junctions. The boundary conditions due to the proximity effect are used. We obtain the branch structure of IVC and investigate it as a function of disequilibrium parameter at different values of coupling constant and McCumber parameter. An increase in the disequilibrium parameter essentially changes the character of IVC at large values of McCumber parameter.

  11. Current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with charge-imbalance effect

    Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Physical Technical Institute, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan)], E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru; Mahfouzi, F. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-09-01

    The current-voltage characteristics (IVC) of intrinsic Josephson junctions are numerically calculated taking into account the quasiparticle charge-imbalance effect. We solve numerically the full set of the equations including second order differential equations for phase differences, kinetic equations and generalized Josephson relations for a stack of Josephson junctions. The boundary conditions due to the proximity effect are used. We obtain the branch structure of IVC and investigate it as a function of disequilibrium parameter at different values of coupling constant and McCumber parameter. An increase in the disequilibrium parameter essentially changes the character of IVC at large values of McCumber parameter.

  12. Interaction of solitary waves in magnetized warm dusty plasmas with dust charging effects

    Xue Ju-Kui

    2006-01-01

    In consideration of adiabatic dust charge variation, the combined effect of the external magnetized field and the dust temperature on head-on collision of the three-dimensional dust acoustic solitary waves is investigated. By using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method, the phase shifts and the trajectories of two solitons after the collision are obtained. The effects of the magnitude and the obliqueness of the external magnetic field and the dust temperature on the solitary wave collisions are discussed in detail.

  13. Constraining the existence of magnetic monopoles by Dirac-dual electric charge renormalization effect under the Planck scale limit

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Changyu; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-08-01

    It was suggested by dimensional analysis that there exists a limit called the Planck energy scale coming close to which the gravitational effects of physical processes would inflate and struggle for equal rights so as to spoil the validity of pure nongravitational physical theories that governed well below the Planck energy. Near the Planck scale, the Planck charges, Planck currents, or Planck parameters can be defined and assigned to physical quantities such as the single particle electric charge and magnetic charge as the ceiling value obeyed by the low energy ordinary physics. The Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation as one form of electric-magnetic duality dictates that, the present low value electric charge corresponds to a huge magnetic charge value already passed the Planck limit so as to render theories of magnetic monopoles into the strong coupling regime, and vice versa, that small and tractable magnetic charge values correspond to huge electric charge values. It suggests that for theoretic models in which the renormalization group equation provides rapid growth for the running electric coupling constant, it is easier for the dual magnetic monopoles to emerge at lower energy scales. Allowing charges to vary with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation while keeping values under the Planck limit informs that the magnetic charge value drops below the Planck ceiling value into the manageable region when the electric coupling constant grows to one fourth at a model dependent energy scale, and continues dropping toward half the value of the Planck magnetic charge as the electric coupling constant continues growing at the model dependent rate toward one near Planck energy scale.

  14. Effect of Ionic Advection on Electroosmosis over Charge Surfaces: Beyond the Weak Field Limit

    Ghosh, Uddipta

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of ionic advection on electroosmotic flow over charge modulated surfaces in a generalized paradigm when the classically restrictive "weak field" limit may be relaxed. Going beyond the commonly portrayed weak field limit (i.e, the externally applied electric field is over-weighed by the surface-induced electrical potential, towards charge distribution in an electrified wall-adhering layer) for electroosmotic transport, we numerically solve the coupled full set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) and Navier-Stokes equations, in a semi-infinite domain, bounded at the bottom by a charged wall. Further, in an effort to obtain deeper physical insight, we solve the simplified forms of the relevant governing equations for low surface potential in two separate asymptotic limits: (i) a regular perturbation solution for Low Ionic Peclet number (Pe), where Pe is employed as the gauge function and (ii) a matched asymptotic solution for O(1) Pe in the Thin Electric Double Layer (EDL) limi...

  15. Effect of hydrogen on dynamic charge transport in amorphous oxide thin film transistors

    Kim, Taeho; Nam, Yunyong; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen in zinc oxide based semiconductors functions as a donor or a defect de-activator depending on its concentration, greatly affecting the device characteristics of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thus, controlling the hydrogen concentration in oxide semiconductors is very important for achieving high mobility and minimizing device instability. In this study, we investigated the charge transport dynamics of the amorphous semiconductor InGaZnO at various hydrogen concentrations as a function of the deposition temperature of the gate insulator. To examine the nature of dynamic charge trapping, we employed short-pulse current-voltage and transient current-time measurements. Among various examined oxide devices, that with a high hydrogen concentration exhibits the best performance characteristics, such as high saturation mobility (10.9 cm2 v-1 s-1), low subthreshold slope (0.12 V/dec), and negligible hysteresis, which stem from low defect densities and negligible transient charge trapping. Our finding indicates that hydrogen atoms effectively passivate the defects in subgap states of the bulk semiconductor, minimizing the mobility degradation and threshold voltage instability. This study indicates that hydrogen plays a useful role in TFTs by improving the device performance and stability.

  16. Surface charging of phosphors and its effects on cathodoluminescence at low electron energies

    Seager, C.H.; Warren, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the threshold for secondary electron emission and shifts of the carbon Auger line position have been used to deduce the surface potential of several common phosphors during irradiation by electrons in the 0.5--5.0 keV range. All of the insulating phosphors display similar behavior: the surface potential is within {+-}1 V of zero at low electron energies. However, above 2--3 kV it becomes increasingly negative, reaching hundreds of volts within 1 keV of the turn-on energy. The electron energy at which this charging begins decreases dramatically after Coulomb aging at 17 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} for 30--60 min. Measurements using coincident electron beams at low and high electron energies to control the surface potential were made to investigate the dependence of the cathodoluminescence (CL) process on charging. Initially, the CL from the two beams is identical to the sum of the separate beam responses, but after Coulomb aging large deviations from this additivity are observed. These results indicate that charging has important, detrimental effects on CL efficiency after prolonged e-beam irradiation. Measurements of the electron energy dependence of the CL efficiency before and after Coulomb aging will also be presented, and the implications of these data on the physics of the low-voltage CL process will be discussed.

  17. The effect of interface hopping on inelastic scattering of oppositely charged polarons in polymers

    Di Bing; Wang Ya-Dong; Zhang Ya-Lin; An Zhong

    2013-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of oppositely charge polarons in polymer heterojunctions is believed to be of fundamental importance for the light-emitting and transport properties of conjugated polymers.Based on the tight-binding SSH model,and by using a nonadiabatic molecular dynamic method,we investigate the effects of interface hopping on inelastic scattering of oppositely charged polarons in a polymer heterojunction.It is found that the scattering processes of the charge and lattice defect depend sensitively on the hopping integrals at the polymer/polymer interface when the interface potential barrier and applied electric field strength are constant.In particular,at an intermediate electric field,when the interface hopping integral of the polymer/polymer heterojunction material is increased beyond a critical value,two polarons can combine to become a lattice deformation in one of the two polymer chains,with the electron and the hole bound together,i.e.,a self-trapped polaron-exciton.The yield of excitons then increases to a peak value.These results show that interface hopping is of fundamental importance and facilitates the formation of polaron-excitons.

  18. Structure and dynamics of a dizinc metalloprotein: effect of charge transfer and polarization.

    Li, Yong L; Mei, Ye; Zhang, Da W; Xie, Dai Q; Zhang, John Z H

    2011-08-25

    Structures and dynamics of a recently designed dizinc metalloprotein (DFsc) (J. Mol. Biol. 2003, 334, 1101) are studied by molecular dynamics simulation using a dynamically adapted polarized force field derived from fragment quantum calculation for protein in solvent. To properly describe the effect of charge transfer and polarization in the present approach, quantum chemistry calculation of the zinc-binding group is periodically performed (on-the-fly) to update the atomic charges of the zinc-binding group during the MD simulation. Comparison of the present result with those obtained from simulations under standard AMBER force field reveals that charge transfer and polarization are critical to maintaining the correct asymmetric metal coordination in the DFsc. Detailed analysis of the result also shows that dynamic fluctuation of the zinc-binding group facilitates solvent interaction with the zinc ions. In particular, the dynamic fluctuation of the zinc-zinc distance is shown to be an important feature of the catalytic function of the di-ion zinc-binding group. Our study demonstrates that the dynamically adapted polarization approach is computationally practical and can be used to study other metalloprotein systems.

  19. Isospin effects via Coulomb forces on the onset of multifragmentation in light and heavily charged systems

    Sharma, Arun; Bharti, Arun [University of Jammu, Department of Physics, Jammu (India)

    2016-03-15

    We concurrently study the isospin effects via Coulomb forces and the nuclear equation of state and its momentum dependence on the onset of multifragmentation, i.e., critical energy point, in the light and heavily charged reactions of {sup 40}Ar + {sup 45}Sc and {sup 84}Kr + {sup 197}Au, respectively, using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. We find that Coulomb forces influence the onset of multifragmentation and result in the shift of the critical energy point towards lower and higher incident energies with and without their presence, respectively. Also, we observe that the critical energy point is sharper for the heavily charged system of {sup 84}Kr + {sup 197}Au when compared with the light charged system of {sup 40}Ar + {sup 45}Sc, where a small dip is observed and thus leads to the dependence of onset of multifragmentation, i.e., the critical energy point, on the reaction asymmetry as well as on the Coulomb forces. (orig.)

  20. Charging effect in Au nanoparticle memory device with biomolecule binding mechanism.

    Jung, Sung Mok; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Bong-Jin; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sang; Lee, Hyun Ho

    2011-07-01

    Organic memory device having gold nanoparticle (Au NPs) has been introduced in the structure of metal-pentacene-insulator-silicon (MPIS) capacitor device, where the Au NPs layer was formed by a new bonding method. Biomolecule binding mechanism between streptavidin and biotin was used as a strong binding method for the formation of monolayered Au NPs on polymeric dielectric of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). The self-assembled Au NPs was functioned to show storages of charge in the MPIS device. The binding by streptavidin and biotin was confirmed by AFM and UV-VIS. The UV-VIS absorption of the Au NPs was varied at 515 nm and 525 nm depending on the coating of streptavidin. The AFM image showed no formation of multi-stacked layers of the streptavidin-capped Au NPs on biotin-NHS layer. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) performance of the memory device was measured to investigate the charging effect from Au NPs. In addition, charge retention by the Au NPs storage was tested to show 10,000 s in the C-V curve.

  1. Doping effect on photoabsorption and charge-separation dynamics in light-harvesting organic molecule

    Ohmura, Satoshi, E-mail: s.ohmura.m4@cc.it-hiroshima.ac.jp [Research Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Design, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Tsuruta, Kenji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Shimojo, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 Japan (Japan); Nakano, Aiichiro [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Computer Science, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, CA90089-024 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Using ab-initio theoretical methods, we demonstrate possible enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell via intentional doping in molecular graphene-fullerene heterojunction [the hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-triethylene glycol (TEG)–C{sub 60} molecule]. Photoabsorption analysis indicates oxygen substitution into HBC leads to an extension of the spectra up to an infrared regime. A quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulation incorporating nonadiabatic electronic transitions reveals that a dissociated charge state (D{sup +} and A{sup -}) in the O-doped system is more stable than the pristine case due to the presence of an effective barrier by the TEG HOMO/LUMO level. We also find that oxygen doping in HBC enhances the intermolecular carrier mobility after charge separation. On the other hand, the pristine molecule undergoes rapid recombination between donor and acceptor charges at the interface. These analyses suggest that the graphene oxidation opens a new window in the application of organic super-molecules to solar cells.

  2. Doping effect on photoabsorption and charge-separation dynamics in light-harvesting organic molecule

    Satoshi Ohmura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using ab-initio theoretical methods, we demonstrate possible enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell via intentional doping in molecular graphene-fullerene heterojunction [the hexabenzocoronene (HBC-triethylene glycol (TEG–C60 molecule]. Photoabsorption analysis indicates oxygen substitution into HBC leads to an extension of the spectra up to an infrared regime. A quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulation incorporating nonadiabatic electronic transitions reveals that a dissociated charge state (D+ and A- in the O-doped system is more stable than the pristine case due to the presence of an effective barrier by the TEG HOMO/LUMO level. We also find that oxygen doping in HBC enhances the intermolecular carrier mobility after charge separation. On the other hand, the pristine molecule undergoes rapid recombination between donor and acceptor charges at the interface. These analyses suggest that the graphene oxidation opens a new window in the application of organic super-molecules to solar cells.

  3. Trapped-ion probing of light-induced charging effects on dielectrics

    Harlander, M; Brownnutt, M; Haensel, W; Blatt, R, E-mail: max.harlander@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-09-15

    We use a string of confined {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions to measure perturbations to a trapping potential which are caused by the light-induced charging of an antireflection-coated window and of insulating patches on the ion-trap electrodes. The electric fields induced at the ions' position are characterized as a function of distance to the dielectric and as a function of the incident optical power and wavelength. The measurement of the ion-string position is sensitive to as few as 40 elementary charges per {radical}(Hz) on the dielectric at distances of the order of millimetres, and perturbations are observed for illuminations with light of wavelengths as large as 729 nm. This has important implications for the future of miniaturized ion-trap experiments, notably with regard to the choice of electrode material and the optics that must be integrated in the vicinity of the ion. The method presented here can be readily applied to the investigation of charging effects beyond the context of ion-trap experiments.

  4. Steric effects in the dynamics of electrolytes at large applied voltages: I. Double-layer charging

    Kilic, M S; Ajdari, A; Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Bazant, Martin Z.; Ajdari, Armand

    2006-01-01

    The classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory of electrolytes assumes a dilute solution of point charges with mean-field electrostatic forces. Even for very dilute solutions, however, it predicts absurdly large ion concentrations (exceeding close packing) for surface potentials of only a few tenths of a volt, which are often exceeded, e.g. in microfluidic pumps and electrochemical sensors. Since the 1950s, several modifications of the PB equation have been proposed to account for the finite size of ions in equilibrium, but in this two-part series, we consider steric effects on diffuse charge dynamics (in the absence of electro-osmotic flow). In this first part, we review the literature and analyze two simple models for the charging of a thin double layer, which must form a condensed layer of close-packed ions near the surface at high voltage. A surprising prediction is that the differential capacitance typically varies non-monotonically with the applied voltage, and thus so does the response time of an electrol...

  5. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  6. Space Charge Layer Effect in Solid State Ion Conductors and Lithium Batteries: Principle and Perspective.

    Chen, Cheng; Guo, Xiangxin

    2016-01-01

    The space charge layer (SCL) effects were initially developed to explain the anomalous conductivity enhancement in composite ionic conductors. They were further extended to qualitatively as well as quantitatively understand the interfacial phenomena in many other ionic-conducting systems. Especially in nanometre-scale systems, the SCL effects could be used to manipulate the conductivity and construct artificial conductors. Recently, existence of such effects either at the electrolyte/cathode interface or at the interfaces inside the composite electrode in all solid state lithium batteries (ASSLB) has attracted attention. Therefore, in this article, the principle of SCL on basis of defect chemistry is first presented. The SCL effects on the carrier transport and storage in typical conducting systems are reviewed. For ASSLB, the relevant effects reported so far are also reviewed. Finally, the perspective of interface engineer related to SCL in ASSLB is addressed.

  7. The effect of electrostatic charges on the removal of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere by raindrops

    Sow, M.; Lemaitre, P.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we report results of self-charged water drop generated by hypodermic needle over charge values comparable to those reported in the literature during stormy rainfall. We also controllably charged aerosols particles by corona discharge and evaluate how it affects their collection efficiency. Electric charges on drops and aerosols are precisely monitored by high resolution electrometers. Our preliminary results tend to accredit the impact of electric charges in collection efficiency.

  8. Effects of the Inductive Charging on the Electrification and Lightning Discharges in Thunderstorms

    Zheng Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional cloud model with electrification and lightning processes is used to investigate the role of inductive charge separation in thunderstorm clouds. For the same dynamic and microphysical evolution, four cases that the same non-inductive charging parameterization is combined with different inductive charging process are compared. Non-inductive charge separation alone is found to be sufficient to produce a dipolar charge structure. Intracloud (IC and positive cloud-to-ground (+CG flashes are initiated between a main negative charge region and an upper positive charge region. The inductive charging process between graupel and cloud droplets exhibits a normal tripole charge structure, consisting of a lower positive charge region under the main negative charge region. In the simulated tripole structure, negative cloud-to-ground (-CG flashes are initiated between the main negative and lower positive charge regions. In addition, inductive charge separation between the graupel and ice crystal is found to be capable of producing strong charge separation in a dipole charge structure. Tests with inductive graupel-ice crystals process produce more flashes than that in the other cases.

  9. Study of the correlation of charge separation of the chiral magnetic effect in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    Feng, Sheng-Qin; Sun, Fei; Zhong, Yang; Yin, Zhong-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed out that the Chiral Magnetic Effect is a process of charge separation with respect to the reaction plane. There is one kind of phenomenon of gauge field configurations with nonzero topological charge, which can be a sphaleron in the QCD vacuum. At high temperatures, one expects that the sphaleron process is a dominant process. One finds that left-handed quarks will become right-handed quarks, and right-handed quarks will remain right-handed in a region with negative topological charge. The strong magnetic field produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions interacts with the magnetic moment of the quarks and locates the spins of quarks with positive (negative) electric charge to be parallel (anti-parallel) to the field direction. The Chiral Separation Effect is a similar effect in which the occurrence of a vector charge, e.g. electric charge, causes a separation of chiralities. We calculate the chiral separation effects during RHIC and LHC energy regions by studying the detailed chiral charge s...

  10. Moving Space Charge Field Effects in Photoconductive Semiconductors and Their Applications.

    Wang, Chen-Chia

    1995-01-01

    Internal electric space charge fields are formed inside photoconductive semiconductors when they are illuminated by an optical interference pattern. This Thesis focuses on the effects of such space charge fields formed inside semiconductor materials which contain both donors and deep level traps for photo-excited charge carriers. The photon energies are less than the band gap of the photoconductive semiconductor. The space charge field arises from the migration of photo-excited charges from the brighter to darker regions of the optical interference pattern where they become trapped. If the center frequencies of the two mutually coherent optical fields which form the interference pattern are unequal, the interference pattern and consequently the internal space charge field move with identical velocity. The moving space charge field results in a net photocurrent output from the material even when no external electric bias field is present. The short-circuit photocurrents contain a wealth of information about the material characteristics of the photoconductive semiconductor which, once known, can be used to deduce information about the optical frequency spectrum of the optical fields which form the interference pattern. An approximate but very accurate mathematical characterization of the short-circuit photocurrents and their properties are presented. These properties were verified by direct experimental measurements performed in the photoconductive semiconductors InP:Fe, GaAs, GaAs:Cr, CdTe:V, and CdTe:V:Mn. If the two interfering optical fields are plane waves with negligible linewidth, a DC short-circuit photocurrent results whose properties can be used to determine the sign of the pre-dominant species of photo-excited charge carriers, their mobility-lifetime products, and some information about donor and trap concentrations if the mobilities are known. All experiments were performed with laser diode pumped Nd:YAG unidirectional ring oscillator lasers whose optical

  11. Impact of electric field on Hofmeister effects in aggregation of negatively charged colloidal minerals

    Ying Tang; Hang Li; Hualing Zhu; Rui Tian; Xiaodan Gao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aggregation kinetics of negatively charged colloidal minerals in Na+, K+, NH+4 , Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cu2+ solutions were measured and Hofmeister effects therein were estimated through total average aggregation (TAA) rates and critical coagulation concentration (CCC). Hofmeister effects of TAA rates increased exponentially with the increase in electric field strength, which cannot be explained by the classical theories (i.e., ionic size, hydration and dispersion forces), indicating strong electric field at colloidal surface was an indispensable factor in studying Hofmeister effects. Meanwhile, Hofmeister series of CCC values Na+ > K+ > NH+4 > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Cu2+ show fine correlation with the polarization of various cations, implying that onic polarization in strong electric field would be responsible for Hofmeister effects in aggregation of colloidal minerals, and the deduction was confirmed by the calculated results of electrostatic interactions between colloidal minerals.

  12. The effects of congestion charging on road traffic casualties: a causal analysis using difference-in-difference estimation.

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Majumdar, Arnab

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims to identify the impacts of the London congestion charge on road casualties within the central London charging zone. It develops a full difference-in-difference (DID) model that is integrated with generalized linear models, such as Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models. Covariates are included in the model to adjust for factors that violate the parallel trend assumption, which is critical in the DID model. The lower Bayesian Information Criterion value suggests that the full difference-in-difference model performs well in evaluating the relationship between road accidents and the London congestion charge as well as other socio-economic factors. After adjusting for a time trend and regional effects, the results show that the introduction of the London congestion charge has a significant influence on the incidence of road casualties. The congestion charge reduces the total number of car accidents, but is associated with an increase in two wheeled vehicle accidents.

  13. Effects of Ions Charge-Mass Ratio on Energy and Energy Spread of Accelerated Ions in Laser Driven Plasma

    SANG Hai-Bo; DENG Shi-Qiang; XIE Bai-Song

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ions charge-mass ratio on energy and energy spread of accelerated ions in laser driven plasma are investigated in detail by proposing a simple double-layer model for a foil target driven by an ultrastrong laser.The radiation pressure acceleration mechanism plays an important role on the studied problem.For the ions near the plasma mirror,i.e.electrons layer,the dependence of ions energy on their charge-mass ratio is derived theoretically.It is found that the larger the charge-mass ratio is,the higher the accelerated ions energy gets.For those ions far away from the layer,the dependence of energy and energy spread on ions charge-mass ratio are also obtained by numerical performance.It exhibits that,as ions charge-mass ratio increases,not only the accelerated ions energy but also the energy spread will become large.

  14. Exploring effective interactions through transition charge density study of 70,72,74,76Ge nuclei

    A Shukla; P K Raina; P K Rath

    2005-02-01

    Transition charge densities (TCD) for $0^{+} → 2_{1}^{+}$ excitation have been calculated for 70, 72, 74, 76Ge nuclei within microscopic variational framework employing 23/2, 15/2, 21/2 and 19/2 valence space. The calculated TCDs for different monopole variants of Kuo interaction are compared with available experimental results. Other systematics like reduced transition probabilities (2) and static quadrupole moments (2) are also presented. It is observed that the transition density study acts as a sensitive probe for discriminating the response of different parts of effective interactions.

  15. Effect of the surface charge density on the creep of copper

    Zhmakin, Yu. D.; Rybyanets, V. A.; Nevskii, S. A.; Gromov, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    The creep of polycrystalline copper under the action of high and low electric potentials is studied. At potentials of ±4 kV and ±5 V, the steady-state creep rate decreases, and the effect in the former case is weaker than in the latter by a factor of 2.5. This difference is caused by the fact that the charge density in the sample-capacitor bank system at the high electric potentials is lower than at the low potentials.

  16. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile: Solvent isotope effects

    Tuhin Pradhan; Piue Ghoshal; Ranjit Biswas

    2009-01-01

    Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several other properties such as quantum yield and radiative rates have been found to be insensitive to the solvent isotope substitution in all these solvents. The origin of the solvent isotope insensitivity of the reaction is discussed and correlated with the observed slowing down of the solvation dynamics upon isotope substitution.

  17. Effect of charge at an amino acid of basic fibroblast growth factor on its mitogenic activity

    2010-01-01

    The amino acid at the 119th position of human basic fibroblast growth factor(hbFGF),lysine(K119),is a critical component for its mitogenic activity.However,little is known about the effects of the characteristics of this residue including charge on the mitogenic activity of hbFGF.Herein,this basic residue was replaced with neutral glutamine residue and acidic glutamic acid residue to construct mutants hbFGF~(K119Q) and hbFGF~(K119E),respectively.The mutants were produced by BL21(DE3)/pET3c expression sys...

  18. Off-shell behavior of relativistic NN effective interactions and charge symmetry breaking

    Gersten, A.; Thomas, A. W.; Weyrauch, M.

    1990-04-01

    We examine in detail the suggestion of Iqbal et al. for calculating the class-four charge symmetry breaking amplitude in n-p scattering. By simplifying to a model problem, we show explicitly that the approximation scheme is unreliable if a phenomenological, effective nucleon-nucleon T matrix is used. Our results have wider implications for observables calculated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations. They reinforce the observation made in the literature that the procedure of fitting only positive energy matrix elements can lead to an NN interaction whose off-shell behavior is incorrect.

  19. Effect of adiabatic variation of dust charges on dust acoustic solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasmas

    Duan Wen-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dust charging and the influence of its adiabatic variation on dust acoustic waves is investigated. By employing the reductive perturbation technique we derived a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for small amplitude dust acoustic waves. We have analytically verified that there are only rarefactive solitary waves for this system. The instability region for one-dimensional solitary wave under transverse perturbations has also been obtained. The obliquely propagating solitary waves to the z-direction for the ZK equation are given in this paper as well.

  20. Temperature and Magnetic Field Effects on the Transport Controlled Charge State of a Single Quantum Dot

    Moskalenko ES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Individual InAs/GaAs quantum dots are studied by micro-photoluminescence. By varying the strength of an applied external magnetic field and/or the temperature, it is demonstrated that the charge state of a single quantum dot can be tuned. This tuning effect is shown to be related to the in-plane electron and hole transport, prior to capture into the quantum dot, since the photo-excited carriers are primarily generated in the barrier.

  1. Chiral extrapolation of nucleon axial charge gA in effective field theory

    Li, Hong-na; Wang, P.

    2016-12-01

    The extrapolation of nucleon axial charge gA is investigated within the framework of heavy baryon chiral effective field theory. The intermediate octet and decuplet baryons are included in the one loop calculation. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. The lattice data from three different groups are used for the extrapolation. At physical pion mass, the extrapolated gA are all smaller than the experimental value. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475186) and Sino-German CRC 110 (NSFC 11621131001)

  2. Anharmonic-potential-effective-charge approach for computing Raman cross sections of a gas

    Kutteh, Ramzi; van Zandt, L. L.

    1993-05-01

    An anharmonic-potential-effective-charge approach for computing relative Raman intensities of a gas is developed. The equations of motion are set up and solved for the driven anharmonic molecular vibrations. An explicit expression for the differential polarizability tensor is derived and its properties discussed. This expression is then used within the context of Placzek's theory [Handbuch der Radiologie (Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, 1934), Vol. VI] to compute the Raman cross section and depolarization ratio of a gas. The computation is carried out for the small molecules CO2, CS2, SO2, and CCl4; results are compared with experimental measurements and discussed.

  3. The effect of interfacial layers on charge transport in organic solar cell

    Mbuyise, Xolani G.; Tonui, Patrick; Mola, Genene Tessema, E-mail: mola@ukzn.ac.za

    2016-09-01

    The effect of interfacial buffer layers in organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) whose active layer is composed of poly(3 hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend was studied. The electrical properties of OPV devices produced with and without interfacial layers are compared and discussed in terms of measured parameters of the cells. The charge transport properties showed significant difference on the mobility and activation factor between the two types of device structures. The life time measurements in the unprotected conditions are also presented and discussed.

  4. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics of charged particles including the effects of radiation damping

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua; Davidson, Ronald; Fisch, Nathaniel; Chung, Moses

    2015-11-01

    The effects of radiation damping (radiation reaction) on accelerating charged particles in modern high-intensity accelerators and high-intensity laser beams have becoming increasingly important. Especially for electron accelerators and storage rings, radiation damping is an effective mechanism and technique to achieve high beam luminosity. We develop Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions of the classical dynamics of a charged particle including the effects of radiation damping in the general electromagnetic focusing channels encountered in accelerators. The direct connection between the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories and the more fundamental QED description of the synchrotron radiation process is also addressed. In addition to their theoretical importance, the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories of the radiation damping also enable us to numerically integrate the dynamics using advanced structure-preserving geometric algorithms. These theoretical developments can also be applied to runaway electrons and positrons generated during the disruption or startup of tokamak discharges. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-09CH11466).

  5. Effective theory of a doubly charged singlet scalar: complementarity of neutrino physics and the LHC

    King, Stephen F; Panizzi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We consider a rather minimal extension of the Standard Model involving just one extra particle, namely a single $SU(2)_L$ singlet scalar $S^{++}$ and its antiparticle $S^{--}$. We propose a model independent effective operator, which yields an effective coupling of $S^{\\pm \\pm}$ to pairs of same sign weak gauge bosons, $W^{\\pm} W^{\\pm}$. We also allow tree-level couplings of $S^{\\pm \\pm}$ to pairs of same sign right-handed charged leptons $l^{\\pm}_Rl'^{\\pm}_R$ of the same or different flavour. We calculate explicitly the resulting two-loop diagrams in the effective theory responsible for neutrino mass and mixing. We propose sets of benchmark points for various $S^{\\pm \\pm}$ masses and couplings which can yield successful neutrino masses and mixing, consistent with limits on charged lepton flavour violation (LFV) and neutrinoless double beta decay. We discuss the prospects for $S^{\\pm \\pm}$ discovery at the LHC, for these benchmark points, including single and pair production and decay into same sign leptons p...

  6. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Charge Transport in Organolead Halide Perovskite Microplate Field-Effect Transistors.

    Li, Dehui; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wang, Yiliu; Zhao, Zipeng; Wang, Gongming; Wu, Hao; He, Qiyuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    Transformation of unipolar n-type semiconductor behavior to ambipolar and finally to unipolar p-type behavior in CH3 NH3 PbI3 microplate field-effect transistors by thermal annealing is reported. The photoluminescence spectra essentially maintain the same features before and after the thermal annealing process, demonstrating that the charge transport measurement provides a sensitive way to probe low-concentration defects in perovskite materials.

  7. Metal nanoparticles in organic field-effect transistor: Transition from charge trapping to conduction mechanism

    Lee, Keanchuan, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Weis, Martin [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Self-assembled monolayers of metal nanoparticles (NPs) are envisioned for various devices and have been investigated for possible applications. However, organic envelope of NPs which is required for self-assembling must be often removed prior further device fabrication. Here, we report on effect of ozonolysis on monolayer of silver NPs (Ag NPs) with size of 8 nm and its impact on Ag NPs utilization in organic field-effect transistor. It was found that Ag NPs covered by organics serve like a traps and removal of insulating organics decreases number of traps and consequently increases Ag NPs monolayer conductivity. - Highlights: • Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with nanoparticle (NP) film was fabricated • Electrical and optical properties of NP and OFET were studied upon UV irradiation • We report a transition from charge trapping to conduction mechanism of NPs in OFET.

  8. Charge effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on their surface functionalization by photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition

    Javanbakht, Taraneh [Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada); Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri [University of Mons, Laboratory of NMR and Molecular Imaging (Belgium); Raphael, Wendell; Tavares, Jason Robert, E-mail: jason.tavares@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Diverse applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the chemical and biomedical industry depend on their surface properties. In this paper, we investigate the effect of initial surface charge (bare, positively and negatively charged SPIONs) on the resulting physicochemical properties of the particles following treatment through photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition (PICVD). Transmission electron microscopy shows a nanometric polymer coating on the SPIONs and contact angle measurements with water demonstrate that their surface became non-polar following functionalization using PICVD. FTIR and XPS data confirm the change in the chemical composition of the treated SPIONs. Indeed, XPS data reveal an initial charge-dependent increase in the surface oxygen content in the case of treated SPIONs. The O/C percentage ratios of the bare SPIONs increase from 1.7 to 1.9 after PICVD treatment, and decrease from 1.7 to 0.7 in the case of negatively charged SPIONs. The ratio remains unchanged for positively charged SPIONs (1.7). This indicates that bare and negatively charged SPIONs showed opposite preference for the oxygen or carbon attachment to their surface during their surface treatment. These results reveal that both the surface charge and stereochemical effects have determinant roles in the polymeric coating of SPIONs with PICVD. Our findings suggest that this technique is appropriate for the treatment of nanoparticles.Graphical Abstract.

  9. The effect of surface charge on the boundary slip of various oleophilic/phobic surfaces immersed in liquids.

    Li, Yifan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-10-14

    The reduction of fluid drag is an important issue in many fluid flow applications at the micro/nanoscale. Boundary slip is believed to affect fluid drag. Slip length has been measured on various surfaces with different degrees of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity immersed in various liquids of scientific interest. Surface charge has been found to affect slip length in water and electrolytes. However, there are no studies on the effect of surface charge on slip at solid-oil interfaces. This study focuses on the effect of surface charge on the boundary slip of superoleophilic, oleophilic, oleophobic, and superoleophobic surfaces immersed in deionized (DI) water and hexadecane and ethylene glycol, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface charge was changed by applying a positive electric field to the solid-liquid interface, and by using liquids with different pH values. The results show that slip length increases with an increase in applied positive electric field voltage. Slip length also increases with a decrease in the pH of the solutions. The change in slip length is dependent on the absolute value of the surface charge, and a larger surface charge density results in a smaller slip length. In addition, the surface charge density at different solid-liquid interfaces is related to the dielectric properties of the surface. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed.

  10. Photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy probing the traps in field-effect transistors

    Im, Seongil; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materia...

  11. Enhanced charge storage by the electrocatalytic effect of anodic TiO2 nanotubes

    Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhou, Limin; Ye, Lin; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Haitao

    2011-10-01

    Ordered titania nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium with a very fast voltage ramp speed. Co(OH)2/TNT nanocomposite was synthesized by cathodic deposition using the as-anodized TNT as the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, crystalline structure and chemical state. The capacitive characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thanks to the electrocatalytic effect of the as-anodized TNTs on the reduction of Co(OH)2, the Co(OH)2/TNT composite electrode exhibits a significantly enhanced charge storage capacity (an increase of 73%) when compared with Co(OH)2/Ti (titanium as the deposition substrate). The occurrence of such an electrocatalytic effect is suggested to be related to the nano-sized TiO2 crystals (rutile) embedded in organized amorphous TNTs. Co(OH)2/TNT demonstrates enhanced specific energy, high rate capability and good cyclability, and can be a potential electrode of choice for supercapacitors.

  12. Enhanced charge storage by the electrocatalytic effect of anodic TiO₂ nanotubes.

    Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhou, Limin; Ye, Lin; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Haitao

    2011-10-05

    Ordered titania nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium with a very fast voltage ramp speed. Co(OH)(2)/TNT nanocomposite was synthesized by cathodic deposition using the as-anodized TNT as the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, crystalline structure and chemical state. The capacitive characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thanks to the electrocatalytic effect of the as-anodized TNTs on the reduction of Co(OH)(2), the Co(OH)(2)/TNT composite electrode exhibits a significantly enhanced charge storage capacity (an increase of 73%) when compared with Co(OH)(2)/Ti (titanium as the deposition substrate). The occurrence of such an electrocatalytic effect is suggested to be related to the nano-sized TiO(2) crystals (rutile) embedded in organized amorphous TNTs. Co(OH)(2)/TNT demonstrates enhanced specific energy, high rate capability and good cyclability, and can be a potential electrode of choice for supercapacitors.

  13. Charge neutral MoS2 field effect transistors through oxygen plasma treatment

    Dhall, Rohan; Li, Zhen; Kosmowska, Ewa; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2016-11-01

    Lithographically fabricated MoS2 field effect transistors suffer from several critical imperfections, including low sub-threshold swings, large turn-on gate voltages (VT), and wide device-to-device variability. The large magnitude and variability of VT stems from unclean interfaces, trapped charges in the underlying substrate, and sulfur vacancies created during the mechanical exfoliation process. In this study, we demonstrate a simple and reliable oxygen plasma treatment, which mitigates the effects of unintentional doping created by surface defect sites, such as S vacancies, and surface contamination. This plasma treatment restores charge neutrality to the MoS2 and shifts the threshold turn-on voltage towards 0 V. Out of the 10 devices measured, all exhibit a shift of the FET turn-on voltage from an average of -18 V to -2 V. The oxygen plasma treatment passivates these defects, which reduces surface scattering, causing increased mobility and improved subthreshold swing. For as-prepared devices with low mobilities (˜0.01 cm2/V s), we observe up to a 190-fold increase in mobility after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Perhaps the most important aspect of this oxygen plasma treatment is that it reduces the device-to-device variability, which is a crucial factor in realizing any practical application of these devices.

  14. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    Campos-Martorell M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  15. A numerical analysis of the effects of a stratified pre-mixture on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion

    Jamsran, Narankhuu; Lim, Ock Taeck [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the efficacy of fuel stratification in a pre-mixture of dimethyl ether (DME) and n-butane, which have different autoignition characteristics, for reducing the pressure rise rate (PRR) of homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. A new chemical reaction model was created by mixing DME and n-butane and compared with existing chemical reaction models to verify the effects observed. The maximum PRR depended on the mixture ratio. When DME was charged with stratification and n-butane was charged with homogeneity, the maximum PRR was the lowest among all the mixtures studied. Calculations were performed using CHEMKIN and modified using SENKIN software.

  16. Effect of dust charge variation on dust—acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized two—ion—temperature dusty plasma

    XueJu-Kui; LangHe

    2003-01-01

    The effect of dust charge variation on the dust-acoustic solitary structures is investigated in a warm magnetized two-ion-temperature dusty plasma consisting of a negatively and variably charged extremely massive dust fluid and ions of two different temperatures. It is shown that the dust charge variation as well as the presence of a second component of ions would modify the properties of the dust-acoustic solitary structures and may exite both dust-acoustic solitary holes (soliton waves with a density dip) and positive solitons (soliton waves with a density hump).

  17. Effect of dust charge variation on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized two-ion-temperature dusty plasma

    薛具奎; 郎和

    2003-01-01

    The effect of dust charge variation on the dust-acoustic solitary structures is investigated in a warm magnetized two-ion-temperature dusty plasma consisting of a negatively and variably charged extremely massive dust fluid and ions of two different temperatures. It is shown that the dust charge variation as well as the presence of a second component of ions would modify the properties of the dust-acoustic solitary structures and may excite both dust-acoustic solitary holes (soliton waves with a density dip) and positive solitons (soliton waves with a density hump).

  18. Effects of Stress Activated Positive-Hole Charge Carriers on Radar Reflectance of Gabbro-Diorite

    Williams, C.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Dahlgren, R.; Cherukupally, A.; Freund, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    When load is applied to igneous or high-grade metamorphic rocks, trapped electron vacancy defects are activated and become mobile positive-hole charge carriers. These mobile charge carriers repel each other through Coulomb interactions and move outward from the stressed region. As large numbers of positive-holes reach the surface of the rock, this surface charge may cause an observable change in radar reflectance. In this experiment, a series of holes is drilled into a large gabbro-diorite boulder from the A.R. Wilson Quarry in Aromas, CA. Bustar, an expansive, non-explosive demolition agent, is poured into the holes while a 1.2 GHz radar system measures the amplitude of radar waves reflected from the rock's surface. Over the course of the experiment, the radar antenna is swept repeatedly across one face of the rock, pausing in one of twelve positions to collect data before moving to the next position. At the end of each sweep, the radar is calibrated against both a corner reflector and a flat-plate reflector. This sampling method is employed to detect and assign a cause to transient effects observed at any one location. An initial analysis of the radar data shows a high level of agreement between readings from the flat-plate and corner reflectors, supporting the use of flat-plate reflectors as a calibration source for this omnidirectional radar system. Fitting a trend to the amplitude of the wave reflected from the rock's surface is complicated by the presence of unexpected outliers and noise artifacts from the radar system itself. It appears that such a trend, if present, would likely indicate a change in amplitude of the reflected signal of less than 5 percent over the course of the experiment.

  19. A Physics-Based Charge-Control Model for InP DHBT Including Current-Blocking Effect

    GE Ji; JIN Zhi; SU Yong-Bo; CHENG Wei; WANG Xian-Wai; CHEN Gao-Peng; LIU Xin-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We develop a physics-based charge-control InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor model including three important effects: current blocking, mobile-charge modulation of the base-collector capacitance and velocity-field modulation in the transit time. The bias-dependent base-collector depletion charge is obtained analytically, which takes into account the mobile-charge modulation. Then, a measurement based voltage-dependent transit time formulation is implemented. As a result, over a wide range of biases, the developed model shows good agreement between the modeled and measured S-parameters and cutoff frequency. Also, the model considering current blocking effect demonstrates more accurate prediction of the output characteristics than conventional vertical bipolar inter company results.

  20. Partial Dissolution of Charge Order Phase Observed in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 Single Crystal Field Effect Transistor.

    Sakai, Masatoshi; Moritoshi, Norifumi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Masu, Hyuma

    2016-04-01

    The effect of an applied gate electric field on the charge-order phase in β-(BEDT-TTF)2PF6 single-crystal field-effect transistor structure was observed at around room temperature by technical improvement with respect to sample preparation and electrical measurements. A relatively slight but systematic increase of the electrical conductance induced by the applied gate electric field and its temperature dependence was observed at around the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI). The temperature dependence of the modulated electrical conductance demonstrated that TMI was shifted toward the lower side by application of a gate electric field, which corresponds to partial dissolution of the charge-order phase. The thickness of the partially dissolved charge order region was estimated to be several score times larger than the charge accumulation region.

  1. Simulations of the THz spectrum of liquid water incorporating the effects of intermolecular charge fluxes through hydrogen bonds

    Torii, Hajime, E-mail: torii.hajime@shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, and Department of Optoelectronics and Nanostructure Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The intensity of the band at ∼200 cm{sup −1} (∼6 THz) in the Terahertz spectrum of liquid water mainly arises from the modulations of the extent of intermolecular charge transfer through hydrogen bonds, called intermolecular charge fluxes, occurring upon molecular translations along the O…H hydrogen bonds. To obtain reasonable spectral profiles from simulations, it is necessary to effectively incorporate the effects of those intermolecular charge fluxes, but apparently it is not possible by simple classical molecular dynamics simulations with fixed atomic partial charges even if they are amended by molecular induced dipoles due to intermolecular electrostatic interactions. The present paper shows how we can do reasonably correct spectral simulations, without resorting to fully ab initio molecular dynamics.

  2. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy

    Wang, Jun-Ying; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. PMID:27555769

  3. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    González TR

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. Methods BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 106 and 1 × 105 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm3, four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm3 and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm3, two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Results Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm3, respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil

  4. Charge transfer reactions at interfaces between neutral gas and plasma: Dynamical effects and X-ray emission

    Provornikova, E.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Lallement, R.

    2012-04-01

    Charge-transfer is the main process linking neutrals and charged particles in the interaction regions of neutral (or partly ionized) gas with a plasma. In this paper we illustrate the importance of charge-transfer with respect to the dynamics and the structure of neutral gas-plasma interfaces. We consider the following phenomena: (1) the heliospheric interface - region where the solar wind plasma interacts with the partly-ionized local interstellar medium (LISM) and (2) neutral interstellar clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous plasma such as the million degree gas that fills the so-called ``Local Bubble". In (1), we discuss several effects in the outer heliosphere caused by charge exchange of interstellar neutral atoms and plasma protons. In (2) we describe the role of charge exchange in the formation of a transition region between the cloud and the surrounding plasma based on a two-component model of the cloud-plasma interaction. In the model the cloud consists of relatively cold and dense atomic hydrogen gas, surrounded by hot, low density, fully ionized plasma. We discuss the structure of the cloud-plasma interface and the effect of charge exchange on the lifetime of interstellar clouds. Charge transfer between neutral atoms and minor ions in the plasma produces X-ray emission. Assuming standard abundances of minor ions in the hot gas surrounding the cold interstellar cloud, we estimate the X-ray emissivity consecutive to the charge transfer reactions. Our model shows that the charge-transfer X-ray emission from the neutral cloud-plasma interface may be comparable to the diffuse thermal X-ray emission from the million degree gas cavity itself.

  5. Effects of acid concentration on intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(azetidinyl) benzonitrile in solution

    Biswajit Guchhait; Tuhin Pradhan; Ranjit Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Effects of acid concentration on excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in aprotic (acetonitrile and ethyl acetate) and protic (ethanol) solvents have been studied by means of steady state absorption and fluorescence, and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. While absorption and fluorescence bands of P4C have been found to be shifted towards higher energy with increasing acid concentration in acetonitrile and ethyl acetate, no significant dependence has been observed in ethanolic solutions. Reaction rate becomes increasingly slower with acid concentration in acetonitrile and ethyl acetate. In contrast, acid in ethanolic solutions does not produce such an effect on reaction rate. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations have been performed to understand the observed spectroscopic results.

  6. Non-stationary Effects In Space-charge Dominated Electron Beams

    Agafonov, A V; Tarakanov, V P

    2004-01-01

    Problems of non-linear dynamics of space charge dominated electron beams in plane and in coaxial electron guns are discussed from the point of view of non-stationary behaviour of beams. The results of computer simulations of beam formation are presented for several simple plane diode geometries and for the gun with large compression of annular beam. Emphasised is non-stationary behaviour combined with edge and hysteresis effects. Non-stationary effects in crossed electron and magnetic field are considered from the point of view a development of schemes of intense electron beam formation for compact accelerators and RF-devices. The results of computer simulation of beam formation inside coaxial guns are described under condition of secondary self-sustaining emission. Possibilities of electron storage and capture due to transient processes are discussed. Work supported by RFBR under grant 03-02-17301.

  7. Triton charge radius to next-to-next-to-leading order in pionless effective field theory

    Vanasse, Jared

    2017-02-01

    The triton point charge radius is calculated to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in pionless effective field theory ( EFT (π / )) , yielding a prediction of 1.14 ±0.19 fm (leading order), 1.59 ±0.08 fm (next-to leading order), and 1.62 ±0.03 fm (NNLO) in agreement with the current experimental extraction of 1.5978 ±0.040 fm [Angeli and Marinova, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 99, 69 (2013)], 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.006. The error at NNLO is due to cutoff variation (˜1 % ) within a reasonable range of calculated cutoffs and from a EFT (π / ) error estimate (˜1.5 % ). In addition new techniques are introduced to add perturbative corrections to bound- and scattering state calculations for short-range effective field theories, but with a focus on their use in EFT (π / ) .

  8. The compensation of quadrupole errors and space charge effects by using trim quadrupoles

    2011-01-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) accelerators consist of an H- linac and a proton Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). RCS is designed to accumulate and accelerate proton beam from 80 MeV to 1.6 GeV with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The main dipole and quadruple magnet will operate in AC mode. Due to the adoption of the resonant power supplies, saturation errors of magnetic field cannot be compensated by power supplies. These saturation errors will disturb the linear optics parameters, such as tunes, beta function and dispersion function. The strong space charge effects will cause emittance growth. The compensation of these effects by using trim quadruples is studied, and the corresponding results are presented.

  9. Effects of charge-carrying amino acids on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch.

    Chen, Wenting; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of charge-carrying amino acids (lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch. Acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) showed a decreasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but increased amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Alkaline amino acid (Arg) showed an increasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but decreasing amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Lys had no effect on the swelling power of potato starch, except at a high content (0.2 mol/kg). Like other two acidic amino acids, Lys also increased gelatinization temperature. Moreover, the addition of alkaline amino acids (Arg) decreased syneresis value of potato starch but acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) increased it. Compared to Arg, the syneresis of potato starch with Lys was similar to that of its native starch.

  10. Finite-size effects in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with a charge-density wave

    Zaitsev-Zotov, Sergei V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-30

    Recent studies of finite-size effects in charge-density wave conductors are reviewed. Various manifestations of finite-size effects, including the transverse-size dependence of the nonlinear-conduction threshold field, the Peierls transition temperature, high-frequency conduction, and the relaxation rates of metastable states, are discussed. Resistivity jumps in thin samples, the smeared threshold field for nonlinear conduction, and threshold conduction above the Peierls transition temperature are considered, as are mesoscopic oscillations of the threshold field, one-dimensional conduction in thin crystals, absolute negative conductivity of quasi-one-dimensional conductors, the length dependence of the phase-slip voltage, and the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in sliding CDWs. Problems yet to be solved are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. EFFECTS OF COOLED EXTERNAL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ON DIESEL HOMOGENEOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    SHI Lei; CUI Yi; DENG Kangyao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the combustion and emission performance of diesel fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) are studied. Homogeneous mixture is formed by injecting fuel in-cylinder in the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. So, the HCCI combustion which has low NOx and smoke emission is achieved. Cooled external EGR can delay the start of combustion effectively, which is very useful for high cetane fuel (diesel) HCCI, because these fuels can easily self-ignition, which makes the start of combustion more early. External EGR can avoid the knock combustion of HCCI at high load which means that the EGR can expand the high load limit. HCCI maintains low smoke emission at various EGR rate and various load compared with conventional diesel engine because there is no fuel-rich area in cylinder.

  12. Electromagnetic corrections to leptonic decay rates of charged pseudoscalar mesons: finite-volume effects

    Tantalo, N; Martinelli, G; Sachrajda, C T; Sanfilippo, F; Simula, S

    2016-01-01

    In Carrasco et al. we have recently proposed a method to calculate $O(e^2)$ electromagnetic corrections to leptonic decay widths of pseudoscalar mesons. The method is based on the observation that the infrared divergent contributions (that appear at intermediate stages of the calculation and that cancel in physical quantities thanks to the Bloch-Nordsieck mechanism) are universal, i.e. depend on the charge and the mass of the meson but not on its internal structure. In this talk we perform a detailed analysis of the finite-volume effects associated with our method. In particular we show that also the leading $1/L$ finite-volume effects are universal and perform an analytical calculation of the finite-volume leptonic decay rate for a point-like meson.

  13. Size Effect of a Negatively Charged Exciton in a Two-Dimensional Quantum Dot

    LIU Chao; XIE Wen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study a negatively charged exciton (NCE), which is trapped by a two-dimensional (2D) parabolic potential.By using matrix diagonalization techniques, the correlation energies of the low-lying states with L = O, 1, and 2 are calculated as a function of confinement strength.We find that the size effects of different states are different.This phenomenon can be explained as a hidden symmetry, which is originated purely from symmetry.Based on symmetry, the features of the low-lying states are discussed in the influence of the 2D parabolic potential well.It is found that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states.It is shown that the effect of quantum confinement on the binding energy of the heavy hole is stronger than that of a light hole.

  14. Comparison of propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized, blinded comparison of seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects

    Bauer, Jeanett; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To compare propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with respect to seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects. METHODS:: Randomized, blinded study of 62 depressed patients treated with bilateral ECT. Algorithm...

  15. Effective medium theory of the space-charge region electrostatics of arrays of nanoscale junctions

    Gurugubelli, Vijaya Kumar; Karmalkar, Shreepad

    2016-01-01

    We develop an Effective Medium Theory for the electrostatics of the Space-Charge Region (SCR) of Schottky and p-n junctions in arrays of nanofilms (NFs), nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs) in a dielectric ambient. The theory captures the effects of electric fields in both the semiconductor, i.e., NF/NW/NT, and the dielectric media of the array. It shows that the depletion width and the screening length characterizing the SCR tail in the array correspond to those in a bulk junction with an effective semiconductor medium, whose permittivity and doping are their weighted averages over the cross-sectional areas of the semiconductor and dielectric; the shapes of the cross-sections are immaterial. Further, the reverse bias 1 /C2 -V behavior of junctions in NF/NW/NT arrays is linear, as in bulk junctions, and is useful to extract from measurements the built-in potential, effective doping including the semiconductor-dielectric interface charge, and NF/NW/NT length. The theory is validated with numerical simulations, is useful for the experimentalist, and yields simple formulas for nano-device design which predict the following. In the limiting case of a single sheet-like NF, the junction depletion width variation with potential drop is linear rather than square-root (as in a bulk junction). In arrays of symmetric silicon p-n junctions in oxide dielectric where NF/NW thickness and separation are 5% and 100% of the bulk depletion width, respectively, the junction depletion width and the screening length are scaled up from their bulk values by the same factor of ˜2 for NF and ˜10 for NW array.

  16. Relationship between space charge and effective pore size of nanoporous electrode in electric double-layer capacitor

    Daisuke Tashima; Masahisa Otsubo

    2011-01-01

    The space-charge distributions of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs),which are energy storage devices,were examined with the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method. It was found that the experimental results could be influenced by the reflection and penetration of sound waves when the space-charge distributions of EDLCs were measured with the PEA method. This is because EDLCs have a five-layer structure consisting of three materials (aluminum,cellulose,and activated carbon). We calculated the reflection wave components that influenced the charge density through the acoustic impedance and the relative permittivity of the materials. In this way,we found that the changes in the space-charge distributions of EDLCs and their charge characteristics corresponded closely. We determined that measuring the spacecharge distributions with the PEA method was effective for evaluating the charge accumulation of EDLCs.In this study,a polarized electrode was prepared for use in EDLCs. The ratio of the surface area to the average pore diameter of the polarized electrode was measured with the nitrogen adsorption method at 77 K. The relationship between the ratio of the surface area to the average pore size and the space-charge distributions of EDLCs is also discussed in this paper.

  17. Effect of a cylindrical thin-shell of matter on the electrostatic self-force on a charge

    Rubin de Celis, Emilio [Universidad de Buenos Aires y IFIBA, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-15

    The electrostatic self-force on a point charge in cylindrical thin-shell space-times is interpreted as the sum of a bulk field and a shell field. The bulk part corresponds to a field sourced by the test charge placed in a space-time without the shell. The shell field accounts for the discontinuity of the extrinsic curvature κ{sup p}{sub q}. An equivalent electric problem is stated, in which the effect of the shell of matter on the field is reconstructed with the electric potential produced by a non-gravitating charge distribution of total image charge Q, to interpret the shell field in both the interior and exterior regions of the space-time. The self-force on a point charge q in a locally flat geometry with a cylindrical thin-shell of matter is calculated. The charge is repelled from the shell if κ{sup p}{sub q} = κ < 0 (ordinarymatter) and attracted toward the shell if κ > 0 (exotic matter). The total image charge is zero for exterior problems, while for interior problems Q/q = κr{sub e}, with re the external radius of the shell. The procedure is general and can be applied to interpret self-forces in other space-times with shells, e.g., for locally flat wormholes we found Q{sub -+}{sup wh}/q = -1/(κ{sub wh}r{sub ±}). (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear delta f Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    Hong Qi

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, ...

  19. Investigation of the dimensionality of charge transport in organic field effect transistors

    Abdalla, Hassan; Fabiano, Simone; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Ever since the first experimental investigations of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) the dimensionality of charge transport has alternately been described as two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D). More recently, researchers have turned to an analytical analysis of the temperature-dependent transfer characteristics to classify the dimensionality as either 2D or 3D as well as to determine the disorder of the system, thereby greatly simplifying dimensionality investigations. We applied said analytical analysis to the experimental results of our OFETs comprising molecularly well-defined polymeric layers as the active material as well as to results obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and found that it was not able to correctly distinguish between 2D and 3D transports or give meaningful values for the disorder and should only be used for quasiquantitative and comparative analysis. We conclude to show that the dimensionality of charge transport in OFETs is a function of the interplay between transistor physics and morphology of the organic material.

  20. Charge Transfer in Light Effect Under Visible Radiation in an Ozoniser Discharge

    S.V. Salvi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Two fresh discharge vessels (1 and 2 of Siemen’s ozoniser type having the same height butdifferent surface-to-volume ratios have been fabricated by enclosing argon at 10 mm mercury.By immersing these in electrolytic solution and by subjecting these to a definite high 50 Hz acvoltage, the discharge count rates in dark (Cf D and under light (Cf L have been determinedusing a scaler held at different bias-voltages. The plot of the ratio (C1f / C2f D and (C1f / C2f Lof discharge counts versus pulse height (bias-voltage shows that this ratio for a constantpotential of 3.5 kV (rms is initially large in value, then rapidly decreases to a minimum. It is alsoobserved that more is the surface-to-volume ratio, more is the magnitude of net effect of irradiation.Further, the pulse height analysis shows that the charge carried by the pulses to the electrodes(charge transfer decreases under illumination. A possible mechanism to explain the net effectof the discharge current ratio in the light of pulse height measurements is discussed.

  1. Dynamic Solvent Effect on Ultrafast Charge Recombination Kinetics in Excited Donor-Acceptor Complexes.

    Mikhailova, Tatyana V; Mikhailova, Valentina A; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2016-11-23

    Manifestation of the dynamic solvent effect (DSE) on the charge recombination (CR) kinetics of photoexcited donor-acceptor complexes in polar solvents has been investigated within the framework of the multichannel stochastic model. The model takes into account the reorganization of both the solvent and a number of intramolecular high-frequency vibration modes as well as their relaxation. The non-Markovian solvent dynamics is described in terms of two relaxation modes. The similarities and differences inherent to ultrafast charge transfer reactions occurring in the nonequilibrium and thermal regimes have been identified. The most important differences are as follows: (1) the DSE is strong in the area of weak exergonicity and is weak in the area of strong exergonicity for thermal reactions, whereas for the nonequilibrium reactions, the regions of strong and weak DSEs are reversed; (2) an increase in the electronic coupling value results in a decrease in the magnitude of DSE for nonequilibrium electron transfer and in its increase for the thermal reactions; and (3) the two-staged regime most clearly manifests if the reorganization energy of the relaxation modes noticeably exceeds the CR free-energy gap. With an increase in electronic coupling, the kinetics approaches the exponential regime because in the limit of strong electronic coupling, the reaction includes only single, nonequilibrium, stage.

  2. Simulations of charge summing and threshold dispersion effects in Medipix3

    Pennicard, D; Llopart, X; Graafsma, H; Campbell, M

    2011-01-01

    A novel feature of the Medipix3 photon-counting pixel readout chip is inter-pixel communication. By summing together the signals from neighbouring pixels at a series of ``summing nodes{''}, and assigning each hit to the node with the highest signal, the chip can compensate for charge-sharing effects. However, previous experimental tests have demonstrated that the node-to-node variation in the detector's response is very large. Using computer simulations, it is shown that this variation is due to threshold dispersion, which results in many hits being assigned to whichever summing node in the vicinity has the lowest threshold level. A reduction in threshold variation would attenuate but not solve this issue. A new charge summing and hit assignment process is proposed, where the signals in individual pixels are used to determine the hit location, and then signals from neighbouring pixels are summed to determine whether the total photon energy is above threshold. In simulation, this new mode accurately assigns ea...

  3. PEPTIDE SOLUBILITY, STRUCTURE AND CHARGE POSITION EFFECT ON ADSORPTION BY ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

    Mary Trujillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, structure and position of charges in a peptide antigen sequence can be mentioned as being amongst the basic features of adsorption. In order to study their effect on adsorption, seven analogue series were synthesized from a MSP-1 peptide sequence by systematically replacing each one of the positions in the peptide sequence by aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine or lysine. Such modifications in analogue peptide sequences showed a non-regular tendency regarding solubility and adsorption data. Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid analogue series showed great improvements in adsorption, especially in peptides where Lysine in position 6 and Arginine in position 13 were replaced. Solubility of position 5 analogue was greater than the position 6 analogue in Aspartic acid series; however, the position 6 analogue showed best adsorption results whilst the Aspartic acid in position 5 analogue showed no adsorption in the same conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural analysis revealed differences in the -helical structureextension between these analogues. The Aspartic acid in position 6, located in the polar side of the helix, may allow this analogueto fit better onto the adsorption regions suggesting that the local electrostatic charge is responsible for this behavior.

  4. Experimental study on the effect of alternator speed to the car charging system

    Mazlan Rozdman K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our work, which is doing an energy audit on alternator’s current output and battery’s voltage based on alternator speed. Up until today, the demand for power in automobile is ever increasing. As technology advances, more and more electrical devices were produced and being installed in vehicles. To cope with the demand, alternator has been designed and modified so that it can produce enough power. This research is to study the effect of alternator speed to the charging system. The car used in this experiment is Proton Preve 1.6 Manual. In both ISO 8854 and SAE J 56, alternator testing and labelling standards indicate that the rated output an alternator is the amount of current that it is capable of producing at 6,000 RPM. Three different constant speed of engine which is 750 RPM as idle speed, 1500 RPM and 3000 RPM as cruise speed were taken as parameter. The speed of the alternator was measured using tachometer, digital multi-meter was used to measure battery’s voltage, and AC/DC Clamp was used to measure alternator current output. The result shows that the faster the alternator spin, the more power it can produce. And when there is more power, the faster the charging rate of the battery.

  5. The effect of charge mixture ratio and particle size on igniter plume heat transfer characteristics

    Evans, N.A.; Brezowski, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    Investigation of the heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes, first reported at the Fourteenth International Pyrotechnics Seminar in 1989, has continued, using two types of igniter to determine the effect of charge mixture ratio and fuel particle size on performance. While both of these igniters had the same metallic closure disc (scored Hastelloy with a capture cone), the bridgewire sensitizer (or ignition mixture) was barium styphnate for one type, and a particular blend of fine particle titanium/potassium perchlorate ( PB'') for the other type. The output mixture for both types was titanium/potassium perchlorate; two mixture ratios (33/67 and 41/59), and two titanium particle sizes (2 and 8 {mu}m) were used. The results show that, for both types of igniter, the coarse particle size titanium produced the best performance. The overall best performance was obtained from the igniter using the PB'' ignition mixture and an output charge of 41/59 titanium/potassium perchlorate. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  7. Primary Phenomenon in the Network Formation of Endothelial Cells: Effect of Charge.

    Arai, Shunto

    2015-12-07

    Blood vessels are essential organs that are involved in the supply of nutrients and oxygen and play an important role in regulating the body's internal environment, including pH, body temperature, and water homeostasis. Many studies have examined the formation of networks of endothelial cells. The results of these studies have revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects the interactions of these cells and modulates the network structure. Though almost all previous simulation studies have assumed that the chemoattractant VEGF is present before network formation, vascular endothelial cells secrete VEGF only after the cells bind to the substrate. This suggests VEGF is not essential for vasculogenesis especially at the early stage. Using a simple experiment, we find chain-like structures which last quite longer than it is expected, unless the energetically stable cluster should be compact. Using a purely physical model and simulation, we find that the hydrodynamic interaction retard the compaction of clusters and that the chains are stabilized through the effects of charge. The charge at the surface of the cells affect the interparticle potential, and the resulting repulsive forces prevent the chains from folding. The ions surrounding the cells may also be involved in this process.

  8. Calibration function for the Orbitrap FTMS accounting for the space charge effect.

    Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Good, David M; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Yang, Hongqian; Zubarev, Roman A

    2010-11-01

    Ion storage in an electrostatic trap has been implemented with the introduction of the Orbitrap Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS), which demonstrates performance similar to high-field ion cyclotron resonance MS. High mass spectral characteristics resulted in rapid acceptance of the Orbitrap FTMS for Life Sciences applications. The basics of Orbitrap operation are well documented; however, like in any ion trap MS technology, its performance is limited by interactions between the ion clouds. These interactions result in ion cloud couplings, systematic errors in measured masses, interference between ion clouds of different size yet with close m/z ratios, etc. In this work, we have characterized the space-charge effect on the measured frequency for the Orbitrap FTMS, looking for the possibility to achieve sub-ppm levels of mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for peptides in a wide range of total ion population. As a result of this characterization, we proposed an m/z calibration law for the Orbitrap FTMS that accounts for the total ion population present in the trap during a data acquisition event. Using this law, we were able to achieve a zero-space charge MMA limit of 80 ppb for the commercial Orbitrap FTMS system and sub-ppm level of MMA over a wide range of total ion populations with the automatic gain control values varying from 10 to 10(7).

  9. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    Eva González-Romera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  10. Effects of high-pressure hydrogen charging on the structure of austenitic stainless steels

    Hoelzel, M. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: Markus.Hoelzel@frm2.tum.de; Danilkin, S.A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, SF2, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Toebbens, D.M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, SF2, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Udovic, T.J. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8562, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8562 (United States); Fuess, H. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wipf, H. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Solid State Physics, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2004-10-25

    The effects of high-pressure hydrogen and deuterium charging on the structure of AISI type 304 and AISI type 310 austenitic stainless steels have been investigated by neutron and X-ray diffraction. Rietveld analyses of the neutron diffraction data revealed that hydrogen atoms occupy exclusively the octahedral interstitial sites in both steels. No phase transformations have been observed in 310 stainless steel within the whole range of hydrogen-to-metal atomic ratios H/Me up to {approx} 1. In 304 stainless steel, the formation of {epsilon}-martensite was observed not only after hydrogenation at 3.0 GPa (H/Me = 0.56), but also after applying a pressure of 4.0 GPa without hydrogen. The results differ significantly from published studies on cathodically hydrogenated samples, where high amounts of {epsilon}-martensite were observed in both steels. High-pressure hydrogenation and cathodic hydrogen charging result in different phase transformation behaviour. The discrepancies can be explained by different hydrogen distributions resulting in quite different stress states.

  11. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.

  12. The Space Charge Effect on the Discharge Current in Cross-Linked Polyethylene under High AC Voltages

    Kwon, Yoon-Hyeok; Hwangbo, Seung; Lee, June-Ho; Yi, Dong-Young; Han, Min-Koo

    2003-12-01

    The space charge distributions in solid dielectrics have been usually investigated by means of the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) method. However, most previous studies have been limited to the phenomenological analysis under DC voltages. In our study, the space charge distribution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has been measured using AC voltages by means of the modified PEA method. Simultaneously, the streamer discharges in an air gap have been measured in order to investigate the relationship between space charge and discharge current, and the relationship has been adapted to the case of dielectric barrier discharge. At high AC voltages, discharge current increases to the critical point, but no further increase is exhibited over the critical voltage and the discharge pattern is resolved by the space charge. This result indicates that the frequency effect and space charge characteristics of dielectric materials are preferred to the voltage effect in the adaptation to dielectric barrier discharge. The results well explain the space charge effect on partial discharge and the dielectric barrier discharge phenomenon.

  13. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  14. Effect of paraelectrode processes on contraction of space charge in periodic-pulse lasers

    Arytyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu.; Borisov, V. M.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.

    1986-05-01

    A characteristic feature of periodic-pulse electric-discharge CO2-lasers and excimer lasers is contraction of the space charge as the pulse repetition rate increases. The emission energy per pulse decreases as a consequence, with the average laser power first ceasing to increase linearly beyond a certain corner repetition rate and then decreasing beyond a certain critical repetition rate. A study of this phenomenon was made, for the purpose of separating the effect of paracathode processes from the effect of gas dynamics and then evaluating the effect of the former alone. Paraelectrode perturbations were simulated by focusing the radiation from the an XeCl-laser on the cathode surface in an atmosphere of nonabsorbing gases. Laser pulses of up to approximately 0.5 J energy and of approximately 50 ns duration were focused within a spot of 1 mm(2) area on a cathode inside a discharge chamber, with the power density of incident radiation regulated by means of an attenuator. A space charge within a volume of 2.5x4.5x9 cm(3) was generated between this specially shaped cathode and a mesh anode with an approximately 50% optical transmission coefficient. The space charge in helium and in neon was photographed, and the time lag of a discharge pulse behind a contracting laser pulse was measured as a function of the laser pulse energy for these two gases, as well as for a He+C12 gas mixture. The general trend was found to be the same in each case, the time lag increasing with increasing energy first at a slower rate up to a critical energy level and then faster. It has been established that plasma does not build up on the cathode before the laser pulse energy reaches 30 mJ (for a 3 mm(2) surface area), while plasma glow begins as the laser pulse energy reaches 150 mJ. A contracted channel begins to form within the laser-cathode interaction space, with an attendant fast increase of the time lag owing to evaporation of the cathode metal.

  15. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    Kwon, Inyong, E-mail: iykwon@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kang, Taehoon, E-mail: thnkang@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wells, Byron T., E-mail: wells@galtresearch.com [Galt LLC, Ypsilanti, MI (United States); D’Aries, Lawrence J., E-mail: lawrence.j.daries.civ@mail.mil [Picatinny Arsenal, Rockaway Township, NJ (United States); Hammig, Mark D., E-mail: hammig@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage. - Highlights: • A modified CSA was implemented for detector capacitance compensation. • Increasing detector capacitance degrades gain and rise time. • A bootstrap amplifier exploiting the Miller effect is described. • It allows using large area radiation sensors for high radiation-interaction rates. • Intensive noise analyses show that SNR is much better with the technique.

  16. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    Heeger, Alan; Bazan, Guillermo; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Wudl, Fred

    2015-02-27

    The need for renewable sources of energy is well known. Conversion of sunlight to electricity using solar cells is one of the most important opportunities for creating renewable energy sources. The research carried out under DE-FG02-08ER46535 focused on the science and technology of “Plastic” solar cells comprised of organic (i.e. carbon based) semiconductors. The Bulk Heterojunction concept involves a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors each with dimensions in the nano-meter length scale --- one a material that functions as a donor for electrons and the other a material that functions as an acceptor for electrons. The nano-scale inter-penetrating network concept for “Plastic” solar cells was created at UC Santa Barbara. A simple measure of the impact of this concept can be obtained from a Google search which gives 244,000 “hits” for the Bulk Heterojunction solar cell. Research funded through this program focused on four major areas: 1. Interfacial effects in organic photovoltaics, 2. Charge transfer and photogeneration of mobile charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 3. Transport and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 4. Synthesis of novel organic semiconducting polymers and semiconducting small molecules, including conjugated polyelectrolytes. Following the discovery of ultrafast charge transfer at UC Santa Barbara in 1992, the nano-organic (Bulk Heterojunction) concept was formulated. The need for a morphology comprising two interpenetrating bicontinuous networks was clear: one network to carry the photogenerated electrons (negative charge) to the cathode and one network to carry the photo-generated holes (positive charge) to the anode. This remarkable self-assembled network morphology has now been established using Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) either in the Phase Contrast mode or via TEM-Tomography. The steps involved in delivering power from a solar cell to an external circuit

  17. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    Heeger, Alan [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Bazan, Guillermo [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Wudl, Fred [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The need for renewable sources of energy is well known. Conversion of sunlight to electricity using solar cells is one of the most important opportunities for creating renewable energy sources. The research carried out under DE-FG02-08ER46535 focused on the science and technology of “Plastic” solar cells comprised of organic (i.e. carbon based) semiconductors. The Bulk Heterojunction concept involves a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors each with dimensions in the nano-meter length scale --- one a material that functions as a donor for electrons and the other a material that functions as an acceptor for electrons. The nano-scale inter-penetrating network concept for “Plastic” solar cells was created at UC Santa Barbara. A simple measure of the impact of this concept can be obtained from a Google search which gives 244,000 “hits” for the Bulk Heterojunction solar cell. Research funded through this program focused on four major areas: 1. Interfacial effects in organic photovoltaics, 2. Charge transfer and photogeneration of mobile charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 3. Transport and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 4. Synthesis of novel organic semiconducting polymers and semiconducting small molecules, including conjugated polyelectrolytes. Following the discovery of ultrafast charge transfer at UC Santa Barbara in 1992, the nano-organic (Bulk Heterojunction) concept was formulated. The need for a morphology comprising two interpenetrating bicontinuous networks was clear: one network to carry the photogenerated electrons (negative charge) to the cathode and one network to carry the photo-generated holes (positive charge) to the anode. This remarkable self-assembled network morphology has now been established using Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) either in the Phase Contrast mode or via TEM-Tomography. The steps involved in delivering power from a solar cell to an external circuit

  18. Effects of Electrolyte Anions and pH on Adsortpion of Sulfate by Variable Charge Soils

    ZHANGGANGYA; G.M.BRUEMMER; 等

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three electrolyte anions,ionic strength and pH on the adsorption of sulfate by two variable charge soils,with different surface charge properties were studied.Under the conditions of the same pH and ionic strength the effect of electrolyte anions on the adsorption of sulfate was in the order of Cl->NO3->ClO4-,indicating the difference of the nature among these three anions.For ferralsol in the same concentration of chloride and perchloride solutions,the two sulfate adsorption-pH curves could intersect at certain pH value.When pH was higher than the intersecting point.more sulfate was adsorbed in the perchloride solution,while when it was lower than the intersecting point,more sulfate was adsorbed in the chloride solution.In different concentratioins of electrolyte solution,the curves of the amount of oxy-acid anion adsorbed,which changed with pH,could intersect at a certain pH,which is termed point of zero salt effect(PZSE) on adsortpion.The nature of electrolyte anions influenced obviously the appearace of PZSE for sulfate adsorption.For ferralsol the curves of adsorption converged to about pH 7 in NaCl solution seemed to intersect in NaNO3 solution and to have a typical PZSE for sulfate adsorption in NaClO4 solution,For Acrisol the three curves of adsorption were nearly parallel in NaCl and NaNO3 solutions and converged to pH 6.5 in NaClO4 solution.

  19. Analysis of the effects of constant-current Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling injection with charge trapping inside the potential barrier

    Lopez-Villanueva, J. A.; Jimenez-Tejada, J. A.; Cartujo, P.; Bausells, J.; Carceller, J. E.

    1991-10-01

    Charge trapping and the generation of interface traps in thermally grown SiO2 and its interface with silicon, produced by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling injection at low temperatures from highly doped Si substrates, have been investigated. The results that can be obtained with the constant-current-injection method, when a moderate amount of charge is trapped inside the potential barrier, have been analyzed. This has afforded information about the position of the charge trapped in the oxide. No increase in the interface-trap density has been produced immediately after injection at 77 K, but, as the temperature is raised after injection, the growing of a peak of interface states has been observed. This phenomenon had been reported to be produced as a consequence of a previous hole trapping but, in this case, this intermediate stage of positive-charge building has not been observed. This effect is discussed, taking into account published models.

  20. Differences in Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture between Charge and Noncharge Nurses: Implications for Effectiveness Outcomes Research

    Deleise Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of evidence-based practice guidelines can be influenced by nurses’ perceptions of the organizational safety culture. Shift-by-shift management of each nursing unit is designated to a subset of staff nurses (charge nurses, whom are often recruited as champions for change. The findings indicate that compared to charge nurses, noncharge nurses were more positive about overall perceptions of safety (=.05 and teamwork (<.05. Among charge nurses, significant differences were observed based on the number of years’ experience in charge: perception of teamwork within units [(3,365=3.52, <.01]; overall perceptions of safety, [(3,365=4.20, <.05]; safety grade for work area [(3,360=2.61, <.05]; number of events reported within the last month [(3,362=3.49, <.05]. These findings provide important insights to organizational contextual factors that may impact effectiveness outcomes research in the future.

  1. Effect of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value on mineral oxide charging in apolar media.

    Gacek, Matthew Michael; Berg, John C

    2015-07-01

    The current work examines the role of surfactant hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) on the ability for surfactant reverse micelles to impart charge to particles dispersed in an apolar medium, a study motivated by a number of applications that seek to maximize particle charge in such systems. Previous investigations have shown that relative acid-base properties of the particles and surfactants, as well as surfactant concentration and trace water content, all play a major role in the particle charge obtained. However, the ability of a surfactant to stabilize charge in reverse micelles is also an important aspect of creating charge on a particle surface. It has been previously shown that surfactant HLB value is an important parameter in assessing the size of the polar core of the reverse micelles, thereby impacting the total charge that is generated in the bulk solution as determined by conductivity. In the current study, this theory is extended to investigate the impact on particle charging. To accomplish this, the electrophoretic mobility is determined for a series of mineral oxides dispersed in Isopar-L with either Span 20, Span 80, or Span 85. These three surfactants all have the same head group chemistry, but their HLB value ranges from 1.8 to 8.6. It is found that the maximum observed particle electrophoretic mobility does scale directly with the HLB of the accompanying surfactant. This indicates that there is a direct correlation between a surfactant's ability to stabilize charge and its ability to impart charge to a particle. However, the largest HLB surfactant, Span 20, also exhibited a large amount of charge screening or neutralization at larger surfactant concentrations. This highlights the competition between particle charging and micelle-micelle charging that remains one of the largest obstacles to maximizing particle charge in apolar systems.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic effects on a charged colloidal sphere with arbitrary double-layer thickness.

    Hsieh, Tzu H; Keh, Huan J

    2010-10-01

    An analytical study is presented for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on a translating and rotating colloidal sphere in an arbitrary electrolyte solution prescribed with a general flow field and a uniform magnetic field at a steady state. The electric double layer surrounding the charged particle may have an arbitrary thickness relative to the particle radius. Through the use of a simple perturbation method, the Stokes equations modified with an electric force term, including the Lorentz force contribution, are dealt by using a generalized reciprocal theorem. Using the equilibrium double-layer potential distribution from solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we obtain closed-form formulas for the translational and angular velocities of the spherical particle induced by the MHD effects to the leading order. It is found that the MHD effects on the particle movement associated with the translation and rotation of the particle and the ambient fluid are monotonically increasing functions of κa, where κ is the Debye screening parameter and a is the particle radius. Any pure rotational Stokes flow of the electrolyte solution in the presence of the magnetic field exerts no MHD effect on the particle directly in the case of a very thick double layer (κa→0). The MHD effect caused by the pure straining flow of the electrolyte solution can drive the particle to rotate, but it makes no contribution to the translation of the particle.

  3. Effect of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on Cl- Adsorption by Variable Charge Soils

    XU Ren-Kou; ANG Ma-Li; WANG Qiang-Sheng; JI Guo-Liang1

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids exist widely in soils and have been implicated in many soil processes.The objective of the present paper was to evaluate effect of two LMW organic acids, citric acid and oxalic acid, on Cl- adsorption by three variable charge soils, a latosol, a lateritic red soil and a red soil, using a batch method. The results showed that the presence of citric acid and oxalic acid led to a decrease in Cl- adsorption with larger decreases for citric acid. Among the different soils Gl- adsorption in the lateritic red soil and the red soil was more affected by both the LMW organic acids than that in the latosol.

  4. Inverse-kinematics proton scattering on $^{50}$Ca: Determining effective charges using complementary probes

    Riley, L A; Baugher, T R; Bazin, D; Bowry, M; Cottle, P D; DeVone, F G; Gade, A; Glowacki, M T; Kemper, K W; Lunderberg, E; McPherson, D M; Noji, S; Recchia, F; Sadler, B V; Scott, M; Weisshaar, D; Zegers, R G T

    2014-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the $0_\\mathrm{g.s.}^+ \\rightarrow 2_1^+$ excitations in the neutron-rich isotopes $^{48,50}$Ca via inelastic proton scattering on a liquid hydrogen target, using the GRETINA $\\gamma$-ray tracking array. A comparison of the present results with those from previous measurements of the lifetimes of the $2_1^+$ states provides us the ratio of the neutron and proton matrix elements for the $0_\\mathrm{g.s.}^+ \\rightarrow 2_1^+$ transitions. These results allow the determination of the ratio of the proton and neutron effective charges to be used in shell model calculations of neutron-rich isotopes in the vicinity of $^{48}$Ca.

  5. Space Charge effects and mitigation in the CERN PS Booster, in view of the Upgrade

    Benedetto, Elena; Forte, Vincenzo; Schmidt, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster (PSB) is presently running with a space charge tune spread larger than 0.5 at injection. Since the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require beams with twice the intensity and brightness of today, the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) Project is putting in place an upgrade program for all the injector chain and, in particular, it relies on the important assumption that the PS Booster can successfully produce these beams after the implementation of the 160 MeV H- injection from Linac4. This contribution describes the studies (measure-ments and simulations) that have been carried out to con- firm that the PSB can indeed perform as needed in terms of beam brightness for the future HL-LHC runs. The importance of the mitigation measures already in place, such as the correction of the half-integer line, and the effects of non-linear resonances on the beam are also discussed.

  6. Measurement and analyses of the mean effective ion charge in the centre of tokamak discharges

    Zheng Yong-Zhen; Ding Xuan-Tong; Zhuo Yan

    2007-01-01

    There are two different definitions for specifying the mean effective ion charge Zeff in plasmas: a) from the Spizer electrical resistivity of the plasma and b) from bremsstrahlung radiation losses of the plasma. In this paper Zeff in the centre of tokamak ohmic discharges has been determined from information on sawtooth-relaxations of the steady state plasma, based on the analysis for the power balance of the plasma electrons in the plasma centre during the period of recovery after the sawtooth crashes. This method is found to supply reliable results for tokamak parameters. While its application requires some efforts in data analysis, it can provide a reliable determination of Zeff, independent of the information from bremsstrahlung radiation losses of the plasma.

  7. Effect of the bound nucleon form factors on charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Tsushima, K; Saitô, K; Kim, Hungchong

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of bound nucleon form factors on charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering. The bound nucleon form factors associated with the vector and axial-vector currents are calculated in the quark-meson coupling model. We compute the inclusive $^{12}$C($nu_mu,mu^-$)$X$ differential and total cross sections, which have been measured by the LSND collaboration at Los Alamos, using a relativistic Fermi gas model with the calculated bound nucleon form factors. It is shown that the bound nucleon form factors reduce the total cross section by about 8% relative to that calculated with the free nucleon form factors, where most of the conventional calculations overestimate the total cross section data by about 30% to 100%.

  8. Effects of electrically charged dark matter on cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    Kamada, Ayuki; Takahashi, Tomo; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We examine the possibility that dark matter (DM) consists of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) in view of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The evolution of cosmological perturbations of CHAMP with other components is followed in a self-consistent manner, without assuming that CHAMP and baryons are tightly coupled. We incorporate for the first time the "kinetic re-coupling" of the Coulomb scattering, which is characteristic of heavy CHAMPs. By a direct comparison of the predicted CMB temperature/polarization auto-correlations in CHAMP models and the observed spectra in the Planck mission, we show that CHAMPs leave sizable effects on CMB spectra if they are lighter than $10^{11}\\,{\\rm GeV}$. Our result can be applicable to any CHAMP as long as its lifetime is much longer than the cosmic time at the recombination ($\\sim 4 \\times 10^{5}\\, {\\rm yr}$). An application to millicharged particles is also discussed.

  9. Finite temperature Casimir effect for charged massless scalars in a magnetic field

    Erdas, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The zeta function regularization technique is used to study the finite temperature Casimir effect for a charged and massless scalar field confined between parallel plates and satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions at the plates. A magnetic field perpendicular to the plates is included. Three equivalent expressions for the zeta function are obtained, which are exact to all orders in the magnetic field strength, temperature and plate distance. These expressions of the zeta function are used to calculate the Helmholtz free energy of the scalar field and the pressure on the plates, in the case of high temperature, small plate distance and strong magnetic field. In all cases, simple analytic expressions are obtained for the free energy and pressure which are accurate and valid for practically all values of temperature, plate distance and magnetic field.

  10. Temperature and strain rate effects on the piezoelectric charge production of PZT 95/5

    Khan, Amnah S.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) 95/5, parameters including varying temperatures, porosities and strain rates have been studied. The effects on the charge output and fracture of poled PZT samples of different porosities have been investigated with compressive strain rates (10-4 - 10+3 s-1) using quasi-static loading equipment, drop-weight towers and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPBs). The cylindrical specimens were of 4.4 mm diameter, thickness 0.8 - 4.4 mm, and density 7.3 - 8.3 g cm-3. The temperature range of -20 °C to +80 °C was achieved using purpose-built environmental chambers. The resulting stress-strain relationships are compared; all the samples ultimately displayed a brittle response at failure [1].

  11. Systematic studies on the effect of linear lattice optics for space-charge limited beams

    Fitterer, M; Molodozhentsev, A; Müller, A S

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project aims to an increase of the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 10. In order to realize this ambitious goal, the LHC itself has to undergo a major upgrade accompanied by an extensive upgrade of the complete injector complex referred to as LHC injector upgrade (LIU). In the framework of the LIU project, a new rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) as an alternative to the energy upgrade of the existing PS Booster has been proposed. Motivated by the optics studies conducted for this RCS, the more general question of the influence of the linear optics on the machine performance has been raised. In this paper, we want to investigate this question by comparing different lattices with the final aim of identifying lattice characteristics advantageous under strong space-charge effects.

  12. Effects of compression ratio on the combustion characteristics of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SONG Ruizhi; HU Tiegang; ZHOU Longbao; LIU Shenghua; LI Wei

    2007-01-01

    The effects of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine compression ratio on its combustion characteristics were studied experimentally on a modified TY1100 single cylinder engine fueled with dimethyl ether.The results show that dimethyl ether (DME) HCCI engine can work stably and can realize zero nitrogen oxides (NOx)emission and smokeless combustion under the compression ratio of both 10.7 and 14.The combustion process has obvious two stage combustion characteristics at ε = 10.7(εrefers to compression ratio),and the combustion beginning point is decided by the compression temperature,which varies very little with the engine load;the combustion beginning point is closely related to the engine load (concentration of mixture) with the increase in the compression temperature,and it moves forward versus crank angle with the increase in the engine load at ε = 14;the combustion durations are shortened with the increase in the engine load under both compression ratios.

  13. The Casimir effect with quantized charged spinor matter in background magnetic field

    Sitenko, Yu A

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of a background uniform magnetic field and boundary conditions on the vacuum of a quantized charged spinor matter field confined between two parallel neutral plates; the magnetic field is directed orthogonally to the plates. The admissible set of boundary conditions at the plates is determined by the requirement that the Dirac hamiltonian operator be self-adjoint. It is shown that, in the case of a sufficiently strong magnetic field and a sufficiently large separation of the plates, the Casimir force is repulsive, being independent of the choice of a boundary condition, as well as of the distance between the plates. The detection of this effect seems to be feasible in a foreseen future.

  14. On the effect of excited states in lattice calculations of the nucleon axial charge

    Hansen, Maxwell T

    2016-01-01

    Excited-state contamination is one of the dominant uncertainties in lattice calculations of the nucleon axial-charge, $g_A$. Recently published results in leading-order chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) predict the excited-state contamination to be independent of the nucleon interpolator and positive. However, empirical results from numerical lattice calculations show negative contamination (downward curvature), indicating that present-day calculations are not in the regime where the leading-order ChPT predictions apply. In this paper we show that, under plausible assumptions, one can reproduce the behavior of lattice correlators by taking into account final-state $N \\pi$ interactions, in particular the effect of the Roper resonance, and by postulating a sign change in the infinite-volume $N \\to N \\pi$ axial-vector transition amplitude.

  15. Effect of uniaxial compression on traps of excitons and charge carriers in poly(9-vinylcarbazole) films

    Skryshevski, Yu. A.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of uniaxial pressure (1 × 108 Pa) on the photoluminescence spectra and thermally stimulated luminescence curves of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) has been investigated in the temperature range of 5-295 K. The thermally stimulated luminescence curve of crystalline carbazole has been measured for comparison. The high-temperature wings of the thermally stimulated luminescence curves are approximated by a Gaussian function, the half-width of which characterizes the disorder of energy states of deep structural traps. It is concluded that the pressure inhibits conformational changes of polymer chains of poly(9-vinylcarbazole), which leads to the formation of sandwich-like excimers as well as to an ordering of the spatial arrangement of the side carbazolyl groups. As a result, the concentration of "excimer-forming" centers increases, whereas the degree of disorder of energy states of deep structural traps of charge carriers is reduced by almost half and remains unchanged after the depressurization.

  16. Effect of intramolecular charge transfer on fluorescence and singlet oxygen production of phthalocyanine analogues.

    Vachova, Lenka; Novakova, Veronika; Kopecky, Kamil; Miletin, Miroslav; Zimcik, Petr

    2012-10-14

    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) was studied on a series of magnesium, metal-free and zinc complexes of unsymmetrical tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines and tribenzopyrazinoporphyrazines bearing two dialkylamino substituents (donors) and six alkylsulfanyl or aryloxy substituents (non-donors). The dialkylamino substituents were responsible for ICT that deactivated excited states and led to considerable decrease of fluorescence and singlet oxygen quantum yields. Photophysical and photochemical properties were compared to corresponding macrocycles that do not bear any donor centers. The data showed high feasibility of ICT in the tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine macrocycle and significantly lower efficiency of this deactivation process in the tribenzopyrazinoporphyrazine type molecules. Considerable effect of non-donor peripheral substituents on ICT was also described. The results imply that tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines may be more suitable for development of new molecules investigated in applications based on ICT.

  17. Mechanisms of nanoparticle internalization and transport across an intestinal epithelial cell model: effect of size and surface charge.

    Bannunah, Azzah M; Vllasaliu, Driton; Lord, Jennie; Stolnik, Snjezana

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of nanoparticle size (50 and 100 nm) and surface charge on their interaction with Caco-2 monolayers as a model of the intestinal epithelium, including cell internalization pathways and the level of transepithelial transport. Initially, toxicity assays showed that cell viability and cell membrane integrity were dependent on the surface charge and applied mass, number, and total surface area of nanoparticles, as tested in two epithelial cell lines, colon carcinoma Caco-2 and airway Calu-3. This also identified suitable nanoparticle concentrations for subsequent cell uptake experiments. Nanoparticle application at doses below half maximal effective concentration (EC₅₀) revealed that the transport efficiency (ratio of transport to cell uptake) across Caco-2 cell monolayers is significantly higher for negatively charged nanoparticles compared to their positively charged counterparts (of similar size), despite the higher level of internalization of positively charged systems. Cell internalization pathways were hence probed using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors aiming to establish whether the discrepancy in transport efficiency is due to different uptake and transport pathways. Vesicular trans-monolayer transport for both positively and negatively charged nanoparticles was confirmed via inhibition of dynamin (by dynasore) and microtubule network (via nocodazole), which significantly reduced the transport of both nanoparticle systems. For positively charged nanoparticles a significant decrease in internalization and transport (46% and 37%, respectively) occurred in the presence of a clathrin pathway inhibitor (chlorpromazine), macropinocytosis inhibition (42%; achieved by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyi)-amiloride), and under cholesterol depletion (38%; via methyl-β-cyclodextrin), but remained unaffected by the inhibition of lipid raft associated uptake (caveolae) by genistein. On the contrary, the most prominent reduction in

  18. Effect of charge on the stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    LUO Ji; WU Jinlei

    2004-01-01

    By using density-functional-theory based DMol3 code, the structure optimizations are performed on a short charged single-walled carbon nanotube. Results show that the total energy of the nanotube exhibits a parabolic variation with respect to the amount of extra charge, and one negatively charged nanotube has the lowest total energy; thus the carbon nanotube has a positive electron affinity. When the charge is small, the variation of the atomic structure of the nanotube is also small, and neglecting the atomic structure variation leads to the qualitatively correct properties of the total energy and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital. When the extra charge is large, the end structure of the nanotube will be first affected and form into a trumpet shape. With the increasing of the extra charge, the nanotube end gradually becomes unstable, and this may lead to the ultimate destruction of the nanotube.

  19. Potential of mean force between like-charged nanoparticles: Many-body effect

    Zhang, Xi; Shi, Ya-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated interaction is important for the properties of polyelectrolytes such as colloids and nucleic acids. The effective pair interactions between two polyelectrolytes have been investigated extensively, but the many-body effect for multiple polyelectrolytes still remains elusive. In this work, the many-body effect in potential of mean force (PMF) between like-charged nanoparticles in various salt solutions has been comprehensively examined by Monte Carlo simulation and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Our calculations show that, at high 1:1 salt, the PMF is weakly repulsive and appears additive, while at low 1:1 salt, the additive assumption overestimates the repulsive many-body PMF. At low 2:2 salt, the pair PMF appears weakly repulsive while the many-body PMF can become attractive. In contrast, at high 2:2 salt, the pair PMF is apparently attractive while the many-body effect can cause a weaker attractive PMF than that from the additive assumption. Our microscopic analyses suggest that the elu...

  20. The effect of calcium on the properties of charged phospholipid bilayers

    Pedersen, U.R.; Leidy, Chad; Westh, P.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and dynamics of charged bilayers as well as the distribution of counterions at the bilayer interface. For this, we have considered the negatively charged di-myristoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DMPG) and di-myristoyl-phosph......We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and dynamics of charged bilayers as well as the distribution of counterions at the bilayer interface. For this, we have considered the negatively charged di-myristoyl-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DMPG) and di...

  1. RADIATION-DAMPING EFFECTS IN THE BOUND-CONTINUUM TRANSITION。OF HIGHLY-CHARGED ATOMIC-IONS

    1990-01-01

    In a system consisting of an electron and a highly-charged ion,interaction with the radiation field is important.This means radiation-damping effects must be accurately taken into account.The present work discusses the radiation-damping effect in the processes of photoionization,radiative recombination,and electron scattering.

  2. Effect of Lu2O3 on Charge/discharge Performances of Spherical Nickel Hydroxide at High Temperature

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries are one of promising batteries for electric vehicle applications, but at high temperature the charge efficiency of nickel electrode is very low. In order to improve the high-temperature-efficiency of nickel electrode, spherical nickel hydroxide mixed with various ratios of Lu2O3 was used as active material of pasted nickel electrodes. The results of charge/discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetric measurements and XRD characterizations have shown that after addition of Lu2O3, the oxygen evolution overpotential is elevated much, the charge efficiency of nickel electrode at high temperature is greatly improved and the content of β-NiOOH phase increases in charged electrodes. In addition, the mixed ratio of Lu2O3 has different effects on high temperature performances of nickel electrode at different charge/discharge currents, 3.5 % is the optimum mixed ratio, and the action of Lu2O3 on high temperature electrochemical behaviors is more apparent when nickel electrodes are charged at small current than large current.

  3. The Effect of Interfacial Geometry on Charge-Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    Lee, Myeong H; Geva, Eitan; Dunietz, Barry D

    2016-05-19

    The dependence of charge-transfer states on interfacial geometry at the phthalocyanine/fullerene organic photovoltaic system is investigated. The effect of deviations from the equilibrium geometry of the donor-donor-acceptor trimer on the energies of and electronic coupling between different types of interfacial electronic excited states is calculated from first-principles. Deviations from the equilibrium geometry are found to destabilize the donor-to-donor charge transfer states and to weaken their coupling to the photoexcited donor-localized states, thereby reducing their ability to serve as charge traps. At the same time, we find that the energies of donor-to-acceptor charge transfer states and their coupling to the donor-localized photoexcited states are either less sensitive to the interfacial geometry or become more favorable due to modifications relative to the equilibrium geometry, thereby enhancing their ability to serve as gateway states for charge separation. Through these findings, we eludicate how interfacial geometry modifications can play a key role in achieving charge separation in this widely studied organic photovoltaic system.

  4. Spin and charge Nernst effect in a four-terminal quantum dot ring

    Yang, Xi; Zheng, Jun; Li, Chun-Lei; Guo, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Based on the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we study the spin and charge Nernst effect in a four-terminal quantum dot (QD) ring device, in which the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) is taken into the QDs and the magnetic field penetrates the ring. We find that only with the assistance of RSOI, can the pure spin Nernst effect occur by applying a thermal bias without any magnetic field or ferromagnetic materials in the system. Under certain RSOI and magnetic field strengths, spin-down or spin-up currents can be driven from terminal 2 or 4. The sign and the magnitude of the spin currents or voltages can be modulated by adjusting the RSOI-induced phase factor and the magnetic flux. Moreover, the magnitude of the Nernst effect can be remarkably enhanced by the intra-dot Coulomb blockade. The Nernst coefficient is predicted to be more than two times larger than the case of zero Coulomb interaction. Our results indicate that such a four-terminal QD ring may be used as a manipulative thermoelectric generator.

  5. Effects of defects and dephasing on charge and spin currents in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Van Dyke, John S.; Morr, Dirk K.

    2017-01-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Keldysh Green's function formalism, we investigate the effect of defects on the electronic structure and transport properties of two-dimensional topological insulators (TI). We demonstrate how the spatial flow of charge changes between the topologically protected edge and bulk states and show that elastically and inelastically scattering defects that preserve the time-reversal symmetry of the TI lead to qualitatively different effects on the TI's local electronic structure and its transport properties. Moreover, we show that the recently predicted ability to create highly spin-polarized currents by breaking the time-reversal symmetry of the TI via magnetic defects [J. S. Van Dyke and D. K. Morr, Phys. Rev. B 93, 081401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.081401] is robust against the inclusion of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and the effects of dephasing, and remains unaffected by changes over a wide range of the TI's parameters. We discuss how the sign of the induced spin currents changes under symmetry operations, such as reversal of bias and gate voltages, or spatial reflections. Finally, we show that the insight into the interplay between topology and symmetry of the magnetic defects can be employed for the creation of intriguing quantum phenomena, such as highly localized magnetic fields inside the TI.

  6. Electrostatic Screening and Charge Correlation Effects in Micellization of Ionic Surfactants

    Jusufi, Arben

    2009-05-07

    We have used atomistic simulations to study the role of electrostatic screening and charge correlation effects in self-assembly processes of ionic surfactants into micelles. Specifically, we employed grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the critical micelle concentration (cmc), aggregation number, and micellar shape in the presence of explicit sodium chloride (NaCl). The two systems investigated are cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants. Our explicit-salt results, obtained from a previously developed potential model with no further adjustment of its parameters, are in good agreement with experimental data for structural and thermodynamic micellar properties. We illustrate the importance of ion correlation effects by comparing these results with a Yukawa-type surfactant model that incorporates electrostatic screening implicitly. While the effect of salt on the cmc is well-reproduced even with the implicit Yukawa model, the aggregate size predictions deviate significantly from experimental observations at low salt concentrations. We attribute this discrepancy to the neglect of ion correlations in the implicit-salt model. At higher salt concentrations, we find reasonable agreement of the Yukawa model with experimental data. The crossover from low to high salt concentrations is reached when the electrostatic screening length becomes comparable to the headgroup size. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Effect of Protein Charge on the Generation of Aggregation-Prone Conformers

    Broersen, K.; Weijers, M.; Groot, de J.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes how charge modification affects aggregation of ovalbumin, thereby distinguishing the role of conformational and electrostatic stability in the process. Ovalbumin variants were engineered using chemical methylation or succinylation to obtain a range of protein net charge from -1

  8. Effect of protein charge on the generation of aggregation-prone conformers

    Broersen, K.; Weijers, M.; Groot, J.de; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2007-01-01

    This study describes how charge modification affects aggregation of ovalbumin, thereby distinguishing the role of conformational and electrostatic stability in the process. Ovalbumin variants were engineered using chemical methylation or succinylation to obtain a range of protein net charge from -1

  9. The Effect of National Culture on Auditor-in-Charge Involvement

    Bik, Olof; Hooghiemstra, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Regulators and professional accounting bodies have identified auditor-in-charge involvement as one of the key indicators of audit quality. A potentially important, yet overlooked, issue is that auditor-in-charge involvement is affected by numerous contextual factors. In this study, we aim at advanci

  10. Effect of Selected Organic Acids on Cadmium Sorption by Variable-and Permanent-Charge Soils

    HU Hong-Qing; LIU Hua-Liang; HE Ji-Zheng; HUANG Qiao-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to investigate cadmium (Cd) sorption by two permanent-charge soils, a yellow-cinnamon soil and a yellow-brown soil, and two variable-charge soils, a red soil and a latosol, with addition of selected organic acids (acetate, tartrate, and citrate). Results showed that with an increase in acetate concentrations from 0 to 3.0 mmol L-1, Cd sorption percentage by the yellow-cinnamon soil, the yellow-brown soil, and the latosol decreased. The sorption percentage of Cd by the yellow-cinnamon soil and generally the yellow-brown soil (permanent-charge soils)decreased with an increase in tartrate concentration, but increased at low tartrate concentrations for the red soil and the latosol. Curves of percentage of Cd sorption for citrate were similar to those for tartrate. For the variable-charge soils with tartrate and citrate, there were obvious peaks in Cd sorption percentage. These peaks, where organic acids had maximum influence, changed with soil type, and were at a higher organic acid concentration for the variable-charge soils than for the permanent charge soils. Addition of cadmium after tartrate adsorption resulted in higher sorption increase for the variable-charge soils than permanent-charge soils. When tartrate and Cd solution were added together, sorption of Cd decreased with tartrate concentration for the yellow-brown soil, but increased at low tartrate concentrations and then decreased with tartrate concentration for the red soil and the latosol.

  11. The Effect of National Culture on Auditor-in-Charge Involvement

    Bik, Olof; Hooghiemstra, Reggy

    2017-01-01

    Regulators and professional accounting bodies have identified auditor-in-charge involvement as one of the key indicators of audit quality. A potentially important, yet overlooked, issue is that auditor-in-charge involvement is affected by numerous contextual factors. In this study, we aim at advanci

  12. Positively charged biomaterials exert antimicrobial effects on gram-negative bacilli in rats

    Gottenbos, B; van der Mei, HC; Klatter, F; Grijpma, DW; Feijen, J; Nieuwenhuis, P; Busscher, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Biomaterial-centered infection is a much-dreaded complication associated with the use of biomedical implants. Although positively charged biomaterial surfaces stimulate bacterial adhesion, it has been suggested that surface growth of adhering Gram-negative bacilli is inhibited on positively charged

  13. Space charge effect of the time-dependent ultrafast laser excited electron emission from a metal surface

    Liu, Yangjie

    2013-01-01

    A model has been constructed to the study the transition of ultrafast laser excited electron emission from a metallic surface to the space charge limited (SCL) regime. By considering the time-dependent emission process by L. Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. B.78 224112 (2008)], we include the space charge effect which will affect the barrier at the emitting surface. At the high laser field, it is found that space charge effect cannot be ignored and the SCL current emission is reached. The threshold of the laser field to reach the SCL regime is determined. Our calculations agree well with particle-in-cell simulation results. This model is also compared with the classical short pulse SCL current model by A. Valfellset al. [Phys. Plasmas 9, 2377 (2002)].

  14. The two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to one loop

    S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani

    2011-08-01

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  15. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Computer-Chemistry-Center and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Jordan, Meredith J. T. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Clark, Timothy, E-mail: tim.clark@fau.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Computer-Chemistry-Center and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Centre for Molecular Design, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-28

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves.

  16. THE EFFECT OF CHARGE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS ON LASER TONER AGGLOMERATION UNDER ALKALINE PULPING CONDITIONS

    Jie Jiang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale agglomeration experiments followed by image analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different cationic surfactants on the 1-octadecanol agglomeration of a negatively charged laser toner. Various types of surfactants with different geometric structures were investigated. It was found that this toner became agglomerated under neutral pulping conditions, but it did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions at all. A small amount of the cationic surfactant compensated for the agglomeration disruption caused by the negative surface charge of the toner and made this toner agglomerate very well. These cationic surfactants consist of a chemical structure of C12 to C18 saturated alkyl hydrophobic chains. The positive charge of these surfactants played the major role in alleviating agglomeration disruption. Additionally, an extra phenol group on these surfactants contributed only minor advantages for toner agglomeration in the presence of 1-octadecanol. The best co-agglomeration performance occurred within a very narrow range of similar total positive charge densities based on the total toner weight. It was also found that this positive charge effect could not be applied to the chemical compounds of high molecular weight polymeric materials.

  17. Effect of ion charges on the electric double layer capacitance of activated carbon in aqueous electrolyte systems

    Icaza, Juan C.; Guduru, Ramesh K.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon based electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are known for high power density, but their energy density is limited due to surface characteristics of the electrode materials as well as the size and charge of the ions used in the electrolyte. Therefore, considering the current demand for enhanced energy density devices, we investigated the use of multivalent electrolytes to increase the capacitance of activated carbon (AC) based EDLCs. As part of these studies, we examined the effect of the charge of the multivalent ions on the capacitive behavior of microporous AC electrodes and compared with the univalent Li+ system. We performed impedance and cyclic voltammetry measurements on AC electrodes in a symmetric two electrode configuration to determine the impedance and capacitance with respect to varying charge and concentration of the ions in the aqueous nitrate electrolytes. These studies clearly demonstrated an increased capacitance with Mg2+ and Al3+ implying the possible effects of ion mobility and electrolyte conductivity in addition to the multivalent charge. These preliminary observations clearly point to the importance of selection of electrolyte ions with more charge, conductivity, and suitable size with respect to the pore size of the electrodes in order to increase the capacitance of EDLCs.

  18. The effects of nanoparticles and organic additives with controlled dispersion on dielectric properties of polymers: Charge trapping and impact excitation

    Huang, Yanhui; Wu, Ke; Bell, Michael; Oakes, Andrew; Ratcliff, Tyree; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation into the effects of nanoparticles and organic additives on the dielectric properties of insulating polymers using reinforced silicone rubber as a model system. TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles (d = 5 nm) were well dispersed into the polymer via a bimodal surface modification approach. Organic molecules with the potential of voltage stabilization were further grafted to the nanoparticle to ensure their dispersion. These extrinsic species were found to provide deep traps for charge carriers and exhibited effective charge trapping properties at a rather small concentration (˜1017 cm-3). The charge trapping is found to have the most significant effect on breakdown strength when the electrical stressing time is long enough that most charges are trapped in the deep states. To establish a quantitative correlation between the trap depth and the molecular properties, the electron affinity and ionization energy of each species were calculated by an ab initio method and were compared with the experimentally measured values. The correlation however remains elusive and is possibly complicated by the field effect and the electronic interactions between different species that are not considered in this computation. At high field, a super-linear increase of current density was observed for TiO2 filled composites and is likely caused by impact excitation due to the low excitation energy of TiO2 compared to ZrO2. It is reasoned that the hot charge carriers with energies greater than the excitation energy of TiO2 may excite an electron-hole pair upon collision with the NP, which later will be dissociated and contribute to free charge carriers. This mechanism can enhance the energy dissipation and may account for the retarded electrical degradation and breakdown of TiO2 composites.

  19. The effect of protons on the performance of swept-charge devices

    Smith, David R. [Imaging for Space and Terrestrial Applications Group, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: david.smith@brunel.ac.uk; Gow, Jason [Imaging for Space and Terrestrial Applications Group, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    The e2v technologies CCD54, or swept-charge device (SCD) has been extensively radiation tested for use in the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) instrument, to be launched as a part of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 payload in 2008. The principle use of the SCD is in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) applications, the device providing a relatively large collecting area of 1.1 cm{sup 2}, and achieving near Fano-limited spectroscopy at -15 deg. C, a temperature that is easily obtained using a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). This paper describes the structure and operation of the SCD and details the methodology and results obtained from two proton irradiation studies carried out in 2006 and 2008, respectively to quantify the effects of proton irradiation on the operational characteristics of the device. The analysis concentrates on the degradation of the measured FWHM of various elemental lines and quantifies the effects of proton fluence on the observed X-ray fluorescence spectra from mineralogical target samples.

  20. Instanton effects in ABJM theory with general R-charge assignments

    Nosaka, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    We study the large N expansion of the partition function of the quiver superconformal Chern-Simons theories deformed by two continuous parameters which correspond to general R-charge assignment to the matter fields. Though the deformation breaks the conformal symmetry, we find that the partition function shares various structures with the superconformal cases, such as the Airy function expression of the perturbative expansion in 1/N with the overall constant A(k) related to the constant map in the ABJM case through a simple rescaling of k. We also identify five kinds of the non-perturbative effects in 1/N which correspond to the membrane instantons. The instanton exponents and the singular structure of the coefficients depend on the continuous deformation parameters, in contrast to the superconformal case where all the parameters are integers associated with the orbifold action on the moduli space. This implies that the singularity of the instanton effects would be observable also in the gravity side.

  1. Magneto-photocurrent in organic photovoltaic cells; the effect of short-lived charge transfer states

    Ehrenfreund, Eitan; Devir-Wolfman, A.; Khachatryan, B.; Gautam, B.; Tessler, N.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2014-03-01

    The spin degrees of freedom are responsible for the magnetic field effects in organic devices at low magnetic fields. The MFE is formed via a variety of spin-mixing mechanisms, such as the hyperfine (typical strength: Bhf<0.003 T), triplet-polaron or triplet-triplet (Btrip<0.1 T) interactions, that limit the response by their respective strength. We report on magneto-photocurrent (MPC) response of bulk hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cells in an extended field range B =0.00005 - 8 Tesla, and found that spin mixing mechanisms are still operative even at the highest fields. In fact, the response MPC(B) can be divided into three main regions, each with a different sign: sharp response that increases with B up to B1 ~ 0.04 T; broad response that decreases with B in the range from B1 to B2 ~ 0.3-0.7 T; and even broader response that increases above B2; this response does not saturate even at 8.5 T. We attribute the latter MPC component to short-lived charge transfer excitons (CTE) where spin-mixing is caused by the difference of the donor/acceptor g factors; a mechanism that is increasingly more effective at high magnetic field. Supported by the US-Israel BSF.

  2. Charge injection in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors: physics, models and characterization methods.

    Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2012-03-15

    A high-mobility organic semiconductor employed as the active material in a field-effect transistor does not guarantee per se that expectations of high performance are fulfilled. This is even truer if a downscaled, short channel is adopted. Only if contacts are able to provide the device with as much charge as it needs, with a negligible voltage drop across them, then high expectations can turn into high performances. It is a fact that this is not always the case in the field of organic electronics. In this review, we aim to offer a comprehensive overview on the subject of current injection in organic thin film transistors: physical principles concerning energy level (mis)alignment at interfaces, models describing charge injection, technologies for interface tuning, and techniques for characterizing devices. Finally, a survey of the most recent accomplishments in the field is given. Principles are described in general, but the technologies and survey emphasis is on solution processed transistors, because it is our opinion that scalable, roll-to-roll printing processing is one, if not the brightest, possible scenario for the future of organic electronics. With the exception of electrolyte-gated organic transistors, where impressively low width normalized resistances were reported (in the range of 10 Ω·cm), to date the lowest values reported for devices where the semiconductor is solution-processed and where the most common architectures are adopted, are ∼10 kΩ·cm for transistors with a field effect mobility in the 0.1-1 cm(2)/Vs range. Although these values represent the best case, they still pose a severe limitation for downscaling the channel lengths below a few micrometers, necessary for increasing the device switching speed. Moreover, techniques to lower contact resistances have been often developed on a case-by-case basis, depending on the materials, architecture and processing techniques. The lack of a standard strategy has hampered the progress of the

  3. Correlational analysis of Eu3+ charge transfer state using La effective charge in La-based mixed-anion host compounds

    Yoshimatsu, Ryo; Okada, Masahiro; Ishigaki, Tadashi; Watanabe, Shinta; Honma, Tetsuo; Ohmi, Koutoku

    2017-03-01

    A prediction of the Eu3+ charge transfer state (E CT) was attempted in La-based mixed-anion host compounds. We paid attention to La3OF3S2:Eu, since it is expected to have a more covalent La site than La2O2S. The La effective charge (La EC) was proposed as the index factor of covalency and/or ionicity. The correlation between the experimental E CT and the calculated La EC was systematically analyzed for La2S3, LaFS, La2O2S, La2O3, LaOF, and LaF3 host materials, and good approximation was obtained using the single exponential function with a variable number of La ECs. According to the fitting curve, the E CT of La3OF3S2:Eu was predicted to be 5.8 and 2.1 eV for Eu3+ centers activated at ionic and covalent sites, respectively. To confirm the prediction accuracy, La3OF3S2:Eu phosphor powder samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction. From the photoluminescence excitation and absorption measurements, the E CT values of about 4.7 eV (ionic La site) and 2.4 eV (covalent La site) were obtained. Even though the energy difference between the predicted and experimental values is large for the higher E CT, La EC is the useful index factor for estimating E CT. In addition, it indicates that the estimation can be applied to phosphor materials having multication sites.

  4. Control of the spin to charge conversion using the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect

    Sangiao, S. [Service de Physique de l' Etat Condensé, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, bat 772, CNRS UMR 3680, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA) and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundación ARAID, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); De Teresa, J. M. [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA) and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morellon, L.; Martinez-Velarte, M. C. [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA) and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Lucas, I. [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA) and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundación ARAID, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Viret, M., E-mail: michel.viret@cea.fr [Service de Physique de l' Etat Condensé, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, bat 772, CNRS UMR 3680, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-04-27

    We show here that using spin orbit coupling interactions at a metallic interface it is possible to control the sign of the spin to charge conversion in a spin pumping experiment. Using the intrinsic symmetry of the “Inverse Rashba Edelstein Effect” (IREE) in a Bi/Ag interface, the charge current changes sign when reversing the order of the Ag and Bi stacking. This confirms the IREE nature of the conversion of spin into charge in these interfaces and opens the way to tailoring the spin sensing voltage by an appropriate trilayer sequence.

  5. Effect of interjunction coupling on superconducting current and charge correlations in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Hamdipour, M.; Kolahchi, M. R.

    2009-07-01

    Charge formations on superconducting layers and creation of the longitudinal plasma wave in the stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions change crucially the superconducting current through the stack. Investigation of the correlations of superconducting currents in neighboring Josephson junctions and the charge correlations in neighboring superconducting layers allows us to predict the additional features in the current-voltage characteristics. The charge autocorrelation functions clearly demonstrate the difference between harmonic and chaotic behavior in the breakpoint region. Use of the correlation functions gives us a powerful method for the analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of coupled Josephson junctions.

  6. Effect of charged line defects on conductivity in graphene: Numerical Kubo and analytical Boltzmann approaches

    Radchenko, T. M.; Shylau, A. A.; Zozoulenko, I. V.;

    2013-01-01

    Charge carrier transport in single-layer graphene with one-dimensional charged defects is studied theoretically. Extended charged defects, considered an important factor for mobility degradation in chemically vapor-deposited graphene, are described by a self-consistent Thomas-Fermi potential....... A numerical study of electronic transport is performed by means of a time-dependent real-space Kubo approach in honeycomb lattices containing millions of carbon atoms, capturing the linear response of realistic size systems in the highly disordered regime. Our numerical calculations are complemented...

  7. Wake effects of a charged projectile flying above a magnetized metal film

    Jafari, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    This research deals with covering of a metal film on the semi-infinite dielectric in the presence of a weak external magnetic field. A charged projectile has been considered flying above the thin film. The surface wave frequencies of the system were derived by means of the quantum hydrodynamic theory through the appropriate boundary conditions. The energy loss of charged particle in the present system was also investigated. It is found that the external magnetic field modifies the distribution of electron gas density as well as the energy loss of flying charged particle.

  8. Effects of charge distribution on water filling process in carbon nanotube

    MENG LingYi; LI QiKai; SHUAI ZhiGang

    2009-01-01

    Using umbrella sampling technique with molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the nanoflu-idic transport of water in carbon nanotube (CNT). The simulations showed that a positive charge modi-fication to the carbon nanotube can slow down the water column growth process, while the negative charge modification to the carbon nanotube will, on the other hand, quicken the water column growth process. The free energy curves were obtained through the statistical process of water column growth under different charge distributions, and the results indicated that these free energy curves can be employed to explain the dynamical process of water column growth in the nanosized channels.

  9. Effects of charge distribution on water filling process in carbon nanotube

    2009-01-01

    Using umbrella sampling technique with molecular dynamics simulation,we investigated the nanoflu-idic transport of water in carbon nanotube(CNT).The simulations showed that a positive charge modi-fication to the carbon nanotube can slow down the water column growth process,while the negative charge modification to the carbon nanotube will,on the other hand,quicken the water column growth process.The free energy curves were obtained through the statistical process of water column growth under different charge distributions,and the results indicated that these free energy curves can be employed to explain the dynamical process of water column growth in the nanosized channels.

  10. Manipulation of charge carrier injection into organic field-effect transistors by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols

    Asadi, K.; Gholamrezaie, F.; Smits, E.C.P.; Blom, W.M.; Boer, B. de

    2007-01-01

    Charge carrier injection into two semiconducting polymers is investigated in field-effect transistors using gold source and drain electrodes that are modified by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols and perfluorinated alkanethiols. The presence of an interfacial dipole associated with the molec

  11. Effect of field-focusing and ion selectivity on the extended space charge developed at the microchannel-nanochannel interface.

    Liel, Uri; Leibowitz, Neta; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-08-17

    We present results demonstrating the effect of varying microchannel depth and bulk conductivity on the space charge-mediated transition between classical, diffusion-limited current and over-limiting current in microchannel-nanochannel devices. The extended space charge layer develops at the depleted microchannel-nanochannel entrance when the limiting current is exceeded and is correlated with a distinctive maximum in the dc resistance. This maximum is shown to be affected by the microchannel depth, via field-focusing, and solution conductivity. In particular, we observe that upon their increase, the maximum becomes flatter and shifts to higher voltages.

  12. Measurement of the effective weak mixing angle by jet-charge asymmetry in hadronic decays of the Z boson

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muanza, G S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pedace, M; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Sakar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1998-01-01

    The coupling of the Z boson to quarks is studied in a sample of about 3.5 million hadronic Z decays collected by the L3 experiment at LEP from 1991 to 1995. The forward-backward quark charge asymmet ry is measured by means of a jet charge technique. From the measured asymmetries, the effective weak mixing angle is determined to be \\begin{center} $\\STE = 0.2327 \\pm 0.0012(\\mbox{\\emph{stat.}} ) \\pm 0.0013(\\mbox{\\emph{syst.}}).$

  13. Effects of a More Accurate Polarizable Hamiltonian on Polymorph Free Energies Computed Efficiently by Reweighting Point-Charge Potentials.

    Dybeck, Eric C; Schieber, Natalie P; Shirts, Michael R

    2016-08-09

    We examine the free energies of three benzene polymorphs as a function of temperature in the point-charge OPLS-AA and GROMOS54A7 potentials as well as the polarizable AMOEBA09 potential. For this system, using a polarizable Hamiltonian instead of the cheaper point-charge potentials is shown to have a significantly smaller effect on the stability at 250 K than on the lattice energy at 0 K. The benzene I polymorph is found to be the most stable crystal structure in all three potentials examined and at all temperatures examined. For each potential, we report the free energies over a range of temperatures and discuss the added value of using full free energy methods over the minimized lattice energy to determine the relative crystal stability at finite temperatures. The free energies in the polarizable Hamiltonian are efficiently calculated using samples collected in a cheaper point-charge potential. The polarizable free energies are estimated from the point-charge trajectories using Boltzmann reweighting with MBAR. The high configuration-space overlap necessary for efficient Boltzmann reweighting is achieved by designing point-charge potentials with intramolecular parameters matching those in the expensive polarizable Hamiltonian. Finally, we compare the computational cost of this indirect reweighted free energy estimate to the cost of simulating directly in the expensive polarizable Hamiltonian.

  14. Calculations of current densities for neutral and doubly charged persubstituted benzenes using effective core potentials.

    Rauhalahti, Markus; Taubert, Stefan; Sundholm, Dage; Liégeois, Vincent

    2017-03-08

    Magnetically induced current density susceptibilities and ring-current strengths have been calculated for neutral and doubly charged persubstituted benzenes C6X6 and C6X6(2+) with X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, SeH, SeMe, TeH, TeMe, and SbH2. The current densities have been calculated using the gauge-including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method, which has been interfaced to the Gaussian electronic structure code rendering current density calculations using effective core potentials (ECP) feasible. Relativistic effects on the ring-current strengths have been assessed by employing ECP calculations of the current densities. Comparison of the ring-current strengths obtained in calculations on C6At6 and C6At6(2+) using relativistic and non-relativistic ECPs show that scalar relativistic effects have only a small influence on the ring-current strengths. Comparisons of the ring-current strengths and ring-current profiles show that the C6I6(2+), C6At6(2+), C6(SeH)6(2+), C6(SeMe)6(2+), C6(TeH)6(2+), C6(TeMe)6(2+), and C6(SbH2)6(2+) dications are doubly aromatic sustaining spatially separated ring currents in the carbon ring and in the exterior of the molecule. The C6I6(+) radical cation is also found to be doubly aromatic with a weaker ring current than obtained for the dication.

  15. Effect of screening by external charges on the atomic orbitals and photoinduced processes within the Hartree-Fock-Slater atom

    Thiele, Robert; Son, Sang-Kil [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ziaja, Beata [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Santra, Robin [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are a promising tool for the structural determination of macro- and biomolecules, using coherent diffractive imaging. During imaging, the intense XFEL pulses also efficiently ionize the molecules, so it is important to estimate how the charged environment within the molecule modifies atomic properties, in comparison to the case of an isolated atom. Here, we apply the XATOM toolkit to obtain predictions on the modified ionization thresholds and rates of some photoinduced processes in carbon. The Hartree-Fock-Slater model is extended to include the electron screening and ion correlation effects, induced by external charges. With this extended model, we obtain predictions on modifications of orbital energies, photoabsorption cross sections, Auger decay rates, fluorescence emission rates, and atomic scattering factors as a function of the density and temperature of the surrounding charges. Our results have implications for the studies of dynamics within XFEL irradiated samples, in particular for those dedicated to coherent diffraction imaging.

  16. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    M. Dell'Angela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001. We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  17. Forces in EDO-TTF: Theoretical study of isotope and charge effects on vibronic coupling

    Tokunaga, Ken

    Isotope and charge effects on vibronic coupling constant (V) and energy gradient (g) of ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalen (EDO-TTF) upon the electron injection into cation and electron removal from neutral molecule are investigated. It is found that normal modes which include C = C stretching motion generally have large V and g. For electron removal, three normal modes (v460, v470, and v480) have large Vi+ and gi+, and deuteration results in decrease of V46+ and increase of V47+. For electron injection, five normal modes (ν+42, ν+44, ν+45, ν+47, and ν+48) have large vi0 and gi0 deuteration results in increase of V045 and V048 and decrease of V047. From the analysis of vibronic coupling constants using vibronic coupling density (VCD), regional vibronic coupling constant (RVCC), and atomic vibronic coupling constant (AVCC), it is revealed that the change in normal mode vectors (d) due to the deuteration and electron removal (or injection) leads to the change in V.

  18. Relativistic effects on the neutron charge form factor in the constituent quark model

    Cardarelli, F

    1999-01-01

    The neutron charge form factor GEn(Q**2) is investigated within a constituent quark model formulated on the light-front. It is shown that, if the quark initial motion is neglected in the Melosh rotations, the Dirac neutron form factor F1n(Q**2) receives a relativistic correction which cancels exactly against the Foldy term in GEn(Q**2), as it has been recently argued by Isgur. Moreover, at the same level of approximation the ratio of the proton to neutron magnetic form factors GMp(Q**2)/GMn(Q**2) is still given by the naive SU(6)-symmetry expectation, -3/2. However, it is also shown that the full Melosh rotations break SU(6) symmetry, giving rise to GEn(Q**2) neq 0 and GMp(Q**2)/GMn(Q**2) neq -3/2 even when a SU(6)-symmetric canonical wave function is assumed. It turns out that relativistic effects alone cannot explain simultaneously the experimental data on GEn(Q**2) and GMp(Q**2)/GMn(Q**2).

  19. Effect of surface charge on the cellular uptake of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles

    Kralj, Slavko; Rojnik, Matija; Romih, Rok; Jagodič, Marko; Kos, Janko; Makovec, Darko

    2012-10-01

    We report on the nanoparticle uptake into MCF10A neoT and PC-3 cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the nanoparticles' surface charge on the uptake efficiency. The surface of the superparamagnetic, silica-coated, maghemite nanoparticles was modified using amino functionalization for the positive surface charge (CNPs), and carboxyl functionalization for the negative surface charge (ANPs). The CNPs and ANPs exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in concentrations up to 500 μg/cm3 in 24 h. The CNPs, bound to a plasma membrane, were intensely phagocytosed, while the ANPs entered cells through fluid-phase endocytosis in a lower internalization degree. The ANPs and CNPs were shown to be co-localized with a specific lysosomal marker, thus confirming their presence in lysosomes. We showed that tailoring the surface charge of the nanoparticles has a great impact on their internalization.

  20. Effect of surface charge on the cellular uptake of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles

    Kralj, Slavko, E-mail: slavko.kralj@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Materials Synthesis (Slovenia); Rojnik, Matija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy (Slovenia); Romih, Rok [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Cell Biology (Slovenia); Jagodic, Marko [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics (Slovenia); Kos, Janko [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Materials Synthesis (Slovenia)

    2012-10-15

    We report on the nanoparticle uptake into MCF10A neoT and PC-3 cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the nanoparticles' surface charge on the uptake efficiency. The surface of the superparamagnetic, silica-coated, maghemite nanoparticles was modified using amino functionalization for the positive surface charge (CNPs), and carboxyl functionalization for the negative surface charge (ANPs). The CNPs and ANPs exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in concentrations up to 500 {mu}g/cm{sup 3} in 24 h. The CNPs, bound to a plasma membrane, were intensely phagocytosed, while the ANPs entered cells through fluid-phase endocytosis in a lower internalization degree. The ANPs and CNPs were shown to be co-localized with a specific lysosomal marker, thus confirming their presence in lysosomes. We showed that tailoring the surface charge of the nanoparticles has a great impact on their internalization.

  1. Surface charges effects on the 2D conformation of supercoiled DNA

    Schmatko, Tatiana; Maaloum, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    We have adsorbed plasmid PuC19 DNA on a supported bilayer. The mobility of the lipids within the bilayer ensured a 2D equilibrium of the DNA molecule. By varying the fraction of cationic lipids in the membrane, we have tuned the surface charge. Plasmids conformations were imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).We performed two sets of experiments: deposition from salt free solution on charged bilayers and deposition from salty solutions on neutral bilayers. Plasmids can be seen as rings, completely opened structures, or tightly supercoiled plectonemes, depending on the experimental conditions. The plectonemic conformation is observed either on charged surfaces (in the absence of salt) or at 30 mM salt concentration on a neutral bilayer. We demonstrate the equivalence of surface screening by mobile interfacial charges and bulk screening from salt ions.

  2. Effect of Lattice Distortion on Charge Order in Manganites at Doping x = 0.5

    WANG Hai-Long; TIAN Guang-Shan; LIN Hai-Qing

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, we continue our investigation on the antiferromagnetic origin of the charge order observed in the half-doped manganese. By introducing a Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) type of perturbation interaction to the double-exchange Hamiltonian, we calculate again its ground-state phase diagram at filling x = 0.5 by the unrestricted real-space Hartree-Fock approximation method. We find that, as the SSH electron-phonon interaction increases, the charge order parameter decreases to zero rapidly but the CE-type antiferromagnetic order becomes more stable. In other words, the charge order is much more fragile than the CE-type or the Neel-type antiferromagnetic orders under the electron-phonon perturbation. These results support the proposed theory in the recent publications that the charge order in these systems is induced by the antiferromagnetic correlations.

  3. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-03

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation.

  4. Effect of hydrogen charging on the mechanical properties of medium strength aluminium alloys 2091 and 2014

    Bandopadhyay, A.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Cathodic hydrogen charging in 3.5% NaCl solution altered the mechanical properties of 2091-T351 (Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Zr) determined by a slow (10(-3)/s) strain rate tensile testing technique. UTS and YS decreased in the caw of 2091-T351 and 2014-T6(Al-Cu-Mn-Si-Mg) with increase in charging current density...

  5. Effects of local electric surface potential on holes charging process in uncapped germanium nanocrystal

    Marchand, Aude; El Hdiy, Abdelillah, E-mail: abdelillah.elhdiy@univ-reims.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, Bât. 6, case n 15, UFR Sciences, Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-04-21

    The charging kinetics of holes are investigated in an uncapped Ge nanocrystal by the use of the nano-electron beam induced current technique. The charging process is studied under zero volt or under an appropriate electric field. The investigation is repeated many times on the same nanocrystal and on others in the same sample to attest of the reproducibility of the results. At 0 V, the cycles of charging kinetics are superimposed and are in a steady state, but an instantaneous local and negative surface potential, established in the nanocrystal at the beginning of the kinetics, slows down the holes charging process. Under an external field, the energy band bending accentuation affects the holes charging time constants. As a result, the holes charging cycles weakly affect the electrical performance of the thin oxide as is indicated by the value of the measured local resistivity of 6 × 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} Ω cm, which is relatively lower than that of the thick thermal oxide.

  6. Effect of laundry surfactants on surface charge and colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles.

    Skoglund, Sara; Lowe, Troy A; Hedberg, Jonas; Blomberg, Eva; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Wold, Susanna; Lundin, Maria

    2013-07-16

    The stability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) potentially released from clothing during a laundry cycle and their interactions with laundry-relevant surfactants [anionic (LAS), cationic (DTAC), and nonionic (Berol)] have been investigated. Surface interactions between Ag NPs and surfactants influence their speciation and stability. In the absence of surfactants as well as in the presence of LAS, the negatively charged Ag NPs were stable in solution for more than 1 day. At low DTAC concentrations (≤1 mM), DTAC-Ag NP interactions resulted in charge neutralization and formation of agglomerates. The surface charge of the particles became positive at higher concentrations due to a bilayer type formation of DTAC that prevents from agglomeration due to repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged colloids. The adsorption of Berol was enhanced when above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). This resulted in a surface charge close to zero and subsequent agglomeration. Extended DLVO theory calculations were in compliance with observed findings. The stability of the Ag NPs was shown to depend on the charge and concentration of the adsorbed surfactants. Such knowledge is important as it may influence the subsequent transport of Ag NPs through different chemical transients and thus their potential bioavailability and toxicity.

  7. Electric response of a magnetic colloid to periodic external excitation for different nanoparticles concentrations: Determination of the particles' effective charge

    Batalioto, F.; Barbero, G.; Sehnem, A. L.; Figueiredo Neto, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effective electric charge of a nanoparticle in an ionic magnetic colloidal system (an ionic ferrofluid) is determined by using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The electric response of the samples to a harmonic external electric field excitation is described by means of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck model. The model proposed for the theoretical interpretation of the impedance spectroscopy data considers that the magnetic particles are electrically charged with H+ and have in their vicinity Cl- counterions, resulting in an effective charge Qeff. In the presence of an harmonic, in time, external field (frequency bigger than 10 4 Hz ) particles are assumed to be at rest, due to inertial reason. In this framework, the response of the cell is due to the H+ and Cl- present in the solution. From the spectra of the real and imaginary components of the electric impedance of the cell, by means of a best fit procedure to our model, we derive the effective electric charge of the magnetic particles and the bulk density of ions. From an independent measurement of the ζ-potential of the suspension, it is possible to calculate the hydrodynamic radius of the particle, in good agreement with that independently measured.

  8. Effect of Specific Adsorption of Ions on Electrokinetic Properties of Variable Charge Soils

    ZHANGHONG; ZHANGXIAO-NIAN

    1991-01-01

    Studies were carried out by using electrophoretic method on the effects of the specific adsorption of the anions,such as SO42-,PO43-,and F- ions,the cations,such as Ca2+,Mn2+,Zn2+,and Cu2+,ions,and the anions and cations coexisting,such as Zn2+ and SO42= ions,on electrokinetic properties of the red soils as typical variable charge soils in China concerning variation in the specific ion species and concentrations,with an emphasis on the interaction between soil colloid surfaces and the ions in soil solutions.The results showed that the adsorption of specific ions led to a very pronounced decrease in zeta potentials of the soil colloids and a shift of the IEPs to lower values for specific anions,and an obvious increase in zeta potentials of the soil colloids and a shift of the IEPs to higher values for specific cations.Under circumstances of the specific anions and cations coexisting,for instance,Zn2+ and SO42- ions,the zeta potentials changed with values higher than the value for SO42- alone and lower than that for Zn2+ alone,and the IEP was between that for Zn2+ and that for SO42-.The adsorption of Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions resulted in a reversal of the zeta potentials,and appearance of two IEPs for Zn2+ and no IEP for Cu2+,exhibiting interesting special effects of these kinds of metal ions.The higher the concentrations of the ions,the greater the change of the electrokinetic properties.

  9. Neutron-skin effect in direct photon and charged hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC

    Helenius, Ilkka; Eskola, Kari J

    2016-01-01

    A well-established observation in nuclear physics is that in neutron-rich spherical nuclei the distribution of neutrons extends farther than the distribution of protons. In this work, we scrutinize the influence of this so called neutron-skin effect on the centrality dependence of high-$p_{\\rm T}$ direct photon and charged hadron production. We find that due to the estimated spatial dependence of the nuclear parton distribution functions, it will be demanding to unambiguously expose the neutron-skin effect with direct photons. However, when taking a ratio between the cross sections for negatively and positively charged high-$p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons, even centrality-dependent nuclear-PDF effects cancel making this observable a better handle on the neutron skin. Up to 20~\\% effects can be expected for the most peripheral collisions.

  10. Magnetoresistance generated from charge-spin conversion by anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical formulation of magnetoresistance effect in a metallic ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayer originated from the charge-spin conversion by the anomalous Hall effect is presented. Analytical expressions of the longitudinal and transverse resistivities in both nonmagnet and ferromagnet are obtained by solving the spin diffusion equation. The magnetoresistance generated from charge-spin conversion purely caused by the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnet is found to be proportional to the square of the spin polarizations in the ferromagnet and has fixed sign. We also find additional magnetoresistances in both nonmagnet and ferromagnet arising from the mixing of the spin Hall and anomalous Hall effects. The sign of this mixing resistance depends on those of the spin Hall angle in the nonmagnet and the spin polarizations of the ferromagnet.

  11. Giant Nernst effect in the incommensurate charge density wave state of P4W12O44

    Kolincio, Kamil K.; Daou, Ramzy; Pérez, Olivier; Guérin, Laurent; Fertey, Pierre; Pautrat, Alain

    2016-12-01

    We report the study of Nernst effect in quasi-low-dimensional tungsten bronze P4W12O44 showing a sequence of Peierls instabilities. We demonstrate that both condensation of the electronic carriers in the charge density wave state and the existence of high-mobility electrons and holes originating from the small pockets remaining in the incompletely nested Fermi surface give rise to a Nernst effect of a magnitude similar to that observed in heavy fermion compounds.

  12. Improving the spatial resolution in CZT detectors using charge sharing effect and transient signal analysis: Simulation study

    Zheng, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Zeng; Deen, M. Jamal; Peng, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors are capable of providing superior energy resolution and three-dimensional position information of gamma ray interactions in a large variety of fields, including nuclear physics, gamma-ray imaging and nuclear medicine. Some dedicated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems, for example, for breast cancer detection, require higher contrast recovery and more accurate event location compared with a whole-body PET system. The spatial resolution is currently limited by electrode pitch in CZT detectors. A straightforward approach to increase the spatial resolution is by decreasing the detector electrode pitch, but this leads to higher fabrication cost and a larger number of readout channels. In addition, inter-electrode charge spreading can negate any improvement in spatial resolution. In this work, we studied the feasibility of achieving sub-pitch spatial resolution in CZT detectors using two methods: charge sharing effect and transient signal analysis. We noted that their valid ranges of usage were complementary. The dependences of their corresponding valid ranges on electrode design, depth-of-interaction (DOI), voltage bias and signal triggering threshold were investigated. The implementation of these two methods in both pixelated and cross-strip configuration of CZT detectors were discussed. Our results show that the valid range of charge sharing effect increases as a function of DOI, but decreases with increasing gap width and bias voltage. For a CZT detector of 5 mm thickness, 100 μm gap and biased at 400 V, the valid range of charge sharing effect was found to be about 112.3 μm around the gap center. This result complements the valid range of the transient signal analysis within one electrode pitch. For a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~17 and preliminary measurements, the sub-pitch spatial resolution is expected to be ~30 μm and ~250 μm for the charge sharing and transient signal analysis methods

  13. Improving the spatial resolution in CZT detectors using charge sharing effect and transient signal analysis: Simulation study

    Zheng, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Zeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); Deen, M. Jamal, E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); Peng, Hao, E-mail: penghao@mcmaster.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, McMaster University, Ontario L8S 4K1, Hamilton (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors are capable of providing superior energy resolution and three-dimensional position information of gamma ray interactions in a large variety of fields, including nuclear physics, gamma-ray imaging and nuclear medicine. Some dedicated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems, for example, for breast cancer detection, require higher contrast recovery and more accurate event location compared with a whole-body PET system. The spatial resolution is currently limited by electrode pitch in CZT detectors. A straightforward approach to increase the spatial resolution is by decreasing the detector electrode pitch, but this leads to higher fabrication cost and a larger number of readout channels. In addition, inter-electrode charge spreading can negate any improvement in spatial resolution. In this work, we studied the feasibility of achieving sub-pitch spatial resolution in CZT detectors using two methods: charge sharing effect and transient signal analysis. We noted that their valid ranges of usage were complementary. The dependences of their corresponding valid ranges on electrode design, depth-of-interaction (DOI), voltage bias and signal triggering threshold were investigated. The implementation of these two methods in both pixelated and cross-strip configuration of CZT detectors were discussed. Our results show that the valid range of charge sharing effect increases as a function of DOI, but decreases with increasing gap width and bias voltage. For a CZT detector of 5 mm thickness, 100 µm gap and biased at 400 V, the valid range of charge sharing effect was found to be about 112.3 µm around the gap center. This result complements the valid range of the transient signal analysis within one electrode pitch. For a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~17 and preliminary measurements, the sub-pitch spatial resolution is expected to be ~30 µm and ~250 µm for the charge sharing and transient signal analysis methods

  14. Correct Evaluation of the Effect of Transverse Effective Charges on Phonons in AlAs Quantum Dots

    QIN Guo-Yi

    2003-01-01

    An improved valence force field model (VFFM) is suggested to calculate the phonon modes in both bulk specimens and quantum dots (QDs) of AlAs taking account of the effect of transverse effective charges (TCs) correctly.The resultant dispersions of AlAs bulk phonons are in accord better with the results carefully fitted to the experimental data by using 11-parameters rigid-ion model, than those got by ordinary VFFM, especially in the region of near F point. For AlAs QDs, TCs are evaluated bond by bond for each phonon mode of QD and its effect on the change of the force on atoms is taken into account to modify further the phonon spectrum. The frequency spectra and densities of phonon states of different irreducible representations calculated by using improved VFFM are compared with the results of ordinary VFFM. The correct evaluation of the TCs is not only important in calculating the phonon spectrum of both bulk and QD specimens accurately, but is also in the further discussion of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction, which can be directly related to TCs of ions in QD.

  15. Correct Evaluation of the Effect of Transverse Effective Charges on Phonons in AlAs Quantum Dots

    QINGuo-Yi

    2003-01-01

    An improved valence force field model (VFFM) is suggested to calculate the phonon modes in both bulk specimens and quantum dots (QDs) of AlAs taking account of the effect of transverse effective charges (TOs) correctly.The resultant dispersions of AlAs bulk phonons are in accord better with the results carefully fitted to the experimental data by using 11-parameters rigid-ion model, than those got by ordinary VFFM, especially in the region of near Г point. For AlAs QDs, TCs are evaluated bond by bond for each phonon mode of QD and its effect on the change of the force on atoms is taken into account to modify further the phonon spectrum. The frequency spectra and densities ofphonon states of d/fferent irreducible representations calculated by using improved VFFM are compared with the results of ordinary VFFM. The correct evaluation of the TOs is not only important in calculating the phonon spectrum of both bulk and QD specimens accurately, but is also in the further discussion of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction, which can be directly related to TCs of ions in QD.

  16. Effects of surface ligands on the charge memory characteristics of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin film

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Radmilovic, Velimir; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2009-11-01

    Charge memory characteristics have been systematically studied based on colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) embedded in ˜50 nm-thick TiO2 film. Ligand-capped QDs showed negligible electron charging effect, implying that the electron affinity of QDs was significantly decreased by surface dipole layer surrounding QDs. In contrast, the hole charging was affected by the carrier injection blocking effect of the surface ligands. Efficient electron and hole charging characteristics were realized by removing the surface ligands via H2 plasma treatment.

  17. Image Charge Effects in the Wetting Behavior of Alkanes on Water with Accounting for Water Solubility

    Kirill A. Emelyanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of surface forces, acting in the films of pentane, hexane, and heptane on water are discussed. It is shown that an important contribution to the surface forces originates from the solubility of water in alkanes. The equations for the distribution of electric potential inside the film are derived within the Debye-Hückel approximation, taking into account the polarization of the film boundaries by discrete charges at water-alkane interface and by the dipoles of water molecules dissolved in the film. On the basis of above equations we estimate the image charge contribution to the surface forces, excess free energy, isotherms of water adsorption in alkane film, and the total isotherms of disjoining pressure in alkane film. The results indicate the essential influence of water/alkane interface charging on the disjoining pressure in alkane films, and the wettability of water surface by different alkanes is discussed.

  18. A numerical analysis of finite Debye-length effects in induced-charge electro-osmosis

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Soni, Gaurav; Meinhart, Carl; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    For a microchamber filled with a binary electrolyte and containing a flat un-biased center electrode at one wall, we employ three numerical models to study the strength of the resulting induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flow rolls: (i) a full nonlinear continuum model resolving the double layer, (ii) a linear slip-velocity model not resolving the double layer and without tangential charge transport inside this layer, and (iii) a nonlinear slip-velocity model extending the linear model by including the tangential charge transport inside the double layer. We show that compared to the full model, the slip-velocity models significantly overestimate the ICEO flow. This provides a partial explanation of the quantitative discrepancy between observed and calculated ICEO velocities reported in the literature. The discrepancy increases significantly for increasing Debye length relative to the electrode size, i.e. for nanofluidic systems. However, even for electrode dimensions in the micrometer range, the discrepanc...

  19. Analysis of incomplete charge transfer effects in a CMOS image sensor

    Han Liqiang; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao; Xu Chao; Gao Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    A method to judge complete charger transfer is proposed for a four-transistor CMOS image sensor with a large pixel size.Based on the emission current theory,a qualitative photoresponse model is established to the preliminary prediction.Further analysis of noise for incomplete charge transfer predicts the noise variation.The test pixels were fabricated in a specialized 0.18μm CMOS image sensor process and two different processes of buried N layer implantation are compared.The trend prediction corresponds with the test results,especially as it can distinguish an unobvious incomplete charge transfer.The method helps us judge whether the charge transfer time satisfies the requirements of the readout circuit for the given process especially for pixels of a large size.

  20. Effect of cathodic charging on Al-32Si-2Cu alloy in acidic solution

    Antonyraj Arockiasamy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Al-32Si-2Cu intermetallic was subjected to electrochemical cathodic charging and corrosion test in hydrochloric acid (HCl solution of concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 M. The influence of cathodic charging current density and time on changing the surface morphology, phase transformation, compositions, and fracture mode has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. A considerable drop in Vickers microhardness value with increasing cathodic charging time of the specimen was observed. Electrochemical polarization facilitates the formation of simple and mixed salt (AlCl3, Al5Cl3(OH12.2H2O over the alloy surface by chloride inclusion in the major corrosion product of hydroxides or oxides of Al.

  1. Atomistic simulation of charge effects: From tunable thin film growth to isolation of surface states with spin-orbit coupling

    Ming, Wenmei

    This dissertation revitalizes the importance of surface charge effects in semiconductor nanostructures, in particular in the context of thin film growth and exotic electronic structures under delicate spin-orbit coupling. A combination of simulation techniques, including density functional theory calculation, kinetic Monte Carlo method, nonequilibrium Green's function method, and tight binding method, were employed to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of four topics: (1) Effects of Li doping on H-diffusion in MgH 2 for hydrogen storage. It addresses both the effect of Fermi level tuning by charged dopant and the effect of dopant-defect interaction, and the latter was largely neglected in previous works; (2) Tuning nucleation density of the metal island with charge doping of the graphene substrate. It is the first time that the surface charge doping effect is proposed and studied as an effective approach to tune the kinetics of island nucleation at the early stage of thin film growth; (3) Complete isolation of Rashba surface states on the saturated semiconductor surface. It shows that the naturally saturated semiconductor surface of InSe(0001) with Au single layer film provides a mechanism for the formation of Rashba states with large spin splitting; it opens up an innovative route to obtaining ideal Rashba states without the overwhelming bulk spin-degenerate carriers in spin-dependent transport; (4) Formation of large band gap quantum spin Hall state on Si surface. This study reveals the importance of atomic orbital composition in the formation of a topological insulator, and shows promisingly the possible integration of topological insulator technology into Si-based modern electronic devices.

  2. Location of DNA damage by charge exchanging repair enzymes: effects of cooperativity on location time

    Eriksen Kasper

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How DNA repair enzymes find the relatively rare sites of damage is not known in great detail. Recent experiments and molecular data suggest that individual repair enzymes do not work independently of each other, but interact with each other through charges exchanged along the DNA. A damaged site in the DNA hinders this exchange. The hypothesis is that the charge exchange quickly liberates the repair enzymes from error-free stretches of DNA. In this way, the sites of damage are located more quickly; but how much more quickly is not known, nor is it known whether the charge exchange mechanism has other observable consequences. Results Here the size of the speed-up gained from this charge exchange mechanism is calculated and the characteristic length and time scales are identified. In particular, for Escherichia coli, I estimate the speed-up is 50000/N, where N is the number of repair enzymes participating in the charge exchange mechanism. Even though N is not exactly known, a speed-up of order 10 is not entirely unreasonable. Furthermore, upon over expression of all the repair enzymes, the location time only varies as N-1/2 and not as 1/N. Conclusion The revolutionary hypothesis that DNA repair enzymes use charge exchange along DNA to locate damaged sites more efficiently is actually sound from a purely theoretical point of view. Furthermore, the predicted collective behavior of the location time is important in assessing the impact of stress-ful and radioactive environments on individual cell mutation rates.

  3. The Effect of the Semiconductive Screen on Space Charge Suppression in Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Li, Lin; Han, Bai; Song, Wei; Wang, Xuan; Lei, Qing-Quan

    2014-10-01

    The space charge distributions of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) with Borouge's Borlink™ semiconductive screen type LE0550 and LE0595 from a pulsed electro-acoustic method are obtained. The contact interface morphology at the semiconductive screen and the structure of XLPE near the interface are characterized. The dielectric spectrum and the conductivity current of XLPE with the different semiconductive electrodes are compared. The semiconductive screen changes the structure and the dielectric characteristic of XLPE near the contact interface, which may be the main reason for space charge suppression in XLPE with Borouge's type LE0550 semiconductive screen.

  4. Dust charge fluctuation effects on Langmuir waves with kappa distributed electrons

    Jamshidi, M.; Rouhani, M. R.; Hakimi Pajouh, H.

    2016-03-01

    Using a kinetic description, dust charge fluctuations due to the inelastic collisions between dust particles and plasma particles are studied in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. Most astrophysical and space plasmas are observed to have non-Maxwellian high energy tail. Therefore, a kappa distribution for electrons in the equilibrium is assumed. The dispersion relation and damping rates for Langmuir waves are obtained. Considering the dust charge fluctuations increases the damping rate of Langmuir waves. It is shown that the damping rate of Langmuir waves depends on the spectral index and the dust density parameter.

  5. Study of Deformation Effects in the Charged Particle Emission from 46Ti

    Brekiesz, M; Maj, A; Kmiecik, M; Beck, C; Bednarczyk, P; Grebosz, J; Haas, F; Meczynski, W; Rauch, V; Rousseau, M; Zafra, A S; Styczen, J; Thummerer, S; Zieblinski, M; Zuber, K

    2004-01-01

    The 46Ti compound nucleus, as populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction 27Al + 19F at the bombarding energy of 144 MeV, has been investigated by charged particle spectroscopy using the multidetector array ICARE at the VIVITRON tandem facility of the IReS (Strasbourg). The light charged particles have been measured in coincidence with evaporation residues. The CACARIZO code, a Monte Carlo implementation of the statistical-model code CASCADE, has been used to calculate the spectral shapes of evaporated alpha-particles which are compared with the experimental spectra. This comparison indicates the possible signature of large deformations of the compound nucleus.

  6. Effects of volume corrections and resonance decays on cumulants of net-charge distributions in a Monte Carlo hadron resonance gas model

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2017-02-01

    The effects of volume corrections and resonance decays (the resulting correlations between positive charges and negative charges) on cumulants of net-proton distributions and net-charge distributions are investigated by using a Monte Carlo hadron resonance gas (MCHRG) model. The required volume distributions are generated by a Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) model. Except the variances of net-charge distributions, the MCHRG model with more realistic simulations of volume corrections, resonance decays and acceptance cuts can reasonably explain the data of cumulants of net-proton distributions and net-charge distributions reported by the STAR collaboration. The MCHRG calculations indicate that both the volume corrections and resonance decays make the cumulant products of net-charge distributions deviate from the Skellam expectations: the deviations of Sσ and κσ2 are dominated by the former effect while the deviations of ω are dominated by the latter one.

  7. Role of surface charge in determining the biological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Liu QQ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiangqiang Liu,1,* Hongxia Li,1,* Qiyue Xia,1 Ying Liu,1 Kai Xiao,1,2 1National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Hospital, 2Laboratory of Non-Human Primate Disease Model Research, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs in biomedical applications has provoked the urgent need to thoroughly address their interaction with biological systems. However, only limited studies have been performed to explore the effects of surface charge on the biological behaviors of QDs. In the present study, three commercially available QDs with different surface coatings were used to systematically evaluate the effects of surface charge on the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and in vivo biodistribution of QDs. Our results demonstrated that charged QDs entered both cancer cells and macrophages more efficiently than neutral ones, while negative QDs internalized mostly. Upon entry into cells, QDs were localized in different subcellular compartments (eg, cytoplasm and lysosomes depending on the surface charge. Interestingly, inconsistent with the result of internalization, positive QDs but not negative QDs exhibited severe cytotoxicity, which was likely due to their disruption of cell membrane integrity, and production of reactive oxygen species. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that negative and neutral QDs preferentially distributed in the liver and the spleen, whereas positive QDs mainly deposited in the kidney with obvious uptake in the brain. In general, surface charge plays crucial roles in determining the biological interactions of QDs. Keywords: cellular uptake, uptake pathways, intracellular distribution, reactive oxygen species

  8. Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ju, Zhengang; Tiam Tan, Swee; Ji, Yun; Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Liancheng; Wei Sun, Xiao, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Volkan Demir, Hilmi, E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, Department of Physics, and UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, TR-06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-16

    InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) caused by the strong polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells, which is a fundamental problem intrinsic to the III-nitrides. Here, we show that the QCSE is self-screened by the polarization induced bulk charges enabled by designing quantum barriers. The InN composition of the InGaN quantum barrier graded along the growth orientation opportunely generates the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barrier, which well compensate the polarization induced interface charges, thus avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using polarization induced bulk charges opens up new possibilities for device engineering of III-nitrides not only in LEDs but also in other optoelectronic devices.

  9. Comparison of the effect of grounding the column wall in gas-solid fluidized beds on electrostatic charge generation

    Sowinski, Andrew; Mayne, Antonio; Javed, Bassam; Mehrani, Poupak, E-mail: poupak.mehrani@uottawa.ca [University of Ottawa, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, 161 Louis Pasteur St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-06-23

    In gas-solid fluidized beds as particles are fluidized, they continuously come into contact with other particles, as well as the fluidization column wall. This generates electrostatic charges by means of triboelectrification and frictional charging, leading to particle agglomeration, reactor wall fouling, and eventually process downtime and large financial losses. Grounding the fluidization column has been considered as a means of helping electrostatic charge dissipation within fluidized beds; however, in industrial applications despite the process vessels being grounded, the electrostatic problem still persists. This work focused on the effect of fluidization column grounding on particle wall fouling. Experiments were conducted in an atmospheric system consist of a 0.1 m in diameter carbon steel fluidization column. The mass and charge-to-mass ratio (q/m) of the particles that remained adhered to the column wall upon the completion of one hour fluidization period were measured in an electrically isolated and grounded columns to quantitatively determine the amount of reactor wall fouling. Polyethylene particles with different particle size ranges (300- 1000 {mu}m) were fluidized with extra dry air at 1.5 times their respective minimum fluidization velocity (u{sub mf}). Results obtained in the grounded fluidization column were not significantly different from those in the isolated column for all particle size ranges tested where the particles mass collected and q/m and were found to be generally similar.

  10. Effect of Surface-optical Phonons on the Charge Transport in Wrap-gated Semiconducting Nanowire Field-effect Transistors

    Konar, Aniruddha; Fang, Tian; Jena, Debdeep

    2010-03-01

    Surface phonons (SO-phonons) arise at the boundary of two different dielectric mediums. Though the effect of electron-surface phonon scattering on low-filed charge transport has been studied extensively for thin Si-MOSFET [1] and graphene [2], its effect on the 1D nanowire devices has not studied so far. Vibrating diploes in polar gate-dielectric induces a time-varying potential inside the nanowires. The frequencies of these time-varying fields have been calculated by implementing electrostatic boundary conditions at different interfaces of nanowire-dielectric-metal system. Our calculation shows that the electron-SO phonon interaction strength decays exponentially from the gate-nanowire interface towards the nanowire axis. Electron-SO phonon scattering rate has been calculated using Boltzmann transport equation under relaxation time approximation. We find that for thin nanowires (radius 1-20 nm), electron-SO phonon scattering rate is comparable to other dominant scattering mechanisms (such as impurity and bulk optical phonon scatterings) and reduces carrier mobility significantly. Calculating surface-phonon limited mobility of Si nanowires on various available common dielectrics, we have predicted the optimum choice of gate-dielectrics for nanowire-based electronic devices. [4pt] [1] M. V. Fischetti et. al J. Appl. Phys. 90 4581 (2001). [0pt] [2] A. Konar et. al. arXiv: 0902.0819.

  11. The effect of charge on the release kinetics from polysaccharide–nanoclay composites

    Buffa, Stefano Del; Grifoni, Emanuele; Ridi, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.ridi@unifi.it; Baglioni, Piero, E-mail: piero.baglioni@unifi.it [University of Florence, Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff” and CSGI (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this study was to integrate inorganic halloysite nanotubes (HNT) with chitosan and hyaluronic acid to obtain hybrid nanocomposites with opposing charges and to investigate their potential in the controlled release of drug model probes. Two oppositely charged polysaccharides, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, were selected for their biocompatibility and their importance in biomedical applications. The high surface area and the hollow nanometric-sized lumen of HNT allowed for the efficient loading of rhodamine 110 and carboxyfluorescein, used as models for oppositely charged drugs. In the case of chitosan, the preparation of the nanocomposite was carried out exploiting the electrostatic interaction between the polymer and HNT in water, while with hyaluronic acid, a covalent functionalization strategy was employed to couple the polymer with the clay. Nanocomposites were characterized with thermal, microscopic, and spectroscopic techniques, and the release kinetics of the model compounds was assessed by fluorescence measurements. The release curves were fitted with a model able to account for the desorption process from the external and the internal halloysite surfaces. The results show that both polymeric coatings alter the release of the probes, indicating a key role of both charge and coating composition on the initial and final amount of released dye, as well as on the rate of the desorption process.

  12. Phase Behavior of Charged Colloids and the Effect of External Fields

    Hynninen, A.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Colloids are particles with a size in the nano- to micrometer range that are dispersed in a solvent, and that due to collisions from the solvent molecules, undergo Brownian motion. In most cases, the surface of the colloid acquires a net charge due to dissociation of chemical groups at the surface.

  13. Effect of deposition charges on the wettability performance of electrochromic polymers

    Çağlar, Aysel; Cengiz, Uğur; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Kaya, İsmet

    2015-03-01

    Electrochromic polymers have been designed as future candidates for electrochromic displays (ECDs) and smart windows. This class of conducting polymers has been studied with their several optical properties as well as spectroelectrochemical stabilities. In practical use their contamination and abrasion could be expected to be main problem as exposed to moisture and other possible pollutants. In this study, we present a perspective to well-known electrochromic polymers in the words of their durable use. For this aim, a series of electrochromic polymers are deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plates by bulk electrolysis. Polymeric films are deposited by varied deposition charges (Qs) ranging from 62 to 620 mC cm-2 for comparison. Equilibrium water contact angle (θwaterequ) measurements of the prepared surfaces are measured by Attention Theta Optical Tensiometer. Surface roughness parameters (RMS) are determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique and used for interpretation of hydrophobic-hydrophilic characteristics. The results clearly indicate that; poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has a hydrophilic surface whose hydrophilicity is increased by applied deposition charge and becomes a superhydrophile at high deposition charges. Among the tested polymers polycarbazole (PCarb) is the most promising long lifetime candidate due to its relatively hydrophobic character. Also, the hydrophobicity of PCarb is linearly increased by increasing deposition charge and reaches an optimum point at a particular condition.

  14. The electro-mechanical effect from charge dynamics on polymeric insulation lifetime

    H. Alghamdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For polymeric material used as electrical insulation, the presence of space charges could be the consequence of material degradations that are thermally activated but increased by the application of an electric field. The dynamics of space charge, therefore, can be potentially used to characterize the material. In this direction, a new aging model in which parameters have clear physical meanings has been developed and applied to the material to extrapolate the lifetime. The kinetic equation has been established based on charge trapping and detrapping of the injected charge from the electrodes. The local electromechanical energy stored in the region surrounding the trap is able to reduce the trap-depth with a value related to the electric field. At a level where the internal electric field exceeds the detrapping field in the material, an electron can be efficiently detrapped and the released energy from detrapping process can cause a weak bond or chain scission i.e. material degradation. The model has been applied to the electro-thermally aged low density polyethylene film samples, showing well fitted result, as well as interesting relationships between parameter estimates and insulation morphology.

  15. Effects of surface charges of graphene oxide on neuronal outgrowth and branching.

    Tu, Qin; Pang, Long; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Yanrong; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Bingzhang; Wang, Jinyi

    2014-01-07

    Graphene oxides with different surface charges were fabricated from carboxylated graphene oxide by chemical modification with amino- (-NH2), poly-m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid- (-NH2/-SO3H), or methoxyl- (-OCH3) terminated functional groups. The chemically functionalized graphene oxides and the carboxylated graphene oxide were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrometry, ζ potential measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the resulting graphene oxides were used as substrates for culturing primary rat hippocampal neurons to investigate neurite outgrowth and branching. The morphological features of neurons that directly reflect their potential capability in synaptic transmission were characterized. The results demonstrate that the chemical properties of graphene oxide can be systematically modified by attaching different functional groups that confer known characteristics to the substrate. By manipulating the charge carried by the functionalized graphene oxides, the outgrowth and branching of neuronal processes can be controlled. Compared with neutral, zwitterionic, or negatively charged graphene oxides, positively charged graphene oxide was found to be more beneficial for neurite outgrowth and branching. The ability to chemically modify graphene oxide to control neurite outgrowth could be implemented clinically, especially in cases wherein long-term presence of outgrowth modulation is necessary.

  16. Charge transport across a mesoscopic superconductor–normal metal junction: coherence and decoherence effects

    Belogolovskii, M.; Golubov, A.; Grajcar, M.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Seidel, P.

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple scattering approach to the charge transport across a realistic superconductor–normal injector interface of a finite transmittance that is modeled by a double-barrier mesoscopic junction. For a d-wave pairing symmetry, our calculations combine a fully quantum-mechanical scattering

  17. Sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium of binary mixtures of charged colloids including volume effects

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium of binary mixtures of charged colloids in the presence of small ions and for non-dilute conditions, by extending the work of Biben and Hansen (1994 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 A345). For a monocomponent system, they included a Carnahan-Starling har

  18. Space-charge-limited current and the effect of light in CdS-single crystals

    Driedonks, F.; Zijlstra, R.J.J.

    1966-01-01

    Thin CdS-single crystals in darkness show current-voltage characteristics in agreement with Lampert's theory. Illumination with photons in the extrinsic energy-range appears to increase considerably the amount of injected charge that remains free in the conduction band.

  19. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions

    Yigit, Cemil; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute “Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine,” 14513 Teltow (Germany); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Heyda, Jan [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  20. Effect of magnetic intensity on diameter of charged jets in electrospinning

    Liu Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the electrospinning process, the rotating charged-jet moves between the permanent magnets, as a result Ampere force is generated. Experiment shows that the magnetic field can decrease fiber size and enhance the uniformity of fiber size.

  1. The effect of charge on the release kinetics from polysaccharide-nanoclay composites

    Del Buffa, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuele; Ridi, Francesca; Baglioni, Piero

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to integrate inorganic halloysite nanotubes (HNT) with chitosan and hyaluronic acid to obtain hybrid nanocomposites with opposing charges and to investigate their potential in the controlled release of drug model probes. Two oppositely charged polysaccharides, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, were selected for their biocompatibility and their importance in biomedical applications. The high surface area and the hollow nanometric-sized lumen of HNT allowed for the efficient loading of rhodamine 110 and carboxyfluorescein, used as models for oppositely charged drugs. In the case of chitosan, the preparation of the nanocomposite was carried out exploiting the electrostatic interaction between the polymer and HNT in water, while with hyaluronic acid, a covalent functionalization strategy was employed to couple the polymer with the clay. Nanocomposites were characterized with thermal, microscopic, and spectroscopic techniques, and the release kinetics of the model compounds was assessed by fluorescence measurements. The release curves were fitted with a model able to account for the desorption process from the external and the internal halloysite surfaces. The results show that both polymeric coatings alter the release of the probes, indicating a key role of both charge and coating composition on the initial and final amount of released dye, as well as on the rate of the desorption process.

  2. Near-wall conductivity effect under a space-charge-saturated sheath in the Hall thruster

    Zhang Feng-Kui; Ding Yong-Jie; Qing Shao-Wei; Wu Xian-De

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we adopt the modified Morozov secondary electron emission model to investigate the influence of the characteristic of a space-charge-saturated sheath near the insulated wall of the Hall thruster on the near-wall conductivity,by the method of two-dimensional (2D) particle simulation (2D+3V).The results show that due to the sharp increase of collision frequency between the electrons and the wall under the space-charge-saturated sheath,the near-wall transport current under this sheath is remarkably higher than that under a classical sheath,and equals the near-wall transport current under a spatially oscillating sheath in order of magnitude.However,the transport currents under a space-charge-saturated sheath and a spatially oscillating sheath are different in mechanism,causing different current density distributions under the above two sheaths,and a great influence of channel width on the near-wall transport current under a space-charge-saturated sheath.

  3. Effects of a comprehensive nutritional program on pressure ulcer healing, length of hospital stay, and charges to patients.

    Allen, Beverlin

    2013-05-01

    The burden of pressure ulcers will intensify because of a rapidly increasing elderly population. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary nutritional protocol on pressure ulcer wound healing, length of hospital stays, and charges for pressure ulcer management. The pre/post quasi-experimental design study comprised of 100 patients (50 patients in each group) 60 years or older with pressure ulcer. Research questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, chi-square tests, and t tests. Study findings indicate that the intervention was effective in improving pressure ulcer wound healing, decreasing both hospital length of stay (LOS) for treatment of pressure ulcer and total hospital LOS, while showing no significant additional charges for treatment of pressure ulcers. The older adults are at the highest risk of developing pressure ulcers that result in prolonged hospitalization, high health care costs, increased mortality, and decreased quality of life.

  4. First Analysis of the Space Charge Effects on a Third Order Coupled Resonance Proc. HB2016 Malmo, Sweden

    Franchetti, Giuliano; Huschauer, Alexander; Schmidt, Frank; Wasef, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The effect of space charge on bunches stored for long term in a nonlinear lattice can be severe for beam survival. This may be the case in projects as SIS100 at GSI or LIU at CERN. In 2012, for the first time, the effect of space charge on a normal third order coupled resonance was investigated at the CERN-PS. The experimental results have highlighted an unprecedented asymmetric beam response: in the vertical plane the beam exhibits a thick halo, while the horizontal profile has only core growth. The quest for explaining these results requires a journey through the 4 dimensional dynamics of the coupled resonance investigating the fixed-lines, and requires a detailed code-experiment benchmarking also including beam profile benchmarking. This proceeding gives a short summary of the experimental results of the 2012 PS measurements, and address an interpretation based on the dynamics the fixed-lines.

  5. Effects of neutral gas release on current collection during the CHARGE-2 rocket experiment

    Gilchrist, B. E.; Banks, P. M.; Neubert, T.; Williamson, P. R.; Myers, Neil B.; Raitt, W. John; Sasaki, S.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of current collection enhancements due to cold nitrogen gas control jet emissions from a highly charged rocket payload in the ionosphere are reported. These observations were made during the second cooperative high altitude rocket gun experiment (CHARGE-2) which was an electrically tethered mother/daughter payload system. The current collection enhancement was observed at the daughter payload located 100 to 400 m away from the mother which was firing an energetic electron beam. The authors interpret these results in terms of an electrical discharge forming in close proximity to the daughter during the short periods of gas emission. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance the electron current collection capability of positively charged vehicles by means of deliberate neutral gas releases into an otherwise undisturbed space plasma. These results can also be compared with recent laboratory observations of hollow cathode plasma contactors operating in the ignited mode. Experimental observations of current collection enhancements due to cold nitrogen gas control jet emissions from a highly charged, isolated daughter payload in the nighttime ionosphere were made. These observations were derived from the second cooperative high altitude rocket gun experiment (CHARGE-2) which was an electrically tethered mother-daughter payload system. The rocket flew from White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in December, 1985. The rocket achieved an altitude of 261 km and carried a 1 keV electron beam emitting up to 48 mA of current (Myers, et al., 1989a). The mother payload, carried the electron beam source, while the daughter acted as a remote current collection and observation platform and reached a distance of 426 m away from the main payload. Gas emissions at the daughter were due to periodic thruster jet firings to maintain separation velocity between the two payloads.

  6. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  7. Pronounced Hysteresis and High Charge Storage Stability of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Field-Effect Transistors

    Wang, S.G.; Sellin, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, pronounced hysteresis loops were observed in single-walled carbon nanotube-based field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). The shift in threshold voltage was found to increase with increasing gate voltage sweep ranges. A significant enhancement in the charge storage stability over 14 days was obtained at room temperature after a two-stage hydrogen and air annealing process was applied to the CNTFETs. The passivation of interface traps by annealing in hydrogen and the removal of phys...

  8. Contribution of π-bonds to effective charges, cohesive energy, and force constants of graphene-like compounds

    Davydov, S. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    For 14 two-dimensional hexagonal compounds IV-IV and III-V, analytical expressions have been obtained using the Harrison bond-orbital method for the contribution from the π-interaction to the polarity of interatomic bonds, the effective atomic and transverse dynamical charges and their dependences on the deformation, as well as to the binding energy, the cohesive energy, and the central and non-central force constants.

  9. Effect of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    2013-01-01

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultra-relativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface tran...

  10. Investigation of the effect of noise on the operation of the charge sensitive amplifier with compensated pyroelectric interference

    Starcev V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems that arise during the operation of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA in critical conditions. Simplified schemes and mathematical models of the CSA are presented in order to study the effect of noise of operational amplifier and high-resistance resistor of negative feedback loop. The dependence of the CSA noise level on the pyroelectric interference compensation value is studied. Mathematical analysis data is confirmed by computer circuit simulation.

  11. Nuclear Effects in Structure Functions xF3(x, Q2) from Charge Current Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering

    DUAN Chun-Gui; SHEN Peng-Nian; LI Guang-Lie

    2006-01-01

    By taking advantage of the model-independent nuclear parton distributions, the structure functions xF3(x, Q2)are calculated, in comparison with the experimental data from CCFR neutrino-nuclei charge current deep inelastic scattering. It is shown that shadowing and anti-shadowing effects occur in valence quark distributions for small and medium x regions, respectively. It is suggested that the neutrino experimental data should be employed in the future for pinning down the nuclear parton distributions.

  12. BSA adsorption on aliphatic and aromatic acid SAMs: investigating the effect of residual surface charge and sublayer nature.

    Vallée, Anne; Humblot, Vincent; Al Housseiny, Rana; Boujday, Souhir; Pradier, Claire-Marie

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the influence of surface charge and layer rigidity on Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption has been investigated. To this aim, Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) bearing terminal COOH or COO(-) groups were built on gold surfaces. The rigidity of the acid terminated SAMs was modified using either an aliphatic, mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), or an aromatic, mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) thiol. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Polarization Modulation Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and contact angle measurements, were used to deeply characterize the so-built layers. The surface charge was successfully modified by varying the pH of the rinsing solution. Indeed, COOH were the dominating species upon rinsing at pH 2 and COO(-) species dominated upon rinsing at pH 11. Rinsing at an intermediate pH, 5.5, led to the coexistence of both carboxylic and carboxylate moieties. The hydrophilic character of the surface was also found to depend on the rinsing pH, with a minimum after rinsing at intermediate pH. Using aromatic or aliphatic thiols did not affect the speciation but led to considerable differences in the hydrophilic character of these surfaces. Eventually, the adsorption of BSA on the acidic layers was investigated using PM-RAIRS. The results showed interesting differences between the charged layers. Thus, for both MUA and MBA -based SAMs, the amount of adsorbed proteins decreased when the amount of COO(-) on the surface increased. Interestingly, these effects were totally annihilated when the adsorption was carried out in PBS buffer. Moreover, for similar surface charges, the aromatic layers were able to bind higher amounts of proteins than the aliphatic ones. This work points out the key role of both surface charge and rigidity on protein adsorption. The influence of additional parameters, such as hydrophilicity and SAMs' rigidity is also established.

  13. Multiple charge domains model for the lock-on effect in GaAs power photoconductive switches

    Tian Liqiang; Shi Wei [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)], E-mail: swshi@mail.xaut.edu.cn

    2008-06-07

    This paper reports that the lock-on field of semi-insulating (SI) GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) was measured under different bias voltages. Based on the experimental results and the transferred-electron effect, a model for the lock-on effect in GaAs PCSSs is proposed. It is shown that the charge domain with an ultrahigh electric field is due to a high photogenerated carrier density, which gives rise to intensive impact ionization accompanied by electron-hole recombination radiation within the domain. Since new domains can be nucleated uninterruptedly by the carriers generated by absorption of recombination radiation, the forefront domain crosses the switch at a speed alternating between the photon velocity and the carrier saturated drift velocity, which makes the observed velocity of carriers larger than the saturated drift velocity. The lock-on field results from the fixed number of a moving train of avalanching charge domains, the steady-state domains electric fields and the steadfast external electric field of the domains. The recovery of the lock-on effect is caused by domain quenching. The calculations agree with the experimental results. Moreover, the analytical results indicate that SI-GaAs PCSS is essentially a type of photo-activated charge domain device.

  14. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Oloff, L.-P.; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K.

    2016-06-01

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  15. Probing Electronic, Structural, and Charge Transfer Properties of Organic Semiconductor/Inorganic Oxide Interfaces Using Field-Effect Transistors

    Spalenka, Josef Wade

    Interfaces between organic semiconductors and inorganic oxides provide the functionality for devices including field-effect transistors (FETs) and organic photovoltaics. Organic FETs are sensitive to the physical structure and electronic properties of the few molecular layers of material at the interface between the semiconducting channel and the gate dielectric, and provide quantitative information such as the field-effect mobility of charge carriers and the concentration of trapped charge. In this thesis, FET interfaces between organic small-molecule semiconductors and SiO2, and donor/acceptor interfaces between organic small-molecules and the wide bandgap semiconductor ZnO are studied using electrical measurements of field-effect transistor devices. Monolayer-scale films of dihexyl sexithiophene are shown to have higher hole mobility than other monolayer organic semiconductors, and the origin of the high mobility is discussed. Studies of the crystal structure of the monolayer using X-ray structural probes and atomic force microscopy reveal the crystal structure is different in the monolayer regime compared to thicker films and bulk crystals. Progress and remaining challenges are discussed for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of the dynamic changes in the local crystal structure in organic monolayers due to charge carriers generated during the application of electric fields from the gate electrode in working FETs. Studies were conducted of light sensitive organic/inorganic interfaces that are modified with organic molecules grafted to the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. These interfaces are models for donor/acceptor interfaces in photovoltaics. The process of exciton dissociation at the donor/acceptor interface was sensitive to the insulating or semiconducting molecules grafted to the ZnO, and the photoinduced charge transfer process is measured by the threshold voltage shift of FETs during illumination. Charge transfer between light sensitive donor

  16. Effect of Charge and Hydrophobicity on Adsorption of Modified Starches on Polyester.

    Samu; Moulee; Kumar

    1999-12-15

    Polyester fabric (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) is a hydrophobic polymer. Its hydrophobic nature can be a disadvantage for certain applications like dyeing, finishing, detergency, etc. Physical or chemical modification of the polyester to make it more hydrophilic is therefore desirable for certain performance characteristics. Surface modification of polyester to make it hydrophilic can be achieved by adsorbing polymers on the polyester surface. Starch is a commonly available, hydrophilic polymer used in many textile applications that can be used to modify polyester. However, it needs to be chemically modified so that it can adsorb on the polyester fabric and physically modify the fabric characteristics. The polymers used in this study are two different modified starches-cationic and anionic starches and mixtures of the two. The adsorption kinetics on a polyester substrate was studied. The effect of charge and hydrophobicity on adsorption was investigated. Cationic starches were shown to readily adsorb on polyester and this was attributed to electrostatic interactions. Hydrophobic substituents on the cationic moiety resulted in increased adsorption. This was attributed to the weak hydrophobic interaction between the polymer chains which could result in a more coiled polymer conformation. It is hypothesized that more starch molecules are required for surface coverage of the polyester, resulting in an increase in adsorption. Anionic starch was adsorbed on the substrate but at a slower rate than the cationic starches. It is likely that there is a H bonding between acid groups on the starch and the ester groups of the polyester. However, the anionic starch is desorbed when the polyester is placed in an aqueous medium. When a blend of cationic starch and anionic starch was used, a low concentration of anionic starch was seen to increase adsorption, indicating that the polyelectrolyte complex itself may be adsorbing on the substrate. Further increases cause a decrease in

  17. Solvent electronic polarization effects on a charge transfer excitation studied by the mean-field QM/MM method

    Nakano, Hiroshi [Department of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto Daigaku Katsura, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Electronic polarization effects of a medium can have a significant impact on a chemical reaction in condensed phases. We discuss the effects on the charge transfer excitation of a chromophore, N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline, in various solvents using the mean-field QM/MM method with a polarizable force field. The results show that the explicit consideration of the solvent electronic polarization effects is important especially for a solvent with a low dielectric constant when we study the solvatochromism of the chromophore.

  18. Molecular reorganization in organic field-effect transistors and its effect on two-dimensional charge transport pathways.

    Liscio, Fabiola; Albonetti, Cristiano; Broch, Katharina; Shehu, Arian; Quiroga, Santiago David; Ferlauto, Laura; Frank, Christian; Kowarik, Stefan; Nervo, Roberto; Gerlach, Alexander; Milita, Silvia; Schreiber, Frank; Biscarini, Fabio

    2013-02-26

    Charge transport in organic thin film transistors takes place in the first few molecular layers in contact with the gate dielectric. Here we demonstrate that the charge transport pathways in these devices are extremely sensitive to the orientational defects of the first monolayers, which arise from specific growth conditions. Although these defects partially heal during the growth, they cause depletion of charge carriers in the first monolayer, and drive the current to flow in the monolayers above the first one. Moreover, the residual defects induce lower crystalline order and charge mobility. These results, which are not intuitively explained by electrostatics arguments, have been obtained by combining in situ real time structural and electrical characterization together with ex situ AFM measurements, on thin films of a relevant n-type organic semiconductor, N,N'-bis(n-octyl)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis dicarboximide grown by sublimation in a quasi-layer-by-layer mode at different substrate temperatures.

  19. Parton Rescattering Effect on the Charged Hadron Forward-Backward Multiplicity Correlation in pp Collisions at √s = 200 GeV*

    闫玉良; 董保国; 周代梅; 李笑梅; 马海亮; 萨本豪

    2012-01-01

    The parton rescattering effect on the charged hadron forward-backward multiplicity correlation in pp collisions at √s =200 GeV is studied by a parton and hadron cascade model, PACIAE, based on the PYTHIA model. The calculated multiplicity and pseudorapidity distribution of the final state charged hadrons are well compared with the experimental data. It is found that the final state charged hadron pseudorapidity distribution is different from the initial state charged partons. The parton rescattering effect on the charged hadron forward-backward multiplicity correlation increases with the increasing parton rescattering strength in the center pseudorapidity region (|η| 〈 1). However, this effect becomes weaker in the outer pseudorapidity region (|η| 〉 1).

  20. Charge Effects and Nanoparticle Pattern Formation in Electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip Printing of Colloids

    Richner, Patrizia; Norris, David J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-01-01

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics, to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O(1 {\\mu}m) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by ...

  1. Effect of Induced Charge on the Passivity and Passivity Breakdown of 304LN Stainless Steels

    Gargi Roy Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passivity breakdown of stainless steel by pitting in chloride environment is believed to occur at point at zero charge (pzc. So, the nature and quantity of charge on the surface plays a very important role on the breakdown of passivity, as chloride ion adsorption depends on that. In this work a DC potential was maintained between aluminium and graphite electrodes, and the aluminium electrode, in turn, was kept in the vicinity of the working electrode in the potentiostatic circuit. Both positive and negative polarity was applied on aluminium to attract or repel chloride ions in the vicinity of the working electrode. Chloride adsorption pattern on the stainless steel electrode got drastically altered due to application of DC potential on the aluminium-graphite circuit.

  2. Charge separation in organic solar cells: Effects of Coulomb interaction, recombination and hole propagation

    Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells are analysed within a simple efficient model that includes the important physical properties of such photovoltaic systems. In this model, in contrast with most of the previous studies, we take into account the motion of both the electron and the hole in the separation process at the donor-acceptor interface. We theoretically examine the exciton dissociation yield under the influences of charge Coulomb interaction and non-radiative recombination. We find that the electron-hole local Coulomb attraction and charge carriers' coupling parameters play an important role in the system performance and in the optimal energy conversion efficiency of the BHJ photocell. We show that the fixed-hole models tend to underestimate the yield.

  3. On Thermodynamical Relation Between Rotating Charged BTZ Black Holes and Effective String Theory

    Alexis Larra(~n)aga

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the first law of thermodynamics for the (2+1)-dimensional rotating charged BTZ black hole considering a pair of thermodynamical systems constructed with the two horizons of this solution. We show that these two systems are similar to the right and left movers of string theory and that the temperature associated with the black hole is the harmonic mean of the temperatures associated with these two systems.

  4. Gate-edge charges related effects and performance degradation in advanced multiple-gate MOSFETs

    Kilchytska V.; Alvarado J; Collaert N.; Rooyackers R.; Put S.; Simoen E.; Claeys C.; Flandre D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of negative charges (NC) located at the gate edges on the advanced MOSFETs behavior, paying particular attention to the subthreshold slope, S, maximum transconductance, Gmmax, and analog figures of merit, such as transconductance over drain current ratio, Gm/ID, output conductance, GD, Early voltage, VEA, and intrinsic gain. General trends obtained by two-dimensional numerical simulations on double-gate (DG) structures are whenever possible qualitatively corr...

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    2016-08-22

    geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available...15 1 1.0 Background and Motivation Lithium-ion batteries are a popular choice of power source for a variety of...military systems due to their promise of high power and high energy density. However, safety remains a significant concern, as battery failure leads

  6. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Institute Center for Microsystems–iMicro, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cimen, Furkan [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Alkis, Sabri [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4 V) at low operating voltage (6/−6 V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E ≥ 5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  7. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron-phonon coupling effects

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; Bansil, A.

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at a fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π ,π ) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.

  8. Effect of the layer charge on the interaction of porphyrin dyes in layered silicates dispersions

    Ceklovsky, A., E-mail: alexander.ceklovsky@gmail.co [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Czimerova, A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Lang, K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bujdak, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2009-09-15

    Interaction between tetracationic porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP), and layered silicates in aqueous dispersions was studied using absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. The charge density of silicates increases in order synthetic laponite (LAP)charge. The molecular association of the TMPyP molecules is expected to occur to a certain extent in dependence on the layer charge of a clay mineral template. H-aggregates were not observed in any system. Only FHT colloids induced the formation of at least two components with significantly different spectral properties.

  9. Magnetic field-induced charge-density-wave transitions: The role of the orbital and Pauli effects

    Kartsovnik, M. V.; Andres, D.; Biberacher, W.; Müller, H.

    2009-03-01

    Due to a low transition temperature and, correspondingly, a small energy gap, the charge-density-wave (CDW) state of the layered organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 is very sensitive to pressure and magnetic field. The latter couples to the CDW via two competing mechanisms: Pauli paramagnetism and orbital motion of charge carriers in a magnetic field. We study the interplay between the Pauli and orbital effects under a pressure of 2.8 kbar, in the region of the field-induced CDW (FICDW) instability. We find that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, the FICDW state is enhanced when the Zeeman splitting becomes commensurate with the orbital quantization.

  10. Magnetic field-induced charge-density-wave transitions: The role of the orbital and Pauli effects

    Kartsovnik, M.V. [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: mark.kartsovnik@wmi.badw.de; Andres, D.; Biberacher, W. [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mueller, H. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2009-03-01

    Due to a low transition temperature and, correspondingly, a small energy gap, the charge-density-wave (CDW) state of the layered organic metal {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} is very sensitive to pressure and magnetic field. The latter couples to the CDW via two competing mechanisms: Pauli paramagnetism and orbital motion of charge carriers in a magnetic field. We study the interplay between the Pauli and orbital effects under a pressure of 2.8 kbar, in the region of the field-induced CDW (FICDW) instability. We find that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, the FICDW state is enhanced when the Zeeman splitting becomes commensurate with the orbital quantization.

  11. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag—In vitro assay

    Khorasani, M. T.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2007-06-01

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  12. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on surface charge and wettability of PVC blood bag-In vitro assay

    Khorasani, M.T. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: M.Khorasani@ippi.ac.ir; Mirzadeh, H. [Biomaterial Department of Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Wettability and zeta potential studies were performed to characterize the hydrophobicity and surface charge of PVC blood bag samples and evaluate the effect of these properties on fibroblast cells growth. The surface properties of PVC and plasma treated PVC were compared by water drop contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Light microscopy was used to study the behavior of cell attachment and growth on these surfaces. Water drop contact angle measurement shows that the plasma treated PVC becomes more hydrophilic and wettability increased. Zeta potential and in vitro cell culture measurements noticed that the plasma treated PVC surface is more negatively charge and consequently attachment of the L929 fibroblast cells decreased on this surface.

  13. Effect of concurrent joule heat and charge trapping on RESET for NbAlO fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

    Zhou, Peng; Ye, Li; Sun, Qing Qing; Wang, Peng Fei; Jiang, An Quan; Ding, Shi Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2013-02-19

    The RESET process of NbAlO-based resistive switching memory devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition is investigated at low temperatures from 80 to 200 K. We observed that the conduction mechanism of high resistance state changed from hopping conduction to Frenkel-Poole conduction with elevated temperature. It is found that the conductive filament rupture in RRAM RESET process can be attributed not only to the Joule heat generated by internal current flow through a filament but also to the charge trap/detrapping effect. The RESET current decreases upon heating. Meanwhile, the energy consumption also decreases exponentially. This phenomenon indicates the temperature-related charge trap/detrapping process which contributes to the RESET besides direct Joule heat.

  14. Effects of in-plane stiffness and charge transfer on thermal expansion of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide

    王占雨; 周艳丽; 王雪青; 王飞; 孙强; 郭正晓; 贾瑜

    2015-01-01

    Temperature dependence of lattice constants is studied by using first-principles calculations to determine the effects of in-plane stiffness and charge transfer on the thermal expansions of monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalco-genides. Unlike the corresponding bulk material, our simulations show that monolayer MX2 (M=Mo and W;X=S, Se, and Te) exhibits a negative thermal expansion at low temperatures, induced by the bending modes. Transition from con-traction to expansion at higher temperatures is observed. Interestingly, the thermal expansion can be tailored regularly by alteration of M or X atom. Detailed analysis shows that the positive thermal expansion coefficient is determined mainly by the in-plane stiffness, which can be expressed by a simple relationship. Essentially the regularity of this change can be attributed to the difference in charge transfer between the different elements. These findings should be applicable to other two-dimensional systems.

  15. Charge transfer effects on the Fermi surface of Ba0.5K 0.5Fe2As2

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-01-31

    Ab-initio calculations within density functional theory are performed to obtain a more systematic understanding of the electronic structure of iron pnictides. As a prototypical compound we study Ba0.5K 0.5Fe2As2 and analyze the changes of its electronic structure when the interaction between the Fe2As 2 layers and their surrounding is modified. We find strong effects on the density of states near the Fermi energy as well as the Fermi surface. The role of the electron donor atoms in iron pnictides thus cannot be understood in a rigid band picture. Instead, the bonding within the Fe2As 2 layers reacts to a modified charge transfer from the donor atoms by adapting the intra-layer Fe-As hybridization and charge transfer in order to maintain an As3- valence state. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of ionic strength on adsorption of As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ) on variable charge soils

    XU Renkou; WANG Yong; TIWARI Diwakar; WANG Houyan

    2009-01-01

    The study was to investigate the adsorption behavior of arsenite (As(Ⅲ)) and arsenate (As(Ⅴ)) on two variable charge soils, i.e., Haplic Acrisol and Rhodic Ferralsol at different ionic strengths and pH with batch methods. Results indicated that the amount of As(Ⅲ) adsorbed by these two soils increased with increasing solution pH, whereas it decreased with increasing ionic strength under the acidic condition. This suggested that As(Ⅲ) was mainly adsorbed on soil positive charge sites through electrostatic attraction under the acidic condition. Moreover, intersects of As(Ⅴ) adsorption-pH curves at different ionic strengths (a characteristic pH) are obtained for both soils. It was noted that above this pH, the adsorption of As(Ⅴ) was increased with increasing ionic strength, whereas below it the reverse trend was true. Precisely the intersect pH was 3.6 for Haplic Acrisol and 4.5 for Rhodic Ferralsol, which was near the values of PZSE (soil point of zero salt effect) of these soils. The effects of ionic strength and pH on arsenate adsorption by these soils were interpreted by the adsorption model. The results of zeta potential suggested that the potential in adsorption plane becomes less negative with increasing ionic strength above soil PZSE and decreases with increasing ionic strength below soil PZSE. These results further supported the hypothesis of the adsorption model that the potential in the adsorption plane changes with ionic strength with an opposite trend to surface charge of the soils. Therefore, the change of the potential in the adsorption plane was mainly responsible for the change of arsenate adsorption induced by ionic strength on variable charge soils.

  17. Effects of the charge on the structural, electronic and reactivity properties of 43 substituted N-Phenylmaleimides. A DFT study

    Cortes Hernandez, Hector F.; Castro, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic, and reactivity properties of 43 N-phenylmaleimide derivatives were studied by means of first principles theoretical calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Neutral, positively and negatively charged derivatives were studied. Different donor- and attractor-electron groups, attached at the ortho, meta and para positions, were selected, allowing to search for the effects of the charge on the geometrical, energetic and reactivity properties of the generated compounds. Firstly, the calculated ground state (GS) structures are in near agreement with the reported experimental X-Ray data and provide insight on some main features of the observed infrared spectra. Besides, the GS geometries show that the torsion angle, of the phenyl-maleimide rings, is an important parameter that impacts the properties of the species and of the polymeric chains, formed from such N-phenylmaleimides. It was found that the torsion angles depends on the nature (donor or attractor) of the selected group, on the position (ortho, meta, or para) on which the substitution was done, and on the charge (0e, +1e, -1e). For each compound, the effects of the charge on the: torsion angles, electronic (atomic populations and molecular orbitals) and energetic parameters (ionization energies and electron affinities) were studied. This information allows determining the chemical potentials, hardness, softness as well as the Fukui functions. Thus, the reactivity properties of these compounds were determined at this level of treatment. In neutral N-phenylmaleimides, the electrophylic attack mainly proceeds via the phenyl ring whereas the nucleophylic behavior is mostly defined by the imide group. These behaviors are enhanced on the cation and anion, respectively. Changes of these properties, produced by the substituent groups, are addressed.

  18. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy

    Wang JY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Ying Wang,1 Jie Chen,1 Jiang Yang,2 Hao Wang,1 Xiu Shen,1 Yuan-Ming Sun,1 Meili Guo,3 Xiao-Dong Zhang4 1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 2Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Department of Physics, School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, 4Department of Physics, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. Keywords: gold clusters, in vivo toxicity, long-term, cancer therapy

  19. Compensation of beam-beam and space-charge effects: experience to-date and near-future opportunities

    Shiltsev, V

    2014-01-01

    Beam-beam interactions and space-charge effects belong to the category of the most long-standing issues in beam physics, and even today, after several decades of very active exploration and development of counter-measures, they still pose the most profound limitations on performance of accelerator facilities. In this brief review we consider past experience in active compensation of these effects and possible new schemes for further exploration in near-future, in particular, within the framework of the electron-ion collider R&D.

  20. The coupling of surface charge and boundary slip at the solid-liquid interface and their combined effect on fluid drag: A review.

    Jing, Dalei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-09-15

    Fluid drag of micro/nano fluidic systems has inspired wide scientific interest. Surface charge and boundary slip at the solid-liquid interface are believed to affect fluid drag. This review summarizes the recent studies on the coupling of surface charge and slip, and their combined effect on fluid drag at micro/nano scale. The effect of pH on surface charge of borosilicate glass and silica surfaces in deionized (DI) water and saline solution is discussed using a method based on colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). The boundary slip of various oil-solid interfaces are discussed for samples with different degrees of oleophobicity prepared by nanoparticle-binder system. By changing the pH of solution or applying an electric field, effect of surface charge on slip of a smooth hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) in DI water and saline solution is studied. A theoretical model incorporating the coupling relationship between surface charge and slip is used to discuss the combined effect of surface charge-induced electric double layer (EDL) and slip on fluid drag of pressure-driven flow in a one-dimensional parallel-plates microchannel. A theoretical method is used to reduce the fluid drag. The studies show that the increasing magnitude of surface charge density leads to a decrease in slip length. The surface charge results in a larger fluid drag, and the coupling of surface charge and slip can further increase the fluid drag. Surface charge-induced EDLs with asymmetric zeta potentials can effectively reduce the fluid drag.

  1. Charge effects and nanoparticle pattern formation in electrohydrodynamic NanoDrip printing of colloids

    Richner, Patrizia; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Norris, David J.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-03-01

    Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and out-of-plane structures of similar sizes. Despite the demonstrated capabilities, our fundamental understanding of important aspects of the physics of NanoDrip printing needs further improvement. Here we address the topics of charge content and transport in NanoDrip printing. We employ quantum dot and gold nanoparticle dispersions in combination with a specially designed, auxiliary, asymmetric electric field, targeting the understanding of charge locality (particles vs. solvent) and particle distribution in the deposits as indicated by the dried nanoparticle patterns (footprints) on the substrate. We show that droplets of alternating charge can be spatially separated when applying an ac field to the nozzle. The nanoparticles within a droplet are distributed asymmetrically under the influence of the auxiliary lateral electric field, indicating that they are the main carriers. We also show that the ligand length of the nanoparticles in the colloid affects their mobility after deposition (in the sessile droplet state).Advancing open atmosphere printing technologies to produce features in the nanoscale range has important and broad applications ranging from electronics to photonics, plasmonics and biology. Recently an electrohydrodynamic printing regime has been demonstrated in a rapid dripping mode (termed NanoDrip), where the ejected colloidal droplets from nozzles of diameters of O (1 μm) can controllably reach sizes an order of magnitude smaller than the nozzle and can generate planar and

  2. Octet-baryon axial-vector charges and SU(3)-breaking effects in the semileptonic hyperon decays

    Ledwig, T; Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The octet-baryon axial-vector charges and the g1/f1 ratios measured in the semileptonic hyperon decays are studied up to O(p^3) using the covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with explicit decuplet contributions. We clarify the role of different low-energy constants and find a good convergence for the chiral expansion of the axial-vector charges of the baryon octet, g1(0), with O(p^3) corrections typically around 20% of the leading ones. This is a consequence of strong cancellations between different next-to-leading order terms. We show that considering only non-analytic terms is not enough and that analytic terms appearing at the same chiral order play an important role in this description. The same effects still hold for the chiral extrapolation of the axial-vector charges and result in a rather mild quark-mass dependence. As a result, we report a determination of the leading order chiral couplings, D=0.623(61)(17) and F=0.441(47)(2), as obtained from a completely consistent chiral analysis up to O(p...

  3. Effect of pectin on adsorption of Cu(II) by two variable-charge soils from southern China.

    Wang, Ru-hai; Zhu, Xiao-fang; Qian, Wei; Yu, Yuan-chun; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-12-01

    The influence of pectin on Cu(II) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) was investigated. Pectin increased the adsorption, and the extent of adsorption increased linearly with the dose of pectin, being greater in the Oxisol than that in the Ultisol because the adsorption of pectin by the Oxisol was greater. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) for both soils well. The fitting parameters of both equations indicated that pectin increased not only the adsorption capacity of the soils for Cu(II) but also the adsorption strength of Cu(II). The effect of pectin decreased with rising pH in the pH range 3.5-6.0, although the extent of electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) by both soils was markedly greater over the pH range. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis and zeta potential measurement of soil colloids indicated that adsorption of pectin by the soils made the negative charge on both soils more negative, which was responsible for the increase in the electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) induced by the addition of pectin. In conclusion, pectin-enhanced adsorption of Cu(II) especially at low pH would be beneficial to the soils as it would decrease the activity and mobility of Cu(II) in acidic variable-charge soils.

  4. DNA Condensation by Partially Acetylated Poly(amido amine Dendrimers: Effects of Dendrimer Charge Density on Complex Formation

    Ronald G. Larson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of poly(amido amine (or PAMAM dendrimers to condense semiflexible dsDNA and penetrate cell membranes gives them great potential in gene therapy and drug delivery but their high positive surface charge makes them cytotoxic. Here, we describe the effects of partial neutralization by acetylation on DNA condensation using light scattering, circular dichroism, and single molecule imaging of dendrimer-DNA complexes combed onto surfaces and tethered to those surfaces under flow. We find that DNA can be condensed by generation-five (G5 dendrimers even when the surface charges are more than 65% neutralized, but that such dendrimers bind negligibly when an end-tethered DNA is stretched in flow. We also find that when fully charged dendrimers are introduced by flow to end-tethered DNA, all DNA molecules become equally highly coated with dendrimers at a rate that becomes very fast at high dendrimer concentration, and that dendrimers remain bound during subsequent flow of dendrimer-free buffer. These results suggest that the presence of dendrimer-free DNA coexisting with dendrimer-bound DNA after bulk mixing of the two in solution may result from diffusion-limited irreversible dendrimer-DNA binding, rather than, or in addition to, the previously proposed cooperative binding mechanism of dendrimers to DNA.

  5. Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine infrared CH intensities of hydrocarbons: a quantum theory of atoms in molecules model.

    Silva, Arnaldo F; Richter, Wagner E; Meneses, Helen G C; Bruns, Roy E

    2014-11-14

    Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine most of the infrared fundamental CH intensities of simple hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene, ethane, propyne, cyclopropane and allene. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules/charge-charge flux-dipole flux model predicted the values of 30 CH intensities ranging from 0 to 123 km mol(-1) with a root mean square (rms) error of only 4.2 km mol(-1) without including a specific equilibrium atomic charge term. Sums of the contributions from terms involving charge flux and/or dipole flux averaged 20.3 km mol(-1), about ten times larger than the average charge contribution of 2.0 km mol(-1). The only notable exceptions are the CH stretching and bending intensities of acetylene and two of the propyne vibrations for hydrogens bound to sp hybridized carbon atoms. Calculations were carried out at four quantum levels, MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p), MP2/cc-pVTZ, QCISD/6-311++G(3d,3p) and QCISD/cc-pVTZ. The results calculated at the QCISD level are the most accurate among the four with root mean square errors of 4.7 and 5.0 km mol(-1) for the 6-311++G(3d,3p) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. These values are close to the estimated aggregate experimental error of the hydrocarbon intensities, 4.0 km mol(-1). The atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effect is much larger than the charge effect for the results of all four quantum levels. Charge transfer-counter polarization effects are expected to also be important in vibrations of more polar molecules for which equilibrium charge contributions can be large.

  6. Effect of ion radiative cooling on Jeans instability of partially ionized dusty plasma with dust charge fluctuation

    Sharma, Prerana; Patidar, Archana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of ion radiative cooling on the gravitational instability of dusty plasma is studied, incorporating dust charge fluctuation with dust-neutral, neutral-ion, and ion-neutral collisions. The basic equations are linearized using normal mode analysis to obtain a general dispersion relation. The general dispersion relation is analytically and numerically discussed to explain the role of ion radiative cooling in the structure formation through gravitational instability. The Jeans collapse criteria are found to be modified due to ion and electron radiative cooling, dust charge fluctuations, and collisions effects. It is determined from the analytical and numerical calculations that the support of radiative cooling of ions drives thermal fluctuations and gives instability to the system. The electron cooling effect remains dominating over ion cooling effect, and thus, it enhances the collapse more efficiently than ion cooling effect. Although the radiative cooling is slow, it may precede the collapse in molecular cloud, which further leads to the structure formation. The present work is relevance for the structure formation in the molecular cloud.

  7. Effect of Surface Defect States on Valence Band and Charge Separation and Transfer Efficiency

    Xu, Juan; Teng, Yiran; Teng, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Both energy band and charge separation and transfer are the crucial affecting factor for a photochemical reaction. Herein, the BiOCl nanosheets without and with surface bismuth vacancy (BOC, V-BOC) are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. It is found that the new surface defect states caused by bismuth vacancy have greatly up-shifted the valence band and efficiently enhanced the separation and transfer rates of photogenerated electron and hole. It is amazing that the photocatalytic activity of V-BOC is 13.6 times higher than that of BOC for the degradation methyl orange (MO). We can develop an efficient photocatalyst by the introduction of defects.

  8. The effect of mechanical relaxation on ultra-fast charge pulses in flexible epoxy resin nanocomposites

    Montanari, G. C.; Xu, M.; Fabiani, D.; Dissado, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    Previously we have reported the existence of small-amplitude charge pulses in crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) and epoxy resin with a mobility several orders of magnitude higher than that found for the incoherent charge transport relevant to the steady state current. Here the relationship of this phenomenon to mechanical relaxation in the material is investigated by using a series of epoxy resin nanocomposites based on a resin that has its flexibility increased above that of the fully cured glassy epoxy network by the addition of a suitable flexibilizing chemical. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements show that the stiffness of the nanocomposite is progressively increased as the nanoparticle concentration increases. Pulsed Electro-Acoustic (PEA) measurements reveal that both positive and negative fast charge pulses exist in the unfilled epoxy at 45 and 70°C under a field of 10 kV/mm with mobility 5×10-10 to 9×10-10 m2 V-1 s-1, amplitude between 2×10-5 and 3.6×10-5 C m-2 and repetition rates between 8 and 12 s-1. These values are reduced progressively as the nanoparticle concentration is increased from 0% in the unfilled epoxy. A β-mode mechanical relaxation is identified in the loss modulus by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), whose activation energy moves to higher values with increasing nanoparticle concentration. It is shown that the repetition rates of both positive and negative pulses have similar values and are correlated with the β-mode activation energy; a similar correlation is found for the activation energy of the mobility of positive pulses. The correlation of the activation energy of the mobility of negative pulses and that of the β-mode is weaker although both show a progressive increase with nanoparticle concentration. The modification of the fast charge pulse properties by the mechanical stiffness of the epoxy nanocomposite is discussed in terms of the theory presented previously for their formation and transport.

  9. Dipolar and charge transfer effects on the atomic stabilization of ZnO polar surfaces

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Bazzani, Mirco; Catellani, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a DFT study of ZnO polar surfaces, and discuss our results in terms of charge redistribution and polarization field. Beyond some refinements in the methodology that allow to take fully in account the electrostatic contribution of polar compounds, we describe in a unified way the electronic properties of short range reconstructions at these polar surfaces. Our analysis allows to interpret as fictitious the metallicity of clean (1 × 1) surfaces, and to describe the stabilizing role of surface defects and hydroxylation.

  10. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Soil Analogs: The Effect of Ionic Charge and Mass

    Hijazi, H.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, F. W.; Rouleau, C. M.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, D. L.; Hijazi, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we report sput-tering measurements of anorthite, an analog material representative of the lunar highlands, by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the heavier solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, and had a fixed solar-wind-relevant impact velocity of approximately 310 km/s or 500 eV/ amu. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contribution of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction.

  11. Molecular distortion and charge transfer effects in ZnPc/Cu(111)

    Amin, B.

    2013-04-23

    The adsorption geometry and electronic properties of a zinc-phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu(111) substrate are studied by density functional theory. In agreement with experiment, we find remarkable distortions of the molecule, mainly as the central Zn atom tends towards the substrate to minimize the Zn-Cu distance. As a consequence, the Zn-N chemical bonding and energy levels of the molecule are significantly modified. However, charge transfer induces metallic states on the molecule and therefore is more important for the ZnPc/Cu(111) system than the structural distortions.

  12. Strongly Enhanced Effects of Lorentz-Symmetry Violation in Yb$^+$ and Highly Charged Ions

    Safronova, M S

    2016-01-01

    A Lorentz-symmetry test with Ca$^+$ ions demonstrated the potential of using quantum information inspired technology for tests of fundamental physics. A systematic study of atomic-system sensitivities to Lorentz violation identified the ytterbium ion as an ideal system with high sensitivity as well as excellent experimental controllability. A test of Lorentz-violating physics in the electron-photon sector with Yb$^+$ ions has the potential to reach levels of 10$^{-23}$, five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current best bounds. Similar sensitivities may be also reached with highly charged ions.

  13. CHARGE syndrome

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  14. Effect of five-membered ring and heteroatom substitution on charge transport properties of perylene discotic derivatives: A theoretical approach

    Navarro, Amparo; Fernández-Liencres, M. Paz; Peña-Ruiz, Tomás; García, Gregorio; Granadino-Roldán, José M.; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the evolvement of charge transport properties of a set of new discotic systems as a function of ring and heteroatom (B, Si, S, and Se) substitution on the basic structure of perylene. The replacement of six-membered rings by five-membered rings in the reference compound has shown a prominent effect on the electron reorganization energy that decreases ˜0.2 eV from perylene to the new carbon five-membered ring derivative. Heteroatom substitution with boron also revealed to lower the LUMO energy level and increase the electron affinity, therefore lowering the electron injection barrier compared to perylene. Since the rate of the charge transfer between two molecules in columnar discotic systems is strongly dependent on the orientation of the stacked cores, the total energy and transfer integral of a dimer as a disc is rotated with respect to the other along the stacking axis have been predicted. Aimed at obtaining a more realistic approach to the bulk structure, the molecular geometry of clusters made up of five discs was fully optimized, and charge transfer rate and mobilities were estimated for charge transport along a one dimensional pathway. Heteroatom substitution with selenium yields electron transfer integral values ˜0.3 eV with a relative disc orientation of 25°, which is the preferred angle according to the dimer energy profile. All the results indicate that the tetraselenium-substituted derivative, not synthetized so far, could be a promising candidate among those studied in this work for the fabrication of n-type semiconductors based on columnar discotic liquid crystals materials.

  15. Effect of self-gravitation and dust-charge fluctuations on the shielding and energy loss of N×M projectiles in a collisional dusty plasma

    Sarwar, M. Adnan; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2007-03-01

    A simple derivation of the electrostatic potential and energy loss of N×M test charge projectiles traveling through dusty plasma has been presented. The effect of dust-charge fluctuations, dust neutral collisions, and self-gravitation on the shielded potential and energy loss of charge projectiles has been investigated both analytically as well as numerically. An interference contribution of these projectiles to the shielded potential and energy loss has been observed, which depends upon their relative orientation and separation distance. A comparison has been made for correlated and uncorrelated motion of the two projectiles. The amplitude of the shielded potential is enhanced with the increase of dust Jeans frequency for separation less than the effective Debye length. The dust-charge fluctuations produce a potential well for a slow charge relaxation rate and energy is gained, not lost, by the test charge projectiles. However, a fast charge relaxation rate with a fixed value of Jeans frequency enhances the energy loss. The dust neutral collisions are also found to enhance the energy loss for the test charge velocities greater than the dust acoustic speeds. The present investigation might be useful to explain the coagulation of dust particles such as those in molecular clouds, the interstellar medium, comet tails, planetary rings, etc.

  16. Effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma with negative equilibrium dust charge

    Bhakta, Subrata; Ghosh, Uttam; Sarkar, Susmita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves in a complex plasma where equilibrium dust charge is negative. The primary electrons, secondary electrons, and ions are Boltzmann distributed, and only dust grains are inertial. Electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions have been neglected with the assumption that electron and ion mean free paths are very large compared to the plasma Debye length. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic dust charge variations have been separately taken into account. In the case of adiabatic dust charge variation, nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves is governed by the KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation, whereas for nonadiabatic dust charge variation, it is governed by the KdV-Burger equation. The solution of the KdV equation gives a dust acoustic soliton, whose amplitude and width depend on the secondary electron yield. Similarly, the KdV-Burger equation provides a dust acoustic shock wave. This dust acoustic shock wave may be monotonic or oscillatory in nature depending on the fact that whether it is dissipation dominated or dispersion dominated. Our analysis shows that secondary electron emission increases nonadiabaticity induced dissipation and consequently increases the monotonicity of the dust acoustic shock wave. Such a dust acoustic shock wave may accelerate charge particles and cause bremsstrahlung radiation in space plasmas whose physical process may be affected by secondary electron emission from dust grains. The effect of the secondary electron emission on the stability of the equilibrium points of the KdV-Burger equation has also been investigated. This equation has two equilibrium points. The trivial equilibrium point with zero potential is a saddle and hence unstable in nature. The nontrivial equilibrium point with constant nonzero potential is a stable node up to a critical value of the wave velocity and a stable focus above it. This critical

  17. Effect of charged impurities and morphology on oxidation reactivity of graphene

    Yamamoto, Mahito; Cullen, William; Einstein, Theodore; Fuhrer, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Chemical reactivity of single layer graphene supported on a substrate is observed to be enhanced over thicker graphene. Possible mechanisms for the enhancement are Fermi level fluctuations due to ionized impurities on the substrate, and structural deformation of graphene induced by coupling to the substrate geometry. Here, we study the substrate-dependent oxidation reactivity of graphene, employing various substrates such as SiO2, mica, SiO2 nanoparticle thin film, and hexagonal boron nitride, which exhibit different charged impurity concentrations and surface roughness. Graphene is prepared on each substrate via mechanical exfoliation and oxidized in Ar/O2 mixture at temperatures from 400-600 ^oC. After oxidation, the Raman spectrum of graphene is measured, and the Raman D to G peak ratio is used to quantify the density of point defects introduced by oxidation. We will discuss the correlations among the defect density in oxidized graphene, substrate charge inhomogeneity, substrate corrugations, and graphene layer thickness. This work has been supported by the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471 with supplemental funding from NRI, and NSF-DMR 08-04976.

  18. Effect of surface bilayer charges on the magnetic field around ionic channels

    Gomes Soares, Marília Amável; Cortez, Celia Martins; Oliveira Cruz, Frederico Alan de; Silva, Dilson

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a physic-mathematical model for representing the ion transport through membrane channels, in special Na+ and K+-channels, and discuss the influence of surface bilayer charges on the magnetic field behavior around the ionic current. The model was composed of a set of equations, including: a nonlinear differential Poisson-Boltzmann equation which usually allows to estimate the surface potentials and electric potential profile across membrane; equations for the ionic flux through channel and the ionic current density based on Armstrong's model for Na+ and K+ permeability and other Physics concepts; and a magnetic field expression derived from the classical Ampère equation. Results from computational simulations using the finite element method suggest that the ionic permeability is strongly dependent of surface bilayer charges, the current density through a K+-channel is very less sensible to temperature changes than the current density through a Na+- channel, active Na+-channels do not directly interfere with the K+-channels around, and vice-versa, since the magnetic perturbation generated by an active channel is of short-range.

  19. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions: Beyond energy level alignment

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2014-01-01

    When an electron tunnels between two metal contacts it temporarily induces an image charge (IC) in the electrodes which acts back on the tunneling electron. It is usually assumed that the IC forms instantaneously such that a static model for the image potential applies. Here we investigate how the finite IC formation time affects charge transport through a molecule suspended between two electrodes. For a single-level model, an analytical treatment shows that the conductance is suppressed by a factor Z2, where Z is the quasiparticle renormalization factor, compared to the static IC approximation. We show that Z can be expressed either in terms of the plasma frequency of the electrode or as the overlap between electrode wave functions corresponding to an empty and filled level, respectively. First-principles GW calculations for benzene-diamine connected to gold electrodes show that the dynamical corrections can reduce the conductance by more than a factor of two when compared to static GW or density functional theory where the molecular energy levels have been shifted to match the exact quasiparticle levels.

  20. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.